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commodities--polished diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles
and clothing, processed foods, fertilizer and chemical products, military
hardware, electronics;

partners--US, UK, FRG, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy

_#_Imports: $14.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);

commodities--military equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals,
machinery, iron and steel, cereals, textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft;

partners--US, FRG, UK, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

_#_External debt: $24.5 billion, of which government debt is
$18 billion (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (1989); accounts
for about 40% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 4,392,000 kW capacity; 17,500 million kWh produced,
4,000 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing,
textiles, clothing, chemicals, metal products, military equipment,
transport equipment, electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery,
potash mining, high-technology electronics, tourism

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP; largely self-sufficient in
food production, except for bread grains; principal products--citrus and
other fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products--beef, dairy, and

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-90), $18.2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $2.5 billion

_#_Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

_#_Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--2.35
(May 1991), 2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946
(1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March; changing to calender year basis
starting January 1992

_#_Railroads: 594 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated

_#_Highways: 4,500 km; majority is bituminous surfaced

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 708 km; refined products, 290 km; natural
gas, 89 km

_#_Ports: Ashdod, Haifa, Elat

_#_Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 516,714
GRT/611,795 DWT; includes 7 cargo, 21 container, 2 refrigerated cargo;
note--Israel also maintains a significant flag of convenience fleet,
which is normally at least as large as the Israeli flag fleet; the
Israeli flag of convenience fleet typically includes all of its POL

_#_Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 51 total, 44 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: most highly developed in the Middle East
though not the largest; good system of coaxial cable and radio relay;
1,800,000 telephones; stations--11 AM, 24 FM, 54 TV; 2 submarine cables;
satellite earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Israel Defense Forces includes ground, naval, and air
components; historically there have been no separate Israeli military

_#_Manpower availability: eligible 15-49, 2,213,808; of the 1,117,733
males 15-49, 920,449 are fit for military service; of the 1,096,075
females 15-49, 899,022 are fit for military service; 44,429 males and
42,249 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable
for military service; Nahal or Pioneer Fighting Youth, Frontier Guard,

_#_Defense expenditures: $5.3 billion, 13.9% of GNP (1991);
note--includes an estimated $1.8 billion in US military aid
_#_Total area: 301,230 km2; land area: 294,020 km2; includes Sardinia
and Sicily

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

_#_Land boundaries: 1,902.2 km total; Austria 430 km, France 488 km,
San Marino 39 km, Switzerland 740 km, Vatican City 3.2 km, Yugoslavia
202 km

_#_Coastline: 4,996 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry
in south

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal

_#_Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling
natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

_#_Land use: arable land 32%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and
pastures 17%; forest and woodland 22%; other 19%; includes irrigated 10%

_#_Environment: regional risks include landslides, mudflows,
snowslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land
sinkage in Venice

_#_Note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as
well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

_#_Population: 57,772,375 (July 1991), growth rate 0.2% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 82 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Italian(s); adjective--Italian

_#_Ethnic divisions: primarily Italian but population includes small
clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and
Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south; Sicilians; Sardinians

_#_Religion: nominally Roman Catholic almost 100%

_#_Language: Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are
predominantly German speaking; significant French-speaking minority in
Valle d'Aosta region; Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia

_#_Literacy: 97% (male 98%, female 96%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 23,988,000; services 58%, industry 32.2%,
agriculture 9.8% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 40-45% of labor force (est.)

_#_Long-form name: Italian Republic

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Rome

_#_Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular--regione);
Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia
Giulia, Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia,
Sardegna, Sicilia, Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta,

_#_Independence: 17 March 1861, Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

_#_Constitution: 1 January 1948

_#_Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law
influence; appeals treated as trials de novo; judicial review under
certain conditions in Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister (president of the
Council of Ministers)

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of
an upper chamber or Senate of the Republic (Senato della Repubblica)
and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camera dei Deputati)

_#_Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)


Chief of State--President Francesco COSSIGA (since 3 July 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Giulio ANDREOTTI (since 22 July
1989, heads the government for the seventh time); Deputy Prime Minister
Claudio MARTELLI (since 23 July 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Party (DC), Arnaldo FORLANI (general secretary),
Ciriaco De MITA (president);
Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino CRAXI (party secretary);
Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Antonio CARIGLIA (party secretary);
Liberal Party (PLI), Renato ALTISSIMO (secretary general);
Democratic Party of the Left (PDS--was Communist Party, or PCI, until
January 1991), Achille OCCHETTO (secretary general);
Italian Social Movement (MSI), Giuseppe (Pino) RAUTI (national
Republican Party (PRI), Giorgio La MALFA (political secretary);
Lega Nord, Umberto BOSSI, president;
Italy's 50th postwar government was formed on 13 April 1991,
with Prime Minister ANDREOTTI, a Christian Democrat, presiding over a
four-party coalition consisting of the Christian Democrats, Socialists,
Social Democrats, and Liberals

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18 (except in senatorial elections,
where minimum age is 25)


Senate--last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992);
results--DC 33.9%, PCI 28.3%, PSI 10.7%, other 27.1%;
seats--(320 total, 315 elected) DC 125, PCI 100, PSI 36, other 54;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by
June 1992);
results--DC 34.3%, PCI 26.6%, PSI 14.3%, MSI 5.9%, PRI 3.7%, PSDI 3.0%,
Radicals 2.6%, Greens 2.5%, PLI 2.1%, Proletarian Democrats 1.7%,
other 3.3%;
seats--(630 total) DC 234, PCI 177, PSI 94, MSI 35, PRI 21, PSDI 17,
Radicals 13, Greens 13, PLI 11, Proletarian Democrats 8, other 7

_#_Communists: 1.3 million (1990)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: the Roman Catholic Church;
three major trade union confederations (CGIL--Communist dominated,
CISL--Christian Democratic, and UIL--Social Democratic, Socialist, and
Republican); Italian manufacturers association (Confindustria);
organized farm groups (Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rinaldo PETRIGNANI; Chancery
at 1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 328-5500;
there are Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, New
Orleans, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Consulates in
Detroit and Newark (New Jersey);

US--Ambassador Peter F. SECCHIA; Embassy at Via Veneto 119/A,
00187-Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794); telephone [39] (6)
46741; there are US Consulates General in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples,
and Palermo (Sicily)

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
red; similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and is green (hoist
side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast
which has the colors reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green

_#_Overview: Since World War II the economy has changed from one based
on agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the
same total and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is
still divided into a developed industrial north, dominated by small
private companies, and an undeveloped agricultural south, dominated by
large public enterprises. Services account for 48% of GDP, industry 34%,
agriculture 4%, and public administration 13%. Most raw materials needed
by industry and over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. The
economic recovery that began in mid-1983 has continued through 1990, with
the economy growing at an annual average rate of 3%. For the 1990s, Italy
faces the problems of refurbishing a tottering communications system,
curbing pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new
competitive forces accompanying the ongoing economic integration of the
European Community.

_#_GDP: $844.7 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 2.0%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 11.0% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $355 billion; expenditures $448 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $170.4 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--textiles, wearing apparel, metals, transportation
equipment, chemicals;

partners--EC 57%, US 8%, OPEC 4%

_#_Imports: $182.0 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, industrial machinery, chemicals, metals,
food, agricultural products;

partners--EC 58%, OPEC 6%, US 5%

_#_External debt: NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.1% (1990); accounts for
almost 35% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 56,800,000 kW capacity; 225,000 million kWh produced,
3,900 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing,
textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 4% of GDP and 10% of the
work force; self-sufficient in foods other than meat and dairy products;
principal crops--fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 388,200 metric tons in 1988

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $25.9

_#_Currency: Italian lira (plural--lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100

_#_Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1--1,134.4 (January
1991), 1,198.1 (1990), 1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987),
1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned
standard gauge (8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned--2,100 km
1.435-meter standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km
0.950-meter narrow gauge (380 km electrified)

_#_Highways: 294,410 km total; autostrada 5,900 km, state highways
45,170 km, provincial highways 101,680 km, communal highways 141,660 km;
260,500 km concrete, bituminous, or stone block, 26,900 km gravel and
crushed stone,7,010 km earth

_#_Inland waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial
traffic, although of limited overall value

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,703 km; refined products, 2,148 km; natural
gas, 19,400 km

_#_Ports: Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples,
Palermo (Sicily), Taranto, Trieste, Venice

_#_Merchant marine: 575 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,462,744
GRT/11,593,730 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 44 short-sea passenger,
103 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 23 container, 67 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
7 vehicle carrier, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 2 livestock
carrier, 151 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 37 chemical
tanker, 38 liquefied gas, 10 specialized tanker, 14 combination ore/oil,
60 bulk, 2 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 125 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 138 total, 135 usable; 90 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: well engineered, constructed, and operated;
28,000,000 telephones; stations--144 AM, 54 (over 1,800 repeaters) FM,
450 (over 1,300 repeaters) TV; 22 submarine cables; communication
satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2
Indian Ocean, INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Carabinieri

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 14,747,224; 12,877,803 fit for
military service; 418,043 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $19.2 billion, 2.2% of GDP (1990)
_@_Ivory Coast
(also known as Cote d'Ivoire)
_#_Total area: 322,460 km2; land area: 318,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

_#_Land boundaries: 3,110 km total; Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km,
Guinea 610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

_#_Coastline: 515 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
seasons--warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May),
hot and wet (June to October)

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, diamonds, manganese, iron ore,
cobalt, bauxite, copper

_#_Land use: arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 26%; other 52%; includes irrigated NEGL%

_#_Environment: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe

_#_Population: 12,977,909 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Ivorian(s); adjective--Ivorian

_#_Ethnic divisions: over 60 ethnic groups; most important are the
Baoule 23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, and Agni; foreign
Africans, mostly Burkinabe about 2 million; non-Africans about 130,000 to
330,000 (French 30,000 and Lebanese 100,000 to 300,000)

_#_Religion: indigenous 63%, Muslim 25%, Christian 12%,

_#_Language: French (official), over 60 native dialects; Dioula most
widely spoken

_#_Literacy: 54% (male 67%, female 40%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 5,718,000; over 85% of population engaged in
agriculture, forestry, livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are
wage earners, nearly half in agriculture and the remainder in government,
industry, commerce, and professions; 54% of population of working age

_#_Organized labor: 20% of wage labor force

_#_Long-form name: Republic of the Ivory Coast; note--the local
official name is Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

_#_Type: republic; multiparty presidential regime established 1960

_#_Capital: Abidjan (capital city changed to Yamoussoukro in March
1983 but not recognized by US)

_#_Administrative divisions: 49 departments (departements,
singular--(departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope,
Agboville, Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou,
Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna, Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane,
Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue, Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa,
Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota,
Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro,
Sassandra, Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tengrela,
Tiassale, Touba, Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

_#_Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

_#_Constitution: 3 November 1960

_#_Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: National Day, 7 December

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)


Chief of State and Head of Government--President Dr. Felix
HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960); Prime Minister Allassane
OUATTARE (since 7 November 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Party of the Ivory Coast (PDCI), Dr. Felix
Ivorian Popular Front (FPI), Laurent GBAGBO;
Ivorian Worker's Party (PIT), Francis WODIE;
Ivorian Socialist Party (PSI), Morifere BAMBA;
over 20 smaller parties

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 21


President--last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held October
results--President Felix HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY received 81% of the vote
in his first contested election; he is currently serving his seventh
consecutive five-year term;

National Assembly--last held 25 November 1990 (next to be held
November 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(175 total) PDCI 163, FPI 9, PIT 1, independents 2

_#_Communists: no Communist party; possibly some sympathizers

_#_Member of: ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Chancery at
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)

US--Ambassador Kenneth L. BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens,
Abidjan (mailing address is 01 B. P. 1712, Abidjan); telephone [225]
21-09-79 or 21-46-72

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and
green; similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and has the colors
reversed--green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag
of Italy which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on
the flag of France

_#_Overview: Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers
and exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently,
the economy is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices
for coffee and cocoa and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the
government to diversify, the economy is still largely dependent on
agriculture and related industries. The agricultural sector accounts for
over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export earnings and employs about
85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and coffee prices in
1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the country had not
recovered by 1990.

_#_GDP: $10 billion, per capita $800; real growth rate - 2.9% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)

_#_Budget: revenues $2.8 billion (1989 est.); expenditures $4.1
billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

_#_Exports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--cocoa 30%, coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton,
bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton;

partners--France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)

_#_Imports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--manufactured goods and semifinished products 50%,
consumer goods 40%, raw materials and fuels 10%;

partners--France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)

_#_External debt: $15.0 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 6% (1989); accounts for
17% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,081,000 kW capacity; 2,440 million kWh produced,
210 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile
assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverage

_#_Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP
and 80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops--corn, rice, manioc, sweet
potatoes; not self-sufficient in bread grain and dairy products

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for
the international drug trade

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $356
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $4.9 billion

_#_Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc
(plural--francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--256.54 (January 1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85
(1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_#_Railroads: 660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge,
single track, except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)

_#_Highways: 46,600 km total; 3,600 km bituminous and
bituminous-treated surface; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite,
and improved earth; 11,000 km unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous
coastal lagoons

_#_Ports: Abidjan, San-Pedro

_#_Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/
90,684 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 1 chemical tanker

_#_Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including multinationally
owned Air Afrique fleet

_#_Airports: 48 total, 41 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: system above African average; consists of
open-wire lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones; stations--3 AM,
17 FM, 11 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 2 coaxial
submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie,
Presidential Guard

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,981,269; 1,543,412 fit for
military service; 145,693 males reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $199 million, 2.3% of GDP (1988)
_#_Total area: 10,990 km2; land area: 10,830 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 1,022 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

_#_Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 19%; permanent crops 6%; meadows and pastures
18%; forest and woodland 28%; other 29%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November);
deforestation; water pollution

_#_Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica
Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

_#_Population: 2,489,353 (July 1991), growth rate 0.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Jamaican(s); adjective--Jamaican

_#_Ethnic divisions: African 76.3%, Afro-European 15.1%, East Indian
and Afro-East Indian 3.0%, white 3.2%, Chinese and Afro-Chinese 1.2%,
other 1.2%

_#_Religion: predominantly Protestant 55.9% (Church of God 18.4%,
Baptist 10%, Anglican 7.1%, Seven-Day Adventist 6.9%, Pentecostal 5.2%,
Methodist 3.1%, United Church 2.7%, other 2.5%), Roman Catholic 5%,
other 39.1%, including some spiritualist cults (1982)

_#_Language: English, Creole

_#_Literacy: 98% (male 98%, female 99%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,062,100; services 41%, agriculture 22.5%, industry
19%; unemployed 17.5% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 24% of labor force (1989)

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: parliamentary democracy

_#_Capital: Kingston

_#_Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover,
Kingston, Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine,
Saint Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny,

_#_Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 6 August 1962

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August),
6 August 1990

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime
minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE (since 2 March

Head of Government--Prime Minister Michael MANLEY
(since 13 February 1989)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
People's National Party (PNP), Michael MANLEY;
Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward SEAGA;
Workers' Party of Jamaica (WPJ), Trevor MUNROE

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18


House of Representatives--last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994);
results--PNP 57%, JLP 43%;
seats--(60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15

_#_Communists: Workers' Party of Jamaica (Marxist-Leninist)

_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)

_#_Member of: ACP, C, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-19, G-77,

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Richard BERNAL;
Chancery at Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone
(202) 452-0660; there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New

US--Ambassador Glen A. HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual
Life Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone (809) 929-4850

_#_Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four
triangles--green (top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

_#_Overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism.
In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the
bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings.
Since 1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions
began to improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of
increases in world metal prices. The recovery has also been supported by
growth in the manufacturing and tourism sectors. In September 1988,
Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe damage on crops and the electric power
system, a sharp but temporary setback to the economy. By October 1989 the
economic recovery from the hurricane was largely complete and real growth
was up about 3% for 1989. In 1990, 3.5% economic growth was led by
mining and tourism.

_#_GDP: $3.9 billion, per capita $1,580; real growth rate 3.5% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.0% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 18.2% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.0 billion; expenditures $1.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $197 million (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $1.02 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas;

partners--US 36%, UK, Canada, Norway, Trinidad and Tobago

_#_Imports: $1.83 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--petroleum, machinery, food, consumer goods,
construction goods;

partners--US 48%, UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago

_#_External debt: $4.1 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts
for almost 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,122,000 kW capacity; 2,508 million kWh produced,
1,030 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing,
light manufactures

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GDP, 22% of work force,
and 17% of exports; commercial crops--sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus,
potatoes, and vegetables; livestock and livestock products include
poultry, goats, milk; not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis; transshipment point
for ships carrying cocaine and cannabis from central and South America
to North America

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.2
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.45 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $27 million;
Communist countries (1974-89), $349 million

_#_Currency: Jamaican dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1--8.106 (January
1991), 7.184 (1990), 5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778
(1986), 5.5586 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track

_#_Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel,
2,400 km improved earth

_#_Pipelines: refined products, 10 km

_#_Ports: Kingston, Montego Bay

_#_Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,048
GRT/21,412 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 41 total, 25 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network;
127,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Coast Guard and Air
Wing), Jamaica Constabulary Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 628,225; 446,229 fit for
military service; no conscription; 26,442 reach minimum volunteer
age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $20 million, less than 1% of GDP (FY91)
_@_Jan Mayen
(territory of Norway)
_#_Total area: 373 km2; land area: 373 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 124.1 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

_#_Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween
Greenland and Jan Mayen

_#_Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

_#_Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is
the highest peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass;
volcanic activity resumed in 1970

_#_Note: located north of the Arctic Circle about 590 km
north-northeast of Iceland between the Greenland Sea and the
Norwegian Sea

_#_Population: no permanent inhabitants

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: territory of Norway

_#_Note: administered by a governor (sysselmann) resident in
Longyearbyen (Svalbard)

_#_Overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable
natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services
for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on
the island.

_#_Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced,
NA kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_#_Telecommunications: radio and meteorological station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
_#_Total area: 377,835 km2; land area: 374,744 km2; includes Bonin
Islands (Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima,
Okinotori-shima, Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 29,751 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in international straits--La Perouse
or Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait)

_#_Disputes: Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands and the
Habomai island group occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by
Japan; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea; Senkaku-shoto
(Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

_#_Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

_#_Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

_#_Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 13%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 67%; other 18%; includes irrigated 9%

_#_Environment: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500
seismic occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis

_#_Note: strategic location in northeast Asia

_#_Population: 124,017,137 (July 1991), growth rate 0.4% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 4 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Japanese

_#_Ethnic divisions: Japanese 99.4%, other (mostly Korean) 0.6%

_#_Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites
so the percentages add to more than 100%--Shinto 95.8%,
Buddhist 76.3%, Christian 1.4%, other 12% (1985)

_#_Language: Japanese

_#_Literacy: 99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1970 est.)

_#_Labor force: 63,330,000; trade and services 54%; manufacturing,
mining, and construction 33%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 7%;
government 3% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: about 29% of employed workers; public service
76.4%, transportation and telecommunications 57.9%, mining 48.7%,
manufacturing 33.7%, services 18.2%, wholesale, retail, and restaurant

_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: constitutional monarchy

_#_Capital: Tokyo

_#_Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures (fuken, singular and
plural); Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima,
Gifu, Gumma, Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate,
Kagawa, Kagoshima, Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi,
Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki, Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa,
Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga, Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima,
Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama, Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

_#_Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu

_#_Constitution: 3 May 1947

_#_Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

_#_Executive branch: emperor, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper
house or House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Shugi-in)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court


Chief of State--Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Kiichi MIYAZAWA (since 5
November 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), Toshiki KAIFU, president; Keizo OBUCHI,
secretary general;
Japan Socialist Party (JSP), T. DOI, chairman;
Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo OUCHI, chairman;
Japan Communist Party (JCP), K. MIYAMOTO, Presidium chairman;
Komeito (Clean Government Party, CGP), Koshiro ISHIDA, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20


House of Councillors--last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held
23 July 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(252 total, 100 elected) LDP 109, JSP 67, CGP 21, JCP 14,
other 41;

House of Representatives--last held on 18 February 1990
(next to be held by February 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(512 total) LDP 275, JSP 136, CGP 45, JCP 16, DSP 14,
other parties 5, independents 21; note--9 independents are expected
to join the LDP, 5 the JSP

_#_Communists: about 490,000 registered Communist party members

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NEA, OAS (observer),

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ryohei MURATA; Chancery at
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
939-6700; there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam),
Anchorage, Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City
(Missouri), Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle,
and Portland (Oregon), and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana

US--Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-1, Akasaka
1-chome, Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO San Francisco
96503); telephone [81] (3) 3224-5000; there are US Consulates General
in Naha (Okinawa), Osaka-Kobe, and Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka

_#_Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without
rays) in the center

_#_Overview: Although Japan has few natural resources, since 1971 it
has become the world's third-largest economy, ranking behind only the
US and the USSR. Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic,
and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance
rapidly, notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important
sector of the economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and
fuels. Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements
for other grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's
largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global
catch. Overall economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the
1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1990 strong investment and
consumption spending helped maintain growth at 5.6%. Inflation remains
low at 3.1% despite higher oil prices and rising wages because of a
tight labor market. Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $52
billion in 1990, which supports extensive investment in foreign

_#_GNP: $2,115.2 billion, per capita $17,100; real growth rate 5.6%

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 2.1% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $499 billion; expenditures $532 billion, including
capital expenditures (public works only) of $52 billion (FY90)

_#_Exports: $286.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--manufactures 97% (including machinery 38%, motor
vehicles 17%, consumer electronics 10%);

partners--US 31%, Southeast Asia 29%, Western Europe 21%, Communist
countries 3%, Middle East 3%

_#_Imports: $234.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--manufactures 50%, fossil fuels 24%, foodstuffs and raw
materials 26%;

partners--Southeast Asia 23%, US 23%, Western Europe 18%,
Middle East 13%, Communist countries 7%

_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.6% (1990 est.); accounts for
30% of GDP (mining and manufacturing)

_#_Electricity: 191,000,000 kW capacity; 790,000 million kWh produced,
6,390 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic,
textiles, chemicals, automobiles, fishing, telecommunications

_#_Agriculture: accounts for only 2% of GNP; highly subsidized and
protected sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal
crops--rice, sugar beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include
pork, poultry, dairy and eggs; about 50% self-sufficient in food
production; shortages of wheat, corn, soybeans; world's largest fish
catch of 11.9 million metric tons in 1988

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $83.2
billion; ODA outlay of $7.9 billion in 1989

_#_Currency: yen (plural--yen); 1 yen (3) = 100 sen

_#_Exchange rates: yen (3) per US$1--133.88 (January 1991), 144.79
(1990), 137.96 (1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986),
238.54 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Railroads: 27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
and 25,315 km predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km
doubletrack and multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge
electrified, 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)

_#_Highways: 1,098,900 km total; 718,700 km paved, 380,200 km gravel,
crushed stone, or unpaved; 3,900 km national expressways, 46,544 km
national highways, 43,907 km principal local roads, 86,930 km prefectural
roads, and 917,619 other (1987)

_#_Inland waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal
inland seas

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; refined products, 322 km; natural gas,
1,800 km

_#_Ports: Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka,
Tokyo, Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu,
Himeji, Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu

_#_Merchant marine: 1,019 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
22,396,958 GRT/34,683,035 DWT; includes 9 passenger, 55 short-sea
passenger, 4 passenger cargo, 95 cargo, 40 container, 33
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 125 refrigerated cargo, 99 vehicle carrier, 231
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 14 chemical tanker, 41
liquefied gas, 11 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized tanker, 257 bulk, 2
combination bulk; note--Japan also owns a large flag of convenience
fleet, including up to 40% of the total number of ships under Panamanian

_#_Civil air: 360 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 165 total, 157 usable; 129 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 29 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
56 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service;
64,000,000 telephones; stations--318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196
major--1 kw or greater); satellite earth stations--4 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam),
Philippines, China, and USSR

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (Army), Japan Maritime
Self-Defense Force (Navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (Air Force),
Maritime Safety Agency (Coast Guard)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 32,256,893; 27,771,374 fit for
military service; 992,255 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, 1.0% of GNP (1990 est.)
_@_Jarvis Island
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 4.5 km2; land area: 4.5 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 8 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

_#_Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging
habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

_#_Note: 2,090 km south of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, just
south of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands

_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Note: Millersville settlement on western side of island
occasionally used as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when
it was abandoned; reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical
Year by scientists who left in 1958; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

_#_Overview: no economic activity

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only--one boat landing area in the
middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the

_#_Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
(British crown dependency)
_#_Total area: 117 km2; land area: 117 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 70 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

_#_Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north

_#_Natural resources: agricultural land

_#_Land use: arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and
pastures NA%; forest and woodland NA%; other NA%; about 58% of land under

_#_Environment: about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

_#_Note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; 27 km
from France

_#_Population: 84,331 (July 1991), growth rate 0.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Channel Islander(s); adjective--Channel Islander

_#_Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

_#_Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New
Church, Methodist, Presbyterian

_#_Language: English and French (official), with the Norman-French
dialect spoken in country districts

_#_Literacy: NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education
age 5 to 16

_#_Labor force: NA

_#_Organized labor: none

_#_Long-form name: Bailiwick of Jersey

_#_Type: British crown dependency

_#_Capital: Saint Helier

_#_Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Independence: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and

_#_Legal system: English law and local statute

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States

_#_Judicial branch: Royal Court


Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief
Air Marshal Sir John SUTTON (since NA 1990); Bailiff Peter CRILL (since

_#_Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age NA


Assembly of the States--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents

_#_Communists: probably none

_#_Member of: none

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

_#_Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron
saint of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

_#_Overview: The economy is based largely on financial services,
agriculture, and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially
flowers are important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey
breed of dairy cattle is known worldwide and represents an important
export earner. Milk products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986
the finance sector overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP,
accounting for 40% of the island's output. In recent years the government
has encouraged light industry to locate in Jersey, with the result that
an electronics industry has developed alongside the traditional
manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material and energy requirements are
imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food needs.

_#_GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 8% (1987 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1988 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: NA%

_#_Budget: revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1985)

_#_Exports: $NA;

commodities--light industrial and electrical goods,
foodstuffs, textiles;


_#_Imports: $NA;

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods,
foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals;


_#_External debt: $NA

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 50,000 kW standby capacity (1990); power supplied by

_#_Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

_#_Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle

_#_Economic aid: none

_#_Currency: Jersey pound (plural--pounds); 1 Jersey pound (5J) =
100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (5J) per US$1--0.5171 (January
1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817
(1986), 0.7714 (1985); the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_#_Ports: Saint Helier, Gorey, Saint Aubin

_#_Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (Saint

_#_Telecommunications: 63,700 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, 1
TV; 3 submarine cables

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_@_Johnston Atoll
(territory of the US)
_#_Total area: 2.8 km2; land area: 2.8 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 10 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade
winds with little seasonal temperature variation

_#_Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters

_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: some low-growing vegetation

_#_Note: strategic location 1,328 km west-southwest of Honolulu in
the North Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and
the Marshall Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural
islands; North Island (Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands
formed from coral dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons
test site; site of Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System

_#_Population: 1,325 (December 1990); all US government personnel and

_#_Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US
Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the
Fish and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of
the National Wildlife Refuge system

_#_Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

_#_Flag: the flag of the US is used

_#_Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to
US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

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