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_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Niuean(s); adjective--Niuean

_#_Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and

_#_Religion: Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church)--a Protestant church
closely related to the London Missionary Society 75%, Mormon 10%,
Roman Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist 5%

_#_Language: Polynesian tongue closely related to Tongan and Samoan;

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 14

_#_Labor force: 1,000 (1981 est.); most work on family plantations;
paid work exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue
Development Board

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: self-governing territory in free association with New
Zealand; Niue fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand
retains responsibility for external affairs

_#_Capital: Alofi

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: became a self-governing territory in free
association with New Zealand on 19 October 1974

_#_Constitution: 19 October 1974 (Niue Constitution Act)

_#_Legal system: English common law

_#_National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established
British sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, premier, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by New Zealand Representative John SPRINGFORD (since 1974);

Head of Government--Premier Sir Robert R. REX (since NA October

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Niue Island Party (NIP), Young VIVIAN


Legislative Assembly--last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be
held March 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(20 total, 6 elected) independents 5, NIP 1

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing territory in free
association with New Zealand)

_#_Flag: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side
quadrant; the flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars--a
large one on a blue disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of
the bold red cross

_#_Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New
Zealand. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the
shortfall made up by grants from New Zealand--the grants are used to pay
wages to public employees. The agricultural sector consists mainly of
subsistence gardening, although some cash crops are grown for export.
Industry consists primarily of small factories to process passion fruit,
lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of postage stamps to foreign
collectors is an important source of revenue. The island in recent years
has suffered a serious loss of population because of migration of Niueans
to New Zealand.

_#_GNP: $2.1 million, per capita $1,000; real growth rate NA%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (1984)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $5.5 million; expenditures $6.3 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY85 est.)

_#_Exports: $175,274 (f.o.b., 1985);

commodities--canned coconut cream, copra, honey, passion fruit
products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, footballs, stamps, handicrafts;

partners--NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

_#_Imports: $3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985);

commodities--food, live animals, manufactured goods, machinery,
fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs;

partners--NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 1,500 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
1,490 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourist, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: copra, coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes;
subsistence crops--taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs,
poultry, beef cattle

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $62 million

_#_Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6798 (January
1991), 1.6750 (1990), 1.6711 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088
(1986), 2.0064 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Highways: 123 km all-weather roads, 106 km access and plantation

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway of 1,650 m

_#_Telecommunications: single-line telephone system connects all
villages on island; 383 telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.);
stations--1 AM, 1 FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Police Force

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
_@_Norfolk Island
(territory of Australia)
_#_Total area: 34.6 km2; land area: 34.6 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 32 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

_#_Natural resources: fish

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
25%; forest and woodland 0%; other 75%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons (especially May to July)

_#_Note: located 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific

_#_Population: 2,576 (July 1991), growth rate NEGL% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Norfolk Islander(s);
adjective--Norfolk Islander(s)

_#_Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutiny; more recently,
Australian and New Zealand settlers

_#_Religion: Anglican 39%, Roman Catholic 11.7%, Uniting Church in
Australia 16.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 4.4%, none 9.2%, unknown 16.9%,
other 2.4% (1986)

_#_Language: English (official) and Norfolk--a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Territory of Norfolk Island

_#_Type: territory of Australia

_#_Capital: Kingston (administrative center), Burnt Pine (commercial

_#_Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Independence: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1957

_#_Legal system: wide legislative and executive responsibility under
the Norfolk Island Act of 1979; Supreme Court

_#_National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, Executive Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Administrator H. B. MACDONALD (since NA 1989), who is
appointed by the Governor General of Australia;

Head of Government--Assembly President and Chief Minister John
Terence BROWN (since NA)

_#_Political parties and leaders: NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Legislative Assembly--last held 1989 (held every three years);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) percent of seats by party NA

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

_#_Flag: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly
wider white band

_#_Overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which has
brought a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific
Islands. The number of visitors has increased steadily over the years and
reached 29,000 in FY89. Revenues from tourism have given the
island a favorable balance of trade and helped the agricultural sector to
become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $4.2 million, including
capital expenditures of $400,000 (FY89)

_#_Exports: $1.7 million (f.o.b., FY86);

commodities--postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine
and Kentia Palm, small quantities of avocados;

partners--Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

_#_Imports: $15.6 million (c.i.f., FY86);


partners--Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

_#_External debt: NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced,
3,160 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism

_#_Agriculture: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, poultry

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_#_Highways: 80 km of roads, including 53 km of sealed roads;
remainder are earth formed or coral surfaced

_#_Ports: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
(Australian owned)

_#_Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link
service with Sydney; 987 telephones (1983); stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_@_Northern Mariana Islands
(commonwealth associated with the US)
_#_Total area: 477 km2; land area: 477 km2; includes Saipan, Rota, and

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,482 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds,
little seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to July, rainy
season July to October

_#_Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and
fringing coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is
471 meters (Mt. Tagpochu on Saipan)

_#_Natural resources: arable land, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 1%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures
19%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%

_#_Environment: Mt. Pagan is an active volcano (last erupted in
October 1988); subject to typhoons during the rainy season

_#_Note: strategic location 5,635 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the
North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and
the Philippines

_#_Population: 23,494 (July 1991), growth rate 3.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: undetermined

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chamorro majority; Carolinians and other
Micronesians; Spanish, German, Japanese admixtures

_#_Religion: Christian with a Roman Catholic majority, although
traditional beliefs and taboos may still be found

_#_Language: English, but Chamorro and Carolinian are also spoken in
the home and taught in school

_#_Literacy: 96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 12,788 local; 18,799 foreign workers (1990 est.)

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

_#_Type: commonwealth associated with the US and administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the

_#_Capital: Saipan

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

_#_Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986

_#_Legal system: NA

_#_National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

_#_Executive branch: governor, lieutenant governor

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);
Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government--Governor Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO
(since NA 1990);
Lieutenant Governor Benjamin T. MANGLONA (since NA 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Alonzo IGISOMAR;
Democratic Party, Felicidad OGUMORO

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections


Governor--last held on NA November 1989 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--Lorenzo I. DeLeon GUERRERO, Republican Party, was elected

Senate--last held on NA November 1989 (next to be held November
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives--last held on NA November 1989 (next to
be held November 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives--last held NA November 1989 (next to
be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) party of nonvoting delegate NA

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), SPC

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray
silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in
building) in the center

_#_Overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial
assistance from the US. An agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitles
the islands to $228 million for capital development, government
operations, and special programs. Another major source of income is the
tourist industry, which employs about 10% of the work force. The
agricultural sector is made up of cattle ranches and small farms
producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and melons. Industry is small
scale in nature--mostly handicrafts and fish processing.

_#_GNP: $165 million, per capita $9,170; real growth rate NA% (1982)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $70.6 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1987)

_#_Exports: $153.9 million (1989);

commodities--manufactured goods, garments;


_#_Imports: $313.7 million, a 43% increase over previous year (1989);



_#_External debt: none

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
1,540 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: coffee, coconuts, fruits, tobacco, cattle

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Highways: 300 km total (53 km primary, 55 km secondary, 192 km

_#_Ports: Saipan, Rota, Tinian

_#_Airports: 6 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 2 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_#_Total area: 324,220 km2; land area: 307,860 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 2,544 km total; Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,619 km,
USSR 196 km

_#_Coastline: 21,925 km (3,419 km mainland; 2,413 km large islands;
16,093 km long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations)

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with USSR; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime
claims beween Greenland and Jan Mayen

_#_Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current;
colder interior; rainy year-round on west coast

_#_Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains
broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply
indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, copper, natural gas, pyrites,
nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 27%; other 70%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: air and water pollution; acid rain

_#_Note: strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in
North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world;
Norway and Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

_#_Population: 4,273,442 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Norwegian(s); adjective--Norwegian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic) and
racial-cultural minority of 20,000 Lapps

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran (state church) 87.8%, other
Protestant and Roman Catholic 3.8%, none 3.2%, unknown 5.2% (1980)

_#_Language: Norwegian (official); small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976 est.)

_#_Labor force: 2,167,000 (September 1990); services 34.7%, commerce
18%, mining and manufacturing 16.6%, banking and financial services 7.5%,
transportation and communications 7.2%, construction 7.2%,
agriculture, forestry, and fishing 6.4% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 66% of labor force (1985)

_#_Long-form name: Kingdom of Norway

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Oslo

_#_Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular--fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More
og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold,
Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms,
Vest-Agder, Vestfold

_#_Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

_#_Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

_#_Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

_#_Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and
common law traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to
legislature when asked; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, State Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Stortinget)
with an Upper Chamber (Lagting) and a Lower Chamber (Odelsting)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hoiesterett)


Chief of State--King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir
Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS (born 20 July 1973);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND
(since 3 November 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Labor, Gro Harlem BRUNDTLAND;
Conservative, Kaci Kullmann FIVE;
Center Party, Anne Enger LAHNSTEIN;
Christian People's, Kjell Magne BONDEVIK;
Socialist Left, Eric SOLHEIM;
Norwegian Communist, Kare Andre NILSEN;
Progress, Carl I. HAGEN; Liberal, Arne FJORTOFT;
Finnmark List, leader NA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


Storting--last held on 11 September 1989 (next to be held
6 September 1993);
results--Labor 34.3%, Conservative 22.2%, Progress 13.0%, Socialist Left
10.1%, Christian People's 8.5%, Center Party 6.6%, Finnmark List 0.3%,
other 5%;
seats--(165 total) Labor 63, Conservative 37, Progress 22, Socialist
Left 17, Christian People's 14, Center Party 11, Finnmark List 1

_#_Communists: 15,500 est.; 5,500 Norwegian Communist Party (NKP);
10,000 Workers Communist Party Marxist-Leninist (AKP-ML, pro-Chinese)

_#_Member of: AfDB, AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kjeld VIBE; Chancery at
2720 34th Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6000;
there are Norwegian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Miami and New

US--Ambassador Loret Miller RUPPE; Embassy at Drammensveien 18,
0244 Oslo 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09085); telephone [47]
(2) 44-85-50

_#_Flag: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

_#_Overview: Norway is a prosperous capitalist nation with the
resources to finance extensive welfare measures. Since 1975 exploitation
of large crude oil and natural gas reserves has helped maintain high
growth; for the past five years growth has averaged 4.1%, the
fourth-highest among OECD countries. Growth slackened in 1987-88
partially because of the sharp drop in world oil prices, but picked
up again in 1989. The Brundtland government plans to push hard on
environmental issues, as well as cutting unemployment, improving
child care, upgrading major industries, and negotiating an
EC - European Free Trade Association (EFTA) agreement on an Economic
European Area.

_#_GDP: $74.2 billion, per capita $17,400; real growth rate 3.1%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1990, excluding people in
job-training programs)

_#_Budget: revenues $47.9 billion; expenditures $48.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

_#_Exports: $33.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--petroleum and petroleum products 25%, natural gas
11%, fish 7%, aluminum 6%, ships 3.5%, pulp and paper;

partners--EC 64.9%, Nordic countries 19.5%, developing countries
6.9%, US 6.2%, Japan 1.7% (1990)

_#_Imports: $26.8 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery, fuels and lubricants, transportation
equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, clothing, ships;

partners--EC 46.3%, Nordic countries 25.7%, developing countries
14.3%, US 8.1%, Japan 4.7% (1990)

_#_External debt: $15 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3.6% (1990)

_#_Electricity: 26,735,000 kW capacity; 121,685 million kWh produced,
28,950 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp
and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 2.8% of GNP and 6.4% of labor force;
among world's top 10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value
of crops; over half of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.76 million
metric tons in 1989

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $4.4

_#_Currency: Norwegian krone (plural--kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

_#_Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1--5.9060 (January
1991), 6.2597 (1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947
(1986), 8.5972 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State
Railways (NSB) operates 4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double
track); 4 km other

_#_Highways: 79,540 km total; 18,600 km concrete, bituminous, stone
block; 19,980 km bituminous treated; 40,960 km gravel, crushed stone, and

_#_Inland waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 1.5-2.4 m draft
vessels maximum

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 53 km

_#_Ports: Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger,

_#_Merchant marine: 867 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,270,845
GRT/41,199,182 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 23 short-sea passenger,
121 cargo, 3 passenger-cargo, 24 refrigerated cargo, 14 container, 50
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 18 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 186
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 98 chemical tanker, 69
liquefied gas, 1 specialized tanker, 35 combination ore/oil, 204 bulk, 9
combination bulk; note--the government has created a captive register,
the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of the
Norwegian register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of
convenience and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of
ships (777) under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS

_#_Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 104 total, 103 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: high-quality domestic and international
telephone, telegraph, and telex services; 3,102,000 telephones;
stations--8 AM, 46 (1,400 relays) FM, 55 (2,100 relays) TV; 4 coaxial
submarine cables; communications satellite earth stations operating in
the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean), MARISAT, and domestic systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air
Force, Home Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,124,201; 942,158 fit for
military service; 31,813 reach military age (20) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $3.3 billion, 3.3% of GDP (1990)
_#_Total area: 212,460 km2; land area: 212,460 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

_#_Land boundaries: 1,374 km total; Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km,
Yemen 288 km

_#_Coastline: 2,092 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to be defined;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Administrative Line with Yemen; no defined boundary with
most of UAE, Administrative Line in far north

_#_Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior;
strong southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

_#_Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, copper, asbestos, some marble,
limestone, chromium, gypsum, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 5%; forest and woodland 0%; other 95%; includes
irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and
duststorms in interior; sparse natural freshwater resources

_#_Note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam
Peninsula controlling Strait of Hormuz (17% of world's oil production
transits this point going from Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea)

_#_Population: 1,534,011 (July 1991), growth rate 3.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Omani(s); adjective--Omani

_#_Ethnic divisions: mostly Arab, with small Balochi,
Zanzibari, and South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi) groups

_#_Religion: Ibadhi Muslim 75%; remainder Sunni Muslim, Shia
Muslim, some Hindu

_#_Language: Arabic (official); English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 430,000; agriculture (est.) 60%; 58% are non-Omani

_#_Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

_#_Long-form name: Sultanate of Oman

_#_Type: absolute monarchy; independent, with residual UK influence

_#_Capital: Muscat

_#_Administrative divisions: there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 7 planning
regions (manatiq takhtitiyah, singular--mintaqah
takhtitiyah) that include 1 governorate* (muhafazah)
and 50 districts (wilayat, singular--wilayah);

al-Batinah--Awabi, Barka, Khabura, Liwa, Musanaa, Nakhl, Rustaq,
Saham, Shinas, Sohar, Suwaiq, Wadi al-Maawil;

al-Dakhiliah--Adam, al-Hamra, Bahla, Bidbid, Haima, Izki, Manah,
Nizwa, Sumail;

al-Dhahirah--al-Buraimi, Dhank, Ibri, Mhadha, Yanqul;

al-Janubiah--Dhalqut, Mirbat, Rokhyut, Sadah, Salalah, Shalim,
Taqa, Thamrait;

al-Sharqiya--al Kamil and al-Wafi, al-Mudhaiby, al-Qabil,
Bidiya, Dimaa and Tayin, Ibra, Jaalan Bani Bu Ali,
Jaalan Bani Bu Hassan, Masirah, Sur, Wadi Bani Khalid;

Musandam--Daba al-Biya, Bukha, Khasab, Madha;

Muscat--Muscat*, Quriyat

_#_Independence: 1650, expulsion of the Portuguese

_#_Constitution: none

_#_Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_Executive branch: sultan, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: State Consultative Assembly (advisory
function only)

_#_Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent
civil court system

_#_National holiday: National Day, 18 November


Chief of State and Head of Government--Sultan and Prime Minister
QABOOS bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)

_#_Political parties: none

_#_Suffrage: none

_#_Elections: none

_#_Other political or pressure groups: outlawed Popular Front for the
Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in Yemen

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Awadh Bader AL-SHANFARI;
Chancery at 2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 387-1980 through 1982;

US--Ambassador Richard W. BOEHM; Embassy at address NA, Muscat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 50200 Madinat Qaboos, Muscat); telephone

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red,
and green (double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist
side; the national emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath
superimposed on two crossed swords in scabbards) in white is centered at
the top of the vertical band

_#_Overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of
the oil industry. Petroleum accounts for nearly all export earnings,
about 80% of government revenues, and roughly 40% of GDP. Oman has
proved oil reserves of 4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years'
supply at the current rate of extraction. Although agriculture employs a
majority of the population, urban centers depend on imported food.

_#_GDP: $9.2 billion, per capita $5,870 (1990); real growth rate
- 3.0% (1987 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (1989)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $675 million (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $3.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--petroleum, reexports, processed copper, dates, nuts,

partners--Japan, South Korea, Taiwan

_#_Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured
goods, food, livestock, lubricants;

partners--UK, UAE, Japan, US

_#_External debt: $3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989), including
petroleum sector

_#_Electricity: 1,136,000 kW capacity; 3,650 million kWh produced,
2,500 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas
production, construction, cement, copper

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 60% of the labor force
(including fishing); less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence
farming (dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not
self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $137
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $122 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million

_#_Currency: Omani rial (plural--rials); 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000

_#_Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1--0.3845 (fixed rate
since 1986)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Highways: 22,800 km total; 3,800 km bituminous surface, 19,000 km
motorable track

_#_Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

_#_Ports: Mina Qabus, Mina Raysut

_#_Merchant marine: 1 passenger ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,442 GRT/1,320 DWT

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 122 total, 114 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 64 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire, radio relay, and
radio communications stations; 50,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, 3 FM,
11 TV; satellite earth stations--2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT,
and 8 domestic

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 348,849; 197,870 fit for
military service; 20,715 reach military age (14) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.0 billion, 12% of GDP (1991)
_@_Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
_#_Total area: 458 km2; land area: 458 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,519 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

_#_Terrain: islands vary geologically from the high mountainous main
island of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large
barrier reefs

_#_Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine
products; deep-seabed minerals

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%

_#_Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; archipelago
of six island groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain

_#_Note: important location 850 km southeast of the Philippines;
includes World War II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock

_#_Population: 14,411 (July 1991), growth rate 0.7% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 12 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Palauan(s); adjective--Palauan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan,
and Melanesian races

_#_Religion: predominantly Christian, mainly Roman Catholic

_#_Language: Palauan is the official language, though English is
commonplace; inhabitants of the isolated southwestern islands speak a
dialect of Trukese

_#_Literacy: 92% (male 93%, female 91%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: NA

_#_Long-form name: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
(no short-form name); may change to Republic of Palau after independence;
note--Belau, the native form of Palau, is sometimes used

_#_Type: UN trusteeship administered by the US; constitutional
government signed a Compact of Free Association with the US on
10 January 1986, after approval in a series of UN-observed plebiscites;
until the UN trusteeship is terminated with entry into force of the
Compact, Palau remains under US administration as the Palau District of
the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

_#_Capital: Koror; a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast
in eastern Babelthuap

_#_Administrative divisions: none

_#_Independence: still part of the US-administered UN trusteeship
(the last polity remaining under the trusteeship; the Republic of the
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Commonwealth of the
Northern Marianas have left); administered by the Office of Territorial
and International Affairs, US Department of Interior

_#_Constitution: 11 January 1981

_#_Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

_#_National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

_#_Executive branch: US president, US vice president, national
president, national vice president

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or
OEK) consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January
1989); represented by the Assistant Secretary for Territorial Affairs,
US Department of the Interior, Stella GUERRA (since NA July 1989);

Head of Government--President Ngiratkel ETPISON (since 2 November

_#_Political parties: no formal parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


President--last held on 2 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); Ngiratkel ETPISON 26.3%, Roman TMETUCHL 25.9%,
Thomas REMENGESAU 19.5%, other 28.3%;

Senate--last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(18 total);

House of Delegates--last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held
November 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(16 total)

_#_Member of: ESCAP (associate), SPC, SPF (observer)

_#_Diplomatic representation: none;

US--US Liaison Officer Lloyd MOSS; US Liaison Office at Top
Side, Neeriyas, Koror (mailing address: P. O. Box 6028, Koror, Republic
of Palau 96940); telephone 160-680-920 or 990

_#_Flag: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon)
shifted slightly to the hoist side

_#_Overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture
and fishing. Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote
location of Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered
development. The government is the major employer of the work force,
relying heavily on financial assistance from the US.

_#_GDP: $31.6 million, per capita $2,260; real growth rate NA% (1986)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1986)

_#_Budget: revenues $6.0 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1986)

_#_Exports: $0.5 million (f.o.b., 1986);


partners--US, Japan

_#_Imports: $27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986);



_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 22 million kWh produced,
1,540 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some
commercial fishing and agriculture

_#_Agriculture: subsistence-level production of coconut, copra,
cassava, sweet potatoes

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $62.6 million

_#_Currency: US currency is used

_#_Exchange rates: US currency is used

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_#_Highways: 25.7 km paved macadam and concrete roads, otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads (1986)

_#_Ports: Koror

_#_Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not
change when the UN trusteeship terminates
_@_Pacific Ocean
_#_Total area: 165,384,000 km2; includes Arafura Sea, Banda Sea,
Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea,
Gulf of Alaska, Makassar Strait, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Sea of Japan,
Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, and other tributary water

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 18 times the size of the US;
the largest ocean (followed by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and
Arctic Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger than
the total land area of the world

_#_Coastline: 135,663 km

_#_Climate: the western Pacific is monsoonal--a rainy season occurs
during the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean
over the land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds
blow from the Asian land mass back to the ocean

_#_Terrain: surface in the northern Pacific dominated by a clockwise,
warm water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) and in the southern
Pacific by a counterclockwise, cool water gyre; sea ice occurs in the
Bering Sea and
Sea of Okhotsk during winter and reaches maximum northern extent from
Antarctica in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is
dominated by the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is
dissected by deep trenches; the world's greatest depth is 10,924 meters
in the Marianas Trench

_#_Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand
and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

_#_Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, sea
lion, sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine
Sea and South China Sea; dotted with low coral islands and rugged
volcanic islands in the southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical
cyclones (typhoons) in southeast and east Asia from May to December (most
frequent from July to October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form
south of Mexico and strike Central America and Mexico from June to
October (most common in August and September); southern shipping lanes
subject to icebergs from Antarctica; occasional El Nino phenomenon
occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade winds slacken and the warm
Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, which kills the plankton that is
the primary food source for anchovies; consequently, the anchovies move
to better feeding grounds, causing resident marine birds to starve by the
thousands because of their lost food source

_#_Note: the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama
Canal, Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the
Pacific Ocean into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean;
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north from October to
May and in extreme south from May to October; persistent fog in the
northern Pacific from June to December is a hazard to shipping;
surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic and earthquake activity
sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire

_#_Overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world
economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly touch.
It provides cheap sea transportation between East and West, extensive
fishing grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and
gravel for the construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the
world's total fish catch came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only
ocean where the fish catch has increased every year since 1978.
Exploitation of offshore oil and gas reserves is playing an
ever-increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia, New Zealand,
China, US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil and gas,
combined with the wide swings in world prices for oil since 1985, has
slowed but not stopped new drillings.

_#_Industries: fishing, oil and gas production

_#_Ports: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US),
Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle
(US), Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok
(USSR), Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

_#_Telecommunications: several submarine cables with network focused
on Guam and Hawaii
_#_Total area: 803,940 km2; land area: 778,720 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

_#_Land boundaries: 6,774 km total; Afghanistan 2,430 km, China
523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

_#_Coastline: 1,046 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundary with India; Pashtun question with Afghanistan;
Baloch question with Afghanistan and Iran; water sharing problems with
upstream riparian India over the Indus

_#_Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in

_#_Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and
northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

_#_Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
crude oil, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 26%; permanent crops NEGL%;
meadows and pastures 6%; forest and woodland 4%; other 64%; includes
irrigated 19%

_#_Environment: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially
in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and
August); deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water logging

_#_Note: controls Khyber Pass and Malakand Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

_#_Population: 117,490,278 (July 1991), growth rate 2.5% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 109 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 57 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Pakistani(s); adjective--Pakistani

_#_Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch,
Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendents)

_#_Religion: Muslim 97% (Sunni 77%, Shia 20%), Christian, Hindu, and
other 3%

_#_Language: Urdu and English (both official); total spoken
languages--Punjabi 64%, Sindhi 12%, Pashtu 8%, Urdu 7%, Balochi and other
9%; English is lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government
ministries, but official policies are promoting its gradual replacement
by Urdu

_#_Literacy: 35% (male 47%, female 21%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 28,900,000; agriculture 54%, mining and manufacturing
13%, services 33%; extensive export of labor (1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 10% of industrial work force

_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

_#_Type: parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic

_#_Capital: Islamabad

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1
capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal
Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier,
Punjab, Sindh; note--the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed
Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

_#_Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan)

_#_Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977,
restored with amendments, 30 December 1985

_#_Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to
accommodate Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Pakistan Day (proclamation of the republic),
23 March (1956)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Mijlis-e-Shoora)
consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shariat) Court


Chief of State--President GHULAM ISHAQ Khan (since 13 December

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mian Nawaz SHARIF (since 6
November 1990);

_#_Political parties and leaders: Islamic Democratic
Alliance (Islami Jamuri Ittehad or IJI)--the Pakistan Muslim League
(PML) led by Mohammed Khan JUNEJO is the main party in the IJI;
Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Benazir BHUTTO; note--in September 1990
the PPP announced the formation of the People's Democratic Alliance
(PDA), an electoral alliance including the following four
parties--PPP, Solidarity Movement (Tehrik Istiqlal), Movement for the
Implementation of Shia Jurisprudence (Tehrik-i-Nifaz Fiqh Jafariya
or TNFJ), and the PML (Malik faction);
Muhajir Qaumi Movement (MQM), Altaf HUSSAIN;
Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul Wali KHAN;
Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam (JUI), Fazlur RAHMAN;
Jamhoori Watan Party (JWP), Mohammad Akbar Khan BUGTI;
Pakistan National Party (PNP), Mir Ghaus Bakhsh BIZENJO;
Pakistan Khawa Milli Party (PKMP), leader NA;
Assembly of Pakistani Clergy (Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Pakistan or JUP),
Maulana Shah Ahmed NOORANI;
Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain AHMED

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President--last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993); results--Ghulam Ishaq KHAN was elected by Parliament
and the four provincial assemblies;

Senate--last held March 1991 (next to be held March 1994);
results--elected by provincial assemblies;
seats--(87 total) IJI 57, Tribal Area Representatives (nonparty) 8,
PPP 5, ANP 5, JWP 4, MQM 3, PNP 2, PKMP 1, JUI 1, independent 1;

National Assembly--last held on 24 October 1990 (next to be held
by October 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(217 total) IJI 107, PDA 45, MQM 15, ANP 6, JUI 6, JWP 2, PNP 2,
PKMP 1, independent 14, religious minorities 10, Tribal Area
Representatives (nonparty) 8, vacant 1

_#_Communists: the Communist party is officially banned but is
allowed to operate openly

_#_Other political or pressure groups: military remains dominant
political force; ulema (clergy), industrialists, and small merchants also

_#_Member of: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,

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