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_#_Political parties and leaders:
National Front for Change and Democracy (FNCD) led by Jean-Bertrand
ARISTIDE, including Congress of Democratic Movements (CONACOM), Victor
BENOIT; National Konbite Movement (MKN), Volvick Remy JOSEPH;
National Alliance for Democracy and Progress (ANDP), a coalition
consisting of Movement for the Installation of Democracy in Haiti (MIDH),
Marc BAZIN; National Progressive Revolutionary Party (PANPRA), Serge
GILLES; and National Patriotic Movement of November 28 (MNP-28), Dejean
BELIZAIRE;
National Agricultural and Industrial Party (PAIN), Louis DEJOIE;
Movement for National Reconstruction (MRN), Rene THEODORE;
Haitian Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Sylvio CLAUDE;
Assembly of Progressive National Democrats (RDNP), Leslie MANIGAT;
National Party of Labor (PNT), Thomas DESULME;
Mobilization for National Development (MDN), Hubert DE RONCERAY;
Democratic Movement for the Liberation of Haiti (MODELH), Francois
LATORTUE;
Haitian Social Christian Party (PSCH), Gregoire EUGENE;
Movement for the Organization of the Country (MOP), Gesner COMEAU

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held 16 December 1990 (next election to be held
by December 1995);
results--Rev. Jean-Bertrand ARISTIDE 67.5%, Marc BAZIN 14.2%, Louis
DEJOIE 4.9%;

Senate--last held 16 December 1990, with runoff held 20 January
1991 (next to be held by December 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(27) FNCD 13, ANDP 6, PAIN 2, MRN 2, PDCH 1, RDNP 1, PNT 1,
independent 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 16 December 1990, with runoff
held 20 January 1991 (next to be held by December 1994);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(83) FNCD 27, ANDP 17, PDCH 7, PAIN 6, RDNP 6, MDN 5, PNT 3,
MKN 2, MODELH 2, MRN 1, independent 5, other 2

_#_Communists: United Party of Haitian Communists (PUCH), Rene
THEODORE (roughly 2,000 members)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: Democratic Unity Confederation
(KID), Roman Catholic Church, Confederation of Haitian Workers (CTH),
Federation of Workers Trade Unions (FOS), Autonomous Haitian Workers
(CATH), National Popular Assembly (APN)

_#_Member of: ACCT, CARICOM (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LAES, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant), Charge
d'Affaires Raymond Alcide JOSEPH; Chancery at 2311 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-4090 through 4092; there
are Haitian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Miami, New York,
and San Juan (Puerto Rico);

US--Ambassador Alvin P. ADAMS, Jr.; Embassy at Harry Truman
Boulevard, Port-au-Prince (mailing address is P. O. Box 1761,
Port-au-Prince), telephone [509] (1) 20-354 or 20-368, 20-200, 20-612

_#_Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a
centered white rectangle bearing the coat of arms which contains a palm
tree flanked by flags and two cannons above a scroll bearing the motto
L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE (Union Makes Strength)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: About 85% of the population live in abject poverty.
Agriculture is mainly small-scale subsistence farming and employs
two-thirds of the work force. The majority of the population does not
have ready access to safe drinking water, adequate medical care, or
sufficient food. Few social assistance programs exist, and the lack of
employment opportunities remains one of the most critical problems
facing the economy, along with soil erosion and political instability.

_#_GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate - 3.0% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 25-50% (1990 est.)

_#_Budget: revenues $300 million; expenditures $416 million, including
capital expenditures of $145 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $169 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.);

commodities--light manufactures 69%, coffee 19%, other agriculture
8%, other 8%;

partners--US 84%, Italy 4%, France 3%, other industrial 6%,
less developed countries 3% (1987)

_#_Imports: $348 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.);

commodities--machines and manufactures 34%, food and beverages 22%,
petroleum products 14%, chemicals 10%, fats and oils 9%;

partners--US 64%, Netherlands Antilles 5%, Japan 5%, France 4%,
Canada 3%, Germany 3% (1987)

_#_External debt: $838 million (December 1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 0.3% (FY88); accounts for
15% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 230,000 kW capacity; 264 million kWh produced,
43 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: sugar refining, textiles, flour milling, cement
manufacturing, tourism, light assembly industries based on imported parts

_#_Agriculture: accounts for 33% of GDP and employs 66% of work force;
mostly small-scale subsistence farms; commercial crops--coffee, mangoes,
sugarcane and wood; staple crops--rice, corn, sorghum; shortage of
wheat flour

_#_Illicit drugs: transshipment point for cocaine

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $700
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $682 million

_#_Currency: gourde (plural--gourdes); 1 gourde (G) = 100 centimes

_#_Exchange rates: gourdes (G) per US$1-- 5.0 (fixed rate)

_#_Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 40 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge, single-track, privately
owned industrial line

_#_Highways: 4,000 km total; 950 km paved, 900 km otherwise improved,
2,150 km unimproved

_#_Inland waterways: negligible; less than 100 km navigable

_#_Ports: Port-au-Prince, Cap-Haitien

_#_Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 15 total, 10 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: domestic facilities barely adequate,
international facilities slightly better; 36,000 telephones;
stations--33 AM, no FM, 4 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army (including Police), Navy, Air Corps

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,287,179; 691,926 fit for
military service; 61,265 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $34 million, 1.5% of GDP (1988 est.)
_%_
_@_Heard Island and McDonald Islands
(territory of Australia)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 412 km2; land area: 412 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 101.9 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: antarctic

_#_Terrain: Heard Island--bleak and mountainous, with an extinct
volcano; McDonald Islands--small and rocky

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 0%; other 100%

_#_Environment: primarily used as research stations

_#_Note: located 4,100 km southwest of Australia in the
southern Indian Ocean

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands

_#_Type: territory of Australia administered by the Antarctic Division
of the Department of Science in Canberra (Australia)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
_%_
_@_Honduras
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 112,090 km2; land area: 111,890 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

_#_Land boundaries: 1,520 km total; Guatemala 256 km, El Salvador 342
km, Nicaragua 922 km

_#_Coastline: 820 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: dispute with El Salvador over several sections of
the land boundary; dispute over Golfo de Fonseca maritime boundary
because of disputed sovereignty of islands; unresolved maritime boundary
with Nicaragua

_#_Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains

_#_Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains

_#_Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,
iron ore, antimony, coal, fish

_#_Land use: arable land 14%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures
30%; forest and woodland 34%; other 20%; includes irrigated 1%

_#_Environment: subject to frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes;
damaging hurricanes and floods along Caribbean coast; deforestation; soil
erosion

_*_People
_#_Population: 4,949,275 (July 1991), growth rate 2.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 56 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Honduran(s); adjective--Honduran

_#_Ethnic divisions: mestizo (mixed Indian and European) 90%, Indian
7%, black 2%, white 1%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic about 97%; small Protestant minority

_#_Language: Spanish, Indian dialects

_#_Literacy: 73% (male 76%, female 71%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 1,300,000; agriculture 62%, services 20%,
manufacturing 9%, construction 3%, other 6% (1985)

_#_Organized labor: 40% of urban labor force, 20% of rural work force
(1985)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Honduras

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Tegucigalpa

_#_Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua,
Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios,
Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho,
Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro

_#_Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

_#_Constitution: 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982

_#_Legal system: rooted in Roman and Spanish civil law; some influence
of English common law; accepts ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

_#_National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

_#_Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Congress (Congreso
Nacional)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de
Justica)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State and Head of Government--Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS
Romero (since 26 January 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PLH)--faction leaders, Carlos FLORES Facusse (leader of
Florista Liberal Movement), Carlos MONTOYA (Azconista subfaction), Ramon
VILLEDA Bermudez and Jorge Arturo REINA (M-Lider faction);
National Party (PNH), Jose Celin DISCUA, party president;
PNH faction leaders--Oswaldo RAMOS Soto and Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS
(Monarca faction);
National Innovation and Unity Party-Social Democrats (PINU-SD), Enrique
AGUILAR Cerrato Paz;
Christian Democratic Party (PDCH), Jorge ILLESCAS;
Democratic Action (AD), Walter LOPEZ Reyes

_#_Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--Rafael Leonardo CALLEJAS (PNH) 51%,
Carlos FLORES Facusse (PLH) 43.3%, other 5.7%;

National Congress--last held on 26 November 1989 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--PNH 51%, PLH 43%, PDCH 1.9%, PINU 1.5%, other 2.6%;
seats--(128 total) PNH 71, PLH 55, PINU 2

_#_Communists: up to 1,500; Honduran leftist groups--Communist Party
of Honduras (PCH), Party for the Transformation of Honduras (PTH),
Morazanist Front for the Liberation of Honduras (FMLH), People's
Revolutionary Union/Popular Liberation Movement (URP/MPL), Popular
Revolutionary Forces-Lorenzo Zelaya (FPR/LZ), Socialist Party of Honduras
Central American Workers Revolutionary Party (PASO/PRTC)

_#_Other political or pressure groups: National Association of
Honduran Campesinos (ANACH), Honduran Council of Private Enterprise
(COHEP), Confederation of Honduran Workers (CTH), National Union of
Campesinos (UNC), General Workers Confederation (CGT), United Federation
of Honduran Workers (FUTH), Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in
Honduras (CODEH), Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations (CCOP)

_#_Member of: BCIE, CACM, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES,
LAIA (observer), LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge Ramon HERNANDEZ
Alcerro; Chancery at Suite 100, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008; telephone (202) 966-7700 through 7702; there are Honduran
Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
and San Francisco, and Consulates in Baton Rouge, Boston, Detroit,
Houston, and Jacksonville;

US--Ambassador S. Crescencio ARCOS; Embassy at Avenida La Paz,
Tegucigalpa (mailing address is APO Miami 34022); telephone [504] 32-3120

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue
with five blue five-pointed stars arranged in an X pattern centered
in the white band; the stars represent the members of the former Federal
Republic of Central America--Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
Honduras, and Nicaragua; similar to the flag of El Salvador which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL
SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also
similar to the flag of Nicaragua which features a triangle
encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA
CENTRAL on the bottom, centered in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Honduras is one of the poorest countries in the Western
Hemisphere. Agriculture, the most important sector of the economy,
accounts for nearly 30% of GDP, employs 62% of the labor force, and
produces two-thirds of exports. Productivity remains low. Industry,
still in its early stages, employs nearly 9% of the labor force,
accounts for 15% of GDP, and generates 20% of exports. The service
sectors, including public administration, account for 50% of GDP and
employ nearly 20% of the labor force. Basic problems facing the
economy include rapid population growth, high unemployment, sharply
increased inflation, a lack of basic services, a large and inefficient
public sector, and the dependence of the export sector mostly on coffee
and bananas, which are subject to sharp price fluctuations. Despite
government efforts at reform and large-scale foreign assistance, the
economy still is unable to take advantage of its sizable natural
resources.

_#_GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $960; real growth rate -1.0% (1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35.2% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 15% unemployed, 30-40% underemployed (1989)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $511 million (1990 est.)

_#_Exports: $939 million (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, minerals, lumber;

partners--US 52%, FRG 11%, Japan, Italy, Belgium

_#_Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f. 1990);

commodities--machinery and transport equipment, chemical products,
manufactured goods, fuel and oil, foodstuffs;

partners--US 39%, Japan 9%, CACM, Venezuela, Mexico

_#_External debt: $2.8 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1989); accounts for
15% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 668,000 kW capacity; 2,023 million kWh produced,
380 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: agricultural processing (sugar and coffee), textiles,
clothing, wood products

_#_Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for nearly 30% of
GDP, over 60% of the labor force, and two-thirds of exports; principal
products include bananas, coffee, timber, beef, citrus fruit, shrimp;
importer of wheat

_#_Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on
small plots and used principally for local consumption; transshipment
point for cocaine

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.4
billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $1,027 million

_#_Currency: lempira (plural--lempiras); 1 lempira (L) = 100 centavos

_#_Exchange rates: lempiras (L) per US$1--5.30 (fixed rate); 5.70
parallel black-market rate (November 1990)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 785 km total; 508 km 1.067-meter gauge, 277 km
0.914-meter gauge

_#_Highways: 8,950 km total; 1,700 km paved, 5,000 km otherwise
improved, 2,250 km unimproved earth

_#_Inland waterways: 465 km navigable by small craft

_#_Ports: Puerto Castilla, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo

_#_Merchant marine: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 527,481
GRT/812,095 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 107 cargo, 12 refrigerated
cargo, 9 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 20 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 1
vehicle carrier, 18 bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry; the
USSR owns one ship under the Honduran flag

_#_Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 175 total, 134 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 13 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: improved, but still inadequate; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 35,100 telephones; stations--176 AM,
no FM, 28 TV, 7 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Public
Security Forces (FUSEP)

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,106,630; 659,520 fit for
military service; 58,953 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $82.5 million, 1.9% of GDP (1990 est.)
_%_
_@_Hong Kong
(dependent territory of the UK)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1,040 km2; land area: 990 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly less than six times the size of
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundary: 30 km with China

_#_Coastline: 733 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

_#_Climate: tropical monsoon; cool and humid in winter, hot and rainy
from spring through summer, warm and sunny in fall

_#_Terrain: hilly to mountainous with steep slopes; lowlands in north

_#_Natural resources: outstanding deepwater harbor, feldspar

_#_Land use: arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
1%; forest and woodland 12%; other 79%; includes irrigated 3%

_#_Environment: more than 200 islands; occasional typhoons

_*_People
_#_Population: 5,855,800 (July 1991), growth rate 0.6% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 77 years male, 84 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: adjective--Hong Kong

_#_Ethnic divisions: Chinese 98%, other 2%

_#_Religion: eclectic mixture of local religions 90%, Christian 10%

_#_Language: Chinese (Cantonese), English

_#_Literacy: 77% (male 90%, female 64%) age 15 and over having ever
attended school (1971)

_#_Labor force: 2,800,000 (1990); manufacturing 28.5%, wholesale and
retail trade, restaurants, and hotels 27.9%, services 17.7%,
financing, insurance, and real estate 9.2%, transport and communications
4.5%, construction 2.5%, other 9.7% (1989)

_#_Organized labor: 16% of labor force (1990)

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none; abbreviated HK

_#_Type: dependent territory of the UK; scheduled to revert to
China in 1997

_#_Capital: Victoria

_#_Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

_#_Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK); the UK
signed an agreement with China on 19 December 1984 to return Hong Kong to
China on 1 July 1997; in the joint declaration, China promises to respect
Hong Kong's existing social and economic systems and lifestyle for 50
years after transition

_#_Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice; new Basic Law approved in March 1990 in preparation for 1997

_#_Legal system: based on English common law

_#_National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 August (1945)

_#_Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief secretary of the
Executive Council

_#_Legislative branch: Legislative Council

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor Sir David Clive WILSON (since 9
April 1987);
Chief Secretary Sir David Robert FORD (since NA February 1987)

_#_Political parties:
United Democrats of Hong Kong (UDHK), Martin LEE Chu-ming;
Liberal Democratic Federation (LDF), HU Fa-kuang;
Hong Kong Democratic Foundation (HKDF), Patrick SHIU Kin-ying;
Association for Democracy and People's Livelihood (ADPL),
Frederick FUNG Kin-kee;
Meeting Point, Anthony CHEUNG Bing-leung;
Progressive Hong Kong Society (PHKS), Maria TAM Wai-chu

_#_Suffrage: direct election--universal at age 21
as a permanent resident living in the territory of Hong Kong for
the past seven years; indirect election--limited to about 100,000
professionals of electoral college and functional constituencies

_#_Elections:

Legislative Council--indirect elections last held 12 September 1991
and direct elections held 15 September 1991 (next to be held by
September 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total;
21 indirectly elected by functional constituencies, 18 directly elected,
18 appointed by governor, 3 ex officio members) indirect
elections--number of seats by functional constituency NA; direct
elections--UDHK 12, Meeting Point 2, ADPL 1, other 3; note--direct
elections were held for the first time in September 1991

_#_Communists: 5,000 (est.) cadres affiliated with Communist Party
of China

_#_Other political or pressure groups:
Federation of Trade Unions (pro-China), Hong Kong and Kowloon Trade
Union Council (pro-Taiwan), Confederation of Trade Unions (prodemocracy),
Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, Chinese General Chamber of
Commerce (pro-China), Federation of Hong Kong Industries, Chinese
Manufacturers' Association of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Professional Teachers'
Union, Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the Patriotic Democratic Movement
in China

_#_Member of: AsDB, CCC, ESCAP (associate), GATT, ICFTU,
IMO (associate), IOC, ISO (correspondent), WCL, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
the interests of Hong Kong in the US are represented by the UK;

US--Consul General Richard L. WILLIAMS; Consulate General at
26 Garden Road, Hong Kong (mailing address is Box 30, Hong Kong, or
FPO San Francisco 96659-0002); telephone [852] (5) 845-1598

_#_Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
with the Hong Kong coat of arms on a white disk centered on the outer
half of the flag; the coat of arms contains a shield (bearing two junks
below a crown) held by a lion (representing the UK) and a dragon
(representing China) with another lion above the shield and a banner
bearing the words HONG KONG below the shield

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Hong Kong has a free market economy with few tariffs
or nontariff barriers. Natural resources are limited, and food and raw
materials must be imported. Manufacturing accounts for about 18% of
GDP, employs 28% of the labor force, and exports about 90% of its
output. Real GDP growth averaged a remarkable 8% in 1987-88, then
slowed to 2.5-3.0% in 1989-90. Unemployment, which has been declining
since the mid-1980s, is now less than 2%. A shortage of labor continues
to put upward pressure on prices and the cost of living. Short-term
prospects remain solid so long as major trading partners continue to be
prosperous. The crackdown in China in 1989-90 casts a long shadow over
the longer term economic outlook.

_#_GDP: $64.0 billion, per capita $11,000; real growth rate 2.5%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.8% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.8% (1990)

_#_Budget: $8.8 billion (FY90)

_#_Exports: $80.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990), including reexports of
$51.2 billion;

commodities--clothing, textile yarn and fabric, footwear,
electrical appliances, watches and clocks, toys;

partners--US 32%, China 19%, FRG 7%, UK 6%, Japan 6% (1989)

_#_Imports: $79.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--foodstuffs, transport equipment, raw materials,
semimanufactures, petroleum;

partners--China 35%, Japan 17%, Taiwan 9%, US 8% (1989)

_#_External debt: $9.5 billion (December 1990 est.)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate 1.7% (1989)

_#_Electricity: 8,485,000 kW capacity; 25,000 million kWh produced,
4,340 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: textiles, clothing, tourism, electronics, plastics,
toys, watches, clocks

_#_Agriculture: minor role in the economy; rice, vegetables, dairy
products; less than 20% self-sufficient; shortages of rice, wheat, water

_#_Illicit drugs: a hub for Southeast Asian heroin trade;
transshipment and major financial and money-laundering center

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $152
million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-88), $910 million

_#_Currency: Hong Kong dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Hong Kong dollar (HK$) = 100 cents

_#_Exchange rates: Hong Kong dollars (HK$) per US$--7.800 (March
1989), 7.810 (1988), 7.760 (1987), 7.795 (1986), 7.811 (1985);
note--linked to the US dollar at the rate of about 7.8 HK$ per 1 US$
since 1985

_#_Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 35 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned

_#_Highways: 1,484 km total; 794 km paved, 306 km gravel, crushed
stone, or earth

_#_Ports: Hong Kong

_#_Merchant marine: 134 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 4,690,770
GRT/8,091,177 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo,
5 refrigerated cargo, 16 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6
combination ore/oil, 6 liquefied gas, 71 bulk; note--a flag of
convenience registry; ships registered in Hong Kong fly the UK flag and
an estimated 500 Hong Kong-owned ships are registered elsewhere

_#_Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: modern facilities provide excellent domestic
and international services; 3,000,000 telephones; microwave transmission
links and extensive optical fiber transmission network; stations--6 AM,
6 FM, 4 TV; 1 British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) relay station and
1 British Forces Broadcasting Service relay station; 2,500,000 radio
receivers; 1,312,000 TV sets (1,224,000 color TV sets); satellite earth
stations--1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; coaxial
cable to Guangzhou, China; links to 5 international submarine cables
providing access to ASEAN member nations, Japan, Taiwan, Australia,
Middle East, and Western Europe

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Headquarters of British Forces, Royal Navy, Royal
Air Force, Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force, Gurkha Brigade,
Royal Hong Kong Police Force

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 1,718,112; 1,328,230 fit for
military service; 45,437 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: $300 million, 0.5% of GDP (1989 est.);
this represents one-fourth of the total cost of defending itself,
the remainder being paid by the UK

_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
_%_
_@_Howland Island
(territory of the US)
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 1.6 km2; land area: 1.6 km2

_#_Comparative area: about 2.7 times the size of The Mall in
Washington, DC

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 6.4 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m (depth);

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

_#_Terrain: low-lying, nearly level, sandy, coral island surrounded by
a narrow fringing reef; depressed central area

_#_Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

_#_Land use: arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures
0%; forest and woodland 5%; other 95%

_#_Environment: almost totally covered with grasses, prostrate vines,
and low-growing shrubs; small area of trees in the center; lacks fresh
water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

_#_Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii
and Australia

_*_People
_#_Population: uninhabited

_#_Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and
naval attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World
War II, but abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use
permit only and generally restricted to scientists and educators

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: none

_#_Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: no economic activity

_*_Communications
_#_Airports: airstrip constructed in 1937 for scheduled refueling
stop on the round-the-world flight of Amelia Earhart and Fred
Noonan--they left Lae, New Guinea, for Howland Island, but were never
seen again; the airstrip is no longer serviceable

_#_Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along
the middle of the west coast

_#_Note: Earhart Light is a day beacon near the middle of the west
coast that was partially destroyed during World War II, but has since
been rebuilt in memory of famed aviatrix Amelia Earhart

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
_%_
_@_Hungary
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 93,030 km2; land area: 92,340 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

_#_Land boundaries: 2,251 km total; Austria 366 km, Czechoslovakia 676
km, Romania 443 km, USSR 135 km, Yugoslavia 631 km

_#_Coastline: none--landlocked

_#_Maritime claims: none--landlocked

_#_Disputes: Nagymaros Dam dispute with Czechoslovakia

_#_Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers

_#_Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains

_#_Natural resources: bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils

_#_Land use: arable land 54%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures
14%; forest and woodland 18%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%

_#_Environment: levees are common along many streams, but flooding
occurs almost every year

_#_Note: landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes
between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between USSR and
Mediterranean basin

_*_People
_#_Population: 10,558,001 (July 1991), growth rate - 0.1% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Hungarian(s); adjective--Hungarian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Hungarian 96.6%, German 1.6%, Slovak 1.1%,
Southern Slav 0.3%, Romanian 0.2%

_#_Religion: Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20.0%, Lutheran 5.0%,
atheist and other 7.5%

_#_Language: Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%

_#_Literacy: 99% (male 99%, female 98%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1980)

_#_Labor force: 4,860,000; services, trade, government, and other
43.2%, industry 30.9%, agriculture 18.8%, construction 7.1% (1988)

_#_Organized labor: 96.5% of labor force; Central Council of Hungarian
Trade Unions (SZOT) includes 19 affiliated unions, all controlled by the
government; independent unions legal; may be as many as 12 small
independent unions in operation

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Hungary

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Budapest

_#_Administrative divisions: 19 counties (megyek, singular--megye)
and 1 capital city* (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes,
Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest*, Csongrad, Fejer,
Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok,
Komarom-Esztergom, Nograd, Pest, Somogy, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg,
Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Zala

_#_Independence: 1001, unification by King Stephen I

_#_Constitution: 18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised
19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensures legal rights for
individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime
minister and established the principle of parliamentary oversight

_#_Legal system: in process of revision, moving toward rule of law
based on Western model

_#_National holiday: October 23 (1956); commemorates the Hungarian
uprising

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister

_#_Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly
(Orszaggyules)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court, may be restructured as part of
ongoing government overhaul

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Arpad GONCZ (since 3 August 1990;
previously interim President from 2 May 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jozsef ANTALL
(since 23 May 1990)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Democratic Forum, Jozsef ANTALL, chairman;
Free Democrats, Janos KIS, chairman;
Independent Smallholders, Ferenc Jozsef NAGY, president;
Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP), Gyula HORN, chairman;
Young Democrats, Gabor FODOR, head;
Christian Democrats, Dr. Lazlo SURJAN, president;
note--the Hungarian Socialist (Communist) Workers' Party (MSZMP)
renounced Communism and became the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) in
October 1989

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

President last held 3 August 1990 (next to be held August 1995);
elected by the National Assembly with a total of 294 votes out of 304;
President GONCZ was elected by the National Assembly as interim President
from 2 May 1990 until elected President;

National Assembly--last held on 25 March 1990 (first round, with
the second round held 8 April 1990);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(394 total) Democratic Forum 165, Free Democrats 92,
Independent Smallholders 43, Hungarian Socialist Party (MSP) 33,
Young Democrats 21, Christian Democrats 21, independent candidates
or jointly sponsored candidates 19

_#_Communists: fewer than 100,000 (December 1989)

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, ECE, FAO, G-9, GATT,
IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IIB, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO,
ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant);
Chancery at 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 362-6730; there is a Hungarian Consulate General in New York;

US--Ambassador Charles THOMAS; Embassy at V. Szabadsag
Ter 12, Budapest (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone [36]
(1) 112-6450

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Agriculture is an important sector, providing sizable
export earnings and meeting domestic food needs. Industry accounts for
about 40% of GNP and 30% of employment. About 40% of Hungary's foreign
trade is with the USSR and Eastern Europe and a third is with the EC.
Low rates of growth reflect the inability of the Soviet-style economy to
modernize capital plant and motivate workers. GNP declined by 1% in 1989
and by an estimated 6% in 1990. Since 1985 external debt has more than
doubled, to over $20 billion. In recent years Hungary has experimented
widely with decentralized and market-oriented enterprises. The newly
democratic government has renounced the Soviet economic growth model and
plans to open the economy to wider market forces and to much closer
economic relations with Western Europe. Prime Minister Antall has
declared his intention to move foward on privatization of state
enterprises, provision for bankruptcy, land reform, and marketization of
international trade, but concerns over acceptable levels of unemployment
and inflation may slow the reform process.

_#_GNP: $60.9 billion, per capita $5,800; real growth rate - 5.7%
(1990 est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1990 est.)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.7% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $18.2 billion; expenditures $18.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $805 million (1989)

_#_Exports: $10.2 billion (f.o.b. 1989);

commodities--capital goods 33%, foods 25%, consumer goods 16%,
fuels 1.5%, other 24.5%;

partners USSR and Eastern Europe 42%, developed countries 37.4%,
less developed countries 20.6% (1989)

_#_Imports: $10.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);

commodities--capital goods 15%, fuels 20%, manufactured
consumer goods 12.4%, agriculture 5%, other 47.6%;

partners--USSR and Eastern Europe 34.9%, developed countries 45.5%,
less developed countries 16.6%, US 3%

_#_External debt: $20.7 billion (1989)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 7.9% (1990 est.)

_#_Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 30,400 million kWh produced,
2,870 kWh per capita (1990)

_#_Industries: mining, metallurgy, engineering industries, processed
foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals)

_#_Agriculture: including forestry, accounts for about 15% of GNP
and 19% of employment; highly diversified crop-livestock farming;
principal crops--wheat, corn, sunflowers, potatoes, sugar beets;
livestock--hogs, cattle, poultry, dairy products; self-sufficient in
food output

_#_Economic aid: donor--$2.0 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist
less developed countries (1962-89)

_#_Currency: forint (plural--forints); 1 forint (Ft) = 100 filler

_#_Exchange rates: forints (Ft) per US$1--60.95 (December 1990), 63.21
(1990), 59.07 (1989), 50.41 (1988), 46.97 (1987), 45.83 (1986), 50.12
(1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Railroads: 7,765 km total; 7,508 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
222 km narrow gauge (mostly 0.760-meter), 35 km 1.520-meter broad gauge;
1,147 km double track, 2,161 km electrified; all government owned (1988)

_#_Highways: 130,014 km total; 29,715 km national highway
system--26,834 km asphalt and bitumen, 142 km concrete, 51 km stone and
road brick, 2,276 km macadam, 412 km unpaved; 58,495 km country roads
(66% unpaved), and 41,804 km (est.) other roads (70% unpaved) (1988)

_#_Inland waterways: 1,622 km (1988)

_#_Pipelines: crude oil, 1,204 km; refined products, 630 km;
natural gas, 3,895 km (1986)

_#_Ports: Budapest and Dunaujvaros are river ports on the Danube;
maritime outlets are Rostock (Germany), Gdansk (Poland), Gdynia (Poland),
Szczecin (Poland), Galati (Romania), and Braila (Romania)

_#_Merchant marine: 16 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) and 1 bulk
totaling 94,393 GRT/131,946 DWT

_#_Civil air: 28 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 90 total, 90 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: telephone density is at 17 per 100 inhabitants;
49% of all phones are in Budapest; 12-15 year wait for a phone; 16,000
telex lines (June 1990); stations--13 AM, 12 FM, 21 TV (8 Soviet
TV relays); 4.2 TVs (1990)

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Frontier
Guard, Civil Defense

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 2,667,234; 2,130,749 fit for
military service; 88,851 reach military age (18) annually

_#_Defense expenditures: 43.7 billion forints, NA% of GDP (1989);
note--conversion of defense expenditures into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading
results
_%_
_@_Iceland
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 103,000 km2; land area: 100,250 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kentucky

_#_Land boundaries: none

_#_Coastline: 4,988 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark,
Ireland, and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement
in the Rockall area)

_#_Climate: temperate; moderated by North Atlantic Current; mild,
windy winters; damp, cool summers

_#_Terrain: mostly plateau interspersed with mountain peaks,
icefields; coast deeply indented by bays and fiords

_#_Natural resources: fish, hydroelectric and geothermal power,
diatomite

_#_Land use: arable land NEGL%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and
pastures 23%; forest and woodland 1%; other 76%

_#_Environment: subject to earthquakes and volcanic activity

_#_Note: strategic location between Greenland and Europe;
westernmost European country

_*_People
_#_Population: 259,742 (July 1991), growth rate 1.0% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 80 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Icelander(s); adjective--Icelandic

_#_Ethnic divisions: homogeneous mixture of descendants of Norwegians
and Celts

_#_Religion: Evangelical Lutheran 96%, other Protestant and Roman
Catholic 3%, none 1% (1988)

_#_Language: Icelandic

_#_Literacy: 100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1976 est.)

_#_Labor force: 134,429; commerce, finance, and services 55.4%, other
manufacturing 14.3%., agriculture 5.8%, fish processing 7.9%, fishing
5.0% (1986)

_#_Organized labor: 60% of labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of Iceland

_#_Type: republic

_#_Capital: Reykjavik

_#_Administrative divisions: 23 counties (syslar, singular--sysla)
and 14 independent towns* (kaupstadhir, singular--kaupstadhur); Akranes*,
Akureyri*, Arnessysla, Austur-Bardhastrandarsysla,
Austur-Hunavatnssysla, Austur-Skaftafellssysla,
Borgarfjardharsysla, Dalasysla, Eyjafjardharsysla,
Gullbringusysla, Hafnarfjordhur*, Husavik*, Isafjordhur*,
Keflavik*, Kjosarsysla, Kopavogur*, Myrasysla,
Neskaupstadhur*, Nordhur-Isafjardharsysla, Nordhur-Mulasysla,
Nordhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Olafsfjordhur*, Rangarvallasysla,
Reykjavik*, Saudharkrokur*, Seydhisfjordhur*, Siglufjordhur*,
Skagafjardharsysla, Snaefellsnes-og Hnappadalssysla, Strandasysla,
Sudhur-Mulasysla, Sudhur-Thingeyjarsysla, Vestmannaeyjar*,
Vestur-Bardhastrandarsysla, Vestur-Hunavatnssysla,
Vestur-Isafjardharsysla, Vestur-Skaftafellssysla

_#_Independence: 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)

_#_Constitution: 16 June 1944, effective 17 June 1944

_#_Legal system: civil law system based on Danish law; does not accept
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Establishment of the Republic,
17 June (1944)

_#_Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Althingi with an Upper
House (Efri Deild) and a Lower House (Nedri Deild)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Haestirettur)

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR (since 1
August 1980);

Head of Government--Prime Minister David ODDSSON (since
30 April 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Independence (conservative), David ODDSSON;
Progressive, Steingrimur HERMANNSSON;
Social Democratic, Jon Baldvin HANNIBALSSON;
People's Alliance (left socialist), Olafur Ragnar GRIMSSON;
Citizens Party (conservative nationalist), Julius SOLNES;
Women's List

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 20

_#_Elections:

President--last held on 29 June 1980 (next scheduled for June
1992); results--there were no elections in 1984 and 1988 as President
Vigdis FINNBOGADOTTIR was unopposed;

Althing--last held on 20 April 1991 (next to be held by
April 1995);
results--Independence 38.6%, Progressive 18.9%, Social Democratic 15.5%,
People's Alliance 14.4%, Womens List 8.13%, Liberals 1.2%, other 3.27%
seats--(63 total) Independence 26, Progressive 13, Social Democratic 10,
People's Alliance 9, Womens List 5

_#_Communists: less than 100 (est.), some of whom participate in the
People's Alliance

_#_Member of: BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC,
ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tomas A. TOMASSON; Chancery
at 2022 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-6653 through 6655; there is an Icelandic Consulate General in New
York;

US--Ambassador Charles E. COBB, Jr.; Embassy at Laufasvegur 21,
Box 40, Reykjavik (mailing address is FPO New York 09571-0001); telephone
[354] (1) 29100

_#_Flag: blue with a red cross outlined in white that extends to the
edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist
side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: Iceland's prosperous Scandinavian-type economy is
basically capitalistic, but with extensive welfare measures, low
unemployment, and comparatively even distribution of income. The economy
is heavily dependent on the fishing industry, which provides nearly 75%
of export earnings. In the absence of other natural resources, Iceland's
economy is vulnerable to changing world fish prices. As a result of
climbing fish prices in 1990 and a noninflationary labor agreement,
Iceland is pulling out of a recession, which began in mid-1988 with a
sharp decline in fish prices and an imposition of quotas on fish catches
to conserve stocks. Inflation was down sharply from 20% in 1989
to 8% in 1990.

_#_GDP: $4.2 billion, per capita $16,300; real growth rate 0%
(1990)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1990)

_#_Unemployment rate: 1.8% (1990)

_#_Budget: revenues $1.58 billion; expenditures $1.66 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (1990)

_#_Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1990);

commodities--fish and fish products, animal products, aluminum,
diatomite;

partners--EC 67.7% (UK 25.3%, FRG 12.7%), US 9.9%,
Japan 6%

_#_Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990);

commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum,
foodstuffs, textiles;

partners--EC 49.8% (FRG 12.4%, Denmark 8.6%, UK 8.1%), US 14.4%,
Japan 5.6%

_#_External debt: $3 billion (1990)

_#_Industrial production: growth rate - 0.8% (1988 est.); accounts
for 22% of GDP

_#_Electricity: 1,063,000 kW capacity; 5,165 million kWh produced,
20,780 kWh per capita (1989)

_#_Industries: fish processing, aluminum smelting, ferro-silicon
production, hydropower

_#_Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing is most important economic activity, contributing nearly 75%
to export earnings; principal crops--potatoes and turnips;
livestock--cattle, sheep; self-sufficient in crops; fish catch of
about 1.4 million metric tons in 1989

_#_Economic aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $19.1
million

_#_Currency: krona (plural--kronur);
1 Icelandic krona (IKr) = 100 aurar

_#_Exchange rates: Icelandic kronur (IKr) per US$1--55.216
(January 1991), 58.284 (1990), 57.042 (1989), 43.014 (1988), 38.677
(1987), 41.104 (1986), 41.508 (1985)

_#_Fiscal year: calendar year

_*_Communications
_#_Highways: 12,343 km total; 166 km bitumen and concrete; 1,284 km
bituminous treated and gravel; 10,893 km earth

_#_Ports: Reykjavik, Akureyri, Hafnarfjordhur, Keflavik,
Seydhisfjordhur, Siglufjordhur, Vestmannaeyjar; numerous minor ports

_#_Merchant marine: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,409
GRT/73,279 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker, 1 bulk

_#_Civil air: 20 major transport aircraft

_#_Airports: 99 total, 92 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
14 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

_#_Telecommunications: adequate domestic service, wire and radio
communication system; 135,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 17 (43 relays)
FM, 14 (132 relays) TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

_*_Defense Forces
_#_Branches: no armed forces; State Criminal Police, Coast Guard;
Iceland's defense is provided by the US-manned Icelandic Defense Force
(IDF) headquartered at Keflavik

_#_Manpower availability: males 15-49, 69,644; 62,248 fit for military
service; no conscription or compulsory military service

_#_Defense expenditures: none
_%_
_@_India
_*_Geography
_#_Total area: 3,287,590 km2; land area: 2,973,190 km2

_#_Comparative area: slightly more than one-third the size of the US

_#_Land boundaries: 14,103 km total; Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605
km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km

_#_Coastline: 7,000 km

_#_Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

_#_Disputes: boundaries with Bangladesh, China, and Pakistan; water
sharing problems with downstream riparians, Bangladesh over the Ganges
and Pakistan over the Indus

_#_Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in
north

_#_Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling
plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north

_#_Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world),
iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas,
diamonds, crude oil, limestone

_#_Land use: arable land 55%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures
4%; forest and woodland 23%; other 17%; includes irrigated 13%

_#_Environment: droughts, flash floods, severe thunderstorms common;
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; air and water pollution;
desertification

_#_Note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important
Indian Ocean trade routes

_*_People
_#_Population: 866,351,738 (July 1991), growth rate 1.9% (1991)

_#_Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

_#_Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

_#_Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 59 years female (1991)

_#_Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1991)

_#_Nationality: noun--Indian(s); adjective--Indian

_#_Ethnic divisions: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and
other 3%

_#_Religion: Hindu 82.6%, Muslim 11.4%, Christian 2.4%, Sikh 2.0%,
Buddhist 0.7%, Jains 0.5%, other 0.4%

_#_Language: Hindi, English, and 14 other official languages--Bengali,
Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya,
Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; 24 languages spoken by
a million or more persons each; numerous other languages and dialects,
for the most part mutually unintelligible; Hindi is the national language
and primary tongue of 30% of the people; English enjoys associate status
but is the most important language for national, political, and
commercial communication; Hindustani, a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu, is
spoken widely throughout northern India

_#_Literacy: 48% (male 62%, female 34%) age 15 and over can
read and write (1990 est.)

_#_Labor force: 284,400,000; 67% agriculture (FY85)

_#_Organized labor: less than 5% of the labor force

_*_Government
_#_Long-form name: Republic of India

_#_Type: federal republic

_#_Capital: New Delhi

_#_Administrative divisions: 25 states and 7 union territories*;
Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*,
Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana,
Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala,
Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya,
Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Pondicherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan,
Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal

_#_Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK)

_#_Constitution: 26 January 1950

_#_Legal system: based on English common law; limited judicial review
of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

_#_National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
26 January (1950)

_#_Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
Council of Ministers

_#_Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of an
upper house or Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and a lower house or
House of the People (Lok Sabha)

_#_Judicial branch: Supreme Court

_#_Leaders:

Chief of State--President Ramaswamy Iyer VENKATARAMAN (since 25
July 1987); Vice President Dr. Shankar Dayal SHARMA (since 3 September
1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister P. V. Narasimha RAO (since
21 June 1991)

_#_Political parties and leaders:
Congress (I) Party, P. V. Narasimha RAO, president;
Bharatiya Janata Party, L. K. ADVANI;
Janata Dal Party, V. P. SINGH;
Communist Party of India/Marxist (CPI/M), E. M. S. NAMBOODIRIPAD;
Communist Party of India (CPI), C. Rajeswara RAO;
Telugu Desam (a regional party in Andhra Pradesh), N. T. Rama RAO;
All-India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (AIADMK; a regional party
in Tamil Nadu), JAYALALITHA;
Samajwadi Janata Party, CHANDRA SHEKHAR;
Shiv Sena, Bal THACKERAY;
Revolutionary Socialist Party (RSP), Tridip CHOWDHURY;
Bahujana Samaj Party (BSP), Kanshi RAM;
Congress (S) Party, leader NA;
Communist Party of India/Marxist-Leninist (CPI/ML), Satyanarayan SINGH;
Dravida Munnetra Kazagham (a regional party in Tamil Nadu),
M. KARUNANIDHI;
Akali Dal factions representing Sikh religious community in the Punjab;
National Conference (NC; a regional party in Jammu and Kashmir), Farooq
ABDULLAH;
Asom Gana Parishad (a regional party in Assam), Prafulla MAHANTA

_#_Suffrage: universal at age 18

_#_Elections:

People's Assembly--last held 21 May, 12 and 15 June
1991 (next to be held by November 1996);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(545 total), 509 elected--Congress (I) Party 225,
Bharatiya Janata Party 117,
Janata Dal Party 55,
Communist Party of India (Marxist) 35,
Communist Party of India 13,
Telugu Desam 12,
AIADMK 11,
Samajwadi Janata Party 5,
Shiv Sena 4,
RSP 4,
BSP 1,
Congress (S) Party 1, other 26; note--second and third rounds of
voting were delayed because of the assassination of Congress
President Rajiv GANDHI on 21 May 1991

_#_Communists: 466,000 members claimed by CPI, 361,000 members claimed
by CPI/M; Communist extremist groups, about 15,000 members

_#_Other political or pressure groups: various separatist groups
seeking greater communal autonomy; numerous religious or
militant/chauvinistic organizations, including Adam Sena, Anand Marg,
Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh

_#_Member of: AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-6,
G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

_#_Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abid HUSSEIN;
Chancery at 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-7000; there are Indian Consulates General in
Chicago, New York, and San Francisco;

US--Ambassador William CLARK, Jr.; Embassy at Shanti Path,
Chanakyapuri 110021, New Delhi; telephone [91] (11) 600651; there are US
Consulates General in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras

_#_Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and
green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white
band; similar to the flag of Niger which has a small orange disk centered
in the white band

_*_Economy
_#_Overview: India's economy is a mixture of traditional
village farming and handicrafts, modern agriculture, old and new branches
of industry, and a multitude of support services. It presents both the
entrepreneurial skills and drives of the capitalist system and
widespread government intervention of the socialist mold. Growth of 4%
to 5% annually in the 1980s has softened the impact of population growth
on unemployment, social tranquility, and the environment. Agricultural
output has continued to expand, reflecting the greater use of modern
farming techniques and improved seed that have helped to make India
self-sufficient in food grains and a net agricultural exporter. However,
tens of millions of villagers, particularly in the south, have not
benefited from the green revolution and live in abject poverty. Industry
has benefited from a partial liberalization of controls. The growth rate
of the service sector has also been strong. India, however, has been
challenged more recently by much lower foreign exchange reserves, higher
inflation, and a large debt service burden.

_#_GNP: $254 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate 4.5% (1990
est.)

_#_Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.0% (1990)

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