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_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Najmuddin SHAIKH; Chancery
at 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6200; there is a Pakistani Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Robert B. OAKLEY; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave,
Ramna 5, Islamabad (mailing address is P. O. Box 1048,
Islamabad or APO New York 09614); telephone [92] (51) 826161
through 79; there are US Consulates General in Karachi and Lahore, and a
Consulate in Peshawar

_#_Flag: green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large
white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent,
star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the
usual problems of rapidly increasing population, sizable government
deficits, and heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy
must support a large military establishment and provide for the needs of
4 million Afghan refugees. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in
recent years has enabled the country to cope with these problems. Almost
all agriculture and small-scale industry is in private hands, and the
government seeks to privatize a portion of the large-scale industrial
enterprises now publicly owned. In December 1988, Pakistan signed a
three-year economic reform agreement with the IMF, which provides for a
reduction in the government deficit and a liberalization of trade in
return for further IMF financial support. Late in 1990, the IMF
suspended assistance to Pakistan because the government failed to
follow through on deficit reforms. Pakistan almost certainly will make
little headway on raising living standards for its rapidly expanding
population; at the current rate of growth, population would double in
29 years.

_#_GNP: $43.3 billion, per capita $380; real growth rate 5.0%
(FY90 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (FY90)

_#_Unemployment rate: 10% (FY91 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $5.6 billion; expenditures $10.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (FY91 est.)

_#_Exports: $4.8 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--rice, cotton, textiles, clothing;

partners--EC 31%, Japan 11.6%, US 11.5% (FY89)

_#_Imports: $6.5 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--petroleum, petroleum products, machinery,
transportation equipment, vegetable oils, animal fats, chemicals;

partners--EC 26%, US 16%, Japan 14% (FY89)

_#_External debt: $20.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 7.5% (FY91 est.); accounts for
almost 20% of GNP

_#_Electricity: 7,575,000 kW capacity; 29,300 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, petroleum
products, construction materials, clothing, paper products, international
finance, shrimp

_#_Agriculture: 25% of GDP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest
contiguous irrigation system; major crops--cotton, wheat, rice,
sugarcane, fruits, and vegetables; livestock products--milk, beef,
mutton, eggs; self-sufficient in food grain

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for
the international drug trade; government eradication efforts on poppy
cultivation of limited success

_#_Economic aid: (including Bangladesh before 1972) US commitments,
including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.5 billion authorized (excluding what is now
Bangladesh); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1980-88), $8.2 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89),
$2.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.2 billion

_#_Currency: Pakistani rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

_#_Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1--22.072 (January
1991), 21.707 (1990), 20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988), 17.399 (1987), 16.648
(1986), 15.928 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km meter
gauge, and 610 km narrow gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km
electrified; all government owned (1985)

_#_Highways: 101,315 km total (1987); 40,155 km paved, 23,000 km
gravel, 29,000 km improved earth, and 9,160 km unimproved earth or sand
tracks (1985)

_#_Pipelines: 250 km crude oil; 4,044 km natural gas; 885 km refined
products (1987)

_#_Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

_#_Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 339,855
GRT/500,627 DWT; includes 4 passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker

_#_Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 115 total, 105 usable; 75 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good international radiocommunication service
over microwave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic radio communications
poor; broadcast service good; 813,000 telephones (1990); stations--19 AM,
8 FM, 29 TV; earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Civil Armed Forces,
National Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 26,840,840; 16,466,334 fit for
military service; 1,322,883 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $2.9 billion, 6% of GNP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Palmyra Atoll
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 11.9 km2; land area: 11.9 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 20 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 14.5 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

_#_Terrain: low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 100%; other 0%

_#_Environment: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation,
coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

_#_Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, almost halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage in West Lagoon

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Panama
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 78,200 km2; land area: 75,990 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

_#_Land boundaries: 555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

_#_Coastline: 2,490 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May
to January), short dry season (January to May)

_#_Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected,
upland plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

_#_Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

_#_Land use: arable land 6%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
15%; forest and woodland 54%; other 23%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: dense tropical forest in east and northwest

_#_Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal
that links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific
Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 2,476,281 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Panamanian(s); adjective--Panamanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry) 70%,
West Indian 14%, white 10%, Indian 6%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic over 93%, Protestant 6%

_#_Language: Spanish (official); English as native tongue 14%;
many Panamanians bilingual

_#_Literacy: 88% (male 88%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 770,472 (1987); government and community services
27.9%; agriculture, hunting, and fishing 26.2%; commerce, restaurants,
and hotels 16%; manufacturing and mining 10.5%; construction 5.3%;
transportation and communications 5.3%; finance, insurance, and real
estate 4.2%; Canal Zone 2.4%; shortage of skilled labor, but an
oversupply of unskilled labor

_#_Organized labor: 17% of labor force (1986)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Panama

_#_Type: centralized republic

_#_Capital: Panama

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia) and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro,
Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon, Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama,
San Blas*, Veraguas

_#_Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent
from Spain 28 November 1821)

_#_Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea
Legislativa)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema
de Justicia) currently being reorganized

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Guillermo ENDARA
(since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989);
First Vice President Ricardo ARIAS Calderon (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989);
Second Vice President Guillermo FORD (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

government alliance--Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement
(MOLIRENA), Alfredo RAMIREZ;
Authentic Liberal Party (PLA);
Arnulfista Party (PA), Francisco ARTOLA;

opposition parties--Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
Ricardo ARIAS Calderon;
Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD, ex-official government party),
Gerardo GONZALEZ;
Agrarian Labor Party (PALA), Carlos ELETA Almaran;
Liberal Party (PL);
People's Party (PdP, Soviet-oriented Communist party), Ruben DARIO
Sousa Batista;
Democratic Workers Party (PDT, leftist), Eduardo RIOS;
National Action Party (PAN, rightist);
Popular Action Party (PAPO), Carlos Ivan ZUNIGA;
Socialist Workers Party (PST, leftist), Jose CAMBRA;
Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT, leftist), Graciela DIXON

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld
(next to be held May 1994);
results--anti-NORIEGA coalition believed to have won about 75% of the
total votes cast;

Legislative Assembly--last held on 27 January 1991 (next to
be held May 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(67 total) progovernment parties--PDC 28, MOLIRENA 16,
PA 6, PLA 5;

opposition parties--PRD 10, PALA 1, PL 1;
note--the PDC went into opposition after President Guillermo ENDARA
ousted the PDC from the coalition government in April 1991

_#_Communists: People's Party (PdP), pro-Soviet mainline Communist
party, did not obtain the necessary 3% of the total vote in the
1984 election to retain its legal status; about 3,000 members

_#_Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE); National Civic
Crusade; National Committee for the Right to Life

_#_Member of: AG (associate), CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA (observer), LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime FORD;
Chancery at 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and Consulates has
not yet been determined;

US--Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and
Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E,
APO Miami 34002); telephone [507] 27-1777

_#_Flag: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are
white with a blue five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain
red, the bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a
red five-pointed star in the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: GDP expanded by an estimated 5% in 1990, after
contracting 1% in 1988 and 14% in 1989. Political stability prompted
greater business confidence and consumer demand, leading to increased
production by the agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, construction,
and utilities sectors. The transportation sector and government services
declined slightly due to slack early-1990 transits through the Panama
Canal, lower oil pipeline flowthrough, and Panama City's budget cuts.
Imports and exports posted gains during the year, and government revenues
were up sharply over 1989's levels.

_#_GDP: $4.8 billion, per capita $1,980; real growth rate 5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $1.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $70 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $355 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--bananas 27%, shrimp 21%, clothing 6%, coffee 4%,
sugar 4%;

partners--US 90%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1989 est.)

_#_Imports: $1,250 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--foodstuffs 13%, capital goods 12%, crude oil 12%,
consumer goods, chemicals;

partners--US 35%, Central America and Caribbean, EC,
Mexico, Venezuela (1989 est.)

_#_External debt: $5 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 1,113,000 kW capacity; 3,264 million kWh produced,
1,350 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum
refining, brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar mills,
paper products

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP (1990 est.), 25% of labor
force (1989); crops--bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock;
fishing; importer of food grain, vegetables, milk products

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $516
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $575 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $4 million

_#_Currency: balboa (plural--balboas); 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

_#_Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1--1.000 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km
0.914-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 3,270 km gravel or
crushed stone, 2,515 km improved and unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km
Panama Canal

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 130 km

_#_Ports: Cristobal, Balboa, Puerto de La Bahia de Las Minas

_#_Merchant marine: 2,932 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
41,314,623 GRT/66,226,104 DWT; includes 22 passenger, 22 short-sea
passenger, 5 passenger-cargo, 1,060 cargo, 188 refrigerated cargo,
165 container, 62 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 105 vehicle carrier,
8 livestock carrier, 5 multifunction large-load carrier,
301 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 175 chemical tanker,
27 combination ore/oil, 91 liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 651 bulk,
37 combination bulk; note--all but 5 are foreign owned and operated;
the top 4 foreign owners are Japan 36%, Greece 9%, Hong Kong 9%, and the
US 8%; (China owns at least 127 ships, Vietnam 10, Yugoslavia 10, Cuba 5,
Cyprus 3, and USSR 2)

_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 113 total, 101 usable; 41 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic and international facilities well
developed; connection into Central American Microwave System; 2 Atlantic
Ocean satellite antennas; 220,000 telephones; stations--91 AM, no FM,
23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine cable

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: note--the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist
as a military institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama
on 20 December 1989; President Endara is attempting to restructure the
forces into a civilian police service under the new name of Panamanian
Public Forces (PPF); a Council of Public Security and National Defense
under Menalco Solis in the office of the president coordinates the
activities of the security forces; the Institutional Protection Service
under Carlos Bares is attached to the presidency

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 644,895; 444,522 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $75.5 million, 1.5% of GDP (1990)
_%_
_@_Papua New Guinea
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 461,690 km2; land area: 451,710 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than California

_#_Land boundary: 820 km with Indonesia

_#_Coastline: 5,152 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling
foothills

_#_Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber,
oil potential

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures NEGL%; forest and woodland 71%; other 28%

_#_Environment: one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast;
some active volcanos; frequent earthquakes

_#_Note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,913,186 (July 1991), growth rate 2.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Papua New Guinean(s); adjective--Papua New
Guinean

_#_Ethnic divisions: predominantly Melanesian and Papuan; some
Negrito, Micronesian, and Polynesian

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 22%, Lutheran 16%,
Presbyterian/Methodist/London Missionary Society 8%, Anglican 5%,
Evangelical Alliance 4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1%, other Protestant sects
10%; indigenous beliefs 34%

_#_Language: 715 indigenous languages; English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin
English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region

_#_Literacy: 52% (male 65%, female 38%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,660,000; 732,806 in salaried employment; agriculture
54%, government 25%, industry and commerce 9%, services 8% (1980)

_#_Organized labor: more than 50 trade unions, some with fewer than 20
members

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Port Moresby

_#_Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Central, Chimbu, Eastern
Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus, Milne
Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain

_#_Independence: 16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under
Australian administration)

_#_Constitution: 16 September 1975

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, deputy prime minister, National Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (sometimes
referred to as the House of Assembly)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Vincent ERI (since 18 January 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Rabbie NAMALIU (since 4 July
1988); Deputy Prime Minister Ted DIRO (since 29 April 1990);
note--Deputy Prime Minister Ted DIRO has the title only since he has
been suspended pending trial for alleged corruption charges

_#_Political parties:
Papua New Guinea United Party (Pangu Party), Rabbie NAMALIU;
People's Progress Party (PPP), Sir Julius CHAN;
United Party (UP), Paul TORATO;
Papua Party (PP), Galeva KWARARA;
National Party (NP), Paul PORA;
Melanesian Alliance (MA), Fr. John MOMIS

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

National Parliament--last held 13 June-4 July 1987 (next to be held
4 July 1992);
results--PP 14.7%, PDM 10.8%, PPP 6.1%, MA 5.6%, NP 5.1%, PAP 3.2%,
independents 42.9%, other 11.6%;
seats--(109 total) PP 26, PDM 17, NP 12, MA 7, PAP 6, PPP 5, independents
22, other 14

_#_Communists: no significant strength

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, ASEAN (observer), C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Margaret TAYLOR; Chancery at
Suite 350, 1330 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 659-0856;

US--Ambassador Robert W. FERRAND; Embassy at Armit Street, Port
Moresby (mailing address is P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby); telephone
[675] 211-455 or 594, 654

_#_Flag: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper
triangle is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the
lower triangle is black with five white five-pointed stars of the
Southern Cross constellation centered

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural
resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and
the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a
subsistence livelihood for 85% of the population. Mining of numerous
deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of
export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid
under World Bank auspices help sustain the economy.

_#_GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $725; real growth rate - 3.0% (1989
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5% (1988)

_#_Budget: revenues $867 million; expenditures $873 million,
including capital expenditures of $119 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--gold, copper ore, coffee, cocoa, copra, palm oil,
timber, lobster;

partners--FRG, Japan, Australia, UK, Spain, US

_#_Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, fuels, food,
chemicals, consumer goods;

partners--Australia, Singapore, Japan, US, New Zealand, UK

_#_External debt: $2.76 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%; accounts for 25% of
GDP

_#_Electricity: 397,000 kW capacity; 1,510 million kWh produced,
400 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: copra crushing, oil palm processing, plywood
processing, wood chip production, gold, silver, copper, construction,
tourism

_#_Agriculture: one-third of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population;
fertile soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of
crops; cash crops--coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other
products--tea, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork;
net importer of food for urban centers

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $40.6
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.4 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million

_#_Currency: kina (plural--kina); 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

_#_Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1--1.0549 (January 1991), 1.0467
(1990), 1.1685 (1989), 1.1538 (1988), 1.1012 (1987), 1.0296 (1986),
1.0000 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed
stone, or stabilized-soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 10,940 km

_#_Ports: Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

_#_Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 26,711
GRT/34,682 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 combination
ore/oil, 2 bulk

_#_Civil air: about 15 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 567 total, 479 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
40 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: services are adequate and being improved;
facilities provide radiobroadcast, radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal
radio, aeronautical radio, and international radiocommunication services;
submarine cables extend to Australia and Guam; 51,700 telephones (1985);
stations--31 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (including Army, Navy,
Air Force)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 983,175; 546,824 fit for
military service

_#_Defense expenditures: $42 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Paracel Islands
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: undetermined

_#_Comparative area: undetermined

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 518 km

_#_Maritime claims: undetermined

_#_Disputes: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: undetermined

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons

_#_Note: located 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea
about one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines

_*_People
_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: small Chinese port facilities on Woody Island and
Duncan Island currently under expansion

_#_Airports: 1 on Woody Island

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: occupied by China
_%_
_@_Paraguay
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 406,750 km2; land area: 397,300 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

_#_Land boundaries: 3,920 km total; Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia
750 km, Brazil 1,290 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) has not been determined

_#_Climate: varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west

_#_Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay;
Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near
the river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

_#_Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, limestone, hydropower,
timber

_#_Land use: arable land 20%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and
pastures 39%; forest and woodland 35%; other 5%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: local flooding in southeast (early September to June);
poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

_#_Note: landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

_*_People
_#_Population: 4,798,739 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 47 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Paraguayan(s); adjective--Paraguayan

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (Spanish and Indian) 95%, white and
Indian 5%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 90%; Mennonite and other Protestant
denominations

_#_Language: Spanish (official) and Guarani

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 92%, female 88%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,300,000; agriculture 44%, industry and commerce
34%, services 18%, government 4% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: about 2% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Paraguay

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Asuncion

_#_Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay,
Boqueron, Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canindeyu, Central, Chaco,
Concepcion, Cordillera, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu,
Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari, Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

_#_Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution 25 August 1967

_#_Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French
codes; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice;
does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet),
Council of State

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Senators (Camara de
Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justicia)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Andres
RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Colorado Party, Luis Maria ARGANA, acting president;
Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Juan Manuel BENITEZ Florentin;
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge Dario CRISTALDO;
Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF), Euclides ACEVEDO;
Popular Democratic Party (PDP), Hugo RICHER

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 and up to age 60

_#_Elections:

President--last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held February 1993);
results--Gen. RODRIGUEZ 75.8%, Domingo LAINO 19.4%;

Chamber of Senators--last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held by
May 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(36 total) Colorado Party 24, PLRA 10, PLR 1, PRF 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held on 1 May 1989 (next to be held by
May 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(72 total) Colorado Party 48, PLRA 19, PRF 2, PDC 1, PL 1, PLR 1

_#_Communists: Oscar Creydt faction and Miguel Angel SOLER faction
(both illegal); 3,000 to 4,000 (est.) party members and sympathizers in
Paraguay, very few are hard core; party beginning to return from exile is
small and deeply divided

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Confederation of Workers (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church

_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcos MARTINEZ MENDIETA;
Chancery at 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 483-6960 through 6962; there are Paraguayan Consulates General in
New Orleans and New York, and a Consulate in Houston;

US--Ambassador Jon GLASSMAN; Embassy at 1776 Avenida Mariscal
Lopez, Asuncion (mailing address is C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO Miami
34036-0001); telephone [595] (21) 213-715

_#_Flag: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue
with an emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the
emblem is different on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left)
bears the national coat of arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a
green wreath capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within
two circles); the reverse (hoist side at the right) bears the seal of the
treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of Liberty and the words Paz y
Justicia (Peace and Justice) capped by the words REPUBLICA DEL
PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture,
including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GNP, employs about 45% of
the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay has no known
significant mineral or petroleum resources but does have a large
hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined
compared with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an
average annual rate of nearly 11%. During 1982-86 real GDP fell in three
of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and
foreign debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the
economy were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather
for crops, and weak international commodity prices for agricultural
exports. In 1987 the economy experienced a minor recovery because of
improved weather conditions and stronger international prices for key
agricultural exports. The recovery continued through 1990, on the
strength of bumper crops in 1988-89. The government, however, must
follow through on promises of reforms needed to deal with escalating
inflation, large fiscal deficits, growing debt arrearages, and falling
reserves.

_#_GDP: $4.6 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate 3.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 44% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 12% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $487 million (1991)

_#_Exports: $980 million (registered f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee,
tung oil, meat products;

partners--EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%, US 6%

_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (registered c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and
lubricants 19%, raw materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco
10%;

partners--Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

_#_External debt: $1.7 billion (1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% (1989 est.); accounts
for 16% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,169,000 kW capacity; 15,144 million kWh produced,
3,250 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 44% of labor force; cash
crops--cotton, sugarcane; other crops--corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans,
cassava, fruits, and vegetables; animal products--beef, pork, eggs,
milk; surplus producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade; important transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed
for the US and Europe

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $172
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.05 billion

_#_Currency: guarani (plural--guaranies);
1 guarani (0) = 100 centimos

_#_Exchange rates: guaranies (0) per US$1--1,204.5 (October 1989),
1,056.2 (1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989), 339.17 (1986),
306.67 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km
1.000-meter gauge, 470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)

_#_Highways: 21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 474 km gravel, and
19,698 km earth

_#_Inland waterways: 3,100 km

_#_Ports: Asuncion

_#_Merchant marine: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,743
GRT/22,954 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker; note--1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 851 total, 738 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 60 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: principal center in Asuncion; fair intercity
microwave net; 78,300 telephones; stations--40 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 7
shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Naval Air and Marines), Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,130,690; 823,136 fit for
military service; 51,415 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $84 million, 1.4% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Peru
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,285,220 km2; land area: 1,280,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska

_#_Land boundaries: 6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km,
Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

_#_Coastline: 2,414 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

_#_Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

_#_Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

_#_Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in
center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

_#_Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber,
fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 21%; forest and woodland 55%; other 21%; includes irrigated
1%

_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild
volcanic activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; air pollution in Lima

_#_Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable
lake, with Bolivia

_*_People
_#_Population: 22,361,785 (July 1991), growth rate 2.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Peruvian(s); adjective--Peruvian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Indian 45%; mestizo (mixed Indian and European
ancestry) 37%; white 15%; black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%

_#_Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Spanish and Quechua (both official), Aymara

_#_Literacy: 85% (male 92%, female 29%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 6,800,000 (1986); government and other services 44%,
agriculture 37%, industry 19% (1988 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 40% of salaried workers (1983 est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Peru

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Lima

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento) and 1 constitutional province*
(provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa,
Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica,
Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios,
Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali;
note--the 1979 Constitution and legislation enacted from 1987 to
1990 mandate the creation of regions (regiones, singular--region)
intended to function eventually as autonomous economic and
administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted
from 23 existing departments--Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres
Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from
Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca
(from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad),
Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui
(from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from
Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin),
Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by
the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the
department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central
government, the regions have yet to assume their reponsibilities and at
the moment co-exist with the departmental structure

_#_Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979
Constitution because the Constituent Assembly met in 1979, but the
Constitution actually took effect the following year); reestablished
civilian government with a popularly elected president and bicameral
legislature

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an
upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justicia)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Alberto FUJIMORI (since 28 July 1990);
Vice President Maximo SAN ROMAN (since 28 July 1990);
Vice President Carlos GARCIA (since 28 July 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Carlos TORRES Y TORRES Lara
(since 15 February 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Change 90 (Cambio 90), Alberto FUJIMORI;
Democratic Front (FREDEMO), a loosely organized three-party
coalition--Popular Christian Party (PPC), Luis BEDOYA Reyes;
Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando BELAUNDE Terry;
and Liberty Movement;
American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA), Luis ALVA Castro;
National Front of Workers and Peasants (FRENATRACA), Roger CACERES;
United Left (IU), run by committee;
Socialist Left (IS), Enrique BERNALES

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results--Alberto FUJIMORI 56.53%, Mario VARGAS Llosa 33.92%, other
9.55%;

Senate--last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total) FREDEMO 20, APRA 16, Change 90 14, IU 6, IS 3,
FRENATRACA 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 8 April 1990 (next to be held April
1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(180 total) FREDEMO 62, APRA 53, Change 90 32, IU 16, IS 4,
FRENATRACA 3, other 10

_#_Communists: Peruvian Communist Party-Unity (PCP-U), pro-Soviet,
2,000; other minor Communist parties

_#_Other political or pressure groups:

leftist guerrilla groups--Shining Path, leader Abimael GUZMAN;
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement, Nestor CERPA and Victor POLLAY

_#_Member of: AG, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS,
OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roberto G. MACLEAN; Chancery
at 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
833-9860 through 9869); Peruvian Consulates General are located in
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey),
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US--Ambassador Anthony C.E. QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of
Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing
address is P. O. Box 1995, Lima 100, or APO Miami 34031); telephone
[51] (14) 338-000

_#_Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and
red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms
features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine),
and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green
wreath

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Peruvian economy is basically capitalistic, with a
large dose of government welfare programs and government management of
credit. In the 1980s the economy suffered from hyperinflation,
declining per capita output, and mounting external debt. Peru was shut
off from IMF and World Bank support in the mid-1980s because of its
huge debt arrears. An austerity program implemented shortly after the
Fujimori government took office in July 1990 contributed to a third
consecutive yearly contraction of economic activity, but was able to
generate a small recovery in the last quarter. After a burst of
inflation as the program eliminated government price subsidies, monthly
price increases eased to the single-digit level for the first time
since mid-1988. Lima has restarted current payments to multilateral
lenders and, although it faces $14 billion in arrears on its external
debt, is working toward an accommodation with its creditors.

_#_GDP: $19.3 billion, per capita $898; real growth rate - 3.9%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7,650% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 20.0%; underemployment estimated at 60% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $3.01 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--fishmeal, cotton, sugar, coffee, copper, iron ore,
refined silver, lead, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts;

partners--EC 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%, Latin America 8%, USSR 4%

_#_Imports: $2.78 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, machinery, transport equipment, iron and
steel semimanufactures, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;

partners--US 23%, Latin America 16%, EC 12%, Japan 7%,
Switzerland 3%

_#_External debt: $20.0 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 21% (1989); accounts
for almost 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 4,867,000 kW capacity; 15,540 million kWh produced,
710 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles,
clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding,
metal fabrication

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, 37% of labor force;
commercial crops--coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops--rice, wheat,
potatoes, plantains, coca; animal products--poultry, red meats, dairy,
wool; not self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of
4.6 million metric tons (1987), world's fifth-largest

_#_Illicit drugs: world's largest coca leaf producer with about
121,000 hectares under cultivation; source of supply for most of the
world's coca paste and cocaine base; about 85% of cultivation is for
illicit production; most of cocaine base is shipped to Colombian drug
dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $3.95 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $577 million

_#_Currency: inti (plural--intis); 1 inti (I/) = 1,000 soles

_#_Exchange rates: intis (I/) per US$1--530,000 (January 1991),
187,886 (1990), 2,666 (1989), 128.83 (1988), 16.84 (1987), 13.95 (1986),
10.97 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 1,884 km total; 1,584 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
300 km 0.914-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 56,645 km total; 6,030 km paved, 11,865 km gravel,
14,610 km improved earth, 24,140 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon
system and 208 km Lago Titicaca

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids,
64 km

_#_Ports: Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara

_#_Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 321,541
GRT/516,859 DWT; includes 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
8 bulk; note--in addition, 8 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are
sometimes used commercially

_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 222 total, 205 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 24 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most requirements;
nationwide radio relay system; 544,000 telephones; stations--273 AM, no
FM, 140 TV, 144 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations, 12
domestic antennas

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (Ejercito Peruano), Navy (Marina de Guerra del
Peru), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru), Peruvian National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,704,684; 3,859,123 fit for
military service; 241,792 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $430 million, 2.4% of GDP (1991)
_%_
_@_Philippines
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 300,000 km2; land area: 298,170 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 36,289 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

_#_Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands
with China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; claims Malaysian state of
Sabah

_#_Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

_#_Natural resources: timber, crude oil, nickel, cobalt, silver,
gold, salt, copper

_#_Land use: arable land 26%; permanent crops 11%; meadows and
pastures 4%; forest and woodland 40%; other 19%; includes irrigated
5%

_#_Environment: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and
struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides,
active volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunami; deforestation; soil
erosion; water pollution

_*_People
_#_Population: 65,758,788 (July 1991), growth rate 2.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 54 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Filipino(s); adjective--Philippine

_#_Ethnic divisions: Christian Malay 91.5%, Muslim Malay 4%, Chinese
1.5%, other 3%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 83%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 5%,
Buddhist and other 3%

_#_Language: Pilipino (based on Tagalog) and English; both official

_#_Literacy: 90% (male 90%, female 90%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 24,120,000; agriculture 46%, industry and commerce
16%, services 18.5%, government 10%, other 9.5% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 3,945 registered unions; total membership
5.7 million (includes 2.8 million members of the National Congress of
Farmers Organizations)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Philippines

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Manila

_#_Administrative divisions: 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*;
Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique,
Aurora, Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan,
Batanes, Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan,
Butuan*, Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*,
Caloocan*, Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz,
Catanduanes, Cavite, Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*,
Danao*, Dapitan*, Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental,
Dipolog*, Dumaguete*, Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao,
Iligan*, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela,
Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur,
Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*, Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*,
Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro
Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental,
Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato,
Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*,
Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan,
Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon,
Roxas*, Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in
Pangasinan), San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South
Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del
Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*,
Tarlac, Tawitawi, Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*,
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur

_#_Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

_#_Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

_#_Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Kongreso) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Corazon C. AQUINO
(since 25 February 1986); Vice President Salvador H. LAUREL (since
25 February 1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
PDP-Laban, Aquilino PIMENTEL;
Struggle of Philippine Democrats (LDP), Neptali GONZALES;
Nacionalista Party, Salvador LAUREL, Juan Ponce ENRILE;
Liberal Party, Jovito SALONGA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 15

_#_Elections:

President--last held 7 February 1986 (next election to be
held May 1992); results--Corazon C. AQUINO elected, precipitating the
fall of the MARCOS regime;

Senate--last held 11 May 1987 (next to be held May 1992);
results--pro-Aquino LDP 63%,
liberal LDP and PDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 25%,
opposition Nationalista Party 4%,
independent 8%;
seats--(24 total) pro-Aquino LDP 15, liberal
LDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 6, opposition Nationalista Party
1, independent 2;

House of Representatives--last held on 11 May 1987 (next to be
held May 1992);
results--pro-Aquino LDP 73%, liberal LDP and PDP-Laban
(Pimentel wing) 10%, opposition Nationalista Party 17%;
seats--(250 total, 180 elected) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) controls
about 18,000-23,000 full-time insurgents and is not recognized as a legal
party; a second Communist party, the pro-Soviet Philippine Communist
Party (PKP), has quasi-legal status

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (observer), UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Emmanuel PELAEZ; Chancery at
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
483-1414; there are Philippine Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and
Seattle;

US--Ambassador Nicholas PLATT; Embassy at 1201 Roxas Boulevard,
Manila (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96528); telephone [63] (32)
211-101 through 3; there is a US Consulate in Cebu

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the
triangle is a yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three
individual rays) and in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow
five-pointed star

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy continues to recover from the political
turmoil following the ouster of former President Marcos and several coup
attempts. After two consecutive years of economic contraction (1984 and
1985), the economy has since 1986 had positive growth, although in 1990
the economy slowed considerably from 1989. The agricultural sector
together with forestry and fishing, plays an important role in the
economy, employing about 45% of the work force and providing almost
30% of GDP. The Philippines is the world's largest exporter of coconuts
and coconut products. Manufacturing contributes about 25% of GDP. Major
industries include food processing, chemicals, and textiles.

_#_GNP: $45.2 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.7% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9.3% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: $7.2 billion; expenditures $8.12 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.97 billion (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: revenues $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--electrical equipment 19%, textiles 16%, minerals
and ores 11%, farm products 10%, coconut 10%, chemicals 5%, fish 5%,
forest products 4%;

partners--US 36%, EC 19%, Japan 18%, ESCAP 9%, ASEAN 7%

_#_Imports: $12.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--raw materials 53%, capital goods 17%, petroleum
products 17%;

partners--US 25%, Japan 17%, ESCAP 13%, EC 11%, ASEAN 10%,
Middle East 10%

_#_External debt: $28.4 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.9% (1990 est.); accounts
for 30-35% of GNP

_#_Electricity: 6,755,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced,
420 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products,
food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

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