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_#_Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GNP and 45% of labor
force; major crops--rice, coconut, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple,
mango; animal products--pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products;
fish catch of 2 million metric tons annually

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis
despite government eradication efforts

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.6
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.6 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million;
Communist countries (1975-89), $123 million

_#_Currency: Philippine peso (plural--pesos);
1 Philippine peso (1) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (1) per US$1--28.055 (January
1991), 24.311 (1990), 21.737 (1989), 21.095 (1988), 20.568 (1987),
20.386 (1986), 18.607 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)

_#_Highways: 156,000 km total (1984); 29,000 km paved; 77,000 km
gravel, crushed-stone, or stabilized-soil surface; 50,000 km unimproved
earth

_#_Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than
1.5 m) vessels

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 357 km

_#_Ports: Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi,
Manila, Subic Bay

_#_Merchant marine: 569 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 8,429,829
GRT/15,171,692 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger,
17 passenger-cargo, 163 cargo, 18 refrigerated cargo, 24 vehicle carrier,
8 livestock carrier, 10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 41
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 7
liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 252 bulk, 7 combination bulk;
note--many Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the
register for the purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their
original owners who are principally in Japan and Germany

_#_Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 280 total, 235 usable; 71 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
50 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good international radio and submarine cable
services; domestic and interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones;
stations--267 AM (including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US);
submarine cables extended to Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and
Japan; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT, and 11 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Coast Guard), Marine Corps, Air
Force, Constabulary

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 16,254,775; 11,491,155 fit for
military service; 715,462 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.1 billion, 2% of GNP (1990)
_%_
_@_Pitcairn Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 47 km2; land area: 47 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 51 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

_#_Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

_#_Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons (especially November to March)

_#_Note: located in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between
Peru and New Zealand

_*_People
_#_Population: 56 (July 1991), growth rate 0.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Pitcairn Islander(s); adjective--Pitcairn
Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: descendants of Bounty mutineers

_#_Religion: Seventh-Day Adventist 100%

_#_Language: English (official); also a Tahitian/English dialect

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA; no business community in the usual sense; some
public works; subsistence farming and fishing

_#_Organized labor: NA

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK

_#_Capital: Adamstown

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

_#_Legal system: local island by-laws

_#_National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, island magistrate

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council

_#_Judicial branch: Island Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Governor and UK High Commissioner to New Zealand
David Joseph MOSS (since NA 1990);

Head of Government--Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Brian YOUNG (since NA 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders: NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18 with three years residency

_#_Elections:

Island Council--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: none

_#_Other political or pressure groups: NA

_#_Member of: SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the
flag; the coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield
featuring a yellow anchor

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming.
The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and
beans. Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources
of revenue are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of
handicrafts to passing ships.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $430,440; expenditures $429,983, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY87 est.)

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--fruits, vegetables, curios;

partners--NA

_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--fuel oil, machinery, building materials,
flour, sugar, other foodstuffs;

partners--NA

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 110 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced,
5,360 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: postage stamp sales, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety
of fruits and vegetables grown; must import grain products

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6798
(January 1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6866
(1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: none

_#_Highways: 6.4 km dirt roads

_#_Ports: Bounty Bay

_#_Airports: none

_#_Telecommunications: 24 telephones; party line telephone service
on the island; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides
electricity

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Poland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 312,680 km2; land area: 304,510 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 2,980 km total; Czechoslovakia 1,309 km,
Germany 456 km, USSR 1,215 km

_#_Coastline: 491 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters
with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and
thundershowers

_#_Terrain: mostly flat plain, mountains along southern border

_#_Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver,
lead, salt

_#_Land use: arable land 46%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 13%; forest and woodland 28%; other 12%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: plain crossed by a few north-flowing, meandering
streams; severe air and water pollution in south

_#_Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain
and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

_*_People
_#_Population: 37,799,638 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 77 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Pole(s); adjective--Polish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%,
Belorussian (Byelorussian) 0.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing),
Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5%

_#_Language: Polish

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1978)

_#_Labor force: 17,104,000; industry and construction 36.1%;
agriculture 27.3%; trade, transport, and communications 14.8%; government
and other 21.8% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: trade union pluralism

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Poland

_#_Type: democratic state

_#_Capital: Warsaw

_#_Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa,
singular--wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko,
Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk,
Gorzow, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin, Koszalin,
Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza, Lublin,
Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow,
Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz,
Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow,
Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc,
Zielona Gora

_#_Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed

_#_Constitution: the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952
will probably be replaced by a democratic Constitution in 1992

_#_Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and
Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1794)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Zgromadzenie
Narodowe) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house
or Diet (Sejm)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Lech WALESA (since 22 December
1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jan Krzysztof BIELECKI (since
4 January 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
center-right agrarian parties--Polish Peasant Party (PSL), Roman
BARTOSZCZE, chairman;
Polish Peasant Party-Solidarity, Gabriel JANOWSKI, chairman;

other center-right parties--Center Alliance, Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI,
chairman;
Christian National Union, Wieslaw CHRZANOWSKI, chairman;
Christian Democratic Labor Party, Wladyslaw SILA-NOWICKI, chairman;
Democratic Party, Jerzy JOZWIAK, chairman;

center-left parties--Polish Socialist Party, Jan Jozef LIPSKI,
chairman;
Democratic Union, Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI, chairman;
ROAD, Wladyslaw FRASYNIUK and Zbigniew BUJAK, chairmen;

left-wing parties--Polish Socialist Party-Democratic Revolution,
Piotr IKONOWICZ;

other--Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (formerly the
Communist party or Polish United Workers' Party/PZPR), Aleksander
KWASNIEWSKI, chairman;
Union of the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (breakaway
faction of the PZPR), Tadeusz FISZBACH, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--first round held 25 November 1990, second round
held 9 December 1990 (next to be held November 1995);
results--second round Lech WALESA 74.7%, Stanislaw TYMINSKI 25.3%;

Senate--last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be held late
1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(100 total) Solidarity 99, independent 1;

Diet--last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be held late 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(460 total) Communists 173, Solidarity 161, Polish Peasant
Party 76, Democratic Party 27, Christian National Union 23; note--rules
governing the election limited Solidarity's share of the vote to 35%
of the seats; future elections, which will probably be held before
late 1991, are to be freely contested

_#_Communists: 70,000 members in the Communist successor parties
(1990)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), a nationalist group;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ),
populist program; Clubs of Catholic Intellectuals (KIKs); Freedom and
Peace (WiP), a pacifist group; Independent Student Union (NZS)

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CERN (observer, but scheduled to become
a member l July 1991), CSCE, ECE, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kazimierz DZIEWANOWSKI;
Chancery at 2640 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-3800 through 3802; there are Polish Consulates
General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York;

US--Ambassador Thomas W. SIMONS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje
Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw (mailing address is American Embassy Warsaw,
c/o American Consulate General (WAW) or APO New York 09213-5010);
telephone [48] (22) 283041 through 283049; there is a US Consulate
General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red--a crowned
eagle is to be added; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which
are red (top) and white

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy, except for the agricultural sector, had
followed the Soviet model of state ownership and control of
productive assets. About 75% of agricultural production had come from the
private sector and the rest from state farms. The economy has presented a
picture of moderate but slowing growth against a background of underlying
weaknesses in technology and worker motivation. GNP dropped by 2.0% in
1989 and by a further 8.9% in 1990. The inflation rate, after falling
sharply from the 1982 peak of 100% to 22% in 1986, rose to a galloping
rate of 640% in 1989 and dropped back to 250% in 1990. Shortages of
consumer goods and some food items worsened in 1988-89. Agricultural
products and coal are among the biggest hard currency earners, but
manufactures are increasing in importance. Poland, with its hard currency
debt of $48.5 billion, is severely limited in its ability to import
much-needed hard currency goods. The sweeping political changes of 1989
disrupted normal economic channels and exacerbated shortages. In January
1990, the new Solidarity-led government adopted a cold turkey program for
transforming Poland to a market economy. The government moved to
eliminate subsidies, free prices, make the zloty convertible, and,
in general, halt the hyperinflation. These financial measures were
accompanied by plans to privatize the economy in stages. While inflation
fell to an annual rate of 77.5% by November of 1990, the rise in
unemployment and the drop in living standards have led to growing popular
discontent and to a change of government in January 1991. The new
government is continuing the previous government's economic
program, while trying to speed privatization and to better cushion the
populace from the dislocations associated with reform. Substantial
outside aid will be needed if Poland is to make a successful transition
in the 1990s.

_#_GNP: $158.5 billion, per capita $4,200; real growth rate - 8.9%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 250% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 6.1% (end-December 1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.8 billion (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 38%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 21%; manufactured consumer goods 15%; agricultural and forestry
products 4% (1989);

partners--USSR 25%, FRG 14%, UK 6.5%, Czechoslovakia 5.5% (1989)

_#_Imports: $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--machinery and equipment 37%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 31%; manufactured consumer goods 17%; agricultural and forestry
products 5% (1989);

partners--USSR 18%, FRG 16%, Austria 6%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1989)

_#_External debt: $48.5 billion (January 1991)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 23% (State sector 1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 31,530,000 kW capacity; 136,300 million kWh produced,
3,610 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive
industries, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages,
textiles

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 27% of labor force; 75% of
output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains
low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed,
and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major exporter
of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: donor--bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries, $2.2 billion (1954-89)

_#_Currency: zloty (plural--zlotych); 1 zloty (Zl) =
100 groszy

_#_Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1--11,100.00 (May 1991),
9,500 (1990), 1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987), 175.29
(1986), 147.14 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 27,041 km total; 24,287 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
397 km 1.520-meter broad gauge, 2,357 km narrow gauge; 8,987 km double
track; 11,016 km electrified; government owned (1989)

_#_Highways: 299,887 km total; 130,000 km improved hard surface
(concrete, asphalt, stone block); 24,000 km unimproved hard surface
(crushed stone, gravel); 100,000 km earth; 45,887 km other urban roads
(1985)

_#_Inland waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1989)

_#_Pipelines: 4,500 km for natural gas; 1,986 km for crude oil;
360 km for refined products (1987)

_#_Ports: Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal
inland ports are Gliwice on Kanal Gliwice, Wroclaw on the Oder, and
Warsaw on the Vistula

_#_Merchant marine: 235 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,957,600
GRT/4,163,820 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 92 cargo, 3
refrigerated cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 container, 3 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 107 bulk; Poland
owns 1 ship (1,000 GRT or over) of 6,333 DWT operating under Liberian
registry

_#_Civil air: 48 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 160 total, 160 usable; 85 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runway over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: phone density is 10.5 phones per 100 residents
(October 1990); 3.1 million subscribers; exchanges are 86% automatic
(February 1990); stations--29 AM, 29 FM, 37 (5 Soviet relays) TV;
9.6 million TVs

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: External Front Ground Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense
Forces, Internal Defense Forces (WOW), Territorial Defense Forces (JOT),
Border Guards (WOP), Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense (OC)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 9,571,708; 7,543,565 fit for
military service; 302,000 reach military age (19) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 22.3 trillion zlotych, NA% of GDP (1991);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Portugal
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 92,080 km2; land area: 91,640 km2; includes Azores and
Madeira Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

_#_Land boundary: 1,214 km with Spain

_#_Coastline: 1,793 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province)
disputed with Indonesia

_#_Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and
drier in south

_#_Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

_#_Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore,
uranium ore, marble

_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and
pastures 6%; forest and woodland 40%; other 16%; includes irrigated
7%

_#_Environment: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

_#_Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations
along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

_*_People
_#_Population: 10,387,617 (July 1991), growth rate 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Portuguese (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Portuguese

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland,
Azores, Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated
to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant denominations 1%,
other 2%

_#_Language: Portuguese

_#_Literacy: 85% (male 89%, female 82%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,605,700; services 45%, industry 35%, agriculture
20% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: about 55% of the labor force; the
Communist-dominated General Confederation of Portuguese
Workers--Intersindical (CGTP-IN) represents more than half of the
unionized labor force; its main competition, the General Workers Union
(UGT), is organized by the Socialists and Social Democrats and represents
less than half of unionized labor

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Portuguese Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Lisbon

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos,
singular--distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas,
singular--regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga,
Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria,
Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal,
Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

_#_Dependent area: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China in 1999)

_#_Independence: 1140; independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910

_#_Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982 and
1 June 1989

_#_Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews
the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of State, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Assembleia da Republica)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
Justica)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES
(since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6
November 1985)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal CAVACO Silva;
Portuguese Socialist Party (PS), Jorge SAMPAIO;
Party of Democratic Renewal (PRD), Herminio MARTINHO;
Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), Alvaro CUNHAL;
Social Democratic Center (CDS), Andriano MORREIRA (interim);
National Solidarity Party, Manuel SERGIO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 13 February 1991 (next to be held February
1996);
results--Dr. Mario Lopes SOARES 70%, Basilio HORTA 14%, Carlos
CARVALHAS 13%, Carlos MARQUES 3%;

Assembly of the Republic--last held 6 October 1991
(next to be held October 1995);
results--Social Democrats 50.4%,
Socialists 29.3%,
United Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists) 8.8%,
Christian Democrats 4.4%,
National Solidarity Party 1.7%,
Democratic Renewal 0.6%, other 4.8%;
seats--(230 total) Social Democrats 132, Socialists 70, United
Democratic Coalition (CDU; Communists) 17,
Christian Democrats 5,
National Solidarity Party 1; after absentee ballots counted five
seats to be allocated

_#_Communists: Portuguese Communist Party claims membership of 200,753
(December 1983)

_#_Member of: AfDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE,
ECLAC, EIB, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM (guest), NATO, NEA, OAS (observer),
OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joao Eduardo M. PEREIRA
BASTOS; Chancery at 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-8610; there are Portuguese Consulates General in
Boston, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Los Angeles,
Newark (New Jersey), New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode
Island);

US--Ambassador Everett E. BRIGGS; Embassy at Avenida das Forcas
Armadas, 1600 Lisbon (mailing address is APO New York 09678-0002);
telephone [351] (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880; there is a US
Consulate in Ponta Delgada (Azores)

_#_Flag: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing
line

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: During the past four years, the economy has made a
sustained recovery from the severe recession of 1983-85. The economy
grew by 14% during the 1987-89 period, largely because of strong
domestic consumption and investment spending. Unemployment has
declined for the third consecutive year, but inflation continues to be
about three times the European Community average. The government is
pushing economic restructuring and privatization measures in anticipation
of the 1992 European Community timetable to form a single large market in
Europe.

_#_GDP: $57.8 billion, per capita $5,580; real growth rate 3.5%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 13.4% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.5% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $21.6 billion; expenditures $23.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $6.9 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $16.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--cotton textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish,
wine, timber and timber products, resin, machinery, appliances;

partners--EC 72%, other developed countries 13%, US 5%

_#_Imports: $24.9 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, cotton, foodgrains, industrial machinery,
iron and steel, chemicals;

partners--EC 69%, other developed countries 11%,
less developed countries 13%, US 4%

_#_External debt: $18.4 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1989); accounts for
40% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 6,729,000 kW capacity; 16,000 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small
inefficient farms; imports more than half of food needs; major
crops--grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector--sheep, cattle,
goats, poultry, meat, dairy products

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.8
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.13 billion

_#_Currency: Portuguese escudo (plural--escudos);
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1--134.46 (January
1991), 142.55 (1990), 157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988), 140.88 (1987), 149.59
(1986), 170.39 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,613 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP)
operates 2,858 km 1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double
track), 755 km 1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified,
double track, privately owned

_#_Highways: 73,661 km total; 61,599 km paved (bituminous, gravel, and
crushed stone), including 140 km of limited-access divided highway;
7,962 km improved earth; 4,100 km unimproved earth (motorable tracks)

_#_Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to
national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton
cargo capacity

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km; refined products, 58 km

_#_Ports: Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas
(Azores), Setubal, Sines

_#_Merchant marine: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 684,350
GRT/1,190,454 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 20 cargo,
2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
12 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note--Portugal has created
a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will
have the taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience;
although only one ship currently is known to fly the Portuguese flag on
the MAR register, it is likely that a majority of Portuguese flag ships
will transfer to this subregister in a few years

_#_Civil air: 29 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 69 total, 63 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: facilities are generally adequate; 2,690,000
telephones; stations--57 AM, 66 (22 relays) FM, 25 (23 relays) TV;
7 submarine cables; communication satellite ground stations operating in
the INTELSAT (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and
domestic systems (mainland and Azores)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National
Republican Guard, Fiscal Guard, Public Security Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,621,116; 2,131,628 fit for
military service; 88,718 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.6 billion, 3% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Puerto Rico
(commonwealth associated with the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 9,104 km2; land area: 8,959 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode
Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 501 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature
variation

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north;
mountains precipitous to sea on west coast

_#_Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore
and offshore crude oil

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures
41%; forest and woodland 20%; other 22%

_#_Environment: many small rivers and high central mountains ensure
land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain
belt in north

_#_Note: important location between the Dominican Republic and the
Virgin Islands group along the Mona Passage--a key shipping lane to the
Panama Canal; San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in
the Caribbean

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,294,997 (July 1991), growth rate 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Puerto Rican(s); adjective--Puerto Rican

_#_Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Hispanic

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant denominations and other
15%

_#_Language: Spanish (official); English is widely understood

_#_Literacy: 89% (male 90%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 1,068,000; government 28%, manufacturing 15%,
trade 14%, agriculture 3%, other 40% (1990)

_#_Organized labor: 115,000 members in 4 unions; the largest is the
General Confederation of Puerto Rican Workers with 35,000 members (1983)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

_#_Type: commonwealth associated with the US

_#_Capital: San Juan

_#_Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with
the US)

_#_Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

_#_Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3
July 1952; effective 25 July 1952

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish civil code

_#_Executive branch: US president, US vice president, governor

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January
1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government Governor Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (since 2
January 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon;
New Progressive Party (PNP), Carlos ROMERO Barcelo;
Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan MARI Bras and Carlos
GALLISA;
Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben BERRIOS Martinez;
Puerto Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

_#_Elections:

Governor--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November
1992);
results--Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (PPD) 48.7%, Baltasar CORRADA Del Rio
(PNP) 45.8%, Ruben BERRIOS Martinez (PIP) 5.5%;

Senate--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(27 total) PPD 18, PNP 8, PIP 1;

House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be
held 3 November 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(53 total) PPD 36, PNP 15, PIP 2;

US House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be
held 3 November 1992); results--Puerto Rico elects one nonvoting
representative

_#_Other political or pressure groups: all have engaged in terrorist
activities--Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN), Volunteers of
the Puerto Rican Revolution, Boricua Popular Army (also known as the
Macheteros), Armed Forces of Popular Resistance

_#_Member of: ECLAC, ICFTU, IOC, WCL, WFTU, WTO (associate)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (commonwealth associated with the
US)

_#_Flag: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side
bears a large white five-pointed star in the center; design based on the
US flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the
Caribbean region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary
sector of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free
access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily
in Puerto Rico since the 1950s. Important new industries include
pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and processed
foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other
livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural
sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income
for the island. The economy is slowly recovering from the disruptions
caused by Hurricane Hugo in September 1989. The tourism infrastructure
was especially hard hit.

_#_GNP: $20.1 billion, per capita $6,100; real growth rate 3.6% (FY89)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.3% (October 1989-90)

_#_Unemployment rate: 14.9% (October 1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $5.5 billion; expenditures $5.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (FY89)

_#_Exports: $16.4 billion (f.o.b., FY89);

commodities--pharmaceuticals, electronics, apparel, canned tuna,
rum, beverage concentrates, medical equipment, instruments;

partners--US 87%

_#_Imports: $14.0 billion (c.i.f., FY89);

commodities--chemicals, clothing, food, fish, petroleum products;

partners--US 60%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.6% (FY89)

_#_Electricity: 4,149,000 kW capacity; 14,844 million kWh produced,
4,510 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, electronics,
apparel, food products, instruments; tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 3% of labor force; crops--sugarcane,
coffee, pineapples, plantains, bananas; livestock--cattle, chickens;
imports a large share of food needs

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 100 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane;
no passenger railroads

_#_Highways: 13,762 km paved

_#_Ports: San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo

_#_Airports: 33 total; 23 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 900,000 or 99% of total households with TV;
1,067,787 telephones (1988); stations--50 AM, 63 FM, 9 TV (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: paramilitary National Guard, Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 830,133; NA fit for military
service

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Qatar
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 11,000 km2; land area: 11,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: 60 km total; Saudi Arabia 40 km, UAE 20 km

_#_Coastline: 563 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary with UAE is in dispute; territorial dispute with
Bahrain over the Hawar Islands

_#_Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

_#_Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and
gravel

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 0%; other 95%

_#_Environment: haze, duststorms, sandstorms common; limited
freshwater resources mean increasing dependence on large-scale
desalination facilities

_#_Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near
major crude oil sources

_*_People
_#_Population: 518,478 (July 1991), growth rate 5.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 35 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Qatari(s); adjective--Qatari

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 40%, Pakistani 18%, Indian 18%, Iranian 10%,
other 14%

_#_Religion: Muslim 95%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); English is commonly used as second
language

_#_Literacy: 76% (male 77%, female 72%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1986)

_#_Labor force: 104,000; 85% non-Qatari in private sector (1983)

_#_Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of Qatar

_#_Type: traditional monarchy

_#_Capital: Doha

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970

_#_Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in
personal matters

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

_#_Executive branch: amir, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Amir and Prime Minister
Khalifa bin Hamad Al THANI (since 22 February 1972); Heir Apparent Hamad
bin Khalifa AL THANI (appointed 31 May 1977; son of Amir)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections:

Advisory Council--constitution calls for elections for part
of this consultative body, but no elections have been held;
seats--(30 total)

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamad Abd al-Aziz
AL-KAWARI, Chancery at Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-0111;

US--Ambassador Mark G. HAMBLEY; Embassy at 149 Ali Bin Ahmed St.,
Farig Bin Omran (opposite the television station), Doha (mailing address
is P. O. Box 2399, Doha); telephone [0974] 864701 through 864703

_#_Flag: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points)
on the hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for more
than 85% of export earnings and roughly 75% of government revenues.
Proved oil reserves of 3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output
at current levels for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita
GDP of about $12,500, among the highest in the world outside the OECD
countries.

_#_GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $12,500 (1989 est.); real growth
rate 5.0% (1988)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.9% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $3.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $400 million (FY89 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);

commodities--petroleum products 85%, steel, fertilizers;

partners--Japan, Italy, Thailand, Singapore

_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.), excluding military
equipment;

commodities--foodstuffs, beverages, animal and vegetable oils,
chemicals, machinery and equipment;

partners--Japan, UK, US, Italy

_#_External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1987); accounts
for 64% of GDP, including oil

_#_Electricity: 1,514,000 kW capacity; 4,000 million kWh produced,
8,540 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel, cement

_#_Agriculture: farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of
GDP; commercial fishing increasing in importance; most food imported

_#_Economic aid: donor--pledged $2.7 billion in ODA to less developed
countries (1979-88)

_#_Currency: Qatari riyal (plural--riyals); 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100
dirhams

_#_Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1--3.6400 riyals (fixed
rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 1,500 km total; 1,000 km bituminous, 500 km gravel or
natural surface (est.)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 235 km; natural gas, 400 km

_#_Ports: Doha, Umm Said, Halul Island

_#_Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 465,371
GRT/707,089 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 5 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern system centered in Doha; 110,000
telephones; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia;
submarine cable to Bahrain and UAE; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 3 TV;
earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,
1 ARABSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Department

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 235,516; 125,591 fit for
military service; 4,243 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $500 million, 8% of GDP (1989)
_%_
_@_Reunion
(overseas department of France)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 2,510 km2; land area: 2,500 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 201 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from
May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along
coast

_#_Natural resources: fish, arable land

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 35%; other 39%; includes irrigated
2%

_#_Environment: periodic devastating cyclones

_#_Note: located 750 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 607,086 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Reunionese (sing. and pl.);
adjective--Reunionese

_#_Ethnic divisions: most of the population is of intermixed French,
African, Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, and Indian ancestry

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 94%

_#_Language: French (official); Creole widely used

_#_Literacy: 69% (male 67%, female 74%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1982)

_#_Labor force: NA; agriculture 30%, industry 21%, services 49%
(1981); 63% of population of working age (1983)

_#_Organized labor: General Confederation of Workers of Reunion (CGTR)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Department of Reunion

_#_Type: overseas department of France

_#_Capital: Saint-Denis

_#_Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Independence: none (overseas department of France)

_#_Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

_#_Legal system: French law

_#_National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

_#_Executive branch: French president, commissioner of the Republic

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral General Council, unicameral Regional
Council

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (Cour d'appel)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN
(since September 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR), Francois MAS;
Union for French Democracy (UDF), Gilbert GERARD;
Communist Party of Reunion (PCR), Paul VERGES;
France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre THIEN AH KOON;
Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude FRUTEAU;
Social Democrats (CDS), other small parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:
General Council--last held March 1986 (next to be held 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(36 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Council--last held 16 March 1986
(next to be held March 1991);
results--RPR/UDF 36.8%, PCR 28.2%, FRA and other right wing 17.3%,
PS 14.1%, other 3.6%;
seats--(45 total) RPR/UDF 18, PCR 13, FRA and other right wing 8, PS 6;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(3 total) RPR-UDF 1, PS 1, independent 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(5 total) PCR 2, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1, FRA 1

_#_Communists: Communist party small but has support among sugarcane
cutters, the minuscule Popular Movement for the Liberation of Reunion
(MPLR), and in the district of Le Port

_#_Member of: FZ, WFTU

_#_Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
Reunionese interests are represented in the US by France

_#_Flag: the flag of France is used

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture.
Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some
years it accounts for 85% of exports. The government has been pushing
the development of a tourist industry to relieve high unemployment,
which recently amounted to one-third of the labor force. The white
and Indian communities are substantially better off than other segments
of the population, adding to the social tensions generated by poverty
and unemployment. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on
continued financial assistance from France.

_#_GDP: $3.37 billion, per capita $6,000 (1987 est.); real growth
rate 9% (1987 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1988)

_#_Unemployment rate: 35% (February 1991)

_#_Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $914 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

_#_Exports: $166 million (f.o.b., 1988);

commodities--sugar 75%, rum and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%,
lobster 3%, vanilla and tea 1%;

partners--France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy

_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988);

commodities--manufactured goods, food, beverages, tobacco,
machinery and transportation equipment, raw materials, and petroleum
products;

partners--France, Mauritius, Bahrain, South Africa, Italy

_#_External debt: NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; about 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 546 million kWh produced,
965 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing
handicraft items

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of
economy; cash crops--sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops--tropical
fruits, vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $14.1 billion

_#_Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) =
100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.1307 (January 1991),
5.4453 (1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261
(1986), 8.9852 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 600 km gravel, crushed
stone, or stabilized earth

_#_Ports: Pointe des Galets

_#_Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate system for needs; modern open-wire
line and radio relay network; principal center Saint-Denis;
radiocommunication to Comoros, France, Madagascar; new radio relay route
to Mauritius; 85,900 telephones; stations--3 AM, 13 FM, 1 (18 relays) TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 162,017; 83,959 fit for
military service; 5,979 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Romania
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 237,500 km2; land area: 230,340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

_#_Land boundaries: 2,904 km total; Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km,
USSR 1,307 km, Yugoslavia 546 km

_#_Coastline: 225 km

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