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_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 12.4% (1988 est.); accounts
for 18% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced,
1,280 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic
beverages, calcium carbide

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming
and animal husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains;
other production--rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $86.0 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11
million

_#_Currency: ngultrum (plural--ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100
chetrum; note--Indian currency is also legal tender

_#_Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1--18.329 (January 1991),
17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611
(1986), 12.369 (1985); note--the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the
Indian rupee

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km
unimproved earth

_#_Civil air: 1 jet, 2 prop

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: inadequate; 1,990 telephones (1988); 22,000
radios (1990 est.); 85 TVs (1985); stations--1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 398,263; 213,083 fit for
military service; 17,321 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Bolivia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,098,580 km2; land area: 1,084,390 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of
Montana

_#_Land boundaries: 6,743 km total; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400
km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific
Ocean since the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with
Chile over Rio Lauca water rights

_#_Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and
semiarid

_#_Terrain: high plateau, hills, lowland plains

_#_Natural resources: tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron ore, lead, gold, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 52%; other 20%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

_#_Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake, with Peru

_*_People
_#_Population: 7,156,591 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 83 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 64 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Bolivian(s); adjective Bolivian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%,
European 5-15%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95%; active Protestant minority,
especially Evangelical Methodist

_#_Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)

_#_Literacy: 78% (male 85%, female 71%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,700,000; agriculture 50%, services and utilities
26%, manufacturing 10%, mining 4%, other 10% (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry,
construction, and transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian
Workers' Central (COB) labor federation

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Bolivia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat
of judiciary)

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, El Beni, La Paz, Oruro,
Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

_#_Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 2 February 1967

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Jaime
PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO Sanjines
(since 6 August 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora;
Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez;
Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO;
Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), led by Antonio ARANIBAR;
United Left (IU), a coalition of leftist parties which includes
Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P) led by Walter DELGADILLO,
and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto RAMIREZ;
Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE Aviles;
Revolutionary Vanguard-9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich;
Civic Union Solidarity (UCS), Max FERNANDEZ

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21
(single)

_#_Elections:

President--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results--Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez
(ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) 19%; no candidate received a
majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR) formed a
coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support PAZ Zamora
won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated
on 6 August 1989;

Senate--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2, PDC 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May
1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33, IU 10, CONDEPA 9,
PDC 3

_#_Member of: AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
483-4410 through 4412; there are Bolivian Consulates General in Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Robert S. GELBARD; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru
Building, corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is
P. O. Box 425, La Paz, or APO Miami 34032); telephone [591] (2)
350251 or 350120

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green
with the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of
Ghana, which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow
band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between
1980 and 1985 as La Paz financed growing budget deficits by expanding
the money supply and inflation spiraled--peaking at 11,700%. An austere
orthodox economic program adopted by newly elected President Paz
Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded in reducing inflation to between
10% and 20% annually since 1987, eventually restarting economic growth.
President Paz Zamora has retained the economic policies of the previous
government, keeping inflation down and continuing the moderate growth
begun under his predecessor. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to be one of
the poorest countries in Latin America, and it remains vulnerable to
price fluctuations for its limited exports--agricultural products,
minerals, and natural gas. Moreover, for many farmers, who constitute
half of the country's work force, the main cash crop is coca, which is
sold for cocaine processing.

_#_GDP: $4.85 billion, per capita $690; real growth rate 2.7% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 21.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $850 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $927 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--metals 45%, natural gas 30%, other 25%
(coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton, timber);

partners--US 15%, Argentina

_#_Imports: $716 million (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods;

partners--US 22%

_#_External debt: $3.7 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1990); accounts for
almost 30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 833,000 kW capacity; 1,763 million kWh produced, 260
kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage,
tobacco, handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces
significant revenues

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 20% of GDP (including forestry and
fisheries); principal commodities--coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane,
rice, potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food

_#_Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca
(after Peru) with an estimated 51,900 hectares under cultivation;
government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit; intermediate
coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and Brazil
to the US and other international drug markets

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.7 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million

_#_Currency: boliviano (plural--bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100
centavos

_#_Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1--3.3732 (December 1990),
3.1727 (1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987), 1.9220
(1986), 0.4400 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,675 km total; 3,643 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track

_#_Highways: 38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel,
30,836 km improved and unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; refined products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

_#_Ports: none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile
and Matarani in Peru

_#_Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051
GRT/22,155 DWT

_#_Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 807 total, 659 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 120 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: radio relay system being expanded; improved
international services; 144,300 telephones; stations--129 AM, no FM, 43
TV, 68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Bolivian Army, Bolivian Navy (including Marines),
Bolivian Air Force, National Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,679,352; 1,091,368 fit for
military service; 72,979 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $162 million, 4% of GNP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Botswana
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 600,370 km2; land area: 585,370 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 4,013 km total; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa
1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Namibia is indefinite;
quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement

_#_Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

_#_Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari
Desert in southwest

_#_Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash,
potash, coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
75%; forest and woodland 2%; other 21%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that
had severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing;
desertification

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,258,392 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 65 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun and adjective--Motswana (singular), Batswana
(plural)

_#_Ethnic divisions: Batswana 95%; Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi
about 4%; white about 1%

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%

_#_Language: English (official), Setswana

_#_Literacy: 23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 400,000; 182,200 formal sector employees, most others
are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1988 est.);
19,000 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 19 trade unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Botswana

_#_Type: parliamentary republic

_#_Capital: Gaborone

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East,
Southern; note--in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named
Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Pikwe

_#_Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)

_#_Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 September (1966)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or House of Chiefs and a lower house or National Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Quett K. J. MASIRE
(since 13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S. MMUSI (since 3 January
1983)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett MASIRE;
Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth KOMA;
Botswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE;
Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

President--last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October
1994);
results--President Quett K. J. MASIRE was reelected by the National
Assembly;

National Assembly--last held 7 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3

_#_Communists: no known Communist organization; Kenneth Koma of BNF
has long history of Communist contacts

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley
SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 404, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or 4991;

US--Ambassador David PASSAGE; Embassy at Botswana Road, Gaborone
(mailing address is P. O. Box 90, Gaborone); telephone [267] 353-982
through 353-984

_#_Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe
in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising
and crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for over 80% of the
population, but produces only about 50% of food needs and contributes
a small 3% to GDP. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of
the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on
the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to
over 50% in 1989. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially
not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor soils. The
unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%.

_#_GDP: $3.1 billion, per capita $2,500; real growth rate 6.3%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.0% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $1,719 million; expenditures $1,792 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--diamonds 77%, copper and nickel 12%, meat 4%, cattle,
animal products;

partners--Switzerland, UK, US, SACU (Southern African Customs
Union)

_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment,
textiles, petroleum products;

partners--Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union),
UK, US

_#_External debt: $780 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 16.8% (FY86); accounts for
about 57% of GDP, including mining

_#_Electricity: 217,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced,
510 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda
ash, potash; livestock processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 3% of GDP; subsistence
farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population;
must import large share of food needs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $29 million

_#_Currency: pula (plural--pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

_#_Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1--1.8720 (January 1991), 1.8601
(1990), 2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987), 1.8678 (1986),
1.8882 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 712 km 1.0 67-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone
or gravel, 5,177 km improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth

_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 100 total, 87 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: the small system is a combination of open-wire
lines, radio relay links, and a few radiocommunication stations; 17,900
telephones; stations--2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing),
Botswana National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 260,290; 137,038 fit for
military service; 14,767 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $99 million, 8.2% of GNP (1989)
_%_
_@_Bouvet Island
(territory of Norway)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 58 km2; land area: 58 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 29.6 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Climate: antarctic

_#_Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters;
coast is mostly inacessible

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100% (ice)

_#_Environment: covered by glacial ice

_#_Note: located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: territory of Norway

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Telecommunications: automatic meteorological station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
_%_
_@_Brazil
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 8,511,965 km2; land area: 8,456,510 km2; includes
Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade,
Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US

_#_Land boundaries: 14,691 km total; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia
3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km,
Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km,
Venezuela 2,200 km

_#_Coastline: 7,491 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short
sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay); has noted possible Latin claims in
Antarctica

_#_Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains,
hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium,
phosphates, tin, hydropower, gold, platinum, crude oil, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
19%; forest and woodland 67%; other 6%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in
south; deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo

_#_Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries
with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

_*_People
_#_Population: 155,356,073 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Brazilian(s); adjective--Brazilian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black,
Amerindian; white 55%, mixed 38%, black 6%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%

_#_Language: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

_#_Literacy: 81% (male 82%, female 80%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 57,000,000 (1989 est.); services 42%, agriculture
31%, industry 27%

_#_Organized labor: 13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federative Republic of Brazil

_#_Type: federal republic

_#_Capital: Brasilia

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 states (estados, singular--estado)
and 1 federal district* (distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa,
Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*, Espirito Santo, Goias,
Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para,
Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do
Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao
Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins; note--the former territories of Amapa and
Roraima became states in January 1991

_#_Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

_#_Constitution: 5 October 1988

_#_Legal system: based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso
Nacional) consists of an upper chamber or Federal Senate (Senado
Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos
Deputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Fernando
Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice President
Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president;
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Orestes QUERCIA,
president;
Liberal Front Party (PFL), Hugo NAPOLEAO, president;
Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio (Lula) da SILVA, president;
Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz GONZAGA de Paiva Muniz, president;
Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA, president;
Democratic Social Party (PDS), Amaral NETTO, president;
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Mario COVAS, president;
Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), Salomao MALINA, secretary general;
Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, president;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo CAMPOS, president

_#_Suffrage: voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70;
voluntary at age 70

_#_Elections:

President--last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17
December 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results--Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA 47%;
note--first free, direct presidential election since 1960;

Senate--last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL 15, PSDB 10,
PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held
November 1994);
results--PMDB 21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%,
other 23.1%;
seats--(503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87,
PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40, PTB 35, PT 35, other 109;

_#_Communists: about 30,000

_#_Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic
Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of
government's social and economic policies

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19,
G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcilio Marques MOREIRA;
Chancery at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 745-2700; there are Brazilian Consulates General in Atlanta,
Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New York, and Consulates in
Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nocoes,
Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO Miami 34030);
telephone [55] (6) 321-7272; there are US Consulates General in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in Porto Alegre and Recife

_#_Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a
blue celestial globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each
state) arranged in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the
globe has a white equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO
(Order and Progress)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and
manufacturing sectors, entered the 1990s with declining real growth,
runaway inflation, an unserviceable foreign debt of $122 billion, and
a lack of policy direction. In addition, the economy remained highly
regulated, inward-looking, and protected by substantial trade and
investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and mining facilities
is divided among private interests--including several multinationals--and
the government. Most large agricultural holdings are private, with the
government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts between large
landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent violence.
The government is seeking an IMF standby loan despite several failed
agreements over the past decade. Relations with foreign commercial
banks remain strained because of mounting interest arrears on Brazil's
long-term debt. The Collor government, which assumed office in March
1990, is embarked on an ambitious reform program that seeks to
modernize and reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices,
deregulating the economy, and opening it to increased foreign
competition. A major long-run strength is Brazil's vast natural
resources.

_#_GDP: $388 billion, per capita $2,540; real growth rate - 4.6%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,795% (December 1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $36.5 billion; expenditures $48.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4.6 billion (1988)

_#_Exports: $31.4 billion (1990);

commodities--iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear,
coffee

partners--EC 29%, US 23%, Latin America 10%, Japan 7% (1989)

_#_Imports: $20.4 billion (1990);

commodities--crude oil, capital goods, chemical products,
foodstuffs, coal;

partners--US 21%, Middle East and Africa 20%, EC 20%, Latin
America 18%, Japan 7% (1989)

_#_External debt: $122 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 8.9% (1990); accounts
for 35% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 55,773,000 kW capacity; 214,116 million kWh produced,
1,400 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals,
cement, lumber, iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts,
metalworking, capital goods, tin

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP; world's largest producer and
exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest
exporter of soybeans; other products--rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef;
self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for
domestic consumption; government has a modest eradication program
to control cannabis and coca cultivation

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $9.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $1.3 billion

_#_Currency: cruzeiro (plural--cruzeiros); 1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100
centavos

_#_Exchange rates: cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1--193.189 (January 1991),
68.300 (1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987), 0.01366
(1986), 0.00620 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 29,694 km total; 25,268 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,339 km
1.600-meter gauge, 74 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge,
13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,308 km electrified

_#_Highways: 1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel
or earth

_#_Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 3,804 km; natural
gas, 1,095 km

_#_Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto
Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos

_#_Merchant marine: 263 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,898,838
GRT/9,975,272 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 59 cargo, 1 refrigerated
cargo, 13 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 60 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 14
combination ore/oil, 79 bulk, 2 combination bulk; additionally, 2 naval
tanker and 4 military transport are sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 176 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 3,751 total, 3,078 usable; 401 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 533
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good system; extensive radio relay facilities;
9.86 million telephones; stations--1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151
shortwave; 3 coaxial submarine cables 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations with total of 3 antennas; 64 domestic satellite stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines),
Brazilian Air Force, Federal Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 40,559,052; 27,364,392 fit for
military service; 1,637,434 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 2.6% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_British Indian Ocean Territory
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 698 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius

_#_Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)

_#_Natural resources: coconuts, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: archipelago of 2,300 islands

_#_Note: Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies
strategic location in central Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000
islanders

_#_Ethnic divisions: civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois,
evacuated to Mauritius before construction of UK and US defense
facilities

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form
name); abbreviated BIOT

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: none

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Commissioner and Administrator R. EDIS
(since NA 1988); note--resides in the UK

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory
of the UK)

_#_Flag: white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and six blue wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and
yellow crown centered on the outer half of the flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest
island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
Construction projects and various services needed to support the military
installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK and
the US. There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the
islands.

_#_Electricity: provided by the US military

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on
Diego Garcia

_#_Ports: Diego Garcia

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego
Garcia

_#_Telecommunications: minimal facilities; stations (operated by the
US Navy)--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_British Virgin Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 150 km2; land area: 150 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Coastline: 80 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep,
hilly

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures
33%; forest and woodland 7%; other 33%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July
to October

_#_Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

_*_People
_#_Population: 12,396 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--British Virgin Islander(s); adjective--British
Virgin Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: black over 90%, remainder of white and Asian
origin

_#_Religion: Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of
God 7%, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%,
other 2%), Roman Catholic 6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)

_#_Language: English (official)

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970)

_#_Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

_#_Organized labor: NA% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Road Town

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 1 June 1977

_#_Legal system: English law

_#_National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor John Mark Ambrose HERDMAN (since NA 1986);

Head of Government--Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO;
Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity STOUTT;
Independent People's Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held 12 November 1990 (next to be
held by November 1995); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independent 2

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: CARICOM (observer), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC,
OECS (associate), UNESCO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a
vertical column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is highly dependent on the tourist industry,
which generates about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government
offered offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2
million in 1987. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural
activity. The islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet
food requirements.

_#_GDP: $106.7 million, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 2.5%
(1987)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.0% (1987)

_#_Unemployment rate: NEGL%

_#_Budget: revenues $32.8 million; expenditures $32.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $6.3 million (FY90)

_#_Exports: $2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals;

partners--Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

_#_Imports: $11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs,
machinery;

partners--Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US

_#_External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1985)

_#_Electricity: 10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced,
3,510 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete
block, offshore financial center

_#_Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 106 km motorable roads (1983)

_#_Ports: Road Town

_#_Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
less than 1,220 m

_#_Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone
service; submarine cable communication links to Bermuda; stations--1 AM,
no FM, 1 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Brunei
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5,770 km2; land area: 5,270 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

_#_Land boundary: 381 km with Malaysia

_#_Coastline: 161 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides
the country

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

_#_Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly
lowland in west

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, timber

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 79%; other 18%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

_#_Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking
Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia;
almost an enclave of Malaysia

_*_People
_#_Population: 397,777 (July 1991), growth rate 6.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 45 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Bruneian(s); adjective--Bruneian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%

_#_Religion: Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%,
indigenous beliefs and other 15% (1981)

_#_Language: Malay (official), English, and Chinese

_#_Literacy: 77% (male 85%, female 69%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981)

_#_Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor
force is foreign (1988); government 47.5%; production of oil, natural
gas, services, and construction 41.9%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing
3.8% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: 2% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Negara Brunei Darussalam

_#_Type: constitutional sultanate

_#_Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah,
singular--daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

_#_Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended
under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since
independence on 1 January 1984)

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law

_#_National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

_#_Executive branch: sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet
Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council
(Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Sultan and Prime Minister
Sir Muda HASSANAL BOLKIAH Muizzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman;
Brunei National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now
banned), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held in March 1962; in 1970
the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan
and no elections are planned

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dato Paduka Haji Mohamed SUNI
bin Haji Idris; Chancery at 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-0159;

US--Ambassador Christopher H. PHILLIPS; Embassy at Third Floor,
Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan, Bandar Seri Begawan (mailing address
is P. O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan and Box B, APO San Francisco,
96528); telephone [673] (2) 229-670

_#_Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double
width) and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem
in red is superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a
swallow-tailed flag on top of a winged column within an upturned crescent
above a scroll and flanked by two upraised hands

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic
entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and
village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of
crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector
accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per capita GDP of $9,600
is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from
overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government
provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

_#_GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $9,600; real growth rate
2.7% (1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment: 2.5%, shortage of skilled labor (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $230 million (1988 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products;

partners--Japan 60%, Thailand 10%, Singapore 4% (1988)

_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods, food, chemicals;

partners--Singapore 36%, UK 26%, Switzerland 7%, US 7%, Japan 6%
(1988)

_#_External debt: none

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for
52.4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced,
2,400 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction

_#_Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops
and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $143.7 million

_#_Currency: Bruneian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar
(B$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1--1.7454 (January
1991), 1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774
(1986), 2.2002 (1985); note--the Bruneian dollar is at par with the
Singapore dollar

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line

_#_Highways: 1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and
another 52 km under construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2
meters

_#_Ports: Kuala Belait, Muara

_#_Merchant marine: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 418 km;
natural gas, 920 km

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200,
1 Boeing 737-200)

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runway over 3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m

_#_Telecommunications: service throughout country is adequate for
present needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia;
radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000 telephones (1987); stations--4
AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers (1987); satellite earth stations--1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces (including Ground Forces,
Flotilla, and Air Wing), Royal Brunei Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 110,727; 63,730 fit for
military service; 3,199 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $233.1 million, 7.1% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Bulgaria
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 110,910 km2; land area: 110,550 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

_#_Land boundaries: 1,881 km total; Greece 494 km, Romania 608 km,
Turkey 240 km, Yugoslavia 539 km

_#_Coastline: 354 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Macedonia question with Greece and Yugoslavia

_#_Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south

_#_Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber,
arable land

_#_Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 35%; other 10%; includes irrigated 11%

_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation;
air pollution

_#_Note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key
land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

_*_People
_#_Population: 8,910,622 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Bulgarian(s); adjective--Bulgarian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%,
Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%

_#_Religion: Bulgarian Orthodox 85%; Muslim 13%; Jewish 0.8%;
Roman Catholic 0.5%; Uniate Catholic 0.2%; Protestant,
Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%

_#_Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to
ethnic breakdown

_#_Literacy: 93% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,300,000; industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47%
(1987)

_#_Organized labor: Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of
Bulgaria (KNSB); Edinstvo (Unity) People's Trade Union (splinter
confederation from KNSB); Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation,
legally registered in January 1990

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Bulgaria

_#_Type: emerging democracy, continuing significant Communist party
influence

_#_Capital: Sofia

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (oblasti, singular--oblast);
Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo, Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad,
Sofiya, Varna

_#_Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

_#_Constitution: 16 May 1971, effective 18 May 1971; a new
constitution is likely to be adopted in 1991

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the State Council; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire,
3 March (1878)

_#_Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers
(premier), three deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Narodno
Sobranie)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Zhelyu ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers
(Premier) Dimitur POPOV (since 19 December 1990);
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Aleksandur TOMOV
(since 19 December 1990);
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Viktor VULKOV (since
19 December 1990);
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Dimitur LUDZHEV
(since 19 December 1990);

_#_Political parties and leaders: government--Bulgarian
Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP),
Aleksandur LILOV, chairman;

opposition--Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV,
chairman, consisting of Nikola Petkov Bulgarian Agrarian National
Union, Milan DRENCHEV, secretary of Permanent Board;
Bulgarian Social Democratic Party, Petur DERTLIEV;
Green Party;
Christian Democrats;
Radical Democratic Party;
Rights and Freedoms Movement (pro-Muslim party), Ahmed DOGAN;
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union (BZNS), Viktor VULKOV

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

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