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_#_Budget: revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including
capital expenditures of $37,300 (FY87)

_#_Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983);

commodities--stamps, copra, handicrafts;

partners--NZ

_#_Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983);

commodities--foodstuffs, building materials, fuel;

partners--NZ

_#_External debt: none

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 200 kW capacity; 300,000 kWh produced,
180 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood
work, plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

_#_Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops--breadfruit,
papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $24 million

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western
Samoa

_#_Telecommunications: telephone service between islands and to
Western Samoa

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
_%_
_@_Tonga
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 748 km2; land area: 718 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 419 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no specific limits;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December
to May), cool season (May to December)

_#_Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted
coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

_#_Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 55%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 12%; other 2%

_#_Environment: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to
cyclones (October to April); deforestation

_#_Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

_*_People
_#_Population: 102,272 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Tongan(s); adjective--Tongan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

_#_Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000
adherents

_#_Language: Tongan, English

_#_Literacy: 100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can
read and write a simple message in Tongan or English (1976)

_#_Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Tonga

_#_Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Nukualofa

_#_Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu,
Vavau

_#_Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

_#_Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

_#_Legal system: based on English law

_#_National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fale Alea)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Prince Fatafehi TU'IPELEHAKE
(since 16 December 1965)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Democratic Reform Movement,
'Akolisi POHIVA

_#_Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females
over 21

_#_Elections:

Legislative Assembly--last held 14-15 February 1990
(next to be held NA February 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

_#_Communists: none known

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, SPC, SPF, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WHO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa
TUITA resides in London;

US--the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is
accredited to Tonga and makes periodic visits

_#_Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about
70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and
vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The
country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New
Zealand. The manufacturing sector accounts for only 11% of GDP. Tourism
is the primary source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains
dependent on sizable external aid and remittances to sustain its trade
deficit.

_#_GDP: $86 million, per capita $850; real growth rate 3.6%
(FY89 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (FY89)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $30.6 million; expenditures $48.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $22.5 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $9.6 million (f.o.b., FY90 est.);

commodities--coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro,
vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish;

partners--NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5% (FY87)

_#_Imports: $59.9 million (c.i.f., FY90 est.);

commodities--food products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery
and transport equipment, chemicals, building materials;

partners--NZ 39%, Australia 25%, Japan 9%, US 6%, EC 5% (FY87)

_#_External debt: $42.0 million (FY89)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 15% (FY86); accounts for
11% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 6,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced,
80 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, fishing

_#_Agriculture: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production;
vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $16
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $240 million

_#_Currency: pa'anga (plural--pa'anga); 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

_#_Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1--1.2832 (January 1991),
1.2809 (1990), 1.2637 (1989), 1.2799 (1988), 1.4282 (1987), 1.4960
(1986), 1.4319 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vavau); 94 km
unsealed roads usable only in dry weather

_#_Ports: Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai

_#_Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 35,857
GRT/480,726 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container,
1 liquefied gas

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 3,529 telephones; 66,000 radios; no TV
sets; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Land Force, Maritime Division, Royal Tongan Marines,
Royal Tongan Guard, Police

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Trinidad and Tobago
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 5,130 km2; land area: 5,130 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 362 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

_#_Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, asphalt

_#_Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and
pastures 2%; forest and woodland 44%; other 23%; includes irrigated
4%

_#_Environment: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical
storms

_#_Note: located 11 km from Venezuela

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,285,297 (July 1991), growth rate 1.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s);
adjective--Trinidadian, Tobagonian

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 43%, East Indian 40%, mixed 14%, white 1%,
Chinese 1%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 32.2%, Hindu 24.3%, Anglican 14.4%,
other Protestant 14%, Muslim 6%, none or unknown 9.1%

_#_Language: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

_#_Literacy: 95% (male 97%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 463,900; construction and utilities 18.1%;
manufacturing, mining, and quarrying 14.8%; agriculture 10.9%;
other 56.2% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 22% of labor force (1988)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Port-of-Spain

_#_Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and
1 ward**; Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew,
Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**,
Victoria

_#_Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 31 August 1976

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March
1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON
(since 18 December 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR), A. N. R. ROBINSON;
People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick MANNING;
United National Congress (UNC), Basdeo PANDAY;
Movement for Social Transformation (MOTION), David ABDULLAH

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 15 December 1986 (next to be
held by December 1991);
results--NAR 66%, PNM 32%, other 2%;
seats--(36 total) NAR 33, PNM 3; note--in 1989 six members
were expelled from the NAR and formed the UNC, while retaining
their parliamentary seats; as a result seats held are NAR 27,
UNC 6, PNM 3

_#_Communists: Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and
Tobago Peace Council, James MILLETTE

_#_Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Committee
(NJAC), radical antigovernment black-identity organization; Trinidad and
Tobago Peace Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World
Peace Council; Trinidad and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce;
Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress, moderate labor federation; Council of
Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor federation

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LAES, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Angus Albert KHAN; Chancery
at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone
(202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Charles A. GARGANO; Embassy at 15 Queen's Park West,
Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain);
telephone (809) 622-6372 through 6376, 6176

_#_Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper
hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy began to
emerge from a lengthy depression in 1990. The economy fell sharply
through most of the 1980s, largely because of the decline in oil prices.
This sector accounts for 80% of export earnings and more than 25% of
GDP. The government, in response to the oil revenue loss, pursued a
series of austerity measures that pushed the unemployment rate as high
as 22% in 1988. The economy showed signs of recovery in 1990, however,
helped along by rising oil prices. Agriculture employs only about 11% of
the labor force and produces about 3% of GDP. Since this sector is
small, it has been unable to absorb the large numbers of the unemployed.
The government currently seeks to diversify its export base.

_#_GDP: $4.05 billion, per capita $3,363; real growth rate - 3.7%
(1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.4% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--includes reexports--petroleum and petroleum products
82%, steel products 9%, fertilizer, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1988);

partners--US 53%, CARICOM 16%, EC 10%, Latin America 3% (1989)

_#_Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--raw materials and intermediate goods 47%, capital
goods 26%, consumer goods 26% (1988);

partners--US 51%, Latin America 10%, UK 8%, Canada 5%,
CARICOM 6% (1989)

_#_External debt: $2.5 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.2%, excluding oil refining
(1986); accounts for 30% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,468 million kWh produced,
2,730 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

_#_Agriculture: highly subsidized sector; major crops--cocoa and
sugarcane; sugarcane acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee,
vegetables; poultry sector most important source of animal protein; must
import large share of food needs

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $373
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $443 million

_#_Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1--4.2500
(January 1991), 4.2500 (1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000
(1987), 3.6000 (1986), 2.4500 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: minimal agricultural system near San Fernando

_#_Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth,
3,000 km unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined products; 904 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre

_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent international service via
tropospheric scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service;
109,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force (Army), Coast Guard,
Air Wing, Trinidad and Tobago Police Service

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 339,260; 245,086 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $59 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Tromelin Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 3.7 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: sandy

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other--scattered bushes 100%

_#_Environment: wildlife sanctuary

_#_Note: located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion
in the Indian Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting
cyclones

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Airports: 1 with runway less than 1,220 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Telecommunications: important meteorological station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Tunisia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 163,610 km2; land area: 155,360 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

_#_Land boundaries: 1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

_#_Coastline: 1,148 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya

_#_Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers; desert in south

_#_Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south
merges into the Sahara

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc,
salt

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and
pastures 19%; forest and woodland 4%; other 47%; includes irrigated
1%

_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification

_#_Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; only
144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

_*_People
_#_Population: 8,276,096 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Tunisian(s); adjective--Tunisian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, European 1%, Jewish less than 1%

_#_Religion: Muslim 98%, Christian 1%, Jewish less than 1%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)

_#_Literacy: 65% (male 74%, female 56%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,250,000; agriculture 32%; shortage of skilled labor

_#_Organized labor: about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of
labor force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent
of Constitutional Democratic Party

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Tunisia; note--may be changed to
Tunisian Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Tunis

_#_Administrative divisions: 23 governorates (wilayat,
singular--wilayah); Al Kaf, Al Mahdiyah, Al Munastir,
Al Qasrayn, Al Qayrawan, Aryanah, Bajah, Banzart,
Bin Arus, Jundubah, Madanin, Nabul, Qabis, Qafsah,
Qibili, Safaqis, Sidi Bu Zayd, Silyanah, Susah,
Tatawin, Tawzar, Tunis, Zaghwan

_#_Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 1 June 1959

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law;
some judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint
session

_#_National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Majlis
al-Nuwaab)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI
(since 7 November 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September
1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Constitutional Democratic Rally Party (RCD), President BEN ALI (official
ruling party);
Movement of Democratic Socialists (MDS), Ahmed Mestiri;
five other political parties are legal, including the Communist Party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

President--last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994);
results--Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI was reelected without opposition;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 2 April 1989
(next to be held April 1994);
results--RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, other 2.4%;
seats--(141 total) RCD 141

_#_Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, AMU, CCC, ECA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Habib LAZREG;
Chancery at 1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20005;
telephone (202) 862-1850;

US--Ambassador Robert H. PELLETREAU, Jr.; Embassy at
144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere; telephone [216] (1)
782-566

_#_Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent
nearly encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are
traditional symbols of Islam

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates,
tourism, and exports of light manufactures for continued growth.
Following two years of drought-induced economic decline, the economy
made a strong recovery in 1990 as a result of a bountiful harvest,
continued export growth, and higher domestic investment. Continued
high inflation and unemployment have eroded popular support for the
government, however, and forced Tunis to slow the pace of economic
reform. Nonetheless, the government appears committed to implementing
its IMF-supported structural adjustment program and to servicing
its foreign debt.

_#_GDP: $10 billion, per capita $1,235; real growth rate 6.5% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 15.4% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $3.8 billion; expenditures $4.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $970 million (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $3.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and
chemicals;

partners--EC 73%, Middle East 9%, US 1%, Turkey, USSR

_#_Imports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--industrial goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons
13%, food 12%, consumer goods;

partners--EC 68%, US 7%, Canada, Japan, USSR, China, Saudi Arabia,
Algeria

_#_External debt: $7.4 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989); accounts for
38% of GDP, including petroleum

_#_Electricity: 1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron
ore), textiles, footwear, food, beverages

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force;
output subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts;
export crops--olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products--grain,
sugar beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in
food; fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1987)

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $730
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.9 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $410 million

_#_Currency: Tunisian dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

_#_Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1--0.8408 (January
1991), 0.8783 (1990), 0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987), 0.7940
(1986), 0.8345 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,154 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter standard gauge;
1,689 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved
and unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined products; 742 km natural
gas

_#_Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis

_#_Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,172
GRT/218,970 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6
chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

_#_Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 29 total, 28 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: the system is above the African average;
facilities consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and radio
relay; key centers are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis;
233,000 telephones; stations--18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV; 4 submarine cables;
earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with
back-up control station; coaxial cable to Algeria; radio relay to
Algeria, Libya, and Italy

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,052,191; 1,180,614 fit for
military service; 90,218 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $315 million, 2.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Turkey
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 780,580 km2; land area: 770,760 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 2,715 km total; Bulgaria 240 km, Greece 206 km,
Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km, USSR 617 km

_#_Coastline: 7,200 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only--to the maritime
boundary agreed upon with the USSR;

Territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea, 12 nm in Black Sea and
Mediterranean Sea

_#_Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial)
disputes with Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question
with Syria; ongoing dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and
Iraq) over water development plans for the Tigris and Euphrates
rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and
the USSR

_#_Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters;
harsher in interior

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central
plateau (Anatolia)

_#_Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper,
borate, sulphur, iron ore

_#_Land use: arable land 30%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and
pastures 12%; forest and woodland 26%; other 28%; includes
irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along
major river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification

_#_Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits
(Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean
Seas; Turkey and Norway only NATO members having a land boundary
with the USSR

_*_People
_#_Population: 58,580,993 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Turk(s); adjective--Turkish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Turkish 80%, Kurdish 17%, other 3% (est.)

_#_Religion: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 99.8%, other (Christian and
Jews) 0.2%

_#_Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

_#_Literacy: 81% (male 90%, female 71%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 18,800,000; agriculture 56%, services 30%,
industry 14%; about 1,000,000 Turks work abroad (1987)

_#_Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Turkey

_#_Type: republican parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Ankara

_#_Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (iller, singular--il);
Adana, Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya,
Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis,
Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli,
Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep,
Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta,
Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu,
Kayseri, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya,
Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu,
Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat,
Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat, Zonguldak

_#_Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman
Empire)

_#_Constitution: 7 November 1982

_#_Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic,
29 October (1923)

_#_Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk
Millet Meclisi)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mesut YILMAZ (since 30
June 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Ekrem PAKDAMIRLI (since 30 June
1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Motherland Party (ANAP), Mesut YILMAZ;
Social Democratic People's Party (SHP), Erdal INONU;
Correct Way Party (DYP), Suleyman DEMIREL;
People's Labor Party (HEP), Fehmi ISIKLAR;
Socialist Unity Party (SBP), leader NA;
Democratic Center Party (DMP), Bedrettin DALAN;
Great Anatolia Party (BAP), leader NA;
Democratic Left Party (DSP), Bulent ECEVIT;
Refah Party (RP), Necmettin ERBAKAN;
Democratic Center Party (DSP), Bedrettin DALAN;
Grand National Party (GNP), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

Grand National Assembly--last held 29 November 1987
(next to be held November 1992);
results--ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, DYP 19%, other 20%;
seats--(450 total) ANAP 275, SHP 82, DYP 60, HEP 9, SBP 4,
DMP 2, BAP 1, independent 6, vacant 11

_#_Communists: strength and support negligible

_#_Member of: AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN (observer), COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NATO, NEA, OECD, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIIMOG, UNRWA, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at
1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200;
there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
and New York;

US--Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard,
Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09257-0006);
telephone [90] (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in
Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

_#_Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is
toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside
the crescent opening

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980
continue to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown
steadily since the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP
increasing more than 6% annually. Agriculture remains the most important
economic sector, employing about 55% of the labor force, accounting for
almost 20% of GDP, and contributing about 20% to exports. Impressive
growth in recent years has not solved all of the economic problems facing
Turkey. Inflation and interest rates remain high, and a large budget
deficit will continue to provide difficulties for a country undergoing a
substantial transformation from a centrally controlled to a free market
economy. The government has launched a multimillion-dollar development
program in the southeastern region, which includes the building of a
dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to generate electric power
and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned tapping of huge
additional quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in
the downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

_#_GDP: $178.0 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth rate 7.6%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60.3% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10.4% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $27.6 billion; expenditures $34.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.6 billion (1991)

_#_Exports: $11.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--industrial products 78%, crops and livestock
products 20%;

partners--FRG 18%, Italy 8%, Iraq 8%, US 8%, UK 5%, France 4%

_#_Imports: $16.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil, machinery, transport equipment, metals,
pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics, rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers,
chemicals;

partners--FRG 15%, US 11%, Iraq 10%, Italy 7%, France 6%, UK 5%

_#_External debt: $42.8 billion (June 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for 32% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 14,315,000 kW capacity; 41,000 million kWh produced,
720 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite,
copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of
population; products--tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets,
pulses, citrus fruit, variety of animal products; self-sufficient in
food most years

_#_Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy
cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.3
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $8.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $4.5 billion

_#_Currency: Turkish lira (plural--liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100
kurus

_#_Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1--2,873.9 (December
1990), 2,608.6 (1990), 2,121.7 (1989), 1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987),
674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

_#_Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel
or crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth
(1985)

_#_Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

_#_Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products;
708 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

_#_Merchant marine: 340 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,583,720
GRT/6,220,642 DWT; includes 8 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 190 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 37 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7
combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 72 bulk, 4 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 39 major transport aircraft (1990)

_#_Airports: 115 total, 109 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk
radio relay network; 3,400,000 telephones; stations--15 AM; 45 (60
repeaters) FM; 67 (504 repeaters) TV; satellite communications
ground stations operating in the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT
systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Land Forces, Navy (including Naval Air and Naval
Infantry), Air Force, Coast Guard, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,861,358; 9,083,559 fit for
military service; 606,871 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $5.6 billion, 5% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Turks and Caicos Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 389 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

_#_Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

_#_Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures;
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 98%

_#_Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent
hurricanes

_#_Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North
Atlantic Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 9,983 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

_#_Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

_#_Religion: Baptist 41.2%, Methodist 18.9%, Anglican 18.3%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 1.7%, other 19.9% (1980)

_#_Language: English (official)

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist
industries; some subsistence agriculture

_#_Organized labor: Saint George's Industrial Trade Union

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a
Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

_#_Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small
number adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953),
represented by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since
3 March 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald SKIPPINGS;
Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan MALCOLM and Norman SAUNDERS;
National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel MISSICK

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held on 3 March 1988
(next to be held NA);
results--PDM 60%, PNP 30%, other 10%;
seats--(20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

_#_Communists: none

_#_Member of: CDB

_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the
interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by
the UK;

US--none

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag;
the shield is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore
banking. Subsistence farming--corn and beans--exists only on the Caicos
Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be
imported.

_#_GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

_#_Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84);

commodities--lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells;

partners--US, UK

_#_Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84);

commodities--foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing;

partners--US, UK

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11.1 million kWh produced,
1,140 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

_#_Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans;
fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $100 million

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

_#_Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

_#_Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks
Air Ltd. (cargo service)

_#_Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446
telephones; stations--3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Tuvalu
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 24 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

_#_Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

_#_Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South
Pacific Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 9,317 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Tuvaluans(s); adjective--Tuvaluan

_#_Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

_#_Religion: Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i 1%, other 0.06%

_#_Language: Tuvaluan, English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: democracy

_#_Capital: Funafuti

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

_#_Constitution: 1 October 1978

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Palamene)

_#_Judicial branch: High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16
October 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October
1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

Parliament--last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(12 total)

_#_Member of: ACP, C (special), ESCAP, SPC, SPF, UPU

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant);

US--none

_#_Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant; the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with
nine yellow five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls
with poor soil. The country has no known mineral resources and few
exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic
activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of
a tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of
stamps and coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received
annually from an international trust fund established in 1987 by
Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South
Korea.

_#_GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $4.3 million; expenditures $4.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.);

commodities--copra;

partners--Fiji, Australia, NZ

_#_Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.);

commodities--food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured
goods;

partners--Fiji, Australia, NZ

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA

_#_Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
330 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

_#_Agriculture: coconuts, copra

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $96 million

_#_Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A)
per US$1--1.2834 (January 1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752
(1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: NA

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 8 km gravel

_#_Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

_#_Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,043 GRT/450 DWT

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300
radiotelephones; 4,000 radios; 108 telephones

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Uganda
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

_#_Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan
435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December
to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

_#_Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

_#_Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 23%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and
pastures 25%; forest and woodland 30%; other 13%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil
erosion

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 18,690,070 (July 1991), growth rate 3.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

Book of the day: