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_#_Electricity: supplied by the United States Military

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Johnston Island

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,743 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent system including 60-channel submarine
cable, Autodin/SRT terminal, digital telephone switch, Military
Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), commercial satellite television
system (receive only), and UHF/VHF air-ground radio, marine
VHF/FM Channel 16

_#_Note: US Coast Guard operates a LORAN transmitting station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Jordan
(see separate West Bank entry)
_#_Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended
with Israel in control of the West Bank. As stated in the 1978 Camp David
Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace
initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their
relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and
Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp David
Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the location
of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it
is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip has
yet to be determined.

_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 91,880 km2; land area: 91,540 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

_#_Land boundaries: 1,586 km total; Iraq 134 km, Israel 238 km,
Saudi Arabia 742 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

_#_Coastline: 26 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Disputes: differences with Israel over the location of the
1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries

_#_Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to
April)

_#_Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west;
Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

_#_Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

_#_Land use: arable land 4%; permanent crops 0.5%; meadows and
pastures 1%; forest and woodland 0.5%; other 94%; includes irrigated 0.5%

_#_Environment: lack of natural water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,412,553 (July 1991), growth rate 4.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 73 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Jordanian(s); adjective--Jordanian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 98%, Circassian 1%, Armenian 1%

_#_Religion: Sunni Muslim 92%, Christian 8%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); English widely understood among
upper and middle classes

_#_Literacy: 80% (male 89%, female 70%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 572,000 (1988); agriculture 20%, manufacturing and
mining 20% (1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: about 10% of labor force

_#_Note: 1.5-1.7 million Palestinians live on the East Bank (55-60%
of the population), most are Jordanian citizens

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Amman

_#_Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Balqa, Al Karak, Al Mafraq,
Amman, At Tafilah, Az Zarqa, Irbid, Maan

_#_Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration; formerly Trans-Jordan)

_#_Constitution: 8 January 1952

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial
review of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

_#_Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al-Umma)
consists of an upper house or House of Notables (Majlis al-Aayan) and a
lower house or House of Deputies (Majlis al-Nuwaab); note--the
House of Deputies was dissolved by King Hussein on 30 July 1988 as
part of Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank and in November 1989
the first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held, with no seats
going to Palestinians on the West Bank

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal I (since 11 August 1952);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Tahir al-MASRI (since 17 June
1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; after the 1989 parliamentary
elections, King Hussein promised to allow the formation of political
parties; a national charter that sets forth the ground rules for
democracy in Jordan--including the creation of political parties--has
been completed but not yet approved

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1989 (next to be
held November 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(80 total) Muslim Brotherhood 22, Independent Islamic bloc
10, Democratic bloc (mostly leftist) 15, Liberal bloc (traditionalist)
7, Nationalist bloc (traditionalist) 14, independent 12

_#_Communists: party actively repressed, membership less than 500
(est.)

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hussein A. HAMMAMI;
Chancery at 3504 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-2664;

US--Ambassador Roger Gram HARRISON; Embassy on Jebel Amman, Amman
(mailing address is P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO New York 09892);
telephone [962] (6) 644-371

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green
with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small
white seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the
seven fundamental laws of the Koran

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Jordan was a secondary beneficiary of the oil boom of
the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its annual GNP growth averaged
10-12%. Recent years, however, have witnessed a sharp reduction in grant
aid from Arab oil-producing countries and a dropoff in worker
remittances, with national growth averaging 1-2%. Imports--mainly oil,
capital goods, consumer durables, and foodstuffs--have been outstripping
exports by roughly $2 billion annually, the difference being made up by
aid, remittances, and borrowing. In mid-1989, the Jordanian Government
agreed to implement an IMF austerity program designed to tackle the
country's serious economic problems. The program sought to gradually
reduce the government's budget deficit over the next several years and
implement badly needed structural reforms in the economy. In return for
agreeing to the IMF program, Jordan was granted IMF standby loans of over
$100 million. Recognizing that it would be unable to cover its debt
obligations, the government also began debt rescheduling negotiations
with creditors in mid-1989. The onset of the Gulf crisis in August 1990
forced the government to shelve the IMF program and suspend most debt
payments and rescheduling negotiations. Economic prospects for 1991
are especially gloomy, given the unsettled conditions in the Middle
East.

_#_GNP: $4.6 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate - 15%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (January 1991 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.05 billion; expenditures $1.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991 est.)

_#_Exports: $0.9 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--fruits and vegetables, phosphates, fertilizers;

partners--Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India, Kuwait, Japan, China,
Yugoslavia, Indonesia

_#_Imports: $2.1 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--crude oil, textiles, capital goods, motor vehicles,
foodstuffs;

partners--EC, US, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey, Romania, China,
Taiwan

_#_External debt: $8 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 15% (1990 est.); accounts
for 20% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 981,000 kW capacity; 3,500 million kWh produced,
1,180 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; principal products are
wheat, barley, citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock--sheep,
goats, poultry; large net importer of food

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.7
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.3 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $44 million

_#_Currency: Jordanian dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

_#_Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1--0.6670 (January
1991), 0.6636 (1990), 0.5704 (1989), 0.3709 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499
(1986), 0.3940 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 619 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed
stone

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km

_#_Ports: Al Aqabah

_#_Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,870
GRT/38,187 DWT; includes 1 bulk, 1 cargo

_#_Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 19 total, 16 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay, cable, and
radio; 81,500 telephones; stations--4 AM, 3 FM, 24 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT,
1 domestic TV receive-only; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Saudi
Arabia, and Syria; radio relay to Lebanon is inactive; a microwave
network linking Syria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Jordan

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jordanian Air Force,
Royal Jordanian Coast Guard, Public Security Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 778,353; 555,144 fit for
military service; 39,879 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $377 million, 12.4% of GNP (1990)
_%_
_@_Juan de Nova Island
(French possession)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 4.4 km2; land area: 4.4 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 24.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

_#_Climate: tropical

_#_Terrain: undetermined

_#_Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 90%; other 10%

_#_Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

_#_Note: located in the central Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Africa and Madagascar

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the
Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: short line going to a jetty

_#_Airports: 1 with nonpermanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of France
_%_
_@_Kenya
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 582,650 km2; land area: 569,250 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

_#_Land boundaries: 3,477 km total; Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km,
Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

_#_Coastline: 536 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: administrative boundary with Sudan does not coincide
with international boundary; possible claim by Somalia based on
unification of ethnic Somalis

_#_Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

_#_Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great
Rift Valley; fertile plateau in west

_#_Natural resources: gold, limestone, soda ash, salt barytes,
rubies, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

_#_Land use: arable land 3%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 4%; other 85%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: unique physiography supports abundant and varied
wildlife of scientific and economic value; deforestation; soil erosion;
desertification; glaciers on Mt. Kenya

_#_Note: Kenyan Highlands one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa

_*_People
_#_Population: 25,241,978 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Kenyan(s); adjective--Kenyan

_#_Ethnic divisions: Kikuyu 21%, Luhya 14%, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 11%,
Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, Asian, European, and Arab 1%

_#_Religion: Protestant 38%, Roman Catholic 28%, indigenous beliefs
26%, Muslim 6%

_#_Language: English and Swahili (official); numerous indigenous
languages

_#_Literacy: 69% (male 80%, female 58%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 9.2 million (includes unemployed); the total
employed is 1.37 million (14.8% of the labor force); services
54.8%, industry 26.2%, agriculture 19.0% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 390,000 (est.)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Kenya

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Nairobi

_#_Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North-Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

_#_Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK; formerly British East
Africa)

_#_Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964;
reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, and 1988

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic
law; judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations; constitutional amendment in 1982 made Kenya a de jure
one-party state

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Daniel Teroitich
arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI
(since 10 May 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders: only party--Kenya African National
Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap MOI, president

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held
by March 1993);
results--President Daniel T. arap MOI was reelected;

National Assembly--last held on 21 March 1988
(next to be held by March 1993); results--KANU is the only party;
seats--(202 total, 188 elected) KANU 200

_#_Communists: may be a few Communists and sympathizers

_#_Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; exile
opposition--Mwakenya and other groups

_#_Member of: ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE; Chancery
at 2249 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-6101; there
are Kenyan Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;

US--Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE, Jr.; Embassy at the corner of Moi
Avenue and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi (mailing address is P. O. Box
30137, Nairobi or APO New York 09675); telephone [254] (2) 334141; there
is a US Consulate in Mombasa

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green;
the red band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed
spears is superimposed at the center

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: A serious underlying economic problem is Kenya's 3.6%
annual population growth rate--one of the highest in the world. In the
meantime, GDP growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of
population--annually averaging 4.9% in the 1986-90 period. Undependable
weather conditions and a shortage of arable land hamper long-term
growth in agriculture, the leading economic sector.

_#_GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $360; real growth rate 4% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.9% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%, but there is a high level of unemployment
and underemployment

_#_Budget: revenues $2.0 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY89)

_#_Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--tea 25%, coffee 21%, petroleum products 7% (1989);

partners--EC 44%, Africa 25%, Asia 5%, US 5%, Middle East 4% (1988)

_#_Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment 29%,
petroleum and petroleum products 15%, iron and steel 7%,
raw materials, food and consumer goods (1989 est.);

partners--EC 45%, Asia 11%, Middle East 12%, US 5% (1988)

_#_External debt: $5.8 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (1989 est.); accounts
for 17% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 730,000 kW capacity; 2,700 million kWh produced,
110 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture,
batteries, textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing,
oil refining, cement, tourism

_#_Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 29% of GDP,
about 80% of the work force, and over 50% of exports; cash
crops--coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products--corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products; food output not keeping
pace with population growth

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis used mostly for
domestic consumption; widespread cultivation of cannabis and qat on
small plots; transit country for heroin and methaqualone en route
from Southwest Asia to West Africa, Western Europe, and the US

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $839
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $6.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $83 million

_#_Currency: Kenyan shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1--24.427 (January
1991), 22.915 (1990), 20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988), 16.454 (1987), 16.226
(1986), 16.432 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel,
remainder improved earth

_#_Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries
of Kenya; principal inland port is at Kisumu

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 483 km

_#_Ports: Mombasa, Lamu

_#_Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 249 total, 213 usable; 22 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 47 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: in top group of African systems; consists of
radio relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunication stations;
260,000 telephones; stations--11 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTLESAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Air Force, paramilitary General
Service Unit of the Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 5,444,247; 3,362,290 fit for
military service; no conscription

_#_Defense expenditures: $100 million, 1.0% of GDP (1989 est.)
_%_
_@_Kingman Reef
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 3 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

_#_Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about
1 meter

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or
awash most of the time

_#_Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa; maximum
elevation of about 1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed to
the public

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the
US Navy

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
_%_
_@_Kiribati
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 717 km2; land area: 717 km2; includes three island
groups--Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,143 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

_#_Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive
reefs

_#_Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 51%; meadows and
pastures 0%; forest and woodland 3%; other 46%

_#_Environment: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to
March; 20 of the 33 islands are inhabited

_#_Note: Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati is one of the three great
phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean--the others are Makatea
in French Polynesia and Nauru

_*_People
_#_Population: 71,137 (July 1991), growth rate 1.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 63 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 58 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--I-Kiribati (sing., pl.); adjective--I-Kiribati

_#_Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 52.6%, Protestant (Congregational) 40.9%,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baha'i, Church of God, Mormon 6% (1985)

_#_Language: English (official), Gilbertese

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 7,870 economically active (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: Kiribati Trades Union Congress--2,500 members

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Kiribati; note--pronounced Kiribas

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Tarawa

_#_Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands,
Phoenix Islands; note--a new administrative structure of 6 districts
(Banaba, Central Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern
Gilberts, Tarawa) may have been changed to 20 island councils (one for
each of the inhabited islands) named Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae,
Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kiritimati, Kuria, Maiana, Makin, Marakei,
Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana, Tarawa, Teraina

_#_Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK; formerly Gilbert Islands)

_#_Constitution: 12 July 1979

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni
Maungatabu)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Ieremia TABAI
(since 12 July 1979); Vice President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 20 July 1979)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Gilbertese National Party;
Christian Democratic Party, Teburoro TITO, secretary;
essentially not organized on the basis of political parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 12 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results--Ieremia TABAI 50.1%, Tebruroro TITO 42.7%, Tetao
TEANNAKI 7.2%;

House of Assembly--last held on 19 March l987 (next to be held
May 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party NA

_#_Member of: ACP, AsDB, C, ESCAP (associate), IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFC, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) lives in Tarawa
(Kiribati);

US--none

_#_Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over
a yellow rising sun and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy
white stripes to represent the ocean

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The country has few national resources. Commercially
viable phosphate deposits were exhausted at the time of independence
in 1979. Copra and fish now represent the bulk of production and exports.
The economy has fluctuated widely in recent years. Real GDP declined
about 8% in 1987, as the fish catch fell sharply to only one-fourth the
level of 1986 and copra production was hampered by repeated rains. Output
rebounded strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing by 17%. The upturn in
economic growth came from an increase in copra production and a good fish
catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GNP increased 1%
in 1989 and again in 1990.

_#_GDP: $36.8 million, per capita $525; real growth rate 1.0% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.0% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2% (1985); considerable underemployment

_#_Budget: revenues $29.9 million; expenditures $16.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $14.0 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $5.8 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--fish 55%, copra 42%;

partners--EC 20%, Marshall Islands 12%, US 8%, American
Samoa 4% (1985)

_#_Imports: $26.7 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--foodstuffs, fuel, transportation equipment;

partners--Australia 39%, Japan 21%, NZ 6%, UK 6%, US 3% (1985)

_#_External debt: $2.0 million (December 1989 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.0% (1988 est.); accounts
for less than 4% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: fishing, handicrafts

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fishing); copra
and fish contribute about 95% to exports; subsistence farming
predominates; food crops--taro, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables;
not self-sufficient in food

_#_Economic aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-88), $258 million

_#_Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2834 (January
1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905
(1986), 1.4269 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: NA

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 640 km of motorable roads

_#_Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line
Islands

_#_Ports: Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)

_#_Civil air: 2 Trislanders; no major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 22 total; 21 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: 1,400 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no military force maintained; the Police Force carries
out law enforcement functions and paramilitary duties; there are small
police posts on all islands

_#_Manpower availability: NA

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Korea, North
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 120,540 km2; land area: 120,410 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi

_#_Land boundaries: 1,671 km total; China 1,416 km, South Korea 238
km, USSR 17 km

_#_Coastline: 2,495 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the
exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea (all foreign vessels and
aircraft without permission are banned)

_#_Disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite;
Demarcation Line with South Korea

_#_Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

_#_Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow
valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

_#_Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 18%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
NEGL%; forest and woodland 74%; other 7%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible,
and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe
flooding

_#_Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and USSR

_*_People
_#_Population: 21,814,656 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 72 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Korean(s); adjective--Korean

_#_Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous

_#_Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; religious activities now
almost nonexistent

_#_Language: Korean

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%)

_#_Labor force: 9,615,000; agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64%;
shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 1,600,000 members; single-trade union system
coordinated by the General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea under the
Central Committee

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Democratic People's Republic of Korea; abbreviated
DPRK

_#_Type: Communist state; dictatorship

_#_Capital: P'yongyang

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
3 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Chagang-do,
Hamgyong-namdo, Hamgyong-bukto, Hwanghae-namdo, Hwanghae-bukto,
Kaesong-si*, Kangwon-do, Namp'o-si*, P'yongan-bukto,
P'yongan-namdo, P'yongyang-si*, Yanggang-do

_#_Independence: 9 September 1948

_#_Constitution: adopted 1948, revised 27 December 1972

_#_Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese
influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 9 September (1948)

_#_Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, premier, eleven
vice premiers, State Administration Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego
Inmin Hoeui)

_#_Judicial branch: Central Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President KIM Il-song (since 28 December 1972);
Designated Successor KIM Chong-il (son of President, born 16 February
1942);

Head of Government--Premier YON Hyong-muk (since NA December 1988)

_#_Political parties and leaders: major party--Korean Workers' Party
(KWP), KIM Il-song, general secretary, and his son, KIM Chong-il,
secretary, Central Committee;
Korean Social Democratic Party, YI Kye-paek, chairman;
Chondoist Chongu Party, CHONG Sin-hyok, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17

_#_Elections:

President--last held 24 May 1990 (next to be held 1994);
results--President KIM Il-song was reelected without opposition;

Supreme People's Assembly--last held on 24 May 1990 (next
to be held 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(687 total) the KWP approves a single list of candidates
who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few seats

_#_Communists: KWP claims membership of about 3 million

_#_Member of: FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, IOC,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none

_#_Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and
blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band
is a white disk with a red five-pointed star

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95%
of manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually
tight even for a Communist country because of the small size and
homogeneity of the society and the strict one-man rule of Kim. Economic
growth during the period 1984-90 averaged approximately 3%. Abundant
natural resources and hydropower form the basis of industrial
development. Output of the extractive industries includes coal, iron ore,
magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals.
Manufacturing emphasis is centered on heavy industry, with light industry
lagging far behind. Despite the use of high-yielding seed varieties,
expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea
has not yet become self-sufficient in food production. Four consecutive
years of poor harvests, coupled with distribution problems, have led to
chronic food shortages. North Korea remains far behind South Korea in
economic development and living standards.

_#_GNP: $29.7 billion, per capita $1,390; real growth rate 2%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

_#_Unemployment rate: officially none

_#_Budget: revenues $15.6 billion; expenditures $15.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $1.95 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural
products, manufactures;

partners--USSR, China, Japan, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore

_#_Imports: $2.85 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--petroleum, machinery and equipment, coking coal,
grain;

partners--USSR, Japan, China, Hong Kong, FRG, Singapore

_#_External debt: $7 billion (1991)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 6,440,000 kW capacity; 40,250 million kWh produced,
1,890 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machine building, military products, electric power,
chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force;
principal crops--rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and
livestock products--cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in
grain; fish catch estimated at 1.7 million metric tons in 1987

_#_Economic aid: Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s

_#_Currency: North Korean won (plural--won);
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

_#_Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1--2.2 (March 1991),
2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989), 2.13 (December 1988), 0.94
(March 1987), NA (1986), NA (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,535 km total; 3,870 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
665 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge; 159 km double track;
3,175 km electrified; government owned (1989)

_#_Highways: about 30,000 km (1989); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or
earth surface; 1.5% concrete or bituminous

_#_Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 37 km

_#_Ports: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam, Namp'o, Wonsan, Songnim,
Najin, Sonbong

_#_Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 465,801
GRT/709,442 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 58 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 4 bulk, 1 combination bulk

_#_Airports: 55 total, 55 usable (est.); about 30 with
permanent-surface runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 20
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: stations--18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 200,000 TV sets;
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Korean People's Army (includes of the Army, Navy,
Air Force), Civil Security Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 6,381,859; 3,899,606 fit for
military service; 214,690 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 20-25% of GNP (1991 est.);
note--the officially announced but suspect figure is $1.7 billion,
6% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
_@_Korea, South
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 98,480 km2; land area: 98,190 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Indiana

_#_Land boundary: 238 km with North Korea

_#_Coastline: 2,413 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in the Korea Strait)

_#_Disputes: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks
claimed by Japan

_#_Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

_#_Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west
and south

_#_Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower

_#_Land use: arable land 21%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 67%; other 10%; includes irrigated 12%

_#_Environment: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods;
earthquakes in southwest; air pollution in large cities

_#_Notes: strategic location along the Korea Strait, Sea of Japan, and
Yellow Sea

_*_People
_#_Population: 43,134,386 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 73 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Korean(s); adjective--Korean

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous; small Chinese minority
(about 20,000)

_#_Religion: strong Confucian tradition; vigorous Christian minority
(28% of the total population); Buddhism; pervasive folk religion
(Shamanism); Chondokyo (religion of the heavenly way), eclectic religion
with nationalist overtones founded in 19th century, claims about 1.5
million adherents

_#_Language: Korean; English widely taught in high school

_#_Literacy: 96% (male 99%, female 94%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 16,900,000; 52% services and other; 27% mining and
manufacturing; 21% agriculture, fishing, forestry (1987)

_#_Organized labor: about 10% of nonagricultural labor force in
government-sanctioned unions

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Korea; abbreviated ROK

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Seoul

_#_Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
6 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto,
Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi*, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto,
Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi*

_#_Independence: 15 August 1948

_#_Constitution: 25 February 1988

_#_Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law
systems, Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1948)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
State Council (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Kuk Hoe)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President ROH Tae Woo (since 25 February 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister CHUNG Won Shik (since 24
May 1991); Deputy Prime Minister CHOI Kak Kyu (since 19 February
1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:

ruling party--Democratic Liberal Party (DLP), ROH Tae Woo,
president, KIM Young Sam, chairman;
note--the DLP resulted from a merger of the Democratic Justice Party
(DJP), Reunification Democratic Party (RDP), and New Democratic
Republican Party (NDRP) on 9 February 1990;

opposition--New Democratic Party (NDP, formerly Party for Peace
and Democracy or PPD), KIM Dae Jung, president; Democratic Party (DP),
YI Ki Taek; several smaller parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 16 December 1987 (next to be held
December 1992);
results--ROH Tae Woo (DJP) 35.9%, KIM Young Sam (RDP) 27.5%,
KIM Dae Jung (PPD) 26.5%, other 10.1%;

National Assembly--last held on 26 April 1988 (next to be held
April 1992);
results--DJP 34%, RDP 24%, PPD 19%, NDRP 15%, other 8%;
seats--(299 total) DJP 125, PPD 70, RDP 59, NDRP 35, other 10;
note--on 9 February 1990 the DJP, RDP, and NDRP merged to form the DLP;
also the PPD became the NDP; as a result the distribution
of seats changed to DLP 218, NDP 70, other 11 (June 1990)

_#_Communists: Communist party activity banned by government

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Korean National Council of
Churches; National Democratic Alliance of Korea; National Council of
College Student Representatives; National Federation of Farmers'
Associations; National Council of Labor Unions; Federation of Korean
Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean
Industries; Korean Traders Association

_#_Member of: AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador HYUN Hong Joo;
Chancery at 2320 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 939-5600; there are Korean Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Anchorage, Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
San Francisco, and Seattle;

US--Ambassador Donald P. GREGG; Embassy at 82 Sejong-Ro,
Chongro-ku, Seoul (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96301);
telephone [82] (2) 732-2601 through 2618; there is a US Consulate
in Pusan

_#_Flag: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the
center; there is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching
(Book of Changes) in each corner of the white field

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth
has been the planned development of an export-oriented economy in a
vigorously entrepreneurial society. Real GNP--which grew by 6.7% in 1989
after an average annual growth of over 12% between 1986-88--grew about
9% in 1990. Labor unrest--which led to substantial wage hikes in
1987-88--was noticeably calmer in 1990, unemployment averaged a low
2.5%, and investment was strong. Inflation rates, however, are beginning
to challenge South Korea's strong economic performance. Consumer prices
rose 8.6%, the highest rate in nine years. Policymakers are concerned
higher prices could lead to a resurgence of labor unrest.

_#_GNP: $238 billion, per capita $5,600; real growth rate 9% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.6% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.5% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $38 billion; expenditures $38 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1991)

_#_Exports: $65 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--textiles, clothing, electronic and electrical
equipment, footwear, machinery, steel, automobiles, ships, fish;

partners--US 30%, Japan 19%

_#_Imports: $70 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains;

partners--Japan 27%, US 24% (1990)

_#_External debt: $31.7 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.6% (1990 est.); accounts for
about 45% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 85,000 million kWh produced,
1,970 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing,
chemicals, steel, electronics, automobile production, ship building

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and employs 21% of work force
(including fishing and forestry); principal crops--rice, root crops,
barley, vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products--cattle,
hogs, chickens, milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat;
fish catch of 2.9 million metric tons, seventh-largest in world

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $3.9
billion; non-US countries (1970-89), $3.0 billion

_#_Currency: South Korean won (plural--won);
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chon (theoretical)

_#_Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1--718.14 (January
1991), 707.76 (1990), 671.46 (1989), 731.47 (1988), 822.57 (1987), 881.45
(1986), 870.02 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 3,106 km operating in 1983; 3,059 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 47 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, 712 km double track,
418 km electrified; government owned

_#_Highways: 62,936 km total (1982); 13,476 km national highway,
49,460 km provincial and local roads

_#_Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

_#_Pipelines: 455 km refined products

_#_Ports: Pusan, Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Ulsan

_#_Merchant marine: 439 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,182,519
GRT/11,906,897 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 138 cargo, 45
container, 11 refrigerated cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 48 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 13 liquefied gas, 7
combination ore/oil, 146 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 1 multifunction
large-load carrier

_#_Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 110 total, 102 usable; 60 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international services;
4,800,000 telephones; stations--79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or
greater); satellite earth stations--2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 12,859,511; 8,294,624 fit for
military service; 429,088 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $10.4 billion, 4.5% of GNP (1991)
_%_
_@_Kuwait
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 17,820 km2; land area: 17,820 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: 462 km total; Iraq 240 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

_#_Coastline: 499 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Iraqi forces invaded and occupied Kuwait from
2 August 1990 until 27 February 1991; in April 1991 official Iraqi
acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which demands that Iraq
accept its internationally recognized border with Kuwait, ended earlier
claims to Bubiyan and Warbah Islands or to all of Kuwait; ownership
of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands disputed by Saudi Arabia

_#_Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

_#_Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

_#_Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 8%; forest and woodland NEGL%; other 92%; includes irrigated
NEGL%

_#_Environment: some of world's largest and most sophisticated
desalination facilities provide most of water; air and water pollution;
desertification

_#_Note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

_*_People
_#_Population: 2,204,400 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 2 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Kuwaiti(s); adjective--Kuwaiti

_#_Ethnic divisions: Kuwaiti 27.9%, other Arab 39%, South Asian 9%,
Iranian 4%, other 20.1%

_#_Religion:
Muslim 85% (Shia 30%, Sunni 45%, other 10%), Christian, Hindu, Parsi,
and other 15%

_#_Language: Arabic (official); English widely spoken

_#_Literacy: 74% (male 78%, female 69%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1985)

_#_Labor force: 566,000 (1986); services 45.0%, construction 20.0%,
trade 12.0%, manufacturing 8.6%, finance and real estate 2.6%,
agriculture 1.9%, power and water 1.7%, mining and quarrying 1.4%; 70% of
labor force was non-Kuwaiti

_#_Organized labor: labor unions exist in oil industry and among
government personnel

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of Kuwait

_#_Type: nominal constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Kuwait

_#_Administrative divisions: 4 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al Jahrah, Al Kuwayt,
Hawalli; note--there may be a new governorate of Farwaniyyah

_#_Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29
August 1962)

_#_Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in
personal matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 25 February

_#_Executive branch: amir, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: National Assembly (Majlis al Umma) dissolved
3 July 1986

_#_Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Amir Shaykh Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir al-SABAH
(since 31 December 1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister and Crown Prince Sad
al-Abdallah al-Salim al-SABAH (since 8 February 1978); Deputy
Prime Minister Salim al-Sabah al-Salim al-SABAH

_#_Political parties and leaders: none

_#_Suffrage: adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their
male descendants at age 21; note--out of all citizens, only 8.3% are
eligible to vote and only 3.5% actually vote

_#_Elections:

National Assembly--dissolved 3 July 1986; new elections are
scheduled for October 1992

_#_Communists: insignificant

_#_Other political or pressure groups: large (150,000) Palestinian
community; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist
groups are active; prodemocracy opposition

_#_Member of: ABEDA, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BDEAC, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO,
G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Shaykh Saud Nasir al-SABAH;
Chancery at 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-0702;

US--Ambassador Edward (Skip) GNEHM; Embassy at Bneid al-Gar
(opposite the Hilton Hotel), Kuwait City (mailing address is P. O. Box 77
Safat, 13001 Safat, Kuwait City); telephone [965] 242-4151 through 4159

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and
red with a black trapezoid based on the hoist side

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Up to the invasion by Iraq in August 1990, the oil
sector had dominated the economy. Kuwait has the third-largest
oil reserves in the world after Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Earnings from
hydrocarbons generated over 90% of both export and government revenues
and contributed about 40% to GDP. Most of the nonoil sector has
traditionally been dependent upon oil-derived government revenues.
Iraq's destruction of Kuwait's oil industry during the Gulf war
has devastated the economy. Iraq destroyed or damaged more than 80%

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