Full Text Archive logoFull Text Archive — Free Classic E-books

Part 16 out of 39

Adobe PDF icon
Download this document as a .pdf
File size: 3.3 MB
What's this? light bulb idea Many people prefer to read off-line or to print out text and read from the real printed page. Others want to carry documents around with them on their mobile phones and read while they are on the move. We have created .pdf files of all out documents to accommodate all these groups of people. We recommend that you download .pdfs onto your mobile phone when it is connected to a WiFi connection for reading off-line.

_#_Unemployment rate: 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $34 billion; expenditures $54 billion, including
capital expenditures of $13.3 billion (FY91)

_#_Exports: $17.0 billion (f.o.b., FY90);

commodities--gems and jewelry, engineering goods, clothing,
textiles, chemicals, tea, coffee, fish products;

partners--EC 25%, US 19%, USSR and Eastern Europe 17%, Japan 10%

_#_Imports: $24.8 billion (c.i.f., FY90);

commodities--petroleum, capital goods, uncut gems and jewelry,
chemicals, iron and steel, edible oils;

partners--EC 33%, Middle East 19%, Japan 10%, US 9%, USSR and
Eastern Europe 8%

_#_External debt: $69.8 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 8.4% (1990); accounts
for about 25% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 70,000,000 kW capacity; 245,000 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, food processing, steel, machinery,
transportation equipment, cement, jute manufactures, mining, petroleum,
power, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, electronics

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 30% of GNP and employs 67% of
labor force; self-sufficient in food grains; principal crops--rice,
wheat, oilseeds, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, potatoes;
livestock--cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats and poultry; fish catch of
about 3 million metric tons ranks among the world's top 10 fishing
nations

_#_Illicit drugs: licit producer of opium poppy for the
pharmaceutical trade, but some opium is diverted to illicit
international drug markets; major transit country for illicit narcotics
produced in neighboring countries

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-88), $20.1 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $315 million;
USSR (1970-89), $11.6 billion; Eastern Europe (1970-89), $105 million

_#_Currency: Indian rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Indian rupee (Re) = 100 paise

_#_Exchange rates: Indian rupees (Rs) per US$1--18.329 (January
1990), 17.504 (1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611
(1986), 12.369 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 61,850 km total (1986); 33,553 km 1.676-meter broad
gauge, 24,051 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,246 km narrow gauge (0.762 meter
and 0.610 meter); 12,617 km is double track; 6,500 km is electrified

_#_Highways: 1,633,300 km total (1986); 515,300 km secondary and
1,118,000 km gravel, crushed stone, or earth

_#_Inland waterways: 16,180 km; 3,631 km navigable by large vessels

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 3,497 km; refined products, 1,703 km; natural
gas, 902 km (1989)

_#_Ports: Bombay, Calcutta, Cochin, Kandla, Madras, New Mangalore,
Port Blair (Andaman Islands)

_#_Merchant marine: 308 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,087,451
GRT/10,150,460 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 passenger-cargo,
100 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 8 container, 54 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 10 chemical tanker, 9 combination ore/oil,
115 bulk, 2 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 345 total, 288 usable; 198 with permanent-surface
runways; 2 with runways over 3,659 m; 57 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: poor domestic telephone service, international
radio communications adequate; 4,700,000 telephones; stations--96 AM,
4 FM, 274 TV (government controlled); domestic satellite system for
communications and TV; 3 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; submarine
cables to Malaysia and United Arab Emirates

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force, Border Security
Forces, Coast Guard, Assam Rifles

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 232,793,714; 137,259,444 fit
for military service; about 9,431,908 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $9.2 billion, 3.5% of GNP (FY91)
_%_
_@_Indian Ocean
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 73,600,000 km2; Arabian Sea, Bass Strait, Bay of
Bengal, Java Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, Strait of Malacca, Timor Sea,
and other tributary water bodies

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of the
US; third-largest ocean (after the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean, but
larger than the Arctic Ocean)

_#_Coastline: 66,526 km

_#_Climate: northeast monsoon (December to April), southwest monsoon
(June to October); tropical cyclones occur during May/June and
October/November in the north Indian Ocean and January/February in the
south Indian Ocean

_#_Terrain: surface dominated by counterclockwise gyre (broad,
circular system of currents) in the south Indian Ocean; unique reversal
of surface currents in the north Indian Ocean--low pressure over
southwest Asia from hot, rising, summer air results in the southwest
monsoon and southwest-to-northeast winds and currents, while high
pressure over northern Asia from cold, falling, winter air results in the
northeast monsoon and northeast-to-southwest winds and currents; ocean
floor is dominated by the Mid-Indian Ocean Ridge and subdivided by the
Southeast Indian Ocean Ridge, Southwest Indian Ocean Ridge, and Ninety
East Ridge; maximum depth is 7,258 meters in the Java Trench

_#_Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, shrimp, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules

_#_Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, seals,
turtles, and whales; oil pollution in the Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, and
Red Sea

_#_Note: major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz,
Strait of Malacca, southern access to the Suez Canal, and the Lombok
Strait; ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme south near
Antarctica from May to October

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Indian Ocean provides a major transportation highway
for the movement of petroleum products from the Middle East to Europe
and North and South American countries. Fish from the ocean are of
growing economic importance to many of the bordering countries as a
source of both food and exports. Fishing fleets from the USSR, Japan,
Korea, and Taiwan also exploit the Indian Ocean for mostly shrimp and
tuna. Large reserves of hydrocarbons are being tapped in the offshore
areas of Saudi Arabia, Iran, India, and Western Australia. An estimated
40% of the world's offshore oil production comes from the Indian Ocean.
Beach sands rich in heavy minerals and offshore placer deposits are
actively exploited by bordering countries, particularly India, South
Africa, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

_#_Industries: based on exploitation of natural resources,
particularly marine life, minerals, oil and gas production, fishing, sand
and gravel aggregates, placer deposits

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: Bombay (India), Calcutta (India), Madras (India),
Colombo (Sri Lanka), Durban (South Africa), Fremantle (Australia),
Jakarta (Indonesia), Melbourne (Australia), Richard's Bay (South Africa)

_#_Telecommunications: no submarine cables
_%_
_@_Indonesia
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,919,440 km2; land area: 1,826,440 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

_#_Land boundaries: 2,602 km total; Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New
Guinea 820 km

_#_Coastline: 54,716 km

_#_Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: sovereignty over Timor Timur (East Timor Province)
disputed with Portugal

_#_Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

_#_Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior
mountains

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, tin, natural gas liquids, nickel,
timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
7%; forest and woodland 67%; other 15%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: archipelago of 13,500 islands (6,000 inhabited);
occasional floods, severe droughts, and tsunamis; deforestation

_#_Note: straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major
sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: 193,560,494 (July 1991), growth rate 1.8% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 73 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Indonesian(s); adjective--Indonesian

_#_Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising Javanese
45.0%, Sundanese 14.0%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other
26.0%

_#_Religion: Muslim 87%, Protestant 6%, Roman Catholic 3%,
Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1985)

_#_Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official);
English and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most
widely spoken of which is Javanese

_#_Literacy: 77% (male 84%, female 68%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 67,000,000; agriculture 55%, manufacturing 10%,
construction 4%, transport and communications 3% (1985 est.)

_#_Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor
force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Jakarta

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular--propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular--daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta
Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku,
Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

_#_Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly
Netherlands or Dutch East Indies)

_#_Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of
1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

_#_Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note--the People's Consultative
Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus
500 indirectly elected members who meet every five years to elect the
president and vice president and, theoretically, to determine national
policy

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. (Ret.)
SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO
(since 11 March 1983)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.)
WAHONO, general chairman;
Indonesia Democracy Party (PDI--federation of former Nationalist and
Christian Parties), SOERYADI, chairman;
Development Unity Party (PPP, federation of former Islamic parties),
Ismail Hasan METAREUM, chairman

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age

_#_Elections:

House of Representatives--last held on 23 April 1987
(next to be held 23 April 1992);
results--Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%;
seats--(500 total--400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40

_#_Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March
1966; current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in
organized activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5
million

_#_Member of: APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC,
OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY;
Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in
Houston, New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5,
Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356);
telephone [62] (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and
Surabaya

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to
the flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland
which is white (top) and red

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist
institutions and central planning but with a recent emphasis on
deregulation and private enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural
wealth yet, with a large and rapidly increasing population, it remains a
poor country. GDP growth in 1985-89 averaged about 4%, somewhat short of
the more than 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3 million workers annually
entering the labor force. Agriculture, including forestry and fishing, is
an important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP and over 50% of the labor
force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's largest rice importer,
Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient. Plantation crops--rubber and
palm oil--and textiles and plywood are being encouraged for both export
and job generation. Industrial output now accounts for 30% of GDP
based on a supply of diverse natural resources, including crude oil,
natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector dominates
the external economy, generating more than 20% of the government's
revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989. However, the economy's
growth is very dependent on the continuing expansion of nonoil exports.
Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.

_#_GDP: $94 billion, per capita $490; real growth rate 6.0%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.8% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 3%; underemployment 44% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $17.2 billion; expenditures $23.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $8.9 billion (FY91)

_#_Exports: $25.7 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--petroleum and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%,
textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%;

partners--Japan 40%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, Europe 16% (1990)

_#_Imports: $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--machinery 39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured
goods 16%;

partners--Japan 23%, US 13%, EC, Singapore

_#_External debt: $58.5 billion (1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 11.6% (1989 est.); accounts
for 30% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced,
200 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical
fertilizers, plywood, food, rubber

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP, subsistence food production;
small-holder and plantation production for export; rice, cassava,
peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, copra, other tropical products;
products--poultry meat, beef, pork, eggs

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $4.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $22.8 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $175 million

_#_Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural--rupiahs);
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

_#_Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1--1,907.5 (January
1991), 1,842.8 (1990), 1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987),
1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km
0.750-meter gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km
electrified; all government owned

_#_Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial,
and 73,508 km district roads

_#_Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and
Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural
gas, 1,703 km (1989)

_#_Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang,
Semarang, Surabaya

_#_Merchant marine: 365 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,647,632
GRT/2,481,432 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo,
215 cargo, 7 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
80 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical tanker,
5 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 25 bulk

_#_Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 470 total, 436 usable; 111 with permanent-surface
runways; 1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
63 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net;
domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast
coverage good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations--618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station; and 1 domestic satellite
communications system

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 50,572,652; 29,893,127 fit for
military service; 2,149,673 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $1.4 billion, 1.8% of GNP (1988)
_%_
_@_Iran
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

_#_Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

_#_Coastline: 3,180 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman; continental
shelf limit, continental shelf boundaries, or median lines in the Persian
Gulf;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations on 14
October 1990 following the end of the war that began on 22 September
1980; progress had been made on the major issues of contention--troop
withdrawal, prisoner-of-war exchanges, demarcation of the border,
freedom of navigation, and sovereignty over the the Shatt al Arab
waterway--but written agreements had yet to be drawn up when frictions
reemerged in March 1991 in the wake of Shia and Kurdish revolts in
Iraq that Baghdad accused Tehran of supporting;
Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR;
occupies three islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye
Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or
Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic
disputes with Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with
Afghanistan and Pakistan

_#_Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

_#_Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

_#_Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

_#_Land use: arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 27%; forest and woodland 11%; other 54%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

_*_People
_#_Population: 59,051,082 (July 1991), growth rate 3.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 65 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Iranian(s); adjective--Iranian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Persian 51%, Azerbaijani 25%, Kurd 9%, Gilaki
and Mazandarani 8%, Lur 2%, Baloch 1%, Arab 1%, other 3%

_#_Religion: Shia Muslim 95%, Sunni Muslim 4%, Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Bahai 1%

_#_Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic
dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other

_#_Literacy: 54% (male 64%, female 43%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 15,400,000; agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21%;
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.)

_#_Organized labor: none

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran

_#_Type: theocratic republic

_#_Capital: Tehran

_#_Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha,
singular--ostan); Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari,
Azarbayjan-e Khavari, Bakhtaran, Bushehr,
Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, Fars,
Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam, Kerman,
Khorasan, Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh va Buyer
Ahmadi, Kordestan, Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran,
Semnan, Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

_#_Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

_#_Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of
the presidency and eliminate the prime ministership

_#_Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

_#_National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

_#_Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Majles-e-Shura-ye-Eslami)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Cleric and functional Chief of State--Leader of the Islamic
Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 4 June 1989);

Head of Government--President Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI
(since 3 August 1989);

_#_Political parties and leaders: there are at least 14 licensed
parties; the three most important are--Tehran Militant Clergy
Association, Mohammad Reza MAHDAVI-KANI;
Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi MAHDAVI-KARUBI and Mohammad Asqar
MUSAVI-KHOINIHA;
Fedaiyin Islam Organization, Sadeq KHALKHALI

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 15

_#_Elections:

President--last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993);
results--Ali Akbar HASHEMI-RAFSANJANI was elected with only token
opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly--last held 8 April 1988 (next
to be held June 1992); results--percent of vote by party
NA;
seats--(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est.
sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured
leaders began in late 1983 and remain incomplete

_#_Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally
support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah, Hojjatiyeh Society,
Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students Following the Line
of the Imam; armed political groups that have been almost completely
repressed by the government include Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO),
People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic Party; the Society for the
Defense of Freedom is a group of liberal nationalists that has been
repressed by the government for accusing it of corruption

_#_Member of: CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Algeria--Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990;

US--protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red;
the national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red
is
centered
in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic
script is repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and
11 times along the top edge of the red band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry,
transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the
new five-year plan--the first since the revolution--passed in January
1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises
to the private sector. Disruptions from the bitter war with Iraq,
massive corruption, mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological
rigidities have kept economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts
for over 90% of export revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil
prices brought a 2% drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in
1989, considerably short of the 3.2% population growth rate in 1989.
Heating oil and gasoline are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the
war, land reform, and shortages of equipment and materials. The five-year
plan seeks to reinvigorate the economy by increasing the role of the
private sector, boosting nonoil income, and securing foreign loans. The
plan is overly ambitious but probably will generate some short-term
relief.

_#_GNP: $80.0 billion, per capita $1,400; real growth rate 0.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-50% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $63 billion; expenditures $80 billion, including
capital expenditures of $23 billion (FY90 est.)

_#_Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides;

partners--Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

_#_Imports: $11.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--machinery, military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs,
pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products;

partners--FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

_#_External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate NA%

_#_Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
740 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other
building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and
vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

_#_Agriculture: principal products--wheat, rice, other grains, sugar
beets, fruits, nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not
self-sufficient in food

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1.6 billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $976 million;
note--aid fell sharply following the 1979 revolution

_#_Currency: Iranian rial (plural--rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) =
100 dinars; note--domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of
the toman (plural--tomans), which equals 10 rials

_#_Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1--64.941 (January 1991),
68.096 (1990), 72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760
(1986), 91.052 (1985) at the official rate; black market rate 1,400
(January 1991)

_#_Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km
1.676-meter gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas

_#_Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone;
49,440 km improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated
surfaces; 1,200 km (est.) rural road network

_#_Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980
because of Iran-Iraq war

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural
gas, 3,300 km

_#_Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e
Khomeyni, Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely
destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war)

_#_Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,634,204
GRT/8,671,769 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3
refrigerated cargo, 49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

_#_Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 214 total, 186 usable; 80 with permanent-surface runways;
17 with runways over 3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 70 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations--62 AM, 30 FM, 250
TV; satellite earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT; HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and
USSR

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air
Force, Air Defense, and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij
militia and own ground, air, and naval forces);
a merger of the Komiteh, Police, and Gendarmerie has produced a new
Security Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 12,750,593; 7,588,711 fit for
military service; 576,321 reach military age (21) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $13 billion, 13.3% of GNP (1991 est.)
_%_
_@_Iraq
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

_#_Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq - Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

_#_Coastline: 58 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Iran and Iraq restored diplomatic relations on 14
October 1990 following the end of the war that began on 22 September
1980; progress had been made on the major issues of
contention--troop withdrawal, prisoner-of-war exchanges, demarcation of
the border, freedom of navigation, and sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab
waterway--but written agreements had yet to be drawn up when frictions
reemerged in March 1991 in the wake of Shia and Kurdish revolts in
Iraq that Baghdad accused Tehran of supporting; Kurdish question
among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with
Saudi Arabia--in December 1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary
agreement that divides the zone between them, but the agreement must
be ratified before it becomes effective; Iraqi forces invaded and
occupied Kuwait from 2 August 1990 until 27 February 1991; in April 1991
official Iraqi acceptance of UN Security Council Resolution 687, which
demands that Iraq accept its internationally recognized border with
Kuwait, ended earlier claims to Bubiyan and Warbah Islands or to
all of Kuwait; periodic disputes with upstream riparian Syria over
Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

_#_Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless
summers

_#_Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains
along borders with Iran and Turkey

_#_Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

_#_Land use: arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
9%; forest and woodland 3%; other 75%; includes irrigated 4%

_#_Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems
contingent upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air
and water pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion;
desertification

_*_People
_#_Population: 19,524,718 (July 1991), growth rate 3.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 66 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Iraqi(s); adjective--Iraqi

_#_Ethnic divisions: Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, Turkoman, Assyrian
or other 5%

_#_Religion: Muslim 97%, (Shia 60-65%, Sunni 32-37%), Christian
or other 3%

_#_Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions),
Assyrian, Armenian

_#_Literacy: 60% (male 70%, female 49%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 4,400,000 (1989); services 48%, agriculture 30%,
industry 22%, severe labor shortage; expatriate labor force about
1,600,000 (July 1990)

_#_Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Iraq

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Baghdad

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna,
Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, Arbil, As Sulaymaniyah, At
Tamim, Babil, Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala,
Karbala, Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

_#_Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

_#_Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim
Constitution); new constitution drafted in 1990 but not adopted

_#_Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts,
civil law system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the
Revolutionary Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command
Council, prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of
Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis Watani)

_#_Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Saddam HUSAYN (since 16 July 1979);
Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF (since 21 April 1974);
Vice President Taha Yasin RAMADAN (since 23 March 1991);

_#_Head of Government--Prime Minister Sadun HAMMADI (since 27 March
1991); Deputy Prime Minister Tariq AZIZ (since NA 1979);
Deputy Prime Minister Muhammad Hamza al-ZUBAYDI (since 27 March 1991)

_#_Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the
Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party

_#_Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

_#_Elections:

National Assembly--last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA);
results--Sunni Arabs 53%, Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Christians
2% est.; seats--(250 total) number of seats by party NA

_#_Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members

_#_Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected
members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents

_#_Member of: ABEDA, ACC, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, ESCWA, FAO, G-19,
G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: no Iraqi representative in Washington;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202)
483-7500;

US--no US representative in Baghdad since mid-January 1991;
Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad
(mailing address is P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah, Baghdad); telephone [964] (1)
719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black
with three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the
white band; the phrase Allahu Akbar (God is Great) in green Arabic
script--Allahu to the right of the middle star and Akbar to the left of
the middle star--was added in January 1991 during the Persian Gulf
crisis; similar to the flag of Syria that has two stars but no script
and the flag of Yemen that has a plain white band; also similar to the
flag of Egypt that has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central
planning and management of industrial production and foreign trade while
leaving some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy has been dominated by the oil sector,
which has provided about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. In the 1980s
financial problems, caused by massive expenditures in the eight-year
war with Iran and damage to oil export facilities by Iran, led the
government to implement austerity measures and to borrow heavily and
later reschedule foreign debt payments. After the end of hostilities in
1988, oil exports gradually increased with the construction of new
pipelines and restoration of damaged facilities. Agricultural development
remained hampered by labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations
caused by previous land reform and collectivization programs. The
industrial sector, although accorded high priority by the government,
also was under financial constraints. Iraq's seizure of Kuwait in August
1990, subsequent international economic embargoes, and military actions
by an international coalition beginning in January 1991 drastically
changed the economic picture. Oil exports were cut to near zero,
and industrial and transportation facilities severely damaged.

_#_GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5%
(1989 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

_#_Exports: $12.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

commodities--crude oil and refined products, fertilizer, sulfur;

partners--US, Brazil, Turkey, Japan, France, Italy, USSR (1989)

_#_Imports: $10.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--manufactures, food;

partners--US, FRG, Turkey, UK, Romania, Japan, France (1989)

_#_External debt: $40 billion (1989 est.), excluding debt to Arab
Gulf states

_#_Industrial production: NA%; manufacturing accounts for 10% of GDP
(1987)

_#_Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials,
food processing

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP but 30% of labor
force; principal products--wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other
fruit, cotton, wool; livestock--cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in
food output

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $627 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-90), more than $30
billion; Communist countries (1970-89), $3.9 billion

_#_Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000
fils

_#_Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1--0.3109 (fixed rate
since 1982)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
505 km 1.000-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth,
11,655 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980
because of Iran-Iraq war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft
steamers (of little importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in
sections by shallow-draft vessels

_#_Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr, Al Basrah

_#_Merchant marine: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 944,253
GRT/1,691,368 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 17 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker; note--since the 2 August 1990
invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi forces, Iraq has sought to register at least
part of its merchant fleet under convenience flags; none of the Iraqi
flag merchant fleet was trading internationally as of 1 January 1991

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km
natural gas

_#_Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s
used by the Iraq Air Force)

_#_Airports: 111 total, 102 usable; 73 with permanent-surface runways;
9 with runways over 3,659 m; 52 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio
relay links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones;
stations--9 AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the
Intersputnik system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan,
Syria, and Turkey

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army and Republican Guard, Navy, Air Force,
Border Guard Force, Internal Security Forces

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 4,270,592; 2,380,439 fit for
military service; 228,277 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $NA, NA% of GDP
_%_
_@_Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

_#_Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Climate: harsh, dry desert

_#_Terrain: sandy desert

_#_Natural resources: none

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other (sandy desert) 100%

_#_Environment: harsh, inhospitable

_#_Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait,
and Saudi Arabia

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in December
1981, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed a boundary agreement that divides
the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified before it
becomes effective

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: none; some secondary roads

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia
_%_
_@_Ireland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

_#_Land boundary: 360 km with UK

_#_Coastline: 1,448 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Northern Ireland question with the UK; Rockall
continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK (Ireland
and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

_#_Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current;
mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the
time

_#_Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by
rugged hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

_#_Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite,
copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

_#_Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and
pastures 71%; forest and woodland 5%; other 10%

_#_Environment: deforestation

_*_People
_#_Population: 3,489,165 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.3% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 9 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.);
adjective--Irish

_#_Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 93%, Anglican 3%, none 1%, unknown 2%,
other 1% (1981)

_#_Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language
generally used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the
western seaboard

_#_Literacy: 98% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1981 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,293,000; services 57.0%, manufacturing and
construction 26.1%, agriculture, forestry, and fishing 15.0%,
energy and mining 1.9% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 36% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Dublin

_#_Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim,
Limerick, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon,
Sligo, Tipperary, Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

_#_Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

_#_Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified
by indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme
Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Saint Patrick's Day, 17 March

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dail Eireann)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Mary Bourke ROBINSON (since 9 November
1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since
12 July 1989, the fourth time elected as Prime Minister)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Fianna Fail, Charles HAUGHEY;
Labor Party, Richard SPRING;
Fine Gael, John BRUTON;
Communist Party of Ireland, Michael O'RIORDAN;
Workers' Party, Proinsias DEROSSA;
Sinn Fein, Gerry ADAMS;
Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'MALLEY;
note--Prime Minister HAUGHEY heads a coalition consisting of the
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 9 November 1990 (next to be held November
1997); results--Mary Bourke ROBINSON 52.8%, Brian LENIHAN 47.2%;

Senate--last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3,
Independents 11;

House of Representatives--last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be
held NA June 1994);
results--Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%,
Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%,
independents 5.9%;
seats--(166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15,
Workers' Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6

_#_Communists: under 500

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NEA, OECD, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP,
UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN;
Chancery at 2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 462-3939; there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago,
New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road,
Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone [353] (1) 688777

_#_Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and
orange; similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and
has the colors reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green; also
similar to the flag of Italy which is shorter and has colors of green
(hoist side), white, and red

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent.
Agriculture, once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry,
which accounts for 37% of GDP and about 80% of exports and employs 26%
of the labor force. The government has successfully reduced the rate of
inflation from double-digit figures in the late 1970s to 3.3% in
1990. In 1987, after years of deficits, the balance of payments was
brought into the black. Unemployment, however, is a serious problem. A
1990 unemployment rate of 16.6% placed Ireland along with Spain as the
countries with the worst jobless records in Western Europe.

_#_GDP: $33.9 billion, per capita $9,690; real growth rate 4.1%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 16.6% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $11.3 billion; expenditures $11.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.6 billion (1990)

_#_Exports: $24.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial
machinery, live animals, animal products;

partners--EC 74% (UK 34%, FRG 11%, France 10%), US 8%

_#_Imports: $20.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--food, animal feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum
products, machinery, textiles, clothing;

partners--EC 66% (UK 41%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%

_#_External debt: $16.0 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1990); accounts for
37% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced,
4,080 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GNP and 15% of the labor force;
principal crops--turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
livestock--meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food
shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables

_#_Economic aid: donor--ODA commitments (1980-89), $90 million

_#_Currency: Irish pound (plural--pounds); 1 Irish pound (5Ir) =
100 pence

_#_Exchange rates: Irish pounds (5Ir) per US$1--0.5656 (January
1991), 0.6030 (1990), 0.7472 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454
(1986), 0.9384 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km
1.602-meter gauge, government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km
electrified

_#_Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km surfaced, 4,872 km gravel or
crushed stone

_#_Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic

_#_Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km

_#_Ports: Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford

_#_Merchant marine: 53 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 138,967
GRT/164,628 DWT; includes 4 short-sea passenger, 31 cargo, 2
refrigerated cargo, 3 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 specialized tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 bulk

_#_Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 6 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: small, modern system using cable and radio
relay circuits; 900,000 telephones; stations--45 AM, 16 (29 relays) FM,
18 (68 relays) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Naval Service and Air Corps), National
Police (GARDA)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 871,578; 705,642 fit for
military service; 33,175 reach military age (17) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $458 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Israel
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
_#_Note: The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war
are not included in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David
Accords and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace
initiative, the final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their
relationship with their neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel
and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned parties. The Camp
David Accords further specify that these negotiations will resolve the
location of the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this
process, it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and
Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza Strip
entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to
Egypt. Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in
the Syria entry.

_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 20,770 km2; land area: 20,330 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

_#_Land boundaries: 1,006 km total; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307, Gaza Strip 51 km

_#_Coastline: 273 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

_#_Disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the
1949 Armistice Line; differences with Jordan over the location
of the 1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries;
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with status
to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in
southern Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan

_#_Climate: temperate; hot and dry in desert areas

_#_Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central
mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

_#_Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

_#_Land use: arable land 17%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures
40%; forest and woodland 6%; other 32%; includes irrigated 11%

_#_Environment: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited
arable land and natural water resources pose serious constraints;
deforestation

_#_Note: there are 175 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 38 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14
Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

_*_People
_#_Population: 4,477,105 (July 1991), growth rate 1.5% (1991);
includes 90,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 13,000 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 2,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 120,000 in
East Jerusalem (1990 est.)

_#_Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 79 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Israeli(s); adjective--Israeli

_#_Ethnic divisions: Jewish 83%, non-Jewish (mostly Arab) 17%

_#_Religion: Judaism 82%, Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim) 14%,
Christian 2%, Druze and other 2%

_#_Language: Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab
minority; English most commonly used foreign language

_#_Literacy: 92% (male 95%, female 89%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1983)

_#_Labor force: 1,400,000 (1984 est.); public services 29.3%;
industry, mining, and manufacturing 22.8%; commerce 12.8%; finance and
business 9.5%; transport, storage, and communications 6.8%; construction
and public works 6.5%; personal and other services 5.8%; agriculture,
forestry, and fishing 5.5%; electricity and water 1.0% (1983)

_#_Organized labor: 90% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: State of Israel

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the
US, like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

_#_Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular--mehoz);
Central, Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

_#_Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

_#_Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the
basic laws of the parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

_#_Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim
legal systems; in December 1985 Israel informed the UN Secretariat that
it would no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 10 May 1989; Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the
holiday may occur in April or May

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral parliament (Knesset)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October
1986)

_#_Political parties and leaders: Israel currently has a coalition
government comprising eleven parties that hold 66 of the Knesset's
120 seats;

Members of the government--Likud bloc, Prime Minister Yitzhak
SHAMIR;
Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS), Minister of Interior Arieh DER'I;
National Religious Party, Minister of Education Zevulun HAMMER;
Agudat Yisrael, Moshe Zeev FELDMAN;
Degel HaTorah, Avraham RAVITZ;
Moriya, Minister of Immigrant Absorption, Yitzhak PERETZ;
Ge'vlat Yisrael, Elizer MIZRAHI;
Party for the Advancement of Zionist Ideology (PAZI), Minister of
Finance Yitzhak MODAI;
Tehiya Party, Minister of Science, Technology, Energy, and Infrastructure
Yuval NE'EMAN;
Tzomet Party, Minister of Agriculture Rafael EITAN;
Unity for Peace and Aliyah, Efrayim GUR;
Moledet Party, Rehavam ZE'EVI;

Opposition parties--Labor Party, Shimon PERES;
Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit ALONI;
United Workers' Party (MAPAM), Yair TZABAN;
Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon RUBENSTEIN;
New Israeli Communist Party (MAKI), Meir WILNER;
Progressive List for Peace, Muhammad MI'ARI;
Arab Democratic Party, Abd Al Wahab DARAWSHAH;
Black Panthers, Charlie BITON

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February
1994); results--Chaim HERZOG reelected by Knesset;

Knesset--last held 1 November 1988 (next to be held by
November 1992);
seats--(120 total) Labor Party 38, Likud bloc 37, SHAS 5, National
Religious Party 5, Citizens' Rights Movement 5, Agudat Yisrael 4,
PAZI 3, MAKI 3, Tehiya Party 3, MAPAM 3, Tzomet Party 2, Moledet Party 2,
Degel HaTorah 2, Center Movement-Shinui 2, Progressive List for Peace 1,
Arab Democratic Party 1; Black Panthers 1, Moriya 1, Ge'ulat
Yisrael 1, Unity for Peace and Aliyah 1

_#_Communists: Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its
leadership) has some 1,500 members

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Jewish
nationalists advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza
Strip; Peace Now, critical of government's West Bank/Gaza Strip and
Lebanon policies

_#_Member of: AG (observer), CCC, EBRD, FAO, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, OAS (observer), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Zalman SHOVAL; Chancery at
3514 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
364-5500; there are Israeli Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston,
Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San
Francisco;

US--Ambassador William A. BROWN; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street,
Tel Aviv (mailing address is APO New York 09672); telephone [972] (3)
654338; there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem

_#_Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as
the Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal
blue bands near the top and bottom edges of the flag

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government
participation. It depends on imports for crude oil, food, grains, raw
materials, and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources,
Israel has developed its agricultural and industrial sectors on an
intensive scale over the past 20 years. Industry accounts for about 23%
of the labor force, agriculture for 5%, and services for most of the
balance. Diamonds, high-technology machinery, and agricultural products
(fruits and vegetables) are the biggest export earners. The balance of
payments has traditionally been negative, but is offset by large transfer
payments and foreign loans. About half of Israel's $18 billion external
government debt is owed to the US, which is its major source for economic
and military aid. To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel must continue
to exploit high-technology niches in the international market, such as
medical scanning equipment. Iraq's invasion of Kuwait on 2 August dealt
a blow to Israel's economy in 1990. Higher world oil prices added an
estimated $300 million to Israel's 1990 oil import bill, and helped
keep the inflation rate at 18% for the year. Regional tensions
and continuing acts of the Palestinian uprising
(intifadah)-related violence contributed to a sharp dropoff in
tourism--a key source of foreign exchange--to the lowest level since the
1973 Arab-Israeli war. In 1991, the influx of up to 400,000 Soviet
immigrants will increase unemployment, intensify the country's
housing crisis, and contribute to a widening budget deficit.

_#_GNP: $46.5 billion, per capita $10,500; real growth rate 3.5%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 9.8% (March 1991)

_#_Budget: revenues $28.7 billion; expenditures $33.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY91)

_#_Exports: $10.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989);

Book of the day: