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Net migration rate:
3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
25 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Estonian(s); adjective - Estonian
Ethnic divisions:
Estonian 61.5%, Russian 30.3%, Ukrainian 3.17%, Byelorussian 1.8%, Finn
1.1%, other 2.13% (1989)
Religions:
Lutheran is primary denomination
Languages:
Estonian NA% (official), Latvian NA%, Lithuanian NA%, Russian NA%, other NA%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
796,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 13%, other
45% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Estonia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Estonia
Type:
republic
Capital:
Tallinn
Administrative divisions:
none - all districts are under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
8 November 1917; occupied by Germany in March 1918 and restored to power in
November 1918; annexed by USSR 6 August 1940; declared independence 20
August 1991 and regained independence from USSR 6 September 1991
Constitution:
currently rewriting constitution, but readopted the constitution of 1938
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 February (1918)
Executive branch:
prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman, Supreme Council Arnold R'UTEL (since April 1983)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Tiit VAHI (since January 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Popular Front of Estonia (Rahvarinne), NA chairman; Estonian Christian
Democratic Party, Aivar KALA, chairman; Estonian Christian Democratic Union,
Illar HALLASTE, chairman; Estonian Heritage Society (EMS), Trivimi VELLISTE,
chairman; Estonian National Independence Party (ERSP), Lagle PAREK,
chairman; Estonian Social Democratic Party, Marju LAURISTIN, chairman;
Estonian Green Party, Tonu OJA; Independent Estonian Communist Party, Vaino
VALJAS; People's Centrist Party, Edgar SAVISAAR, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Congress of Estonia:
last held March 1990 (next to be held NA); note - Congress of Estonia is a
quasi-governmental structure; results - percent of vote by party NA; seats -
(495 total) number of seats by party NA
President:
last held NA 1990; (next to be held NA); results - NA
Supreme Council:
last held 18 March 1990; (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (105 total) number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE, IAEA, ICFTU, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ernst JAAKSON, Legation of Estonia, Office of Consulate General,
9 Rockefeller Plaza, Suite 1421, New York, NY 10020; telephone (212)
247-1450

:Estonia Government

US:
Ambassador Robert C. FRASURE; Embassy at Kentmanni 20, Tallin EE 0001;
telephone 011-[358] (49) 303-182 (cellular); FAX [358] (49) 306-817
(cellular); note - dialing to Baltics still requires use of an international
operator unless you use the cellular phone lines
Flag:
pre-1940 flag restored by Supreme Soviet in May 1990; flag is three equal
horizontal bands of blue, black, and white

:Estonia Economy

Overview:
Starting in July 1991, under a new law on private ownership, small
enterprises, such as retail shops and restaurants, were sold to private
owners. The auctioning of large-scale enterprises is now in progress with
the proceeds being held in escrow until the prior ownership (that is,
Estonian or the Commonwealth of Independent States) can be established.
Estonia ranks first in per capita consumption among the former Soviet
republics. Agriculture is well developed, especially meat production, and
provides a surplus for export. Only about one-fifth of the work force is in
agriculture. The major share of the work force engages in manufacturing both
capital and consumer goods based on raw materials and intermediate products
from the other former Soviet republics. These manufactures are of high
quality by ex-Soviet standards and are exported to the other republics.
Estonia's mineral resources are limited to major deposits of shale oil (60%
of old Soviet total) and phosphorites (400 million tons). Estonia has a
large, relatively modern port and produces more than half of its own energy
needs at highly polluting shale oil power plants. Like the other 14
successor republics, Estonia is suffering through a difficult transitional
period - between a collapsed command economic structure and a
still-to-be-built market structure. It has advantages in the transition, not
having suffered so long under the Soviet yoke and having better chances of
developing profitable ties to the Nordic and West European countries.
GDP:
$NA billion, per capita $NA; real growth rate -11% (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
approximately 200% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million
Exports:
$186 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery 30%, food 17%, chemicals 11%, electric power 9%
partners:
Russia 50%, other former Soviet republics 30%, Ukraine 15%, West 5%
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery 45%, oil 13%, chemicals 12%
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (end of 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -9% (1991)
Electricity:
3,305,000 kW capacity; 17,200 million kWh produced, 10,865 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
accounts for 30% of labor force; oil shale, shipbuilding, phosphates,
electric motors, excavators, cement, furniture, clothing, textiles, paper,
shoes, apparel
Agriculture:
employs 20% of work force; very efficient; net exports of meat, fish, dairy
products, and potatoes; imports feedgrains for livestock; fruits and
vegetables

:Estonia Economy

Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for illicit drugs from Central and Southwest Asia to
Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1992), $10 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
kroon; to be introduced in 1992
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Estonia Communications

Railroads:
1,030 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
30,300 km total (1990); 29,200 km hard surfaced; 1,100 km earth
Inland waterways:
500 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
maritime - Tallinn, Parnu; inland - Narva
Merchant marine:
65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 386,634 GRT/516,866 DWT; includes 51
cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off, 2 short-sea passenger, 6 bulk
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
telephone diversity - NA; broadcast stations - 3 TV (provide Estonian
programs as well as Moscow Ostenkino's first and second programs);
international traffic is carried to the other former USSR republics by
landline or microwave and to other countries by leased connection to the
Moscow international gateway switch, by the Finnish cellular net, and by an
old copper submarine cable to Finland

:Estonia Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard;
Russian Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, Air Defense, and Border Guard)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, total mobilized force projected 120,000-130,000; NA fit for
military service; between 10,000-12,000 reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Ethiopia Geography

Total area:
1,221,900 km2
Land area:
1,101,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
5,141 km; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km, Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km
Coastline:
1,094 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional Administrative
Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis;
territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden; independence referendum in
Eritrea scheduled for April 1992
Climate:
tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation; some areas prone
to extended droughts
Terrain:
high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great Rift Valley
Natural resources:
small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash
Land use:
arable land 12%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 41%; forest and
woodland 24%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to earthquakes, volcanic
eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification;
frequent droughts; famine
Note:
strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest shipping lanes and
close to Arabian oilfields

:Ethiopia People

Population:
54,270,464 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
112 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
50 years male, 53 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ethiopian(s); adjective - Ethiopian
Ethnic divisions:
Oromo 40%, Amhara and Tigrean 32%, Sidamo 9%, Shankella 6%, Somali 6%, Afar
4%, Gurage 2%, other 1%
Religions:
Muslim 40-45%, Ethiopian Orthodox 35-40%, animist 15-20%, other 5%
Languages:
Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Guaraginga, Somali, Arabic, English
(major foreign language taught in schools)
Literacy:
62% (male NA%, female NA%) age 10 and over can read and write (1983 est.)
Labor force:
18,000,000; agriculture and animal husbandry 80%, government and services
12%, industry and construction 8% (1985)
Organized labor:
All Ethiopian Trade Union formed by the government in January 1977 to
represent 273,000 registered trade union members; was dissolved when the TGE
came to power; labor code of 1975 is being redrafted

:Ethiopia Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
on 28 May 1991 the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)
toppled the authoritarian government of MENGISTU Haile-Mariam and took
control in Addis Ababa; the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE),
announced as a two-year transitional period; on 29 May 1991, Issayas
AFEWORKE, secretary general of the Eritrean People's Liberation Front
(EPLF), announced the formation of the Provisional Government in Eritrea
(PGE), in preparation for an eventual referendum on independence for the
province
Capital:
Addis Ababa
Administrative divisions:
14 administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader
akababi) and 1 autonomous region* (rasgez akababi); Addis Ababa (Addis
Ababa), Afar, Agew, Amhara, Benishangul, Ertra (Eritrea)*, Gambela,
Gurage-Hadiya-Wolayta, Harer, Kefa, Omo, Oromo, Sidamo, Somali, Tigray
Independence:
oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at
least 2,000 years
Constitution:
to be redrafted by 1993
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
National Revolution Day 12 September (1974)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
Council of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Interim President Meles ZENAWI (since 1 June 1991); transitional government
Head of Government:
Acting Prime Minister Tamirat LAYNE (since 6 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Council of Representatives:
last held 14 June 1987 (next to be held after new constitution drafted)
President:
last held 10 September 1987; next election planned after new constitution
drafted; results - MENGISTU Haile-Mariam elected by the now defunct National
Assembly, but resigned and left Ethiopia on 21 May 1991
Other political or pressure groups:
Oromo Liberation Front (OLF); Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party (EPRP);
numerous small, ethnic-based groups have formed since Mengistu's resignation
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
IGADD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim Girma AMARE; Chancery at 2134
Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-2281 or 2282

:Ethiopia Government

US:
Charge d'Affaires Marc A. BAAS; Embassy at Entoto Street, Addis Ababa
(mailing address is P. O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa); telephone [251] (01)
550666; FAX [251] (1) 551-166
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red; Ethiopia is
the oldest independent country in Africa, and the colors of her flag were so
often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they became
known as the pan-African colors

:Ethiopia Economy

Overview:
Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa. Its
economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for about 45% of
GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates 60% of
export earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on inputs
from the agricultural sector. Over 90% of large-scale industry, but less
than 10% of agriculture, is state run; the government is considering selling
off a portion of state-owned plants. Favorable agricultural weather largely
explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89, whereas drought and
deteriorating internal security conditions prevented growth in FY90. In 1991
the lack of law and order, particularly in the south, interfered with
economic development and growth.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $6.6 billion, per capita $130, real growth rate-
0.4% (FY90 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.2% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA
Budget:
revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $1.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $842 million (FY88)
Exports:
$429 million (f.o.b., FY88)
commodities:
coffee 60%, hides
partners:
US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy, Saudi Arabia
Imports:
$1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88)
commodities:
food, fuels, capital goods
partners:
USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France
External debt:
$2.6 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
growth rate 2.3% (FY89 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
330,000 kW capacity; 650 million kWh produced, 10 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
food processing, beverages, textiles, chemicals, metals processing, cement
Agriculture:
accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important sector of the economy even
though frequent droughts and poor cultivation practices keep farm output
low; famines not uncommon; export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly
on state farms; estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence
level; principal crops and livestock - cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds,
sugarcane, potatoes and other vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep,
goats
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $504 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.4 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $2.0
billion
Currency:
birr (plural - birr); 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
birr (Br) per US$1 - 2.0700 (fixed rate)

:Ethiopia Economy

Fiscal year:
8 July - 7 July

:Ethiopia Communications

Railroads:
988 km total; 681 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter gauge
(nonoperational)
Highways:
44,300 km total; 3,650 km paved, 9,650 km gravel, 3,000 km improved earth,
28,000 km unimproved earth
Ports:
Aseb, Mitsiwa
Merchant marine:
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 62,627 GRT/88,909 DWT; includes 8
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off, 1 livestock carrier, 2 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
25 major transport aircraft
Airports:
123 total, 86 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
open-wire and radio relay system adequate for government use; open-wire to
Sudan and Djibouti; radio relay to Kenya and Djibouti; broadcast stations -
4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 100,000 TV sets; 9,000,000 radios; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

:Ethiopia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 12,015,589; 6,230,680 fit for military service; 572,982 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $760 million, 12.8% of GDP (1989)

:Europa Island Geography

Total area:
28 km2
Land area:
28 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
22.2 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Madagascar
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
NA
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%; heavily wooded
Environment:
wildlife sanctuary
Note:
located in the Mozambique Channel 340 km west of Madagascar

:Europa Island People

Population:
uninhabited

:Europa Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic Jacques
DEWATRE (as of July 1991); resident in Reunion
Capital:
none; administered by France from Reunion

:Europa Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Europa Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Airports:
1 with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
1 meteorological station

:Europa Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Geography

Total area:
12,170 km2
Land area:
12,170 km2; includes the two main islands of East and West Falkland and
about 200 small islands
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,288 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
100 meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone:
150 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina
Climate:
cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on more than
half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January and
February, but does not accumulate
Terrain:
rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains
Natural resources:
fish and wildlife
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 99%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 1%
Environment:
poor soil fertility and a short growing season
Note:
deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) People

Population:
1,900 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Falkland Islander(s); adjective - Falkland Island
Ethnic divisions:
almost totally British
Religions:
primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, and United Free Church; Evangelist
Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist
Languages:
English
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education age 5 to 15 (1988)
Labor force:
1,100 (est.); agriculture, mostly sheepherding about 95%
Organized labor:
Falkland Islands General Employees Union, 400 members

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Government

Long-form name:
Colony of the Falkland Islands
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Stanley
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
3 October 1985
Legal system:
English common law
National holiday:
Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Governor William Hugh FULLERTON (since NA 1988)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held 11 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party
NA
Member of:
ICFTU
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major
economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered the
islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE RIGHT

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or indirectly employs
most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet domestic
consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are primarily those
for providing winter fodder. Exports feature shipments of high-grade wool to
the UK and the sale of postage stamps and coins. Rich stocks of fish in the
surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders. So far,
efforts to establish a domestic fishing industry have been unsuccessful. In
1987 the government began selling fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license fees
amount to more than $40 million per year and are a primary source of income
for the government. To encourage tourism, the Falkland Islands Development
Corporation has built three lodges for visitors attracted by the abundant
wildlife and trout fishing.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.4% (1980-87 average)
Unemployment rate:
NA%; labor shortage
Budget:
revenues $62.7 million; expenditures $41.8 million, excluding capital
expenditures of $NA (FY90)
Exports:
at least $14.7 million
commodities:
wool, hides and skins, and other
partners:
UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)
Imports:
at least $13.9 million
commodities:
food, clothing, fuels, and machinery
partners:
UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,638 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
wool and fish processing
Agriculture:
predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds; some fodder and vegetable
crops
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$277 million
Currency:
Falkland pound (plural - pounds); 1 Falkland pound (#F) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Falkland pound (#F) per US$1 - 0.5519 (January 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5604
(1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987); note - the Falkland
pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Communications

Highways:
510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km unimproved earth
Ports:
Port Stanley
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m
Telecommunications:
government-operated radiotelephone and private VHF/CB radio networks provide
effective service to almost all points on both islands; 590 telephones;
broadcast stations - 2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station with links through London to other countries

:Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Defense Forces

Branches:
British Forces Falkland Islands (including Army, Royal Air Force, Royal
Navy, and Royal Marines); Police Force
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Faroe Islands Geography

Total area:
1,400 km2
Land area:
1,400 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than eight times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
764 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy
Terrain:
rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 98%
Environment:
precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal lowlands; archipelago
of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited islets
Note:
strategically located along important sea lanes in northeastern Atlantic
about midway between Iceland and Shetland Islands

:Faroe Islands People

Population:
48,588 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Faroese (singular and plural); adjective - Faroese
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous Scandinavian population
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran
Languages:
Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
17,585; largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing, transportation, and
commerce
Organized labor:
NA

:Faroe Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of
Denmark
Capital:
Torshavn
Administrative divisions:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Independence:
part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas administrative division of
Denmark
Constitution:
Danish
Legal system:
Danish
National holiday:
Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)
Executive branch:
Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet (Landsstyri)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Lgting)
Judicial branch:
none
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner
Bent KLINTE (since NA)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Atli P. DAM (since 15 January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
opposition:
Cooperation Coalition Party, Pauli ELLEFSEN; Republican Party, Signer
HANSEN; Progressive and Fishing Industry Party-Christian People's Party
(PFIP-CPP), leader NA; Progress Party, leader NA; Home Rule Party, Hilmar
KASS
two-party ruling coalition:
Social Democratic Party, Atli P. DAM; People's Party, Jogvan SUND- STEIN
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
Danish Parliament:
last held on 12 December 1990 (next to be held by December 1994); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) Social Democratic 1, People's
Party 1; note - the Faroe Islands elects two representatives to the Danish
Parliament
Faroese Parliament:
last held 17 November 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - Social
Democratic 27.4%, People's Party 21.9%, Cooperation Coalition Party 18.9%,
Republican Party 14.7%, Home Rule 8.8%, PFIP-CPP 5.9%, other 2.4%; seats -
(32 total) two-party coalition 17 (Social Democratic 10, People's Party 7),
Cooperation Coalition Party 6, Republican Party 4, Home Rule 3, PFIP-CPP 2
Diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Flag:
white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of the
flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the DANNEBROG (Danish flag)

:Faroe Islands Economy

Overview:
The Faroese, who have long been enjoying the affluent living standards of
the Danes and other Scandinavians, now must cope with the decline of the
all-important fishing industry and with an external debt twice the size of
annual income. When the nations of the world extended their fishing zones to
200 nautical miles in the early 1970s, the Faroese no longer could continue
their traditional long-distance fishing and subsequently depleted their own
nearby fishing areas. The government's tight controls on fish stocks and its
austerity measures have caused a recession, and subsidy cuts will force
further reductions in the fishing industry, which has already been plagued
with bankrupcies. An annual Danish subsidy of $140 million continues to
provide roughly one-third of the islands' budget revenues.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $662 million, per capita $14,000; real growth
rate 3% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.0% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
5-6% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $425 million; expenditures $480 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1991 est.)
Exports:
$386 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
fish and fish products 88%, animal feedstuffs, transport equipment (1989)
partners:
Denmark 20%, Germany 18.3%, UK 14.2%, France 11.2%, Spain 7.9%, US 4.5%
Imports:
$322 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 24.4%, manufactures 24%, food and
livestock 19%, fuels 12%, chemicals 6.5%
partners:
Denmark 43.8%, Norway 19.8%, Sweden 4.9%, Germany 4.2%, US 1.3%
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced, 5,910 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force; principal crops -
potatoes and vegetables; livestock - sheep; annual fish catch about 360,000
metric tons
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Danish krone (plural - kroner); 1 Danish krone (DKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1 - 6.116 (January 1992), 6.396 (1991), 6.189
(1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Faroe Islands Communications

Highways:
200 km
Ports:
Torshavn, Tvoroyri
Merchant marine:
10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 22,015 GRT/24,007 DWT; includes 1
short-sea passenger, 5 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 2 refrigerated cargo; note
- a subset of the Danish register
Airports:
1 with permanent surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good international communications; fair domestic facilities; 27,900
telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM, 3 (29 repeaters)
TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

:Faroe Islands Defense Forces

Branches:
no organized native military forces; only a small Police Force is maintained
Note:
defense is the responsibility of Denmark

:Fiji Geography

Total area:
18,270 km2
Land area:
18,270 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,129 km
Maritime claims:
(measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation; rectilinear shelf claim added
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
mostly mountains of volcanic origin
Natural resources:
timber, fish, gold, copper; offshore oil potential
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 5%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 65%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes from November to January; includes 332 islands of
which approximately 110 are inhabited
Note:
located 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific Ocean

:Fiji People

Population:
749,946 (July 1992), growth rate 0.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-10 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Fijian(s); adjective - Fijian
Ethnic divisions:
Indian 49%, Fijian 46%, European, other Pacific Islanders, overseas Chinese,
and other 5%
Religions:
Christian 52% (Methodist 37%, Roman Catholic 9%), Hindu 38%, Muslim 8%,
other 2%; note - Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu, and there
is a Muslim minority (1986)
Languages:
English (official); Fijian; Hindustani
Literacy:
86% (male 90%, female 81%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985 est.)
Labor force:
235,000; subsistence agriculture 67%, wage earners 18%, salary earners 15%
(1987)
Organized labor:
about 45,000 employees belong to some 46 trade unions, which are organized
along lines of work and ethnic origin (1983)

:Fiji Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Fiji
Type:
military coup leader Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA formally declared Fiji a
republic on 6 October 1987
Capital:
Suva
Administrative divisions:
4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern, Northern, Rotuma*, Western
Independence:
10 October 1970 (from UK)
Constitution:
10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); a new Constitution was proposed
on 23 September 1988 and promulgated on 25 July 1990
Legal system:
based on British system
National holiday:
Independence Day, 10 October (1970)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet Great Councils of Chiefs (highest ranking
members of the traditional chiefly system)
Legislative branch:
the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Representatives, was dissolved following the coup of 14
May 1987; the Constitution of 23 September 1988 provides for a bicameral
Parliament
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU (since 5 December 1987)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 5 December 1987); Deputy Prime
Minister Josefata KAMIKAMICA (since October 1991); note - Ratu Sir Kamisese
MARA served as prime minister from 10 October 1970 until the 5-11 April 1987
election; after a second coup led by Maj. Gen. Sitiveni RABUKA on 25
September 1987, Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA was reappointed as prime minister
Political parties and leaders:
Fijian Political Party (primarily Fijian), leader Maj. Gen. Sitivini RABUKA;
National Federation Party (NFP; primarily Indian), Siddiq KOYA; Christian
Fijian Nationalist Party (CFNP), Sakeasi BUTADROKA; Fiji Labor Party (FLP),
Jokapeci KOROI; All National Congress (ANC), Apisai TORA; General Voters
Party (GVP), Max OLSSON; Fiji Conservative Party (FCP), Isireli VUIBAU;
Conservative Party of Fiji (CPF), Jolale ULUDOLE and Viliame SAVU; Fiji
Indian Liberal Party, Swami MAHARAJ; Fiji Indian Congress Party, Ishwari
BAJPAI; Fiji Independent Labor (Muslim), leader NA; Four Corners Party,
David TULVANUAVOU
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 14 May 1987 (next to be held 23-29 May 1992); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (70 total, with ethnic Fijians allocated 37 seats,
ethnic Indians 27 seats, and independents and other 6 seats) number of seats
by party NA
Member of:
ACP, AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

:Fiji Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Pita Kewa NACUVA; Chancery at Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 337-8320; there is a Fijian
Consulate in New York
US:
Ambassador Evelyn I. H. TEEGEN; Embassy at 31 Loftus Street, Suva (mailing
address is P. O. Box 218, Suva); telephone [679] 314-466; FAX [679] 300-081
Flag:
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts a
yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of Saint George
featuring stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

:Fiji Economy

Overview:
Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large subsistence sector.
Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange, and sugar processing
accounts for one-third of industrial output. Industry, including sugar
milling, contributes 13% to GDP. Fiji traditionally had earned considerable
sums of hard currency from the 250,000 tourists who visited each year. In
1987, however, after two military coups, the economy went into decline. GDP
dropped by 7.8% in 1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainty
created a drop in tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar
production to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously. In 1990 the
economy received a setback from cyclone Sina, which cut sugar output by an
estimated 21%.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, per capita $1,700; real growth rate
3.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.0% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
5.9% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $413 million; expenditures $464 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1992 est.)
Exports:
$646 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
sugar 40%, gold, clothing, copra, processed fish, lumber
partners:
EC 31%, Australia 21%, Japan 8%, US 6%
Imports:
$840 million (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment 32%, food 15%, petroleum products,
consumer goods, chemicals
partners:
Australia 30%, NZ 17%, Japan 13%, EC 6%, US 6%
External debt:
$428 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 8.4% (1991 est.); accounts for 13% of GDP
Electricity:
215,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 430 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
sugar, tourism, copra, gold, silver, fishing, clothing, lumber, small
cottage industries
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP; principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts,
cassava, rice, sweet potatoes, and bananas; small livestock sector includes
cattle, pigs, horses, and goats
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89),
$815 million
Currency:
Fijian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Fijian dollar (F$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1 - 1.4855 (January 1992), 1.4756 (1991), 1.4809
(1990), 1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988), 1.2439 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Fiji Communications

Railroads:
644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the government-owned Fiji
Sugar Corporation
Highways:
3,300 km total (1984) - 1,590 km paved; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface; 420 unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and 200-metric-ton barges
Ports:
Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva
Merchant marine:
7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 40,072 GRT/47,187 DWT; includes 2
roll-on/roll-off, 2 container, 1 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1
cargo
Civil air:
1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft
Airports:
25 total, 22 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern local, interisland, and international (wire/radio integrated) public
and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and teleprinter facilities;
regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link between US-Canada and New
Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 1 FM, no
TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Fiji Defense Forces

Branches:
Fiji Military Force (FMF; including a naval division, Police)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 192,056; 105,898 fit for military service; 7,564 reach military
age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22.4 million, 1.7% of GDP (FY 91)

:Finland Geography

Total area:
337,030 km2
Land area:
305,470 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
2,628 km; Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Coastline:
1,126 km; excludes islands and coastal indentations
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
6 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
Territorial sea:
4 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of
moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more
than 60,000 lakes
Terrain:
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Natural resources:
timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and
woodland 76%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land; population concentrated on
small southwestern coastal plain
Note:
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on
European continent

:Finland People

Population:
5,004,273 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Finn(s); adjective - Finnish
Ethnic divisions:
Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Greek Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Languages:
Finnish 93.5%, Swedish (both official) 6.3%; small Lapp- and
Russian-speaking minorities
Literacy:
100% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
2,533,000; public services 30.4%; industry 20.9%; commerce 15.0%; finance,
insurance, and business services 10.2%; agriculture and forestry 8.6%;
transport and communications 7.7%; construction 7.2%
Organized labor:
80% of labor force

:Finland Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Finland
Type:
republic
Capital:
Helsinki
Administrative divisions:
12 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi,
Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu, Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa,
Vaasa
Independence:
6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)
Constitution:
17 July 1919
Legal system:
civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation
interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Council of State
(Valtioneuvosto)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Esko AHO (since 26 April 1991); Deputy Prime Minister Ilkka
KANERVA (since 26 April 1991)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1995); results - Center Party
24.8%, Social Democratic Party 22.1%, National Coalition (Conservative)
Party 19.3%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.1%, Green League 6.8%, Swedish
People's Party 5.5%, Rural 4.8%, Finnish Christian League 3.1%, Liberal
People's Party 0.8%; seats - (200 total) Center Party 55, Social Democratic
Party 48, National Coalition (Conservative) Party 40, Leftist Alliance
(Communist) 19, Swedish People's Party 12, Green League 10, Finnish
Christian League 8, Rural 7, Liberal People's Party 1
President:
last held 31 January - 1 February and 15 February 1988 (next to be held
January 1994); results - Mauno KOIVISTO 48%, Paavo VAYRYNEN 20%, Harri
HOLKERI 18%
Communists:
28,000 registered members; an additional 45,000 persons belong to People's
Democratic League
Other political or pressure groups:
Finnish Communist Party-Unity, Yrjo HAKANEN; Constitutional Rightist Party;
Finnish Pensioners Party; Communist Workers Party, Timo LAHDENMAKI

:Finland Government

Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, G-9, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS
(observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at 3216 New Mexico Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20016; telephone (202) 363-2430; there are Finnish Consulates
General in Los Angeles and New York, and Consulates in Chicago and Houston
US:
Ambassador John H. KELLY (as of December 1991); Embassy at Itainen Puistotie
14A, SF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO AE 09723); telephone [358]
(0) 171931; FAX [358] (0) 174681
Flag:
white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the DANNEBROG
(Danish flag)

:Finland Economy

Overview:
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market economy, with per
capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure. Its main economic force is
the manufacturing sector - principally the wood, metals, and engineering
industries. Trade is important, with the export of goods representing about
30% of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on
imported raw materials, energy, and some components of manufactured goods.
Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining
self-sufficiency in basic commodities. The economy, which experienced an
average of 4.9% annual growth between 1987 and 1989, sank into a deep
recession in 1991 as growth contracted by 6.2%. The recession - which is
expected to bottom out in late 1992 - has been caused by economic
overheating, depressed foreign markets, and the dismantling of the barter
system between Finland and the former Soviet Union in which Soviet oil and
gas had been exchanged for Finnish manufactured goods. The Finnish
Government has proposed efforts to increase industrial competitiveness and
efficiency by an increase in exports to Western markets, cuts in public
expenditures, partial privatization of state enterprises, and foreign
investment and exchange liberalization. Helsinki tied the markkaa to the
EC's European Currency Unit to promote stability but was forced to devalue
the markkaa by about 12% in November 1991. The devaluation should improve
industrial competitiveness and business confidence in 1992. Finland, as a
member of EFTA, negotiated a European Economic Area arrangement with the EC
that allows for free movement of capital, goods, services, and labor within
the organization as of January 1993. Finland applied for full EC membership
in March 1992.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $80.6 billion, per capita $16,200; real growth
rate - 6.2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
7.6% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $35.8 billion; expenditures $41.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of NA billion (1991)
Exports:
$22.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and footwear
partners:
EC 50.25%, Germany 15.5%, UK 10.4%, EFTA 20.7%, Sweden 14%, US 6.1%, Japan
1.5%, USSR/EE 6.71% (1991)
Imports:
$21.6 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport
equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
grains
partners:
EC 45.9% (Germany 16.9%), UK 7.7%, EFTA 19.9%, Sweden 12.3%, US 6.9%, Japan
6%, USSR/EE 10.7%
External debt:
$5.3 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 8.6% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
13,324,000 kW capacity; 49,330 million kWh produced, 9,857 kWh per capita
(1991)

:Finland Economy

Industries:
metal products, shipbuilding, forestry and wood processing (pulp, paper),
copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 8% of GDP (including forestry); livestock production,
especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important export
earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main crops -
cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of foodgrains
and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.7 billion
Currency:
markka (plural - markkaa); 1 markka (FMk) or Finmark = 100 pennia
Exchange rates:
markkaa (FMk) per US$1 - 4.2967 (January 1992), 4.0440 (1991), 3.8235
(1990), 4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Finland Communications

Railroads:
5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of 5,863 km
1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,445 km are
electrified
Highways:
about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved (bituminous, concrete,
bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved (stabilized gravel,
gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private (state-subsidized) roads
Inland waterways:
6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km suitable for steamers
Pipelines:
natural gas 580 km
Ports:
Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku; 6 secondary, numerous minor ports
Merchant marine:
80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 794,094 GRT/732,585 DWT; includes 1
passenger, 9 short-sea passenger, 16 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 26
roll-on/roll-off, 12 petroleum tanker, 6 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7
bulk
Civil air:
42 major transport
Airports:
159 total, 156 usable; 58 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good service from cable and radio relay network; 3,140,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 6 AM, 105 FM, 235 TV; 1 submarine cable; INTELSAT
satellite transmission service via Swedish earth station and a receive-only
INTELSAT earth station near Helsinki

:Finland Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,314,305; 1,087,286 fit for military service; 33,053 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)

:France Geography

Total area:
547,030 km2
Land area:
545,630 km2; includes Corsica and the rest of metropolitan France, but
excludes the overseas administrative divisions
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Colorado
Land boundaries:
2,892.4 km; Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km, Germany 451 km, Italy 488 km,
Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km, Switzerland 573 km
Coastline:
3,427 km; mainland 2,783 km, Corsica 644 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12-24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de
Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims
Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part of
French Guiana; Mexico claims Clipperton Island; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Adelie Land)
Climate:
generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers
along the Mediterranean
Terrain:
mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is
mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc, potash
Land use:
arable land 32%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 23%; forest and
woodland 27%; other 16%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
most of large urban areas and industrial centers in Rhone, Garonne, Seine,
or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind known as mistral
Note:
largest West European nation

:France People

Population:
57,287,258 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 82 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective - French
Ethnic divisions:
Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, and
Basque minorities
Religions:
Roman Catholic 90%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim (North African workers)
1%, unaffiliated 6%
Languages:
French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional dialects (Provencal,
Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
24,170,000; services 61.5%, industry 31.3%, agriculture 7.3% (1987)
Organized labor:
20% of labor force (est.)

:France Government

Long-form name:
French Republic
Type:
republic
Capital:
Paris
Administrative divisions:
metropolitan France - 22 regions (regions, singular - region); Alsace,
Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne, Bretagne, Centre,
Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie, Ile-de-France,
Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees, Nord-Pas-de-Calais,
Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes, Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur,
Rhone-Alpes; note - the 22 regions are subdivided into 96 departments; see
separate entries for the overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe,
Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial collectivities (Mayotte, Saint
Pierre and Miquelon)
Independence:
unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed in 1792
Constitution:
28 September 1958, amended concerning election of president in 1962
Dependent areas:
Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island, French Polynesia, French
Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, New
Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna
note:
the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of administrative but not
legislative acts
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an upper house or Senate
(Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court (Cour Constitutionnelle)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Pierre BEREGOVOY (since 2 April 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR), Jacques CHIRAC; Union for French
Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and RAD), Valery Giscard d'ESTAING;
Republican Party (PR), Gerard LONGUET; Center for Social Democrats (CDS),
Pierre MEHAIGNERIE; Radical (RAD), Yves GALLAND; Socialist Party (PS),
Laurent FABIUS; Left Radical Movement (MRG), Emile ZUCCARELLI; Communist
Party (PCF), Georges MARCHAIS; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie LE PEN
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993); results - Second
Ballot PS-MRG 48. 7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%, other 3.8%; seats - (577
total) PS 272, RPR 127, UDF 91, UDC 40, PCF 26, independents 21

:France Government

President:
last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995); results - Second Ballot
Francois MITTERRAND 54%, Jacques CHIRAC 46%
Elections:
Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13
for overseas departments and territories, and 12 for French nationals
abroad) RPR 91, UDF 143 (PR 52, CDS 68, RAD 23), PS 66, PCF 16, independents
2, unknown 3
Communists:
700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000; Communist voters, 2.8
million in 1988 election
Other political or pressure groups:
Communist-controlled labor union (Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly
2.4 million members (claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation
Francaise Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members est.;
independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) 1 million members (est.);
independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres) 340,000
members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil National du
Patronat Francais - CNPF or Patronat)
Member of:
ACCT, AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CDB, CE,
CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC, ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, FZ, GATT,
G-5, G-7, G-10, IABD, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NACC, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, SPC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN
Trusteeship Council, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington,
DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000; there are French Consulates General in
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, Miami, New
York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico)
US:
Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris
Cedex 08, Unit 21551 (mailing address is APO AE 09777); telephone [33] (1)
42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; FAX [33] (1) 42-66-97-83; there are US
Consulates General in Bordeaux, Marseille, and Strasbourg
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red; known as
the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors have been the basis
for a number of other flags, including those of Belgium, Chad, Ireland,
Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all French dependent
areas

:France Economy

Overview:
One of the world's most developed economies, France has substantial
agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern industrial sector.
Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and
subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural producer in
Western Europe. France is largely self-sufficient in agricultural products
and is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial sector
generates about one-quarter of GDP, and the growing services sector has
become crucial to the economy. After expanding at a rapid 3.8% pace during
the period 1988-89, the economy slowed down in 1990, with growth of 1.5% in
1990 and 1.4% in 1991; growth in 1992 is expected to be about 2%. The
economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new entrants into the
labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate, which rose to almost 10%
in 1991. The steadily advancing economic integration within the European
Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic
sectors.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $1,033.7 billion, per capita $18,300; real
growth rate 1.4% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
9.8% (end 1991)
Budget:
revenues $229.8 billion; expenditures $246.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $36 billion (1992 budget)
Exports:
$209.5 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, agricultural
products, iron and steel products, textiles and clothing
partners:
FRG 17.3%, Italy 11.4%, UK 9.2%, Spain 10.3%, Netherlands 9.0%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 9.4%, US 6.1%, Japan 1.9%, former USSR 0.7% (1989 est.)
Imports:
$232.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural products, chemicals, iron
and steel products
partners:
FRG 18.9%, Italy 11.6%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.8%, Netherlands 8.6%, US 8.0%,
Spain 7.9%, UK 7.2%, Japan 4.0%, former USSR 1.4% (1989 est.)
External debt:
$59.3 billion (December 1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1.2% (1990); accounts for 26% of GDP
Electricity:
109,972,000 kW capacity; 399,318 million kWh produced, 7,200 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics,
mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); one of the world's
top five wheat producers; other principal products - beef, dairy products,
cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most
temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce,
but overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons
ranks among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

:France Economy

Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.1 billion
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:France Communications

Railroads:
French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track; 2,138 km
of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter), privately owned and operated
Highways:
1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway; 347,000 km departmental
highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km rural roads; 5,401 km of
controlled-access divided autoroutes; about 803,000 km paved
Inland waterways:
14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,059 km; petroleum products 4,487 km; natural gas 24,746 km
Ports:
maritime - Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque, Fos-Sur-Mer, Le
Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon; inland - 42
Merchant marine:
128 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,222,539 GRT/5,117,091 DWT; includes
6 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 18 container, 1 multifunction large-load
carrier, 30 roll-on/roll-off, 34 petroleum tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 6
liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 11 bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo; note -
France also maintains a captive register for French-owned ships in the
Kerguelen Islands (French Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia
Civil air:
195 major transport aircraft (1989 est.)
Airports:
472 total, 460 usable; 251 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways
over 3,659 m; 36 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 136 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed; extensive cable and radio relay networks; large-scale
introduction of optical-fiber systems; satellite systems for domestic
traffic; 39,200,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 41 AM, 800 (mostly
repeaters) FM, 846 (mostly repeaters) TV; 24 submarine coaxial cables; 2
INTELSAT earth stations (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for the Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 3 for the Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT); HF radio communications
with more than 20 countries; INMARSAT service; EUTELSAT TV service

:France Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air), Air Force, National Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 14,599,636; 12,225,969 fit for military service; 411,211 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $33.1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991)

:French Guiana Geography

Total area:
91,000 km2
Land area:
89,150 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
1,183 km; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km
Coastline:
378 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both
headwaters of the Lawa)
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains
Natural resources:
bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar, kaolin, fish
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest
and woodland 82%; other 18%
Environment:
mostly an unsettled wilderness

:French Guiana People

Population:
127,505 (July 1992), growth rate 4.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
24 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - French Guianese (singular and plural); adjective - French Guianese;
note - they are a colony/department; they hold French passports
Ethnic divisions:
black or mulatto 66%; Caucasian 12%; East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian 12%;
other 10%
Religions:
predominantly Roman Catholic
Languages:
French
Literacy:
82% (male 81%, female 83%) age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Labor force:
23,265; services, government, and commerce 60.6%, industry 21.2%,
agriculture 18.2% (1980)
Organized labor:
7% of labor force

:French Guiana Government

Long-form name:
Department of Guiana
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Cayenne
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
French president, commissioner of the republic
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council and a unicameral Regional Council
Judicial branch:
highest local court is the Court of Appeals based in Martinique with
jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Francois DICHIARA (since NA 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Guianese Socialist Party (PSG), Gerard HOLDER; Rally for the Republic (RPR),
Paulin BRUNE; Guianese Democratic Action (ADG), Andre LECANTE; Union for
French Democracy (UDF), Claude Ho A CHUCK; National Front (FN), Guy MALON;
Popular and National Party of Guiana (PNPG), Claude ROBO; National
Anti-Colonist Guianese Party (PANGA), Michel KAPEL
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
French National Assembly:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) PSG 1
Regional Council:
last held 16 March 1986 (next to be held NA 1991); results - PSG 43%, RPR
27.7%, ADG 12.2%, UDF 8. 9%, FN 3.7%, PNPG 1.4%, other 3.1%; seats - (31
total) PSG 15, RPR 9, ADG 4, UDF 3
Member of:
FZ, WCL, WFTU
Diplomatic representation:
as an overseas department of France, the interests of French Guiana are
represented in the US by France
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:French Guiana Economy

Overview:
The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies and imports.
Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are the most
important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products
(mostly shrimp) accounting for more than 60% of total revenue in 1987. The
large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an
expanding sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation
of crops - rice, cassava, bananas, and sugarcane - are limited to the
coastal area, where the population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is
heavily dependent on imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious
problem, particularly among younger workers.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $186 million, per capita $2,240; real growth rate
NA% (1985)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1987)
Unemployment rate:
15% (1987)
Budget:
revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1987)
Exports:
$54.0 million (f.o.b., 1987)
commodities:
shrimp, timber, rum, rosewood essence
partners:
France 31%, US 22%, Japan 10% (1987)
Imports:
$394.0 million (c.i.f., 1987)
commodities:
food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer goods,
petroleum
partners:
France 62%, Trinidad and Tobago 9%, US 4%, FRG 3% (1987)
External debt:
$1.2 billion (1988)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 1,821 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
construction, shrimp processing, forestry products, rum, gold mining
Agriculture:
some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn, manioc, cocoa, bananas,
sugar; livestock - cattle, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$1.51 billion
Currency:
French franc (plural - francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
French francs (F) per US$1 - 5.3801 (January 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453
(1990), 6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:French Guiana Communications

Highways:
680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and river and coastal
steamers; 3,300 km navigable by native craft
Ports:
Cayenne
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
10 total, 10 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair open-wire and radio relay system; 18,100 telephones; broadcast stations
- 5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:French Guiana Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49 37,467; 24,534 fit for military service
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:French Polynesia Geography

Total area:
3,941 km2
Land area:
3,660 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:

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