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_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and
fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

_#_Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the
Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

_#_Natural resources: crude oil (reserves being exhausted), timber,
natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 43%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and
pastures 19%; forest and woodland 28%; other 7%; includes irrigated 11%

_#_Environment: frequent earthquakes most severe in south and
southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides, air
pollution in south

_#_Note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans and western USSR

_*_People
_#_Population: 23,397,054 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 75 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Romanian(s); adjective--Romanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Romanian 89.1%; Hungarian 8.9%; German 0.4%;
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy 1.6%

_#_Religion: Romanian Orthodox 70%, Roman Catholic 6%, Greek Catholic
(Uniate) 3%, Protestant 6%, unaffiliated 15%

_#_Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German

_#_Literacy: 96% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 10,690,000; industry 34%, agriculture 28%, other 38%
(1987)

_#_Organized labor: until December 1989, a single trade union system
organized by the General Confederation of Romanian Trade Unions (UGSR)
under control of the Communist Party; since Ceausescu's overthrow,
newly-created trade and professional trade unions are joining three
umbrella organizations--Organization of Free Trade Unions, Fratia
(Brotherhood), and the Alfa Cortel; many other trade unions have been
formed

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: in transition from Communist state to republic

_#_Capital: Bucharest

_#_Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular--judet)
and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*,
Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,
Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara,
Ialomita, Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt,
Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea,
Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

_#_Independence: 1881 (from Turkey); republic proclaimed 30 December
1947

_#_Constitution: 21 August 1965; new constitution being drafted

_#_Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist
legal theory that increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being
revised

_#_National holiday: National Day of Romania, 1 December (1990)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Deputies
(Adunarea Deputatilor)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 June 1990,
previously President of Provisional Council of National Unity since
23 December 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Teodor STOLOJAN
(since 2 October 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Salvation Front (FSN), Ion STOICA;
Magyar Democratic Union (UDMR), Geza DOMOKOS;
National Liberal Party (PNL), Radu CAMPEANU;
National Peasants' Christian and Democratic Party (PNTCD), Corneliu
COPOSU;
Ecology Movement (MER), leader NA;
Romanian National Unity Party (AUR), Radu CEONTEA;
there are now more than 100 other parties; note--although the Communist
Party has ceased to exist, a small proto-Communist party, the Socialist
Labor Party, has been formed

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992);
results--Ion ILIESCU 85%, Radu CAMPEANU 10.5%, Ion RATIU 3.8%;

Senate--last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA 1992);
results--FSN 67%, other 33%;
seats--(118 total) FSN 92, UDMR 12, PNL 9, AUR 2, PNTCD 1, MER 1,
other 1;

House of Deputies--last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA
1992);
results--FSN 66%, UDMR 7%, PNL 6%, MER 2%, PNTCD 2%, AUR 2%,
other 15%;
seats--(387 total) FSN 263, UDMR 29, PNL 29, PNTCD 12, MER 12,
AUR 9, other 33

_#_Communists: 3,400,000 (November 1984); Communist Party has ceased
to exist

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, IFC, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Virgil CONSTANTINESCU;
Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 232-4747;

US--Ambassador Alan GREEN, Jr.; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi
7-9, Bucharest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone [40]
(0) 10-40-40

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow
band, has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Industry, which accounts for one-third of the labor force
and generates over half the GNP, suffers from an aging capital plant and
persistent shortages of energy. The year 1990 witnessed about a 20%
drop in industrial production because of energy and input shortages and
labor unrest. In recent years the agricultural sector has had to contend
with drought, mismanagement, and shortages of inputs. A drought in 1990
contributed to a lackluster harvest, a problem compounded by corruption
and a poor distribution system. The new government is slowly loosening
the tight central controls of Ceausescu's command economy. It has
instituted moderate land reforms, with close to one-half of cropland now
in private hands, and it has allowed changes in prices for private
agricultural output. Also, the new regime is permitting the
establishment of private enterprises, largely in services, handicrafts,
and small-scale industry. New laws providing for the privatization
of large state firms have been passed. However, most of the early
privatization will involve converting state firms into joint-stock
companies. The selling of shares to the public has not yet been worked
out. Furthermore, the government has halted the old policy of diverting
food from domestic consumption to hard currency export markets. So far,
the government does not seem willing to adopt a thoroughgoing market
system, that is, there is great caution in decontrolling prices because
of public opposition. The government has sharply raised price ceilings
instead of lifting them entirely.

_#_GNP: $69.9 billion, per capita $3,000; real growth rate - 10.8%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $28.4 billion; expenditures $28.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $12.3 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $9.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and equipment 34.7%, fuels, minerals and
metals 24.7%, manufactured consumer goods 16.9%, agricultural materials
and forestry products 11.9%, other 11.6% (1986);

partners--USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4%
(1987)

_#_Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--fuels, minerals, and metals 51.0%, machinery and
equipment 26.7%, agricultural and forestry products 11.0%, manufactured
consumer goods 4.2% (1986);

partners--Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40%
(1987)

_#_External debt: $400 million (mid-1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 22,700,000 kW capacity; 64,200 million kWh produced,
2,760 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 28% of labor force; major
wheat and corn producer; other products--sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

_#_Economic aid: donor--$4.4 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1956-89)

_#_Currency: leu (plural--lei); 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

_#_Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1--60.00 (June 1991), 22.432
(1990), 14.922 (1989), 14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987), 16.153 (1986),
17.141 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 11,275 km total; 10,860 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
370 km narrow gauge, 45 km broad gauge; 3,411 km electrified, 3,060 km
double track; government owned (1987)

_#_Highways: 72,799 km total; 15,762 km concrete, asphalt, stone
block; 20,208 km asphalt treated; 27,729 km gravel, crushed stone, and
other paved surfaces; 9,100 km unpaved roads (1985)

_#_Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

_#_Pipelines: 2,800 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 6,400 km
natural gas

_#_Ports: Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are
Giurgiu, Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Orsova

_#_Merchant marine: 294 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,767,465
GRT/5,893,700 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 191 cargo, 2 container,
1 rail-car carrier, 11 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 livestock carrier,
15 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 69 bulk, 2 combination
ore/oil

_#_Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 165 total, 165 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways;
15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: about 2.3 million telephone customers; 89%
of phone network is automatic; present phone density is 9.85 per 100
residents; roughly 3,300 villages with no service (February 1990);
stations--39 AM, 29 FM, 39 TV (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: French--Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,801,986; 4,912,789 fit for
military service; 192,996 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 15 billion lei (unofficial), NA% of GDP
(1991); note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using
the official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Rwanda
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 26,340 km2; land area: 24,950 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maryland

_#_Land boundaries: 893 km total; Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km,
Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November
to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

_#_Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west

_#_Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite
(tungsten ore), natural gas, hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 29%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and
pastures 18%; forest and woodland 10%; other 32%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil
erosion; periodic droughts

_#_Note: landlocked

_*_People
_#_Population: 7,902,644 (July 1991), growth rate 3.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 54 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 8.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun and adjective--Rwandan(s)

_#_Ethnic divisions: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%,
indigenous beliefs and other 25%

_#_Language: Kinyarwanda, French (official); Kiswahili used in
commercial centers

_#_Literacy: 50% (male 64%, female 37%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 3,600,000; agriculture 93%, government and services
5%, industry and commerce 2%; 49% of population of working age (1985)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Rwanda

_#_Type: republic; presidential system in which military leaders hold
key offices; on 31 December 1990, the government announced a
National Political Charter to serve as a basis for transition
to a presidential/parliamentary political system; the charter will be
voted upon in a national referendum to be held June 1991

_#_Capital: Kigali

_#_Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures,
singular--prefecture in French; plural--NA, singular--prefegitura in
Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama,
Kibungo, Kibuye, Rigali, Ruhengeri

_#_Constitution: 17 December 1978

_#_Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

_#_Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and
customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Development Council
(Conseil National de Developpement)

_#_Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of
Cassation and the Council of State in joint session)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Maj. Gen.
Juvenal HABYARIMANA (since 5 July 1973)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--National Revolutionary
Movement for Development (MRND), Maj. Gen. Juvenal HABYARIMANA;
note--the MRND is officially a development movement, not a party

_#_Suffrage: universal adult, exact age NA

_#_Elections:

President--last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); results--President Maj. Gen. Juvenal HABYARIMANA reelected;

National Development Council--last held 19 December 1988 (next
to be held December 1993);
results--MRND is the only party;
seats--(70 total); MRND 70

_#_Communists: no Communist party

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, CCC, CEEAC, CEPGL, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA; Chancery at
1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
232-2882;

US--Ambassador Robert A. FLATEN; Embassy at Boulevard
de la Revolution, Kigali (mailing address is B. P. 28, Kigali);
telephone [250] 75601 through 75603 or 72126 through 72128

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and
green with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses
the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of
Guinea, which has a plain yellow band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Almost 50% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector;
coffee and tea make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile
land is limited, however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created
problems. The industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing only
16% to GDP. Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of
agricultural products. The Rwandan economy remains dependent on coffee
exports and foreign aid, with no relief in sight. Weak international
prices since 1986 have caused the economy to contract and per capita
GDP to decline. A structural adjustment program with the World Bank
began in October 1990. An outbreak of insurgency, also in October, has
dampened any prospects for economic improvement.

_#_GDP: $2.2 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate - 2.2% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $391 million; expenditures $491 million, including
capital expenditures of $225 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $117 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--coffee 85%, tea, tin, cassiterite, wolframite,
pyrethrum;

partners--FRG, Belgium, Italy, Uganda, UK, France, US

_#_Imports: $293 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--textiles, foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital
goods, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material;

partners--US, Belgium, FRG, Kenya, Japan

_#_External debt: $689 million (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1988); accounts for
16% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 26,000 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced,
15 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite
(tungsten ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale
beverage production, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles,
cigarettes

_#_Agriculture: accounts for almost 50% of GDP and about 90% of the
labor force; cash crops--coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made
from chrysanthemums); main food crops--bananas, beans, sorghum,
potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports
foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up with a 3.8% annual growth
in population

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $128
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $58 million

_#_Currency: Rwandan franc (plural--francs); 1 Rwandan franc (RF) =
100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1--120.00 (December
1990), 82.60 (1990), 79.98 (1989), 76.45 (1988), 79.67 (1987), 87.64
(1986), 101.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 4,885 km total; 460 km paved, 1,725 km gravel and/or
improved earth, 2,700 km unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and
native craft

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 8 total, 8 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system with low-capacity radio relay
system centered on Kigali; 6,600 telephones; stations--2 AM, 5 FM, no TV;
earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Gendarmerie

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,651,224; 842,480 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $37 million, 1.6% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Saint Helena
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 410 km2; land area: 410 km2; includes Ascension, Gough
Island, Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.3 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 60 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds

_#_Terrain: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

_#_Natural resources: fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea
turtles and sooty terns; no minerals

_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 7%; forest and woodland 3%; other 83%

_#_Environment: very few perennial streams

_#_Note: located 1,920 km west of Angola, about two-thirds of the
way between South America and Africa; Napoleon Bonaparte's place of
exile and burial; the remains were taken to Paris in 1840

_*_People
_#_Population: 6,695 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGl migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Saint Helenian(s); adjective--Saint Helenian

_#_Ethnic divisions: NA

_#_Religion: Anglican majority; also Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist,
and Roman Catholic

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 97%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1987)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: Saint Helena General Workers' Union, 472 members;
crafts 17%, professional and technical 10%, service 10%, management and
clerical 9%, farming and fishing 9%, transport 6%, sales 5%, and other
34%

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Jamestown

_#_Administrative divisions: 2 dependencies and 1 administrative
area*; Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: 1 January 1967

_#_Legal system: NA

_#_National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor and Commander in Chief Robert
F. STIMSON (since 1987)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Saint Helena Labor Party, G. A. O. THORNTON;
Saint Helena Progressive Party, leader unknown;
note--both political parties inactive since 1976

_#_Suffrage: NA

_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--last held October 1984 (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total, 12 elected) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: ICFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant and the Saint Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the
flag; the shield features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy depends primarily on financial assistance
from the UK. The local population earns some income from fishing, the
rearing of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are few
jobs, a large proportion of the work force has left to seek employment
overseas.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.1% (1986)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $3.2 million; expenditures $2.9 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1984)

_#_Exports: $23.9 thousand (f.o.b., 1984);

commodities--fish (frozen and salt-dried skipjack, tuna),
handicrafts;

partners--South Africa, UK

_#_Imports: $2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984);

commodities--food, beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed,
building materials, motor vehicles and parts, machinery and parts;

partners--UK, South Africa

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 9,800 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced,
1,390 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fish

_#_Agriculture: maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being
developed; crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $184 million

_#_Currency: Saint Helenian pound (plural--pounds);
1 Saint Helenian pound (5S) = 100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Saint Helenian pounds (5S) per US$1--0.5171
(January 1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102
(1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985); note--the Saint Helenian pound is
at par with the British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 87 km bitumen-sealed roads, 20 km earth roads on
Saint Helena; 80 km bitumen-sealed on Ascension; 2.7 km bitumen-sealed on
Tristan da Cunha

_#_Ports: Jamestown (Saint Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)

_#_Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo ship totaling 6,767 GRT/5,600
DWT

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m on
Ascension

_#_Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers; stations--1 AM,
no FM, no TV; 550 telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to
Ascension, then into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks;
major coaxial cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at
Ascension; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Saint Kitts and Nevis
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 269 km2; land area: 269 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 135 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little
seasonal temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

_#_Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 22%; permanent crops 17%; meadows and
pastures 3%; forest and woodland 17%; other 41%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (July to October)

_#_Note: located 320 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

_*_People
_#_Population: 40,293 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 71 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

_#_Nationality: noun--Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s); adjective--Kittsian,
Nevisian

_#_Religion: Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic

_#_Language: English

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 20,000 (1981)

_#_Organized labor: 6,700

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Basseterre

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town,
Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland,
Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint
Mary Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter
Basseterre, Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity
Palmetto Point

_#_Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 19 September 1983

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since
19 September 1983, previously Governor General of the Associated State
since NA November 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS
(since 19 September 1983, previously Premier of the Associated State
since NA February 1980); Deputy Prime Minister Michael Oliver POWELL
(since NA)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's Action Movement (PAM), Kennedy SIMMONDS;
Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Lee MOORE;
Nevis Reformation Party (NRP), Simeon DANIEL;
Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM), Vance AMORY

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 21 March 1989
(next to be held by 21 March 1994);
seats--(14 total, 11 elected) PAM 6, SKNLP 2, NRP 2, CCM 1

_#_Communists: none known

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, IBRD, ICFTU, IDA,
IFAD, IMF, INTERPOL, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of
Mission), Charge d'Affaires ad interim Erstein M. EDWARDS;
Chancery at Suite 540, 2501 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 833-3550;

US--none

_#_Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black
band bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in
yellow; the upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy has historically depended on the growing and
processing of sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In
recent years, tourism and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed
larger roles.

_#_GDP: $97.5 million, per capita $2,400; real growth rate 4.6%
(1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 15% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $38.1 million; expenditures $68.1 million,
including capital expenditures of $31.5 million (1991)

_#_Exports: $32.8 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--sugar, clothing, electronics, postage stamps;

partners--US 53%, UK 22%, Trinidad and Tobago 5%, OECS 5% (1988)

_#_Imports: $89.6 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, intermediate manufactures, machinery,
fuels;

partners--US 36%, UK 17%, Trinidad and Tobago 6%, Canada 3%,
Japan 3%, OECS 4% (1988)

_#_External debt: $26.4 million (1988)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 11.8% (1988 est.); accounts
for 17% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 15,800 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
1,120 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra,
clothing, footwear, beverages

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; cash crop--sugarcane;
subsistence crops--rice, yams, vegetables, bananas; fishing potential not
fully exploited; most food imported

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-88), $10.7
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $57 million

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 58 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge on Saint Kitts for
sugarcane

_#_Highways: 300 km total; 125 km paved, 125 km otherwise improved,
50 km unimproved earth

_#_Ports: Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections
and international link via Antigua and Barbuda and Saint Martin;
2,400 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Saint Kitts and Nevis Police Force, Coast Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 38,090; NA fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Saint Lucia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 620 km2; land area: 610 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 158 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds;
dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

_#_Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

_#_Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice),
mineral springs, geothermal potential

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 20%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 13%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity;
deforestation; soil erosion

_#_Note: located 700 km southeast of Puerto Rico

_*_People
_#_Population: 153,075 (July 1991), growth rate 2.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Saint Lucian(s); adjective--Saint Lucian

_#_Ethnic divisions: African descent 90.3%, mixed 5.5%, East Indian
3.2%, Caucasian 0.8%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 7%, Anglican 3%

_#_Language: English (official), French patois

_#_Literacy: 67% (male 65%, female 69%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1980)

_#_Labor force: 43,800; agriculture 43.4%, services 38.9%, industry
and commerce 17.7% (1983 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 20% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Castries

_#_Administrative divisions: 11 quarters; Anse-la-Raye, Castries,
Choiseul, Dauphin, Dennery, Gros-Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin,
Soufriere, Vieux-Fort

_#_Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 22 February 1979

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Acting Governor General Sir Stanislaus Anthony JAMES
(since 10 October 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON
(since 3 May 1982)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
United Workers' Party (UWP), John COMPTON;
Saint Lucia Labor Party (SLP), Julian HUNTE;
Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George ODLUM

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 6 April 1987 (next to be held by
April 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total) UWP 10, SLP 7

_#_Communists: negligible

_#_Member of: ACCT (associate), ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO,
G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL,
LORCS, NAM, OAS, OECS, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO,
WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS;
Chancery at Suite 309, 2100 M Street NW, Washington DC 30037;
telephone (202) 463-7378 or 7379; there is a Saint Lucian Consulate
General in New York;

US--none

_#_Flag: blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead;
the upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average
annual growth rate of almost 5% because of strong agricultural and
tourist sectors. Saint Lucia also possesses an expanding
industrial base supported by foreign investment in manufacturing and
other activities, such as in data processing. The economy, however,
remains vulnerable because the important agricultural sector is dominated
by banana production. Saint Lucia is subject to periodic droughts and/or
tropical storms, and its protected market agreement with the UK for
bananas may end in 1992.

_#_GDP: $273 million, per capita $1,830; real growth rate 4.0% (1989)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16.0% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $131 million; expenditures $149 million,
including capital expenditures of $71 million (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $111.9 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--bananas 54%, clothing 17%, cocoa, vegetables, fruits,
coconut oil;

partners--UK 51%, CARICOM 20%, US 19%, other 10%

_#_Imports: $265.9 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--manufactured goods 23%, machinery and transportation
equipment 27%, food and live animals 18%, chemicals 10%, fuels 6%;

partners--US 35%, CARICOM 16%, UK 15%, Japan 7%, Canada 4%,
other 23%

_#_External debt: $54.5 million (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1990 est.); accounts for
7% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 32,500 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced,
730 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages,
corrugated boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and 43% of labor force;
crops--bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa;
imports food for the tourist industry

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $118 million

_#_Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70
(fixed rate since 1976)

_#_Fiscal Year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 760 km total; 500 km paved; 260 km otherwise improved

_#_Ports: Castries

_#_Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439

_#_Telecommunications: fully automatic telephone system;
9,500 telephones; direct radio relay link with Martinique and
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; interisland troposcatter link to
Barbados; stations--4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (cable)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Royal Saint Lucia Police Force, Coast Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 38,050; NA fit for military
service

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Saint Pierre and Miquelon
(territorial collectivity of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 242 km2; land area: 242 km2; includes eight small
islands in the Saint Pierre and the Miquelon groups

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 120 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France

_#_Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn
are windy

_#_Terrain: mostly barren rock

_#_Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

_#_Land use: arable land 13%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 4%; other 83%

_#_Environment: vegetation scanty

_#_Note: located 25 km south of Newfoundland, Canada, in the
North Atlantic Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 6,356 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women);
adjective--French

_#_Ethnic divisions: originally Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 98%

_#_Language: French

_#_Literacy: 99% (male 99%, female 99%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: 2,850 (1988)

_#_Organized labor: Workers' Force trade union

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and
Miquelon

_#_Type: territorial collectivity of France

_#_Capital: Saint-Pierre

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

_#_Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France);
note--has been under French control since 1763

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French law

_#_National holiday: National Day, 14 July (Taking of the Bastille)

_#_Executive branch: commissioner of the Republic

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council

_#_Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur
d'Appel)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May
1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre
MARQUIE (since February 1989); President of the General Council Marc
PLANTEGENEST (since NA)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS);
Union for French Democracy (UDF/CDS), Gerard GRIGNON

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

General Council--last held September-October 1988 (next to be
held September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(19 total) Socialist and other left-wing parties 13, UDF and
right-wing parties 6;

French President--last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results--(second ballot) Jacques CHIRAC 56%, Francois MITTERRAND 44%;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) PS 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) UDF/CDS 1

_#_Member of: FZ, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France,
local interests are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their
livelihood by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the
coast of Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because
the number of ships stopping at Saint Pierre has dropped steadily over
the years. In March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish
quotas for Saint Pierre's trawlers fishing in Canadian and
Canadian-claimed waters for three years. The agreement settles a
longstanding dispute that had virtually brought fish exports to a halt.
The islands are heavily subsidized by France. Imports come primarily from
Canada and France.

_#_GDP: $50 million, per capita $7,900; real growth rate NA%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 8.3% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $18.3 million; expenditures $18.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $5.5 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $24.1 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--fish and fish products, fox and mink pelts;

partners--US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%, Canada, Portugal

_#_Imports: $61.6 million (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--meat, clothing, fuel, electrical equipment, machinery,
building materials;

partners--Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced,
3,970 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fish processing and supply base for fishing fleets;
tourism

_#_Agriculture: vegetables, cattle, sheep and pigs for local
consumption; fish catch, 20,500 metric tons (1989)

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $493 million

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) =
100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 120 km total; 60 km paved (1985)

_#_Ports: Saint Pierre

_#_Civil air: no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways,
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 3,601 telephones; stations--1 AM, 3 FM, no TV;
radiotelecommunication with most countries in the world; 1
earth station in French domestic system

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 340 km2; land area: 340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington,
DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 84 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation;
rainy season (May to November)

_#_Terrain: volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island
of Saint Vincent

_#_Natural resources: negligible

_#_Land use: arable land 38%; permanent crops 12%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 41%; other 3%; includes irrigated
3%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a
constant
threat

_#_Note: some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by
Grenada

_*_People
_#_Population: 114,221 (July 1991), growth rate 1.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s);
adjectives--Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent; remainder mixed,
with some white, East Indian, Carib Indian

_#_Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day
Adventist

_#_Language: English, some French patois

_#_Literacy: 96% (male 96%, female 96%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1970)

_#_Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 10% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Kingstown

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines,
Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

_#_Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 27 October 1979

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General David JACK (since 29 Septermber 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July
1984)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son) MITCHELL;
Saint Vincent Labor Party (SVLP), Vincent BEACH;
United People's Movement (UPM), Adrian SAUNDERS;
Movement for National Unity (MNU), Ralph GONSALVES;
National Reform Party (NRP), Joel MIGUEL

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

House of Assembly--last held 16 May 1989
(next to be held July 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(21 total; 15 elected representatives and 6 appointed senators)
NDP 15

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, OAS, OECS,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double
width), and green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a
V pattern

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most
important sector of the economy. The services sector, based mostly on
a growing tourist industry, is also important. The economy continues to
have a high unemployment rate of 30% because of an overdependence on the
weather-plagued banana crop as a major export earner. Government progress
toward diversifying into new industries has been relatively unsuccessful.

_#_GDP: $146 million, per capita $1,315; real growth rate 5.9%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $62 million; expenditures $67 million,
including capital expenditures of $21 million (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $74.6 million (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--bananas 45%, eddoes and dasheen (taro), sweet
potatoes, spices, light manufactures;

partners--UK 43%, CARICOM 37%, US 15%

_#_Imports: $127.5 million (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, chemicals and
fertilizers, minerals and fuels;

partners--US 42%, CARICOM 19%, UK 15%

_#_External debt: $42.2 million (FY89)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1989); accounts for 14%
of GDP

_#_Electricity: 16,600 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced,
570 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: food processing (sugar, flour), cement, furniture,
clothing, starch, sheet metal, beverage

Book of the day: