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_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime
ministers, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 28 November
1990); Deputy Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 28 November 1990);
Deputy Prime Minister ONG Teng Cheong (since 2 January 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

government--People's Action Party (PAP), LEE Kuan Yew, secretary

opposition--Workers' Party (WP), J. B. JEYARETNAM;
Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), CHIAM See Tong;
National Solidarity Party (NSP), SOON Kia Seng;
United People's Front (UPF), Harbans SINGH;
Barisan Sosialis (BS, Socialist Front), leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20


President--last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held August 1993);
results--President WEE Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without

Parliament--last held 3 September 1988 (next to be held 31
August 1991);
results--PAP 61.8%, WP 18.4%, SDP 11.5%, NSP 3.7%, UPF 1.3%, other 3.3%;
seats--(81 total) PAP 80, SDP 1; note--BS has 1 nonvoting seat

_#_Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis infiltrated by Communists;
note--Communist party illegal

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador S. R. NATHAN;
Chancery at 1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)

US--Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street,
Singapore 0617 (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96699); telephone
[65] 338-0251

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near
the hoist side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent
(closed portion is toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white
five-pointed stars arranged in a circle

_#_Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong
service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading
links derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early
1980s, the economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth
rate of 9%. Per capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the
economy registered its first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2%
increase in 1986. Recovery was strong based on rising demand for
Singapore's products in OECD countries and improved competitiveness of
domestic manufactures. The economy grew 8.3% in 1990. Singapore's
position as a major oil refining and services center helped it weather
the Persian Gulf crisis.

_#_GDP: $34.6 billion, per capita $12,700; real growth rate 8.3%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $8.0 billion; expenditures $7.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.4 billion (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $52.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--includes transshipments to Malaysia--petroleum
products, rubber, electronics, manufactured goods;

partners--US 21%, EC 14%, Malaysia 13%, Japan 9%

_#_Imports: $60.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--includes transshipments from Malaysia--capital
equipment, petroleum, chemicals, manufactured goods, foodstuffs;

partners--Japan 20%, US 16%, Malaysia 14%, EC 13%

_#_External debt: $3.9 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1990 est.); accounts
for 29% of GDP (1989)

_#_Electricity: 4,000,000 kW capacity; 14,400 million kWh produced,
5,300 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling
equipment, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and
beverages, ship repair, entrepot trade, financial services,

_#_Agriculture: occupies a position of minor importance in the
economy; self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other
food; major crops--rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $882 million

_#_Currency: Singapore dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1--1.7454 (January 1991),
1.8125 (1990), 1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774
(1986), 2.2002 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 38 km of 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 2,597 km total (1984)

_#_Ports: Singapore

_#_Merchant marine: 435 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,259,085
GRT/13,553,438 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 121 cargo, 66 container,
6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 18 vehicle carrier,
1 livestock carrier, 118 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5
chemical tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 7 liquefied
gas, 75 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note--many Singapore flag ships are
foreign owned

_#_Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft (est.)

_#_Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good domestic facilities; good international
service; good radio and television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000
telephones; stations--13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to
Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Defense Force, Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 842,721; 625,546 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.7 billion, 4% of GDP (1990 est.)
_@_Solomon Islands
_#_Total area: 28,450 km2; land area: 27,540 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 5,313 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

_#_Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 93%; other 4%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors

_#_Note: located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific

_#_Population: 347,115 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 40 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Solomon Islander(s); adjective--Solomon Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 93.0%, Polynesian 4.0%, Micronesian
1.5%, European 0.8%, Chinese 0.3%, other 0.4%

_#_Religion: almost all at least nominally Christian; Anglican 34%,
Roman Catholic 19%, Baptist 17%, United (Methodist/Presbyterian) 11%,
Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, other Protestant 5%

_#_Language: 120 indigenous languages; Melanesian pidgin in much of
the country is lingua franca; English spoken by 1-2% of population

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 23,448 economically active; agriculture, forestry, and
fishing 32.4%; services 25%; construction, manufacturing, and mining
7.0%; commerce, transport, and finance 4.7% (1984)

_#_Organized labor: NA, but most of the cash-economy workers have
trade union representation

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: independent parliamentary state within Commonwealth

_#_Capital: Honiara

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central,
Guadalcanal, Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western

_#_Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK; formerly British Solomon

_#_Constitution: 7 July 1978

_#_Legal system: common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament

_#_Judicial branch: High Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989,
previously acted as governor general since 7 July 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28
March 1989);
Deputy Prime Minister Sir Baddeley DEVESI (since NA October 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Alliance Party (PAP);
United Party (UP), Sir Peter KENILOREA;
Solomon Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew ULUFA'ALU;
Nationalist Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew NORI;
Labor Party (LP), Joses TUHANUKU

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


National Parliament--last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held
February 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4, LP 2, independents 9

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) resides in Honiara
(Solomon Islands);

US--the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to the
Solomon Islands; Embassy at Mud Alley, Honiara (mailing address is
American Embassy, P. O. Box 561, Honiara); telephone (677) 23890

_#_Flag: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five
white five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower
triangle is green

_#_Overview: About 90% of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood.
Agriculture, fishing, and forestry contribute about 75% to GDP, with the
fishing and forestry sectors being important export earners. The service
sector contributes about 25% to GDP. Most manufactured goods and
petroleum products must be imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped
mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The economy
suffered from a severe cyclone in mid-1986 that caused widespread damage
to the infrastructure.

_#_GDP: $156 million, per capita $500 (1988); real growth rate 5.0%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.9% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $44 million; expenditures $45 million,
including capital expenditures of $22 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--fish 46%, timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%;

partners--Japan 51%, UK 12%, Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia
2%, US 2% (1985)

_#_Imports: $117 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--plant and machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%;

partners--Japan 36%, US 23%, Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia
4%, Hong Kong 4%, China 3% (1985)

_#_External debt: $128 million (1988 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987); accounts for 5%
of GDP

_#_Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 39 million kWh produced,
115 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

_#_Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about
75% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cash crops--cocoa, beans,
coconuts, palm kernels, timber; other products--rice, potatoes,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains;
90% of the total fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1985), $16.1 million

_#_Currency: Solomon Islands dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1--2.5934
(January 1991), 2.5288 (1990), 2.2932 (1989), 2.0825 (1988), 2.0033
(1987), 1.7415 (1986), 1.4808 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km sealed, 290 km gravel,
980 km earth, 800 private logging and plantation roads of varied

_#_Ports: Honiara, Ringi Cove

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 31 total, 29 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 77,169; NA fit for military

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_#_Total area: 637,660 km2; land area: 627,340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 2,340 km total; Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia
1,600 km, Kenya 682 km

_#_Coastline: 3,025 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden;
possible claims to Djibouti and parts of Ethiopia and Kenya based on
unification of ethnic Somalis

_#_Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February),
cooler southwest monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid
periods (tangambili) between monsoons

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

_#_Natural resources: uranium, and largely unexploited reserves
of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 46%; forest and woodland 14%; other 38%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;

_#_Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern
approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

_#_Population: 6,709,161 (July 1991), growth rate 3.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Somali(s); adjective--Somali

_#_Ethnic divisions: Somali 85%, rest mainly Bantu; Arabs 30,000,
Europeans 3,000, Asians 800

_#_Religion: almost entirely Sunni Muslim

_#_Language: Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, English

_#_Literacy: 24% (male 36%, female 14%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,200,000; very few are skilled laborers; pastoral
nomad 70%, agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and
other 30%; 53% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: General Federation of Somali Trade Unions is
controlled by the government

_#_Long-form name: Somali Democratic Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Mogadishu

_#_Administrative divisions: 16 regions (plural--NA,
singular--gobolka); Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo,
Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe, Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha
Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

_#_Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland,
which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

_#_Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 21 October (1969)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Golaha Shacbiga)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--Interim President ALI Mahdi Mohamed (since 27
January 1991);

Head of Government--Prime Minister OMAR Arteh Ghalib
(since 27 January 1991); Deputy Prime Minister MOHAMED Abshir Mussa
(since 27 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: the United Somali Congress (USC)
ousted the former regime on 27 January 1991; note--formerly the only
party was the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party (SRSP), headed by
former President and Commander in Chief of the Army Maj. Gen. Mohamed

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held
results--President Siad was reelected without opposition;

People's Assembly--last held 31 December 1984 (next to be held NA);
results--SRSP was the only party;
seats--(177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171;
note--the United Somali Congress (USC) ousted the regime of Maj. Gen.
Mohamed SIAD Barre on 27 January 1991; the provisional government
has promised that a democratically elected government will be

_#_Communists: probably some Communist sympathizers in the government

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ABDIKARIM Ali Omar; Chancery
at Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-1575; there is a Somali Consulate General in
New York;

US--Ambassador James K. BISHOP; Embassy at K-7, AFGOI Road,
Mogadishu (mailing address is P. O. Box 574, Mogadishu); telephone
[252] (01) 39971; note--US Embassy evacuated and closed indefinitely in
January 1991

_#_Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the
center; design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN
trust territory)

_#_Overview: One of the world's poorest and least developed countries,
Somalia has few resources. Agriculture is the most important sector of
the economy, with the livestock sector accounting for about 40% of GDP
and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads and seminomads who are
dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods make up more than half
of the population. Crop production generates only 10% of GDP and employs
about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is bananas; sugar,
sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The small industrial
sector is based on the processing of agricultural products and accounts
for less than 10% of GDP. Serious economic problems facing the nation are
the external debt of $1.9 billion and double-digit inflation.

_#_GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $210; real growth rate - 1.4% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.7% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $190 million; expenditures $195 million, including
capital expenditures of $111 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $58.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--livestock, hides, skins, bananas, fish;

partners--US 0.5%, Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

_#_Imports: $354.0 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--textiles, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction

partners--US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

_#_External debt: $1.9 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 5.0% (1988); accounts for 5%
of GDP

_#_Electricity: 72,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced,
7 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining

_#_Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle,
sheep, goats); crops--bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not
self-sufficient in food; fishing potential largely unexploited

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $639
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $3.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $336 million

_#_Currency: Somali shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Somali shilling (So.Sh.) = 100 centesimi

_#_Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1--3,800.00
(December 1990), 490.7 (1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00
(1986), 39.49 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 15,215 km total; including 2,335 km bituminous surface,
2,880 km gravel, and 10,000 km improved earth or stabilized soil (1983)

_#_Pipelines: 15 km crude oil

_#_Ports: Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu

_#_Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,913
GRT/9,457 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 61 total, 46 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: minimal telephone and telegraph service; radio
relay and troposcatter system centered on Mogadishu connects a few towns;
6,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT
earth station; scheduled to receive an ARABSAT station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Somali National Army (including Navy, Air Force, and
Air Defense Force), National Police Force, National Security Service

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,601,690; 902,732 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_@_South Africa
_#_Total area: 1,221,040 km2; land area: 1,221,040 km2; includes
Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 4,973 km total; Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho
909 km, Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe
225 km

_#_Coastline: 2,881 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claim by Namibia to Walvis Bay exclave and 12 offshore
islands administered by South Africa

_#_Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days,
cool nights

_#_Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and
narrow coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 65%; forest and woodland 3%; other 21%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires
extensive water conservation and control measures

_#_Note: Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia;
South Africa completely surrounds Lesotho and almost completely
surrounds Swaziland

_#_Population: 40,600,518 (July 1991), growth rate 2.7% (1991);
includes the 10 so-called homelands, which are not recognized by the US;

four independent homelands--Bophuthatswana 2,419,515, growth rate
2.83%; Ciskei 1,056,552, growth rate 2.96%; Transkei 4,553,994, growth
rate 4.16%; Venda 691,273, growth rate 3.83%;

six other homelands--Gazankulu 772,532, growth rate 3.98%; Kangwane
576,573, growth rate 3.62%; KwaNdebele 360,582, growth rate 3.38%;
KwaZulu 5,546,082, growth rate 3.60%; Lebowa 2,812,630, growth rate
3.91%; QwaQwa 277,957, growth rate 3.60%

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 51 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--South African(s); adjective--South African

_#_Ethnic divisions: black 75.2%, white 13.6%, Colored 8.6%,
Indian 2.6%

_#_Religion: most whites and Coloreds and about 60% of blacks are
Christian; about 60% of Indians are Hindu; Muslim 20%

_#_Language: Afrikaans, English (both official); many vernacular
languages, including Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, Tswana

_#_Literacy: 76% (male 78%, female 75%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 11,000,000 economically active (1989); services 34%,
agriculture 30%, industry and commerce 29%, mining 7% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: about 17% of total labor force is unionized;
African unions represent 15% of black labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of South Africa; abbreviated RSA

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, Cape Town;
judicial, Bloemfontein

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free
State, Transvaal; there are 10 homelands not recognized by the US--4
independent (Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, Venda) and 6 other
(Gazankulu, Kangwane, KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, QwaQwa)

_#_Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 September 1984

_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May (1910)

_#_Executive branch: state president, Executive Council (cabinet),
Ministers' Councils (from the three houses of Parliament)

_#_Legislative branch: tricameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of
the House of Assembly (Volksraad; whites), House of Representatives
(Raad van Verteenwoordigers; Coloreds), and House of Delegates
(Raad van Afgevaardigdes; Indians)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State and Head of Government--State President
Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 13 September 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
white political parties and leaders--National Party (NP), Frederik
W. DE KLERK (majority party);
Conservative Party (CP), Dr. Andries P. TREURNICHT (official opposition
Herstigte National Party (HNP), Jaap MARAIS;
Democratic Party (DP), Zach DE BEER;

Colored political parties and leaders--Labor Party (LP), Allan
HENDRICKSE (majority party);
Democratic Reform Party (DRP), Carter EBRAHIM;
United Democratic Party (UDP), Jac RABIE;
Freedom Party;

Indian political parties and leaders--Solidarity, J. N. REDDY
(majority party);
National People's Party (NPP), Amichand RAJBANSI;
Merit People's Party

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18, but voting rights are racially based


House of Assembly (whites)--last held 6 September 1989 (next to
be held by March 1995);
results--NP 58%, CP 23%, DP 19%;
seats--(178 total, 166 elected) NP 103, CP 41, DP 34;

House of Representatives (Coloreds)--last held 6 September 1989
(next to be held by September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(85 total, 80 elected) LP 69, DRP 5, UDP 3, Freedom Party 1,
independents 2;

House of Delegates (Indians)--last held 6 September 1989
(next to be held by September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(45 total, 40 elected) Solidarity 16, NPP 9, Merit People's
Party 3, United Party 2, Democratic Party 2, People's Party 1,
National Federal Party 1, independents 6

_#_Communists: small Communist party legalized in 1990 after
30-year ban, Daniel TLOOME, chairman, and Joe SLOVO, general secretary

_#_Other political or pressure groups:
African National Congress (ANC), Nelson MANDELA, president;
Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), Clarence MAKWETU, president

WMO (suspended)

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Harry SCHWARZ;
Chancery at 3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 232-4400; there are South African Consulates General
in Beverly Hills (California), Chicago, Houston, and New York;

US--Ambassador William L. SWING; Embassy at Thibault House,
225 Pretorius Street, Pretoria; telephone [27] (12) 28-4266; there are
US Consulates General in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg

_#_Flag: actually four flags in one--three miniature flags reproduced
in the center of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands
which has three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue;
the miniature flags are a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free
State with a horizontal flag of the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a
horizontal flag of the old Transvaal Republic adjoining on the other side

_#_Overview: Many of the white one-seventh of the South African
population enjoy incomes, material comforts, and health and educational
standards equal to those of Western Europe. In contrast, most of the
remaining population suffers from the poverty patterns of the Third
World, including unemployment, lack of job skills, and barriers to
movement into higher-paying fields. Inputs and outputs thus do not move
smoothly into the most productive employments, and the effectiveness
of the market is further lowered by international constraints on
dealings with South Africa. The main strength of the economy lies in
its rich mineral resources, which provide two-thirds of exports.
Average growth of less than 2% in output in recent years falls far short
of the 5-6% level needed to cut into the high unemployment rate.

_#_GDP: $101.7 billion, per capita $2,600; real growth rate - 0.9%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 22% (1989); blacks 25-30%, up to 50% in
homelands (1988 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $28.9 billion; expenditures $32.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.1 billion (FY92 est.)

_#_Exports: $23.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--gold 39%, minerals and metals 33%, food 5%,
chemicals 3%;

partners--Italy, Japan, US, FRG, UK, other EC, Hong Kong

_#_Imports: $17 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery 32%, transport equipment 15%, chemicals 11%,
oil, textiles, scientific instruments, base metals;

partners--FRG, Japan, UK, US, Italy

_#_External debt: $19.5 billion (July 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for about
45% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 34,941,000 kW capacity; 158,000 million kWh produced,
4,100 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining (world's largest producer of platinum, gold,
chromium), automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron
and steel, chemical, fertilizer, foodstuffs

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 5% of GDP and 30% of labor force;
diversified agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products--cattle,
poultry, sheep, wool, milk, beef, corn, wheat; sugarcane, fruits,
vegetables; self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: NA

_#_Currency: rand (plural--rand); 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1--2.5625 (January 1991),
2.5863 (1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685
(1986), 2.1911 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 20,638 km route distance total; 35,079 km of 1.067-meter
gauge trackage (counts double and multiple tracking as single track);
314 km of 610 mm gauge

_#_Highways: 188,309 km total; 54,013 km paved, 134,296 km crushed
stone, gravel, or improved earth

_#_Pipelines: 931 km crude oil; 1,748 km refined products; 322 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richard's Bay, Saldanha,
Mosselbaai, Walvis Bay

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 229,245
GRT/218,929 DWT; includes 6 container, 1 vehicle carrier

_#_Civil air: 81 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 917 total, 765 usable; 130 with permanent-surface
runways; 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 224
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: the system is the best developed, most modern,
and has the highest capacity in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped
open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio relay links, fiber optic cable,
and radiocommunication stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town,
Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, and Pretoria; 4,500,000 telephones;
stations--14 AM, 286 FM, 67 TV; 1 submarine cable; earth
stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical Services

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 9,797,349; 5,980,786 fit for
military service; 426,615 reach military age (18) annually; obligation
for service in Citizen Force or Commandos begins at 18; volunteers for
service in permanent force must be 17; national service obligation is
one year; figures include the so-called homelands not recognized by
the US

_#_Defense expenditures: $3.67 billion, 11% of GDP (FY92)
_@_South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_#_Total area: 4,066 km2; land area: 4,066 km2; includes Shag and
Clerke Rocks

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: undetermined

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

_#_Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the
year, interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls
as snow

_#_Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are
rugged and mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep,
glacier-covered mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic
origin with some active volcanoes

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%; largely covered
by permanent ice and snow with some sparse vegetation consisting of
grass, moss, and lichen

_#_Environment: reindeer, introduced early in this century, live
on South Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to
approach the South Sandwich Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are
subject to active volcanism

_#_Note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays,
which provide good anchorage

_#_Population: no permanent population; there is a small military
garrison on South Georgia and the British Antarctic Survey has a
biological station on Bird Island; the South Sandwich islands are

_#_Long-form name: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (no
short-form name)

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Grytviken on South Georgia is the garrison town

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 3 October 1985

_#_Legal system: English common law

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, commissioner

_#_Legislative branch: none

_#_Judicial branch: none


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Commissioner William Hugh FULLERTON (since 1988; resident
at Stanley, Falkland Islands)

_#_Overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is
a potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The
islands receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

_#_Budget: revenues $291,777; expenditures $451,011, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

_#_Electricity: 900 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, NA kWh per
capita (1990)

_#_Highways: NA

_#_Ports: Grytviken on South Georgia

_#_Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m

_#_Telecommunications: coastal radio station at Grytviken; no
broadcast stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_@_Soviet Union
_#_Total area: 22,402,200 km2; land area: 22,272,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of US

_#_Land boundaries: 19,933 km total; Afghanistan 2,384 km,
Czechoslovakia 98 km, China 7,520 km, Finland 1,313 km, Hungary 135 km,
Iran 1,690 km, North Korea 17 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km,
Poland 1,215 km, Romania 1,307 km, Turkey 617 km

_#_Coastline: 42,777 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
disputed sections of the boundary with China; US Government has not
recognized the incorporation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into
the Soviet Union; Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the
Habomai island group occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by
Japan; maritime dispute with Norway over portion of Barents Sea; has made
no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so)
and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Kurdish question
among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

_#_Climate: mostly temperate to arctic continental; winters vary from
cool along Black Sea to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from hot in
southern deserts to cool along Arctic coast

_#_Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous
forest and tundra in Siberia, deserts in Central Asia, mountains in south

_#_Natural resources: self-sufficient in oil, natural gas, coal,
and strategic minerals (except bauxite, alumina, tantalum, tin, tungsten,
fluorspar, and molybdenum), timber, gold, manganese, lead, zinc, nickel,
mercury, potash, phosphates; note--the USSR is the world's largest
producer of oil and natural gas, third in coal

_#_Land use: arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 17%; forest and woodland 41%; other 32%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: despite size and diversity, small percentage of land
is arable and much is too far north; some of most fertile land is water
deficient or has insufficient growing season; many better climates have
poor soils; hot, dry, desiccating sukhovey wind affects south;
desertification; continuous permafrost over much of Siberia is a major
impediment to development

_#_Note: largest country in world, but unfavorably located in
relation to major sea lanes of world

_#_Population: 293,047,571 (July 1991), growth rate 0.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Soviet(s); adjective--Soviet

_#_Ethnic divisions: Russian 50.78%, Ukrainian 15.45%, Uzbek 5.84%,
Belorussian (Byelorussian) 3.51%, Kazakh 2.85%, Azeri 2.38%, Armenian
1.62%, Tajik 1.48%, Georgian 1.39%, Moldovan 1.17%, Lithuanian 1.07%,
Turkmen 0.95%, Kirghiz 0.89%, Latvian 0.51%, Estonian 0.36%, other 9.75%

_#_Religion: Russian Orthodox 20%, Muslim 10%, Protestant, Georgian
Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic 7%, Jewish less than 1%,
atheist 60% (est.)

_#_Language: Russian (official); more than 200 languages and dialects
(at least 18 with more than 1 million speakers); Slavic group 75%,
other Indo-European 8%, Altaic 12%, Uralian 3%, Caucasian 2%

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 97%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1989)

_#_Labor force: 152,300,000 civilians; industry and other
nonagricultural fields 80%, agriculture 20%; shortage of skilled labor

_#_Organized labor: the vast majority of workers are union members;
official unions are organized within the General Confederation of Trade
Unions (GCTU) and still operate within general guidelines set up by the
CPSU and Soviet Government; a large number of independent trade unions
have been formed since President Gorbachev came to power; most are
locally or regionally based and represent workers from one enterprise
or a group of enterprises; there are a few independent unions that claim
a nationwide following, the most prominent of which is Independent Miners
Trade Union set up by the country's coal miners

_#_Long-form name: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; abbreviated

_#_Type: in transition to multiparty federal system

_#_Capital: Moscow

_#_Administrative divisions: 1 soviet federative socialist republic*
(sovetskaya federativnaya sotsialistcheskaya respublika) and 14 soviet
socialist republics (sovetskiye sotsialisticheskiye respubliki,
singular--sovetskaya sotsialisticheskaya respublika);
Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic,
Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic,
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic,
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic*,
Soviet Socialist Republic of Moldova, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic,
Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic; note--Russian Soviet Federative
Socialist Republic is often abbreviated RSFSR and Soviet Socialist
Republic is often abbreviated SSR; the parliaments in Armenia,
Azerbaijan, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, and Lithuania have removed the
words Soviet Socialist from the names of their republics, but the central
government has not recognized those changes; the parliament in Kirghiziya
changed the name Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic to Republic of
Kyrgyzstan, but the central government has not recognized that change

_#_Independence: 30 December 1922 (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

_#_Constitution: 7 October 1977

_#_Legal system: civil law system as modified by Communist legal
theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Great October Socialist Revolution,
7-8 November (1917)

_#_Executive branch: president

_#_Legislative branch: the Congress of People's Deputies (S'ezd
Narodnykh Deputatov) is the supreme organ of USSR state power and
selects the bicameral Supreme Soviet (Verkhovnyi Sovyet) which
consists of two coequal houses--Soviet of the Union (Soviet Soiuza)
and Soviet of Nationalities (Soviet Natsional'nostei)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of the USSR


Chief of State--President Mikhail Sergeyevich GORBACHEV
(since 14 March 1990; former General Secretary of the Central Committee
of the Communist Party since 11 March 1985--resigned August 1991);

Head of Government--Prime Minister (vacant); Chairman of the
Committee for the Operational Management of the USSR National
Economy Ivan SILAYEV (since 24 August 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: nascent multiparty system

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held 14 March 1990 (next to be held NA 1995);
results--Mikhail Sergeyevich GORBACHEV was elected by the Congress of
People's Deputies;

Congress of People's Deputies--last held 17 December 1990
(next to be held NA);
seats--(2,250 total) CPSU NA, non-CPSU NA;
note--dissolved September 1991

USSR Supreme Soviet--consists of the Council of the Union and
the Council of Republics;

Council of the Union--last held Spring 1991
(next to be held Fall 1991);
seats--(271 total) CPSU NA, non-CPSU NA;

Council of Republics--last held Spring 1991
(next to be held Fall 1991);
seats--(271 total) CPSU NA, non-CPSU NA;
note--to be reconstituted as a new legislature--date not set

_#_Communists: prior to August 1991 about 15 million party members,
with membership declining

_#_Other political or pressure groups: formal parties, regional
popular fronts, trade unions, and informal organizations

UNESCO, UNIDO, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Viktor KOMPLEKTOV;
Chancery at 1125 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 628-7551 or 8548; there is a Soviet Consulate General
in San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Robert S. STRAUSS; Embassy at Ulitsa Chaykovskogo
19/21/23, Moscow (mailing address is APO New York 09862);
telephone [7] (095) 252-2450 through 59; there is a US Consulate General
in St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad)

_#_Flag: red with the yellow silhouette of a crossed hammer and sickle
below a yellow-edged five-pointed red star in the upper hoist-side corner

_#_Overview: The first six years of perestroyka (economic and
political restructuring) have undermined the institutions and processes
of the Soviet command economy without replacing them with efficiently
functioning markets. The initial reforms have featured greater authority
for enterprise managers over prices, wages, product mix, investment,
sources of supply, and customers. But in the absence of effective market
discipline, the result has been the disappearance of low-price goods,
excessive wage increases, an even larger volume of unfinished
construction projects, and, in general, continued economic stagnation.
The Gorbachev regime has made at least four serious errors in economic
policy in these six years: the unpopular and short-lived antialcohol
campaign; the initial cutback in imports of consumer goods; the failure
to act decisively at the beginning for the privatization of agriculture;
and the buildup of a massive overhang of unspent rubles in the hands of
households and enterprises. The regime has vacillated among a series of
ambitious economic policy prescriptions put forth by leading economists
and political leaders. The plans vary from proposals for (a) quick
marketization of the economy; (b) gradual marketization; (c) a period
of retrenchment to ensure a stable base for future marketization; and
(d) a return to disciplined central planning and allocation. The
economy, caught between two systems, is suffering from even greater
mismatches between what is being produced and what would serve the best
interests of enterprises and households. Meanwhile, the seething
nationality problems have been dislocating regional patterns of economic
specialization and pose a further major threat to growth prospects over
the next few years. Official Soviet statistics report GNP fell by 2% in
1990, but the actual decline was substantially greater. Whatever the
numerical decline, it does not capture the increasing disjointures in the
economy evidenced by emptier shelves, longer lines, increased barter, and
widespread strikes.

_#_GNP: approximately $2,660 billion, per capita $9,130;
real growth rate - 2.4% to - 5.0% (1990 est. based on a reconstruction
of official Soviet statistics); note--because of the continued
unraveling of Soviet economic and statistical controls, the estimate
is subject to even greater uncertainties than in earlier years; the
dollar estimates most likely overstate Soviet GNP to some extent because
of an incomplete allowance for the poor quality, narrow assortment, and
low performance characteristics of Soviet goods and services; the
- 2.4% growth figure is based on the application of CIA's usual
estimating methods whereas the - 5.0% figure is corrected for
measurement problems that worsened sharply in 1990

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: official Soviet statistics imply an unemployment
rate of 1 to 2 percent in 1990; USSR's first official unemployment
estimate, however, is acknowledged to be rough

_#_Budget: revenues 422 billion rubles; expenditures 510 billion
rubles, including capital expenditures of 53 billion rubles (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $109.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals,
wood, agricultural products, and a wide variety of manufactured goods
(primarily capital goods and arms);

partners--Eastern Europe 46%, EC 16%, Cuba 6%, US, Afghanistan

_#_Imports: $114.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--grain and other agricultural products, machinery and
equipment, steel products (including large-diameter pipe), consumer

partners--Eastern Europe 50%, EC 13%, Cuba, China, US (1989)

_#_External debt: $55 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 2.4% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 350,000,000 kW capacity; 1,740,000 million kWh
produced, 5,920 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: diversified, highly developed capital goods and defense
industries; comparatively less developed consumer goods industries

_#_Agriculture: accounts for roughly 20% of GNP and labor force;
production based on large collective and state farms; inefficiently
managed; wide range of temperate crops and livestock produced; world's
third-largest grain producer after the US and China; shortages of grain,
oilseeds, and meat; world's leading producer of sawnwood and roundwood;
annual fish catch among the world's largest

_#_Illicit drugs: illegal producer of cannabis and opium poppy,
mostly for domestic consumption; government has begun eradication
program to control cultivation; used as a transshipment country
for illicit drugs to Western Europe

_#_Economic aid: donor--extended to non-Communist less developed
countries (1954-89), $49.6 billion; extended to other Communist countries
(1954-89), $154 billion

_#_Currency: ruble (plural--rubles); 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks

_#_Exchange rates: rubles (R) per US$1--0.580 (1990),
0.629 (1989), 0.629 (1988), 0.633 (1987), 0.704 (1986), 0.838 (1985);
note--as of 1 April 1991 the official exchange rate remained
administratively set; it should not be used indiscriminately to convert
domestic rubles to dollars; in November 1990 the USSR introduced a
commercial exchange rate of 1.8 rubles to the dollar used for accounting
purposes within the USSR and which was still in force on 1 April 1991;
on 1 April 1991 the USSR introduced a new foreign-currency
market for foreign companies and individuals; the rate will be fixed
twice a week based on supply and demand; as of 4 April 1991 the rate
was 27.6 rubles to the dollar; Soviet citizens traveling abroad
are restricted to buying $200 a year at prevailing rates

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 147,400 km total; 53,900 km electrified; does not
include industrial lines (1989)

_#_Highways: 1,757,000 km total; 1,310,600 km hard-surfaced (asphalt,
concrete, stone block, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone);
446,400 km earth (1989)

_#_Inland waterways: 123,700 km navigable, exclusive of Caspian
Sea (1989)

_#_Pipelines: 82,000 km crude oil and refined products; 206,500 km
natural gas (1987)

_#_Ports: St. Petersburg (formerly Leningrad), Riga, Tallinn,
Kaliningrad, Liepaja, Ventspils, Murmansk, Arkhangel'sk, Odessa,
Novorossiysk, Il'ichevsk, Nikolayev, Sevastopol', Vladivostok, Nakhodka;
inland ports are Astrakhan', Baku, Nizhniy Novgorod (Gor'kiy), Kazan',
Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuybyshev, Moscow, Rostov, Volgograd, Kiev

_#_Merchant marine: 1,565 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
15,243,228 GRT/20,874,488 DWT; includes 52 passenger, 898 cargo,
52 container, 11 barge carrier, 4 roll-on/float off cargo, 5 railcar
carrier, 114 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 230 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 17 combination ore/oil, 4 specialized
liquid carrier, 13 chemical tanker, 160 bulk; note--594 merchant ships
are based in Black Sea, 366 in Baltic Sea, 398 in Soviet Far East, and
207 in Barents Sea and White Sea; the Soviet Union has been transferring
merchant ships to a variety of flags of convenience; at the beginning
of 1991 the USSR had 64 ships under foreign flags (Cyprus 52, Malta 7,
Panama 2, Vanuatu 2, and Honduras 1)

_#_Civil air: 4,000 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 7,192 total, 4,607 usable; 1,163 with permanent-surface
runways; 33 with runways over 3,659 m; 491 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
661 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 37 million telephone subscribers; phone
density of 37 per 100 households; urban phone density is 9.2 phones
per 100 residents; rural phone density is 2.9 per 100 residents (June
automatic telephone dialing with 70 countries and between 25 Soviet
cities (April 1989);
stations--457 AM, 131 FM, over 900 TV; 90 million TVs (December 1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Forces, Air Defense Forces,
Strategic Rocket Forces, Command and General Support, Security Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 70,058,651; 55,931,817 fit for
military service; 2,265,935 reach military age (18) annually
(down somewhat from 2,500,000 a decade ago); approximately 35-40% receive
deferments for health, education, or other reasons

_#_Defense expenditures: 63.9 billion rubles, NA% of GDP
_#_Total area: 504,750 km2; land area: 499,400 km2; includes Balearic
Islands, Canary Islands, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de
soberania) on and off the coast of Morocco--Ceuta, Mellila, Islas
Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

_#_Land boundaries: 1,903.2 km total; Andorra 65 km, France 623 km,
Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km

_#_Coastline: 4,964 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Gibraltar question with UK; Spain controls five places of
sovereignty (plazas de soberania) on and off the coast of
Morocco--the coastal enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla which Morocco contests
as well as the islands of Penon de Alhucemas, Penon de Velez de
la Gomera, and Islas Chafarinas

_#_Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate
and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy
and cool along coast

_#_Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged
hills; Pyrenees in north

_#_Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury,
pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin,
potash, hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 31%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and
pastures 21%; forest and woodland 31%; other 7%; includes irrigated 6%

_#_Environment: deforestation; air pollution

_#_Note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

_#_Population: 39,384,516 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 82 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Spaniard(s); adjective--Spanish

_#_Ethnic divisions: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 99%, other sects 1%

_#_Language: Castilian Spanish; second languages include
Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%

_#_Literacy: 95% (male 97%, female 93%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 14,621,000; services 53%, industry 24%, agriculture
14%, constrction 9% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: less 10% of labor force (1988)

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Spain

_#_Type: parliamentary monarchy

_#_Capital: Madrid

_#_Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades
autonomas, singular--comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon,
Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon,
Cataluna, Communidad Valencia, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares,
La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco; note--there are five
places of sovereignty on and off the coast of Morocco (Ceuta, Mellila,
Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez
de la Gomera) with administrative status unknown

_#_Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

_#_Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

_#_Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications;
does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 12 October

_#_Executive branch: monarch, president of the government (prime
minister), deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet),
Council of State

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National
Assembly (Las Cortes Generales) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Senado) and a lower house or Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)


Chief of State--King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez
(since 2 December 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Narcis SERRA (since
13 March 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: principal national parties, from
right to left--Popular Party (PP), Jose Maria AZNAR;
Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Luis DE GRANDES;
Social Democratic Center (CDS), Adolfo SUAREZ Gonzalez;
Spanish Socialist Workers Party (PSOE), Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez;
Socialist Democracy Party (DS), Ricardo Garcia DAMBORENEA;
Spanish Communist Party (PCE), Julio ANGUITA;
chief regional parties--
Convergence and Unity (CiU), Jordi PUJOL Saley, in Catalonia;
Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), Xabier ARZALLUS;
Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos GARAICOETXEA Urizza;
Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon IDIGORAS;
Basque Left (EE), Kepa AULESTIA;
Andalusian Party (PA), Pedro PACHECO;
Independent Canary Group (AIC);
Aragon Regional Party (PAR);
Valencian Union (UV)

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Senate --last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held October 1993);
seats (208) PSOE 106, PP 79, CiU 10, PNV 4, HB 3, AIC 1, other 5;

Congress of Deputies--last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held
October 1993); results--PSOE 39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, Communist-led
coalition (IU) 9%, CiU 5%, Basque Nationalist Party 1.2%, HB 1%,
Andalusian Party 1%, other 8.4%;
seats--(350 total) PSOE 175, PP 106, CiU 18, IU 17, CDS 14, PNV 5,
HB 4, other 11

_#_Communists: PCE membership declined from a possible high of
160,000 in 1977 to roughly 60,000 in 1987; the party gained almost
1 million voters and 10 deputies in the 1989 election; voters came
mostly from the disgruntled socialist left; remaining strength is in
labor, where it dominates the Workers Commissions trade union (one of
the country's two major labor centrals), which claims a membership of
about 1 million; experienced a modest recovery in 1986 national
election, nearly doubling the share of the vote it received in 1982

_#_Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque
Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First of October Antifascist
Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the government; free
labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the Communist-dominated
Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT),
and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the Catholic
Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; university students

_#_Member of: AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD,
IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest),

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