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106.03 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: none

_#_Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather
roads

_#_Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

_#_Merchant marine: 129 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,242,850
GRT/3,447,671 DWT; includes 33 cargo, 13 refrigerated cargo, 8 container,
11 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier, 5 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 55 bulk,
1 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; the USSR
has 2 ships under the Vanuatu flag

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 32 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones;
satellite communications ground stations--1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no military forces; Vanuatu Police Force, paramilitary
force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 41,183; NA fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Vatican City
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

_#_Terrain: low hill

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: urban

_#_Note: landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state;
outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo
(the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

_*_People
_#_Population: 778 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also Swiss and other
nationalities

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Italian, Latin, and various other languages

_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: high dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and 3,000
lay workers who live outside the Vatican

_#_Organized labor: Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members
(1987)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of the Vatican City; note--the Vatican City
is the physical seat of the Holy See, which is the central government of
the Roman Catholic Church

_#_Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

_#_Capital: Vatican City

_#_Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

_#_Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March
1968)

_#_National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II),
22 October (1978); note--Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

_#_Executive branch: pope

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

_#_Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol WOJTYLA; since 16
October 1978);

Head of Government--Secretary of State Archbishop Angelo SODANO

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

_#_Elections:

Pope--last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of
the current pope);
results--Karol WOJTYlA was elected for life by the College of Cardinals

_#_Communists: NA

_#_Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

_#_Member of: CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, IMF (observer), INTELSAT, IOM
(observer), ITU, OAS (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, UPU,
WIPO, WTO (observer)

_#_Diplomatic representation: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop
Agostino CACCIAVILLAN; 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 333-7121;

US--Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli,
Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794);
telephone [396] 639-0558

_#_Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with
the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white
band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This unique, noncommercial economy is supported
financially by contributions (known as Peter's Pence) from Roman
Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage stamps, tourist
mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of publications.
The incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to,
or somewhat better than, those of counterparts who work in the city
of Rome.

_#_Budget: revenues $76.6 million; expenditures $168 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by
Italy

_#_Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics
and staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

_#_Currency: Vatican lira (plural--lire);
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

_#_Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1--1,134.4 (January
1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987),
1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985); note--the Vatican lira is at par with the
Italian lira which circulates freely

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the
Rome station of Saint Peter's)

_#_Highways: none; all city streets

_#_Telecommunications: stations--3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line
automatic telephone exchange; no communications satellite systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards
are posted at entrances to the Vatican City
_%_
_@_Venezuela
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 912,050 km2; land area: 882,050 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050
km, Guyana 743 km

_#_Coastline: 2,800 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 15 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claims all of Guyana west of the Essequibo river;
maritime boundary dispute with Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

_#_Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest;
central plains (llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite,
other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
20%; forest and woodland 39%; other 37%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic
droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

_#_Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

_*_People
_#_Population: 20,189,361 (July 1991), growth rate 2.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Venezuelan(s); adjective--Venezuelan

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo 67%, white 21%, black 10%, Indian 2%

_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic 96%, Protestant 2%

_#_Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about
200,000 Amerindians in the remote interior

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 87%, female 90%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)

_#_Labor force: 5,800,000; services 56%, industry 28%, agriculture 16%
(1985)

_#_Organized labor: 32% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Venezuela

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Caracas

_#_Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular--estado),
2 territories* (territorios, singular--territorio), 1 federal district**
(distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal);
Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo,
Cojedes, Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**,
Falcon, Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta,
Portuguesa, Sucre, Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note--the federal
dependence consists of 11 federally controlled island groups with a total
of 72 individual islands

_#_Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 23 January 1961

_#_Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of
legislative acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress of the Republic
(Congreso de la Republica) consists of an upper chamber or Senate
(Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justica)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos Andres
PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Social Christian Party (COPEI), Eduardo FERNANDEZ, secretary general;
Democratic Action (AD), Gonzalo BARRIOS, president, and Humberto CELLI,
secretary general;
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Argelia LAYA, president, and
Freddy MUNOZ, secretary general

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18, though poorly
enforced

_#_Elections:

President--last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993);
results--Carlos Andres PEREZ (AD) 54.6%,
Eduardo FERNANDEZ (COPEI) 41.7%, other 3.7%;

Senate--last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, other 4;
note--3 former presidents (1 from AD, 2 from COPEI) hold lifetime
senate seats;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results--AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, other 14.6%;
seats--(201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, other 19

_#_Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers, the Democratic
Action-dominated labor organization

_#_Member of: AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, OPEC, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI
Bottaro; Chancery at 2445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 797-3800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US--Ambassador Michael Martin SKOL; Embassy at Avenida Francisco
de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address
is P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34037);
telephone [58] (2) 285-3111 or 2222; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red
with the coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of
seven white five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted
for 21% of GDP, 60% of central government revenues, and 81% of export
earnings in 1989. President Perez introduced an economic readjustment
program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and
price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest
rates have thrown the economy into confusion, causing about an 8%
decline in GDP in 1989, but the economy recovered part way in 1990.

_#_GDP: $42.4 billion, per capita $2,150; real growth rate 4.4%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40.7% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10.4% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $8.4 billion; expenditures $8.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum 81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore,
agricultural products, basic manufactures;

partners--US 50.7%, Europe 13.7%, Japan 4.0% (1989)

_#_Imports: $8.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, chemicals, manufactures, machinery and
transport equipment;

partners--US 44%, FRG 8.0%, Japan 4%, Italy 7%, Canada 2% (1989)

_#_External debt: $33.2 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 11% (1989 est.); accounts for
one-fourth of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 19,733,000 kW capacity; 54,660 million kWh produced,
2,780 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials,
food processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 16% of labor force;
products--corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee,
beef, pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca leaf
for the international drug trade on a small scale; however, large
quantities of cocaine do transit the country

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488
million; Communist countries (1970-89), $10 million

_#_Currency: bolivar (plural--bolivares);
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1--51.331 (January 1991),
46.900 (1990), 34.6815 (1989), 14.5000 (fixed rate 1987-88), 8.0833
(1986), 7.5000 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all
single track, government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned

_#_Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel,
14,450 km earth roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo
accept oceangoing vessels

_#_Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products;
4,010 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto
Cabello, Puerto Ordaz

_#_Merchant marine: 58 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 811,650
GRT/1,294,077 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo,
22 cargo, 1 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 9 bulk,
1 vehicle carrier, 1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 296 total, 277 usable; 137 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones;
stations--181 AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite communications ground stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (including Navy,
Marines, Coast Guard), Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National
Guard)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,220,183; 3,782,548 fit for
military service; 216,132 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.9 billion, 4.3% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_Vietnam
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 329,560 km2; land area: 325,360

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km,
Laos 1,555 km

_#_Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with
Cambodia are in dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined;
occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with
China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; unresolved maritime boundary with
Thailand; maritime boundary dispute with China in the Gulf of Tonkin;
Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan;
unresolved maritime boundary with Thailand

_#_Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy
season (mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to
mid-March)

_#_Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands;
hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil deposits, forests

_#_Land use: arable land 22%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 40%; other 35%; includes irrigated 5%

_#_Environment: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
flooding

_*_People
_#_Population: 67,568,033 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Vietnamese (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Vietnamese

_#_Ethnic divisions: predominantly Vietnamese 85-90%; Chinese 3%;
ethnic minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other
mountain tribes

_#_Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous
beliefs, Islamic, Protestant

_#_Language: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer,
tribal languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 92%, female 84%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 32.7 million; agricultural 65%, industrial and
service 35% (1990 est.)

_#_Organized labor: reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are
members of the Vietnam Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

_#_Type: Communist state

_#_Capital: Hanoi

_#_Administrative divisions: 41 provinces (tinh, singular and plural),
3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural); An Giang,
Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Dinh, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dak Lak, Dong Nai,
Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Kon Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh,
Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*,
Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai,
Nghe Tinh, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ngai,
Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Song Be, Son La, Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa,
Thua Thien, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Phu, Vung Tau-Con Dao;
note--diacritical marks are not included

_#_Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 18 December 1980

_#_Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law
system

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

_#_Executive branch: chairman of the Council of State, Council of
State, chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Quoc-Hoi)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since
18 June 1987);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier)
Vo Van KIET (since 9 August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party-- Vietnam Communist Party
(VCP), Nguyen Van LINH

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

National Assembly--last held 19 April 1987
(next to be held April 1992);
results--VCP is the only party;
seats--(496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496

_#_Communists: nearly 2 million

_#_Member of: ACCT, AsDB, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, IIB, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: This is a centrally planned, developing economy with
extensive government ownership and control of productive facilities.
The economy is primarily agricultural; the sector employs about 65% of
the labor force and accounts for almost half of GNP. Rice is the staple
crop; substantial amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes
are also grown. The government permits sale of surplus grain on the open
market. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north,
including coal, which is an important export item. Oil was discovered
off the southern coast in 1986 with production reaching 54,000 b/d in
1990 and expected to increase in the years ahead. Following the
end of the war in 1975, heavy-handed government measures undermined
efforts at an efficient merger of the agricultural resources of the
south and the industrial resources of the north. The economy remains
heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from
Communist countries, Sweden, and UN agencies. Inflation, although down
from recent triple-digit levels, is still a major weakness and is
showing signs of accelerating upwards again. Per capita output is among
the world's lowest. Since late 1986 the government has sponsored a
broad reform program that seeks to turn more economic activity over to
the private sector.

_#_GNP: $15.2 billion, per capita $230; real growth rate 2.4%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 65% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 33% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $892 million; expenditures $1.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $344 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--agricultural and handicraft products, coal, minerals,
crude petroleum, ores, seafood;

partners--USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

_#_Imports: $2.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum products, steel products, railroad
equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton, fertilizer, grain;

partners--USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

_#_External debt: $16.8 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for 30%
of GNP

_#_Electricity: 2,740,000 kW capacity; 7,500 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining,
cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes
make up 50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee,
tea, bananas) and animal products other 50%; since 1989 self-sufficient
in food staple rice; fish catch of 943,100 metric tons (1989 est.)

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $12.0 billion

_#_Currency: new dong (plural--new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

_#_Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1--7,530 (May 1991),
7,280 (December 1990), 3,996 (March 1990), 2,047 (1988), 225 (1987),
18 (1986), 12 (1985); note--1985-89 figures are end of year

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km
not restored to service

_#_Highways: about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km bituminous, 48,700 km
gravel or improved earth, 26,900 km unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: 150 km, refined products

_#_Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km
navigable at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

_#_Ports: Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City

_#_Merchant marine: 87 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,596
GRT/539,174 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 69 cargo, 4 refrigerated
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 8 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 bulk; note--Vietnam owns 11 cargo ships
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 106,759 DWT under the registry of Panama and
Malta

_#_Civil air: controlled by military

_#_Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways;
10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones in Ho Chi Minh City (1984);
stations--16 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio
receivers; at least 2 satellite earth stations, including 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines and Naval Infantry), Air
Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,260,120; 10,377,105 fit for
military service; 809,617 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 19.4% of GNP (1986 est.)
_%_
_@_Virgin Islands
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 352 km2; land area: 349 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 188 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively
low humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to
November

_#_Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level
land

_#_Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

_#_Land use: arable land 15%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
26%; forest and woodland 6%; other 47%

_#_Environment: rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent
severe droughts, floods, earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater
resources

_#_Note: important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east
of Puerto Rico, along the Anegada Passage--a key shipping lane for the
Panama Canal; Saint Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors
in the Caribbean

_*_People
_#_Population: 99,404 (July 1991), growth rate 0.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Virgin Islander(s); adjective--Virgin Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and
29% born elsewhere in the West Indies) 74%, US mainland 13%, Puerto
Rican 5%, other 8%; black 80%, white 15%, other 5%; Hispanic origin 14%

_#_Religion: Baptist 42%, Roman Catholic 34%, Episcopalian 17%,
other 7%

_#_Language: English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely
spoken

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 45,500 (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 90% of the government labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Virgin Islands of the United States

_#_Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

_#_Capital: Charlotte Amalie

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

_#_Independence: none (territory of the US)

_#_Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the
constitution

_#_Legal system: based on US

_#_National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March
(1917)

_#_Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Senate

_#_Judicial branch: US District Court handles civil matters over
$50,000, felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal cases;
Territorial Court handles civil matters up to $50,000 small claims,
juvenile, domestic, misdemeanors, and traffic cases

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President George
BUSH (since 20 January 1989), represented by Governor Alexander A.
FARRELLY (since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE (since
5 January 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party, Marilyn STAPLETON;
Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin BROWN;
Republican Party, Charlotte-Poole DAVIS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

_#_Elections:

Governor--last held NA 1986 (next to be held NA 1990);
results--Alexander FARRELLY (Democratic Party) defeated
Adelbert BRYAN (ICM);

Senate--last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives--last held 6 November 1990
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results--the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative

_#_Member of: ECLAC (associate), IOC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

_#_Flag: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between
the large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an
eagle holding an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other
with a superimposed shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue
panel

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for
more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector
consists of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly
plants. The agricultural sector is small, most food being imported.
International business and financial services are a small but growing
component of the economy. The world's largest petroleum refinery is at
Saint Croix.

_#_GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $9,000; real growth rate NA% (1985)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $470 million; expenditures $322 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90)

_#_Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--refined petroleum products;

partners--US, Puerto Rico

_#_Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--crude oil, foodstuffs, consumer goods, building
materials;

partners--US, Puerto Rico

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 12%

_#_Electricity: 358,000 kW capacity; 532 million kWh produced,
5,360 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, petroleum refining, watch assembly, rum
distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

_#_Agriculture: truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit,
sorghum, Senepol cattle

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $34.5 million

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 856 km total

_#_Ports: Saint Croix--Christiansted, Frederiksted;
Saint Thomas--Long Bay, Crown Bay, Red Hook; Saint John--Cruz Bay

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m; international airports on Saint Thomas and Saint Croix

_#_Telecommunications: 44,280 telephones; stations--4 AM, 6 FM, 3 TV;
modern system using fiber-optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio,
and satellite facilities; 90,000 radios; 56,000 TVs

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Wake Island
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 19.3 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater
volcano; central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim;
average elevation less than four meters

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: subject to occasional typhoons

_#_Note: strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the
Northern Mariana Islands; emergency landing location for transpacific
flights

_*_People
_#_Population: 195 (January 1990); no indigenous inhabitants;
302 temporary population

_#_Note: population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during
the Vietnam conflict

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air
Force (under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since
24 June 1972

_#_Flag: the US flag is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US
military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.

_#_Electricity: supplied by US military

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore
anchorages for large ships

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440 to 3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: underwater cables to Guam and through Midway
to Honolulu; AFRTS radio and television service provided by satellite;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

_#_Note: formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only
by US military and some commercial cargo planes

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Wallis and Futuna
(overseas territory of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 274 km2; land area: 274 km2; includes Ile Uvea
(Wallis Island), Ile Futuna (Futuna Island), Ile Alofi, and 20
islets

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 129 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool,
dry season (May to October)

_#_Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 75%

_#_Environment: both island groups have fringing reefs

_#_Note: located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

_*_People
_#_Population: 16,590 (July 1991), growth rate 3.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna
Islanders; adjective--Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian

_#_Religion: largely Roman Catholic

_#_Language: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 50%, female 51%) at all ages can read and write
(1969)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

_#_Type: overseas territory of France

_#_Capital: Mata-Utu (on Ile Uvea)

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: French president, high administrator; note--there
are three traditional kings with limited powers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly
(Assemblee Territoriale)

_#_Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French
law by the chief administrator, but the three traditional kings
administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Chief Administrator Roger DUMEC
(since 15 July 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR);
Union Populaire Locale (UPL);
Union Pour la Democratie Francaise (UDF);
Lua kae tahi (Giscardians);
Mouvement des Radicaux de Gauche (MRG)

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

_#_Elections:

Territorial Assembly--last held 15 March 1987
(next to be held March 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(20 total) RPR 7, UPL 6, UDF and Lua kae tahi 7;

French Senate--last held NA September 1989
(next to be held by September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) RPR 1;

French National Assembly--last held 12 June 1988 (next to be held
by September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) MRG 1

_#_Member of: FZ, SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
local interests are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is limited to traditional subsistence
agriculture, with about 80% of the labor force earning its livelihood
from agriculture (coconuts and vegetables), livestock (mostly pigs),
and fishing. About 4% of the population is employed in government.
Revenues come from French Government subsidies, licensing of fishing
rights to Japan and South Korea, import taxes, and remittances from
expatriate workers in New Caledonia. Wallis and Futuna imports food,
fuel, clothing, machinery, and transport equipment, but its exports
are negligible, consisting of copra and handicrafts.

_#_GDP: $7.5 million, per capita $470; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $2.7 million; expenditures $2.7 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1983)

_#_Exports: negligible;

commodities--copra, handicrafts;

partners--NA

_#_Imports: $6.9 million (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities--foodstuffs, manufactured goods, transportation
equipment, fuel;

partners--France, Australia, New Zealand

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

_#_Agriculture: dominated by coconut production, with subsistence
crops of yams, taro, bananas, and herds of pigs and goats

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $118 million

_#_Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1--93.28 (January 1991), 99.0 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988),
109.27 (1987), 125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the rate of
18.18 to the French franc

_#_Fiscal year: NA

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 100 km on Ile Uvea, 16 km sealed; 20 km earth surface
on Ile Futuna

_#_Inland waterways: none

_#_Ports: Mata-Utu, Leava

_#_Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 225 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_West Bank
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai,
and the Golan Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and
reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the
final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with
their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be
negotiated among the concerned parties. Camp David further specifies
that these negotiations will resolve the respective boundaries. Pending
the completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be determined. In the view
of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area west of the
Jordan River under Jordanian administration before the 1967
Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to negotiations envisaged in the
framework agreement, it is US policy that a distinction must be made
between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's
special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for
the final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that
of the rest of the West Bank.

_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5,860 km2; land area: 5,640 km2; includes West Bank,
East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's Land, and the
northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

_#_Land boundaries: 404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km;

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

_#_Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with
altitude, warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west,
but barren in east

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 27%, permanent crops 0%, meadows and pastures
32%, forest and woodland 1%, other 40%

_#_Environment: highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal
aquifers

_#_Note: landlocked; there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank
and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,086,081 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991);
in addition, there are 90,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and
120,000 in East Jerusalem (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 69 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: NA

_#_Ethnic divisions: Palestinian Arab and other 88%, Jewish 12%

_#_Religion: Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 80%, Jewish 12%, Christian
and other 8%

_#_Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely
understood

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers--small industry,
commerce, and business 29.8%, construction 24.2%, agriculture 22.4%,
service and other 23.6% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Note: The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military
authorities and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the
final status of the West Bank will be determined by negotiations among
the concerned parties. These negotiations will determine how the area
is to be governed.

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by
Israeli military occupation and the effects of the Palestinian uprising.
Industries using advanced technology or requiring sizable financial
resources have been discouraged by a lack of financial resources and
Israeli policy. Capital investment has largely gone into residential
housing, not into productive assets that could compete with Israeli
industry. A major share of GNP is derived from remittances of workers
employed in Israel and neighboring Gulf states but remittances from the
Gulf dropped dramatically in the wake of Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in
August 1990. Israeli reprisals against Palestinian unrest in the West
Bank since 1987 have pushed unemployment up and lowered living standards.
The Persian Gulf crisis of 1990-91 also dealt a blow to the economy.
Many Palestinians returned from the Gulf, exacerbating unemployment.
Export revenues have plunged because of the loss of export markets in
Jordan and the Gulf.

_#_GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15% (1988
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 40% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $47.4 million; expenditures $45.7 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY86)

_#_Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--NA;
partners--Jordan, Israel

_#_Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--NA;
partners--Jordan, Israel

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: power supplied by Israel

_#_Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the
Israelis have established some small-scale modern industries in the
settlements and industrial centers

_#_Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef,
and dairy products

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels) and Jordanian dinar
(plural--dinars); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot and
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

_#_Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--2.35 (May
1991), 2.0161 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878
(1986), 1.1788 (1985); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1--0.6670 (January
1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499
(1986), 0.3940 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: previously 1 April-31 March; FY91 will be
1 April-31 December and starting 1 January 1992 the fiscal year will
conform to the calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: small indigenous road network, Israelis developing
east-west axial highways

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: open-wire telephone system currently being
upgraded; stations--no AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: NA

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 257,740; NA fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Western Sahara
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 266,000 km2; land area: 266,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

_#_Land boundaries: 2,046 km total; Algeria 42 km, Mauritania
1,561 km, Morocco 443 km

_#_Coastline: 1,110 km

_#_Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

_#_Disputes: claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is
unresolved and guerrilla fighting continues in the area

_#_Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore currents
produce fog and heavy dew

_#_Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or
sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 19%; forest and woodland 0%; other 81%

_#_Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur
during winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time,
often severely restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land

_*_People
_#_Population: 196,737 (July 1991), growth rate 2.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 23 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 177 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Saharan(s), Moroccan(s); adjective--Saharan,
Moroccan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab and Berber

_#_Religion: Muslim

_#_Language: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsistence farming

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty
unresolved; territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular
Front for the Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro), which
in February 1976 formally proclaimed a government in exile of the
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR); territory partitioned between
Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern
two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas,
abandoned all claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to
occupy that sector shortly thereafter and has since asserted
administrative control; the Polisario's government in exile was seated as
an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla activities continue sporadically.

_#_Capital: none

_#_Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

_#_Leaders: none

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources
and having little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of just a few hundred
dollars. Fishing and phosphate mining are the principal industries and
sources of income. Most of the food for the urban population must be
imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the
Moroccan Government.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA

_#_Exports: $8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.);

commodities--phosphates 62%;

partners--Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so
trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

_#_Imports: $30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.);

commodities--fuel for fishing fleet, foodstuffs;

partners--Morocco claims and administers Western Sahara, so
trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced,
425 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: phosphate, fishing, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: limited largely to subsistence agriculture; some
barley is grown in nondrought years; fruit and vegetables are grown in
the few oases; food imports are essential; camels, sheep, and goats are
kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists largely for the garrison
forces

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural--dirhams);
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1--8.071 (January
1991), 8.242 (1990), 8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104
(1986), 10.062 (1985)

Book of the day: