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_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)--10,819 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double
track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately
owned railways--511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified);
371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)

_#_Highways: 97,400 km (51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km
unimproved earth)

_#_Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

_#_Pipelines: 84 km natural gas

_#_Ports: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo,
Stockholm; numerous secondary and minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 182 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,226,923
GRT/2,879,057 DWT; includes 9 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container,
45 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier,
28 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 27 chemical tanker,
6 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 8 combination ore/oil,
12 bulk, 1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 115 major transports

_#_Airports: 256 total, 254 usable; 137 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
92 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international
facilities; 8,200,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, 56 (321 relays) FM,
111 (925 relays) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite
earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT
systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Navy, Royal Swedish Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,136,227; 1,865,645 fit for
military service; 55,198 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $4.9 billion, 2.5% of GDP (FY90)
_%_
_@_Switzerland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 41,290 km2; land area: 39,770 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: 1,852 km total; Austria 164 km, France 573 km,
Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, Germany 334 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy,
rainy/snowy winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional
showers

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a
central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

_#_Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 26%; other 23%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: dominated by Alps

_#_Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe

_*_People
_#_Population: 6,783,961 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 83 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Swiss (sing. & pl.); adjective--Swiss

_#_Ethnic divisions: total population--German 65%, French 18%,
Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other 6%; Swiss nationals--German 74%,
French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1%
(1980)

_#_Language: total population--German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%,
Romansch 1%, other 4%; Swiss nationals--German 74%, French 20%, Italian
4%, Romansch 1%, other 1%

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,310,000; 904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian;
services 50%, industry and crafts 33%, government 10%, agriculture and
forestry 6%, other 1% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Swiss Confederation

_#_Type: federal republic

_#_Capital: Bern

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular--canton in
French; cantoni, singular--cantone in Italian; kantone, singular--kanton
in German); Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern,
Fribourg, Geneve, Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern,
Neuchatel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz,
Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

_#_Independence: 1 August 1291

_#_Constitution: 29 May 1874

_#_Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal
decrees of general obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss
Confederation, 1 August (1291)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Federal Council
(German--Bundesrat, French--Conseil Federal, Italian--Consiglio
Federale)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly
(German--Bundesversammlung, French--Assemblee Federale,
Italian--Assemblea Federale) consists of an upper council or Council
of States (German--Standerat, French--Conseil des Etats,
Italian--Consiglio degli Stati) and a lower council or National
Council (German--Nationalrat, French--Conseil National,
Italian--Consiglio Nazionale)

_#_Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Flavio COTTI
(1991 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President Rene
FELBER (term runs concurrently with that of president)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno HUNZIKER, president;
Social Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut HUBACHER, chairman;
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP), Eva SEGMULLER-WEBER,
chairman;
Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans UHLMANN, president;
Green Party (GPS), Peter SCHMID, president;
Automobile Party (AP), DREYER;
Alliance of Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz JAEGER, president;
Swiss Democratic Party (SD), NA;
Evangelical People's Party (EVP), Max DUNKI, president;
Workers' Party (PdA; Communist), Jean SPIELMANN, general secretary;
Ticino League, leader NA
Liberal Party (LPS), Gilbert COUTAU, president;
National Action Party (NA), Rudolph KELLER, chairman;
Republican Party (RP), Franz BAUMGARTNER, president;
Progressive Organizations of Switzerland (POCH), Georg DEGEN, secretary;
Unitary Socialist Party (PSU), Dario ROBBIANI, president

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

Council of States--last held throughout 1991 (next to be
held 1995;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(46 total) FDP 15, CVP 14, SVP 4, LPS 3, LDU 1; note--9
seats require run-off elections, to be held in November1991

National Council--last held 20 October 1991 (next to be
held October 1995);
results--FDP %, SPS %, CVP %, SVP %, GPS %,
LPS %, AP %, LDU %,SD %, EVP %, Workers Party %,
Ticino League 23%, other %;
seats--(200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP 25, GPS 14, LPS 10,
AP 8, LDU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, Workers Party 2, Ticino League 2, other 2

_#_Communists: 4,500 members (est.)

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IEA, IFAD, ILO, IMF (observer), IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA,
UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER; Chancery at
2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-7900;
there are Swiss Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los
Angeles, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Joseph B. GILDENHORN; Embassy at
Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern; telephone [41] (31) 437-011;
there is a Branch Office of the Embassy in Geneva and a
Consulate General in Zurich

_#_Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the
center that does not extend to the edges of the flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Switzerland's economic success is matched in few, if any,
other nations. Per capita output, general living standards, education
and science, health care, and diet are unsurpassed in Europe. Inflation
remains low because of sound government policy and harmonious
labor-management relations. Unemployment is negligible, a marked
contrast to the larger economies of Western Europe. This economic
stability helps promote the important banking and tourist sectors. Since
World War II, Switzerland's economy has adjusted smoothly to the great
changes in output and trade patterns in Europe and presumably can adjust
to the challenges of the 1990s, in particular, the further economic
integration of Western Europe and the amazingly rapid changes in East
European political/economic prospects.

_#_GDP: $126 billion, per capita $18,700; real growth rate 2.6%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.3% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $24.0 billion; expenditures $23.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $63.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal
products, foodstuffs, textiles and clothing;

partners--Western Europe 64% (EC 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%

_#_Imports: $70.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--agricultural products, machinery and transportation
equipment, chemicals, textiles, construction materials;

partners--Western Europe 78% (EC 71%, other 7%), US 6%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 17,710,000 kW capacity; 59,070 million kWh produced,
8,930 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision
instruments

_#_Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50%
self-sufficient; food shortages--fish, refined sugar, fats and oils
(other than butter), grains, eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5
billion

_#_Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural--francs, franken,
or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes,
rappen, or centesimi

_#_Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per
US$1--1.2724 (January 1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633
(1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986), 2.4571 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 5,174 km total; 2,971 km are government owned
and 2,203 km are nongovernment owned; the government network consists
of 2,897 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow
gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment
network consists of 710 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1,418 km
1.000-meter gauge, and 75 km 0.790-meter gauge track, 100% electrified

_#_Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of which 18,620 km are
canton and 1,057 km are national highways (740 km autobahn); 42,468 km
are communal roads

_#_Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1,506 km natural gas

_#_Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen
to Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

_#_Ports: Basel (river port)

_#_Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 258,678
GRT/441,555 DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 chemical
tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 7 bulk

_#_Civil air: 89 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 67 total, 65 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic, international, and
broadcast services; 5,890,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, 36 (400
relays) FM, 145 (1,250 relays) TV; communications satellite earth
stations operating in the INTELSAT (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian
Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Air Force, Frontier Guards, Fortification Guards

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,802,005; 1,549,347 fit for
military service; 42,619 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $4.6 billion, 2% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Syria
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 185,180 km2; land area: 184,050 km2 (including 1,295
km2 of Israeli-occupied territory)

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than North Dakota

_#_Land boundaries: 2,253 km total; Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km,
Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

_#_Coastline: 193 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm beyond territorial sea limit;

Territorial sea: 35 nm

_#_Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan
Heights is Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic
disputes with Iraq over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over
water development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers;
Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

_#_Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August)
and mild, rainy winters (December to February) along coast

_#_Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal
plain; mountains in west

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese
ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

_#_Land use: arable land 28%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
46%; forest and woodland 3%; other 20%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification

_#_Note: there are 38 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights

_*_People
_#_Population: 12,965,996 (July 1991), growth rate 3.8% (1991);
in addition, there are at least 12,000 Druze and 13,000 Jewish settlers
in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Syrian(s); adjective--Syrian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 90.3%; Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim
sects 16%, Christian (various sects) 10%, tiny Jewish communities in
Damascus, Al Qamishli, and Aleppo

_#_Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic,
Circassian; French widely understood

_#_Literacy: 64% (male 78%, female 51%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,400,000; miscellaneous and government services 36%,
agriculture 32%, industry and construction 32%; majority unskilled;
shortage of skilled labor (1984)

_#_Organized labor: 5% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Syrian Arab Republic

_#_Type: republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963

_#_Capital: Damascus

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al
Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda, Dara, Dayr az Zawr,
Dimashq, Halab, Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq,
Tartus

_#_Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration); formerly United Arab Republic

_#_Constitution: 13 March 1973

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special
religious courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

_#_Executive branch: president, three vice presidents, prime minister,
three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial
Council, Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February
1971); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Rifat al-ASAD, and
Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November
1987);
Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984);
Deputy Prime Minister Salim YASIN (since NA December 1981);
Deputy Prime Minister Mahmud QADDUR (since NA May 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist
Resurrectionist (Bath) Party;
the Progressive National Front is dominated by Bathists but includes
independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP),
Arab Socialist Union (ASU),
Syrian Communist Party (SCP),
Arab Socialist Unionist Movement, and
Democratic Socialist Union Party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 10-11 February 1985 (next to be held February
1992);
results--President Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected without opposition;

People's Council--last held 22-23 May 1990 (next to be
held May 1994);
results--Bath 53.6%, ASU 3.2%, SCP 3.2%, Arab Socialist Unionist
Movement 2.8%, ASP 2%, Democratic Socialist Union Party 1.6%,
independents 33.6%;
seats--(250 total) Bath 134, ASU 8, SCP 8,
Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 7, ASP 5, Democratic Socialist Union
Party 4, independents 84;
the People's Council was expanded to 250 seats total prior to the
May 1990 election

_#_Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000

_#_Other political or pressure groups: non-Bath parties have little
effective political influence; Communist party ineffective; greatest
threat to Asad regime lies in factionalism in the military; conservative
religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Walid MOUALEM;
Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
232-6313;

US--Ambassador Edward P. DJEREJIAN; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh,
Al Mansur Street No.2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29,
Damascus); telephone [963] (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315,
714108, 337178, 333232, 334352

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with two small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered
in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen which has a plain white
band and of Iraq which has three green stars (plus an Arabic
inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white
band; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle
centered in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Syria's rigidly structured Bathist economy turned
out slightly more goods in 1990 than in 1983, when the population was 20%
smaller. Economic difficulties are attributable, in part, to severe
drought in several recent years, costly but unsuccessful attempts
to match Israel's military strength, a falloff in Arab aid, and
insufficient foreign exchange earnings to buy needed inputs for industry
and agriculture. Socialist policy, embodied in a thicket of bureaucratic
regulations, in many instances has driven away or pushed underground the
mercantile and entrepreneurial spirit for which Syrian businessmen have
long been famous. Two bright spots: a sizable number of villagers have
benefited from land redistribution, electrification, and other rural
development programs; and a recent find of light crude oil has enabled
Syria to cut oil imports. A long-term concern is the additional drain of
upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when its vast dam and irrigation
projects are completed toward the end of the 1990s. Output in 1990
rebounded from the very bad year of 1989, as agricultural production
and oil revenues increased substantially.

_#_GDP: $20.0 billion, per capita $1,600; real growth rate 12%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $4.8 billion; expenditures $5.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $2.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--petroleum 40%, textiles 30%, farm products 13%,
phosphates (1989);

partners--USSR and Eastern Europe 42%, EC 31%, Arab countries 17%,
US/Canada 2% (1989)

_#_Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs and beverages 21%, metal and metal
products 16%, machinery 14%, textiles, petroleum (1989);

partners--EC 42%, USSR and Eastern Europe 13%, other Europe 13%,
US/Canada 8%, Arab countries 6% (1989)

_#_External debt: $5.2 billion in hard currency (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 17% (1990 est.); accounts
for 19% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 2,867,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco,
phosphate rock mining, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force;
all major crops (wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown
mainly on rainfed land causing wide swings in production; animal
products--beef, lamb, eggs, poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain
or livestock products

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538
million; Western (non-US) ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88),
$1.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; Communist
countries (1970-89), $3.3 billion

_#_Currency: Syrian pound (plural--pounds);
1 Syrian pound (5S) = 100 piasters

_#_Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (5S) per US$1--11.2250 (fixed rate
since 1987), 3.9250 (fixed rate 1976-87)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,241 km total; 1,930 km standard gauge, 311 km
1.050-meter narrow gauge; note--the Tartus-Latakia line is nearly
complete

_#_Highways: 27,000 km total; 21,000 km paved, 3,000 km gravel or
crushed stone, 3,000 km improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 672 km; of little economic importance

_#_Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km refined products

_#_Ports: Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas

_#_Merchant marine: 22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 61,951
GRT/86,552 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle
carrier, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 99 total, 96 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system currently undergoing significant
improvement; 512,600 telephones; stations--9 AM, 1 FM, 40 TV; satellite
earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station, with 1
Intersputnik station under construction; 1 submarine cable; coaxial
cable and radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon (inactive)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air
Force, Syrian Arab Air Defense Forces, Police and Security Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,825,214; 1,584,887 fit for
military service; 149,105 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.6 billion, 10.9% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Tanzania
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 945,090 km2; land area: 886,040 km2; includes the
islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 3,402 km total; Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km,
Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia
338 km

_#_Coastline: 1,424 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

_#_Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

_#_Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north,
south

_#_Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates,
iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

_#_Land use: arable land 5%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 47%; other 7%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent
droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in
Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: 26,869,175 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 55 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Tanzanian(s); adjective--Tanzanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mainland--native African consisting of well over
100 tribes 99%; Asian, European, and Arab 1%

_#_Religion:

mainland--Christian 33%, Muslim 33%, indigenous beliefs 33%;

Zanzibar--almost all Muslim

_#_Language: Swahili and English (official); English primary language
of commerce, administration, and higher education; Swahili widely
understood and generally used for communication between ethnic groups;
first language of most people is one of the local languages; primary
education is generally in Swahili

_#_Literacy: 46% (male 62%, female 31%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1978)

_#_Labor force: 732,200 wage earners; 90% agriculture, 10% industry
and commerce (1986 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 15% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: United Republic of Tanzania

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Dar es Salaam; some government offices have been
transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital in
the 1990s

_#_Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam,
Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro,
Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma,
Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar
North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi

_#_Independence: Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from
UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent
19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964
to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United
Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

_#_Constitution: 15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own Constitution but
remains subject to provisions of the union Constitution)

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of
legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

_#_Executive branch: president, first vice president and prime
minister of the union, second vice president and president of Zanzibar,
Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November
1985); First Vice President John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990);
Second Vice President Salmin AMOUR (since 9 November 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister John MALECELA (since 9
November 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Chama Cha MAPINDUZI
(CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan MWINYI, party chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held
October 1995);
results--Ali Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held
October 1995);
results--CCM is the only party;
seats--(241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

_#_Communists: no Communist party; a few Communist sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-6, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Charles Musama
NYIRABU; Chancery at 2139 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-6125;

US--Ambassador Edmund DE JARNETTE; Embassy at 36 Laibon Road (off
Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam (mailing address is P. O. Box 9123,
Dar es Salaam); telephone [255] (51) 37501 through 37504

_#_Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the
lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the
lower triangle is blue

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world.
The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about
47% of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force.
Industry accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing
agricultural products and light consumer goods. The economic
recovery program announced in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in
agricultural production and financial support for the program by
bilateral donors. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund have
increased the availability of imports and provided funds to rehabilitate
Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure.

_#_GDP: $5.92 billion, per capita $240; real growth rate 4.3%
(FY89 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 31.2 (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $495 million; expenditures $631 million,
including capital expenditures of $118 million (FY90)

_#_Exports: $380 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--coffee, cotton, sisal, tea, cashew nuts, meat,
tobacco, diamonds, coconut products, pyrethrum, cloves (Zanzibar);

partners--FRG, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US

_#_Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--manufactured goods, machinery and transportation
equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil, foodstuffs;

partners--FRG, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark

_#_External debt: $5.8 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.2% (1988); accounts for
8% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 401,000 kW capacity; 895 million kWh produced,
35 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer,
cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement,
textiles, wood products, fertilizer

_#_Agriculture: accounts for over 40% of GDP; topography and climatic
conditions limit cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash
crops--coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops--corn,
wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, and vegetables; small numbers of cattle,
sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $9.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $614 million

_#_Currency: Tanzanian shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1--196.60
(January 1991), 195.06 (1990), 143.377 (1989), 99.292 (1988), 64.260
(1987), 32.698 (1986), 17.472 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km
1.000-meter gauge, 6.4 km double track, 962 km Tazara Railroad
1.067-meter gauge; 115 km 1.000-meter gauge planned by end of decade

_#_Highways: total 81,900 km, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or
crushed stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

_#_Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

_#_Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

_#_Ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports;
Mwanza on Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,784
GRT/25,860 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 105 total, 93 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; stations--12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; including Army,
Navy, and Air Force); paramilitary Police Field Force Unit; Militia

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,545,022; 3,200,744 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $111 million, 3.9% of GDP (1988)
_%_
_@_Thailand
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 514,000 km2; land area: 511,770 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

_#_Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km,
Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

_#_Coastline: 3,219 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime
boundary with Vietnam

_#_Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon
(mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to
mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

_#_Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains
elsewhere

_#_Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum,
timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

_#_Land use: arable land 34%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 30%; other 31%; includes irrigated 7%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok
area

_#_Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and
Singapore

_*_People
_#_Population: 56,814,069 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 37 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Thai (sing. and pl.); adjective--Thai

_#_Ethnic divisions: Thai 75%, Chinese 14%, other 11%

_#_Religion: Buddhism 95%, Muslim 3.8%, Christianity 0.5%,
Hinduism 0.1%, other 0.5% (1991)

_#_Language: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite;
ethnic and regional dialects

_#_Literacy: 93% (male 96%, female 90%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 30,870,000; agriculture 62%, industry 13%,
commerce 11%, services (including government) 14% (1989 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 309,000 union members (1989)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Thailand; under martial law since
military takeover 23 February 1991

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy; under martial law since
military coup of 23 February 1991

_#_Capital: Bangkok

_#_Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and
plural); Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum,
Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin,
Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon,
Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon
Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan,
Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum
Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi,
Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin
Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sakon
Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun,
Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin,
Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit,
Yala, Yasothon

_#_Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date); never colonized

_#_Constitution: 22 December 1978; interim constitution promulgated
by National Peace-Keeping Council on 1 March 1991

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of
common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; martial
law in effect since 23 February 1991 military coup

_#_National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December
(1927)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, interim prime minister, three
interim deputy prime ministers, interim Council of Ministers (cabinet),
Privy Council; following the military coup of 23 February 1991
a National Peace-Keeping Council was set up

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Rathasatha)
consists of an upper house or Senate (Vuthisatha) and a lower house or
House of Representatives (Saphaphoothan-Rajsadhorn); following the
military coup of 23 February 1991 the National Assembly was dissolved
and a new interim National Legislative Assembly has been formed until
elections are held in April 1992

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarndika)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King PHUMIPHON ADUNLAYADET (since 9 June 1946);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince WACHIRALONGKON (born 28 July 1952);

Head of Government--Interim Prime Minister ANAN Panyarachun
(since 4 March 1991);
Interim Deputy Prime Minister SANO Unakun (since 6 March 1991);
Interim Deputy Prime Minister Police Gen. PHAO Sarasin (since 6 March
1991);
Interim Deputy Prime Minister MICHAI Ruchupan (since 6 March 1991);

National Peace-Keeping Council (ruling junta)--Chairman
Gen. SUNTHON Khongsomphong;
Vice Chairman Gen. SUCHINDA Khraprayun;
Vice Chairman Adm. PRAPHAT Kritsanachan;
Vice Chairman Air Chief Mar. KASET Rotchananin;
Vice Chairman Police Gen. SAWAT Amonwiwat

_#_Political parties and leaders: under martial law political
parties are prohibited from meeting; leaders of several parties have
resigned and other parties are fragmenting; it is unclear which of
the following parties functioning at the time of the military
coup will still be in existence by the time new elections are
held;

Thai Nation Party (TNP);
Solidarity Party;
Thai Citizens Party (TCP);
People's Party (Ratsadon);
Thai People's Party;
Social Action Party (SAP);
Democrat Party (DP);
Mass Party;
Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma);
People's Party (Prachachon);
New Aspiration Party;
United Democracy Party;
Liberal Party;
Social Democratic Force

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 24 July 1988 (next to be
held by April 1992 for a new National Legislative Assembly according
to the National Peace-Keeping Council);
results--TNP 27%, SAP 15%, DP 13%, TCP 9%, other 36%;
seats--(357 total) TNP 96, Solidarity 62, SAP 53, DP 48, TCP 31,
People's Party (Ratsadon) 21, Thai People's Party (Prachachon) 17,
Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma) 15, United Democracy Party 5,
Mass Party 5, Liberal 3, Social Democratic Force 1; note--the
House of Representatives was dissolved 23 February 1991; the
new interim National Legislative Assembly has 292 seats with 148 of
the seats held by active and retired military officers

_#_Communists: illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members;
armed Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 300 to 500
(est.)

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate PHIRAPHONG
Kasemsi; Embassy at 2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 483-7200; there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago,
Los Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Daniel A. O'DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road,
Bangkok (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96346); telephone [66] (2)
252-504019; there is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates
in Songkhla and Udorn

_#_Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double
width), white, and red

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries
in Asia, enjoyed a year of 9% growth in 1990, although down from the
double-digit rates of 1987-89. The increasingly sophisticated
manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, but
the agricultural sector contracted 2%, primarily because of weaker
demand in Thailand's major overseas markets for commodities such as
rice. The trade deficit almost doubled in 1990, to $9 billion, but
earnings from tourism ($4.7 billion), remittances, and net capital
inflows helped keep the balance of payments in surplus. The government
has followed fairly sound fiscal and monetary policies, aided by
increased tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1990 the
government approved new projects--especially for telecommunications
and roads--needed to refurbish the country's now overtaxed
infrastructure. Although growth in 1991 will slow further, Thailand's
economic outlook remains good, assuming the continuation of prudent
government policies in the wake of the 23 February 1991 military coup.

_#_GNP: $79 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 10% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 4.9% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $15.2 billion; expenditures $15.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4.1 billion (FY91)

_#_Exports: $23.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--light manufactures 66%, fishery products 12%,
rice 8%, tapioca 8%, manufactured gas, corn, tin;

partners--US 22%, Japan 17%, Singapore 7%, Netherlands, FRG,
Hong Kong, UK, Malaysia, China (1989)

_#_Imports: $32.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and parts 23%, petroleum products 13%,
chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical appliances;

partners--Japan 30%, US 11%, Singapore 8%, FRG 5%, Taiwan,
South Korea, China, Malaysia, UK (1989)

_#_External debt: $26.9 billion (end 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 14% (1990 est.); accounts for
almost 27% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 7,270,000 kW capacity; 29,000 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange;
textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco,
cement, other light manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances
and components, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics; world's
second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 62% of labor force;
leading producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other
crops--rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat,
self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 2.8 million tons (1989)

_#_Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of
heroin, particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the
international drug market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of
cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring
countries; opium poppy cultivation has been affected by eradication
efforts

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $870
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $8.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

_#_Currency: baht (plural--baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

_#_Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1--25.224 (January 1991), 25.585
(1990), 25.702 (1989), 25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986),
27.159 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track

_#_Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface,
11,386 km under development

_#_Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with
navigable depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor
waterways navigable by shallow-draft native craft

_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km

_#_Ports: Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha

_#_Merchant marine: 136 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 521,565
GRT/791,570 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 79 cargo,
9 container, 29 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
9 liquefied gas, 1 chemical tanker, 3 bulk, 3 refrigerated cargo,
1 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: service to general public inadequate; bulk of
service to government activities provided by multichannel cable and
radio relay network; 739,500 telephones (1987); stations--over 200 AM,
100 FM, and 11 TV in government-controlled networks; satellite earth
stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic
satellite system being developed

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (including Royal Thai
Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force, Paramilitary Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,028,159; 9,778,003 fit for
military service; 604,483 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $2.4 billion, 3% of GNP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Togo
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 56,790 km2; land area: 54,390 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

_#_Land boundaries: 1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km,
Ghana 877 km

_#_Coastline: 56 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

_#_Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

_#_Land use: arable land 25%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 28%; other 42%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north
during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,810,616 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Togolese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Togolese

_#_Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe,
Mina, and Kabye; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese

_#_Religion: indigenous beliefs about 70%, Christian 20%,
Muslim 10%

_#_Language: French, both official and language of commerce; major
African languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye
in the north

_#_Literacy: 43% (male 56%, female 31%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 78%, industry 22%; about 88,600 wage
earners, evenly divided between public and private sectors; 50% of
population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: one national union, the National Federation of
Togolese Workers

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Togo

_#_Type: republic; one-party presidential regime

_#_Capital: Lome

_#_Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular--circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs),
Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari),
Dapaong (Tone), Kante (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Kpagouda (Binah),
Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou),
Notse (Haho), Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Tchaoudjo,
Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note--the 21 units may now be called
prefectures (prefectures, singular--prefecture) and reported name
changes for individual units are included in parentheses

_#_Independence: 27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration, formerly French Togo)

_#_Constitution: 30 December 1979, effective 13 January 1980

_#_Legal system: French-based court system

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 13 January
(1967)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court
(Cour Supreme)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14
April 1967);

Head of Government--interim Prime Minister Kokou KOFFIGOH (since 28
August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Rally of the Togolese
People (RPT) led by President EYADEMA was the only party until the
formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991; more than
10 parties formed as of mid-May, though none yet legally registered;
a national conference to determine transition regime took place
10-20 June 1991

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

_#_Elections:

President--last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held December
1993);
results--Gen. EYADEMA was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held 14
June 1992);
results--RPT was the only party;
seats--(77 total) RPT 77

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), ECA, ECOWAS, Entente,
FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS;
Chancery at 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-4212 or 4213;

US--Ambassador Harmon E. KIRBY; Embassy at Rue Pelletier
Caventou and Rue Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome);
telephone [228] 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-77-17

_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom)
alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red
square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African
colors of Ethiopia

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence
agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides
employment for 78% of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are
cocoa, coffee, and cotton, which together account for about 30% of total
export earnings. Togo is self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when
harvests are normal. In the industrial sector phosphate mining is by
far the most important activity, with phosphate exports accounting for
about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings. Togo serves as a regional
commercial and trade center. The government actively encourages foreign
investment.

_#_GDP: $1.4 billion, per capita $395; real growth rate 3.6% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.2% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1987)

_#_Budget: revenues $330 million; expenditures $363 million,
including capital expenditures of $101 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $331 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--phosphates, cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm
kernels;

partners--EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)

_#_Imports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--food, fuels, durable consumer goods, other
intermediate goods, capital goods;

partners--EC 61%, US 6%, Africa 4%, Japan 4%, other 25% (1989)

_#_External debt: $1.3 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.); 6% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 179,000 kW capacity; 209 million kWh produced,
60 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement,
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

_#_Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops--yams,
cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock production
not significant; annual fish catch, 10,000-14,000 tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $132
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $51 million

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989),
297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads

_#_Inland waterways: none

_#_Ports: Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 38,906
GRT/70,483 DWT; includes 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction
large-load carrier

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system based on network of open-wire lines
supplemented by radio relay routes; 12,000 telephones; stations--2 AM,
no FM, 3 (2 relays) TV; earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1
SYMPHONIE

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 799,597; 420,092 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $44 million, 3.7% of GDP (1987)
_%_
_@_Tokelau
(territory of New Zealand)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 10 km2; land area: 10 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 101 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

_#_Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

_#_Note: located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

_*_People
_#_Population: 1,700 (July 1991), growth rate 0.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Tokelauan(s); adjective--Tokelauan

_#_Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western
Samoa

_#_Religion: Congregational Christian Church 70%, Roman Catholic
28%, other 2%; on Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on
Nukunonu, all Roman Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the
Congregational Christian Church predominant

_#_Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: territory of New Zealand

_#_Capital: none, each atoll has its own administrative center

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

_#_Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

_#_Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948,
as amended in 1970

_#_Legal system: British and local statutes

_#_National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

_#_Executive branch: administrator (appointed by the Minister of
Foreign Affairs in New Zealand), official secretary

_#_Legislative branch: Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll

_#_Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator Neil WALTER; Official Secretary
M. NORRISH, Office of Tokelau Affairs

_#_Suffrage: NA

_#_Elections: NA

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

_#_Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources
greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to
maintain public services, annual aid being substantially greater than
GDP. The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage
stamps, souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to
families from relatives in New Zealand.

_#_GDP: $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate NA%
(1988 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

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