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expenditures of $13.6 million (1990)
Exports:
$1.5 million (f.o.b., 1987 est.)
commodities:
turtle products, manufactured consumer goods
partners:
mostly US
Imports:
$136 million (c.i.f., 1987 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods
partners:
US, Trinidad and Tobago, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Japan
External debt:
$15 million (1986)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
74,000 kW capacity; 256 million kWh produced, 9,313 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, banking, insurance and finance, construction, building materials,
furniture making
Agriculture:
minor production of vegetables, fruit, livestock; turtle farming
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $26.7 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $35 million
Currency:
Caymanian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Caymanian dollar (CI$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Caymanian dollars (CI$) per US$1 - 1.20 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Cayman Islands Communications

Highways:
160 km of main roads
Ports:
George Town, Cayman Brac
Merchant marine:
32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,174 GRT/560,241 DWT; includes 1
passenger-cargo, 7 cargo, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 petroleum tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas carrier, 5 bulk, 2
combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
3 total; 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
35,000 telephones; telephone system uses 1 submarine coaxial cable and 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station to link islands and access
international services; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, no TV

:Cayman Islands Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Cayman Islands Police Force (RCIPF)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Central African Republic Geography

Total area:
622,980 km2
Land area:
622,980 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
5,203 km; Cameroon 797 km, Chad 1,197 km, Congo 467 km, Sudan 1,165 km,
Zaire 1,577 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, dry winters; mild to hot, wet summers
Terrain:
vast, flat to rolling, monotonous plateau; scattered hills in northeast and
southwest
Natural resources:
diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
woodland 64%; other 28%
Environment:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds affect northern areas; poaching has
diminished reputation as one of last great wildlife refuges; desertification
Note:
landlocked; almost the precise center of Africa

:Central African Republic People

Population:
3,029,080 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
43 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
18 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
135 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
46 years male, 49 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Central African(s); adjective - Central African
Ethnic divisions:
about 80 ethnic groups, the majority of which have related ethnic and
linguistic characteristics; Baya 34%, Banda 27%, Sara 10%, Mandjia 21%,
Mboum 4%, M'Baka 4%; 6,500 Europeans, of whom 3,600 are French
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 24%, Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%, Muslim 15%,
other 11%; animistic beliefs and practices strongly influence the Christian
majority
Languages:
French (official); Sangho (lingua franca and national language); Arabic,
Hunsa, Swahili
Literacy:
27% (male 33%, female 15%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
775,413 (1986 est.); agriculture 85%, commerce and services 9%, industry 3%,
government 3%; about 64,000 salaried workers; 55% of population of working
age (1985)
Organized labor:
1% of labor force

:Central African Republic Government

Long-form name:
Central African Republic (no short-form name); abbreviated CAR
Type:
republic, one-party presidential regime since 1986
Capital:
Bangui
Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture), 2 economic prefectures*
(prefectures economiques, singular - prefecture economique), and 1
commune**; Bamingui-Bangoran, Bangui** Basse-Kotto, Gribingui*, Haute-Kotto,
Haute-Sangha, Haut-Mbomou, Kemo-Gribingui, Lobaye, Mbomou, Nana-Mambere,
Ombella-Mpoko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pende, Sangha*, Vakaga
Independence:
13 August 1960 (from France; formerly Central African Empire)
Constitution:
21 November 1986
Legal system:
based on French law
National holiday:
National Day (proclamation of the republic), 1 December (1958)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale) advised by the Economic
and Regional Council (Conseil Economique et Regional); when they sit
together this is known as the Congress (Congres)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State::
President Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA (since 1 September 1981)
Head of Government::
Prime Minister Edouard FRANCK (since 15 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Centrafrican Democratic Rally Party (RDC), Andre-Dieudonne KOLINGBA; note -
as part of political reforms leading to a democratic system announced in
April 1991, 18 opposition parties have been legalized
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 31 July 1987 (next to be held by end of 1992); results - RDC is
the only party; seats - (52 total) RDC 52
President:
last held 21 November 1986 (next to be held by end of 1992); results -
President KOLINGBA was reelected without opposition
Communists:
small number of Communist sympathizers
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jean-Pierre SOHAHONG-KOMBET; Chancery at 1618 22nd Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7800 or 7801
US:
Ambassador Daniel H. SIMPSON; Embassy at Avenue du President David Dacko,
Bangui (mailing address is B. P. 924, Bangui); telephone 61-02-00, 61-25-78,
or 61-43-33; FAX [190] (236) 61-44-94

:Central African Republic Government

Flag:
four equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, green, and yellow with a
vertical red band in center; there is a yellow five-pointed star on the
hoist side of the blue band

:Central African Republic Economy

Overview:
Subsistence agriculture, including forestry, is the backbone of the CAR
economy, with more than 70% of the population living in the countryside. In
1988 the agricultural sector generated about 40% of GDP. Agricultural
products accounted for about 60% of export earnings and the diamond industry
for 30%. The country's 1991 budget deficit was US $70 million and in 1992 is
expected to be about the same. Important constraints to economic development
include the CAR's landlocked position, a poor transportation system, and a
weak human resource base. Multilateral and bilateral development assistance,
particularly from France, plays a major role in providing capital for new
investment.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.3 billion, per capita $440; real growth rate -
3.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-3.0% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
30% in Bangui (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $121 million; expenditures $193 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$151.3 million (1990 est.)
commodities:
diamonds, cotton, coffee, timber, tobacco
partners:
France, Belgium, Italy, Japan, US
Imports:
$214.5 million (1990 est.)
commodities:
food, textiles, petroleum products, machinery, electrical equipment, motor
vehicles, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, industrial products
partners:
France, other EC countries, Japan, Algeria, Yugoslavia
External debt:
$700 million (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
0.8% (1988); accounts for 12% of GDP
Electricity:
40,000 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 30 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
diamond mining, sawmills, breweries, textiles, footwear, assembly of
bicycles and motorcycles
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; self-sufficient in food production except for
grain; commercial crops - cotton, coffee, tobacco, timber; food crops -
manioc, yams, millet, corn, bananas
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $49 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $6 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $38
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)

:Central African Republic Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Central African Republic Communications

Highways:
22,000 km total; 458 km bituminous, 10,542 km improved earth, 11,000
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
800 km; traditional trade carried on by means of shallow-draft dugouts;
Oubangui is the most important river
Civil air:
2 major transport aircraft
Airports:
66 total, 52 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system; network relies primarily on radio relay links, with
low-capacity, low-powered radiocommunication also used; broadcast stations -
1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Central African Republic Defense Forces

Branches:
Central African Army (including Republican Guard), Air Force, National
Gendarmerie, Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 677,889; 354,489 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $23 million, 1.8% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Chad Geography

Total area:
1,284,000 km2
Land area:
1,259,200 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than three times the size of California
Land boundaries:
5,968 km; Cameroon 1,094 km, Central African Republic 1,197 km, Libya 1,055
km, Niger 1,175 km, Nigeria 87 km, Sudan 1,360 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
Libya claims and occupies the 100,000 km2 Aozou Strip in the far north;
demarcation of international boundaries in Lake Chad, the lack of which has
led to border incidents in the past, is completed and awaiting ratification
by Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria
Climate:
tropical in south, desert in north
Terrain:
broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest,
lowlands in south
Natural resources:
crude oil (unexploited but exploration under way), uranium, natron, kaolin,
fish (Lake Chad)
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 36%; forest and
woodland 11%; other 51%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; drought and desertification
adversely affecting south; subject to plagues of locusts
Note:
landlocked; Lake Chad is the most significant water body in the Sahel

:Chad People

Population:
5,238,908 (July 1992), growth rate 2.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
42 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
21 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
136 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
39 years male, 41 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Chadian(s); adjective - Chadian
Ethnic divisions:
some 200 distinct ethnic groups, most of whom are Muslims (Arabs, Toubou,
Hadjerai, Fulbe, Kotoko, Kanembou, Baguirmi, Boulala, Zaghawa, and Maba) in
the north and center and non-Muslims (Sara, Ngambaye, Mbaye, Goulaye,
Moundang, Moussei, Massa) in the south; some 150,000 nonindigenous, of whom
1,000 are French
Religions:
Muslim 44%, Christian 33%, indigenous beliefs, animism 23%
Languages:
French and Arabic (official); Sara and Sango in south; more than 100
different languages and dialects are spoken
Literacy:
30% (male 42%, female 18%) age 15 and over can read and write French or
Arabic (1990 est.)
Labor force:
NA; agriculture (engaged in unpaid subsistence farming, herding, and
fishing) 85%
Organized labor:
about 20% of wage labor force

:Chad Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Chad
Type:
republic
Capital:
N'Djamena
Administrative divisions:
14 prefectures (prefectures, singular - prefecture); Batha, Biltine,
Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, Chari-Baguirmi, Guera, Kanem, Lac, Logone Occidental,
Logone Oriental, Mayo-Kebbi, Moyen-Chari, Ouaddai, Salamat, Tandjile
Independence:
11 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
22 December 1989, suspended 3 December 1990; Provisional National Charter 1
March 1991
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and Chadian customary law; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
11 August
Executive branch:
president, Council of State (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
the National Consultative Council (Conseil National Consultatif) was
disbanded 3 December 1990 and replaced by the Provisional Council of the
Republic; 30 members appointed by President DEBY on 8 March 1991
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Col. Idriss DEBY (since 4 December 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jean ALINGUE Bawoyeu (since 8 March 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Patriotic Salvation Movement (MPS; former dissident group), Idriss DEBY,
chairman; President DEBY has promised political pluralism, a new
constitution, and free elections by September 1993; numerous dissident
groups; national conference to be held in 1992
Suffrage:
universal at age NA
Elections:
National Consultative Council:
last held 8 July 1990; disbanded 3 December 1990
President:
last held 10 December 1989 (next to be held NA); results - President Hissein
HABRE was elected without opposition; note - the government of then
President HABRE fell on 1 December 1990, and Idriss DEBY seized power on 3
December 1990; national conference scheduled for mid-1992 and election to
follow in 1993
Communists:
no front organizations or underground party; probably a few Communists and
some sympathizers
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU,
OIC, UDEAC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

:Chad Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador ACHEIKH ibn Oumar; Chancery at 2002 R Street NW, Washington, DC
20009; telephone (202) 462-4009
US:
Ambassador Richard W. BOGOSIAN; Embassy at Avenue Felix Eboue, N'Djamena
(mailing address is B. P. 413, N'Djamena); telephone [235] (51) 62-18,
40-09, or 51-62-11; FAX [235] 51-33-72
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; similar to
the flag of Romania; also similar to the flag of Andorra, which has a
national coat of arms featuring a quartered shield centered in the yellow
band; design was based on the flag of France

:Chad Economy

Overview:
The climate, geographic location, and lack of infrastructure and natural
resources potential make Chad one of the most underdeveloped countries in
the world. Its economy is burdened by the ravages of civil war, conflict
with Libya, drought, and food shortages. In 1986 real GDP returned to its
1977 level, with cotton, the major cash crop, accounting for 48% of exports.
Over 80% of the work force is employed in subsistence farming and fishing.
Industry is based almost entirely on the processing of agricultural
products, including cotton, sugarcane, and cattle. Chad is highly dependent
on foreign aid, with its economy in trouble and many regions suffering from
shortages. Oil companies are exploring areas north of Lake Chad and in the
Doba basin in the south. Since coming to power in December 1990, the Deby
government has experienced a year of economic chaos.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.0 billion, per capita $205; real growth rate
0.9% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
--4.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
NA
Budget:
entirely funded by outside donors
Exports:
$174 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
cotton 48%, cattle 35%, textiles 5%, fish
partners:
France, Nigeria, Cameroon
Imports:
$264 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transportation equipment 39%, industrial goods 20%, petroleum
products 13%, foodstuffs 9%; note - excludes military equipment
partners:
US, France, Nigeria, Cameroon
External debt:
$530 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (1989 est.); accounts for nearly 15% of GDP
Electricity:
40,000 kW capacity; 70 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
cotton textile mills, slaughterhouses, brewery, natron (sodium carbonate),
soap, cigarettes
Agriculture:
accounts for about 45% of GDP; largely subsistence farming; cotton most
important cash crop; food crops include sorghum, millet, peanuts, rice,
potatoes, manioc; livestock - cattle, sheep, goats, camels; self-sufficient
in food in years of adequate rainfall
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $198 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.5 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $28 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $80
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes

:Chad Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine Francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Chad Communications

Highways:
31,322 km total; 32 km bituminous; 7,300 km gravel and laterite; remainder
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
2,000 km navigable
Civil air:
3 major transport aircraft
Airports:
71 total, 55 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system of radiocommunication stations for intercity links; broadcast
stations - 6 AM, 1 FM, limited TV service; many facilities are inoperative;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Chad Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (includes Ground Forces, Air Force, and Gendarmerie), National Police,
Republican Guard
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,217,728; 632,833 fit for military service; 50,966 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $39 million, 4.3% of GDP (1988)

:Chile Geography

Total area:
756,950 km2
Land area:
748,800 km2; includes Isla de Pascua (Easter Island) and Isla Sala y Gomez
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
6,171 km; Argentina 5,150 km, Bolivia 861 km, Peru 160 km
Coastline:
6,435 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
short section of the southern boundary with Argentina is indefinite; Bolivia
has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Bolivia over Rio Lauca water
rights; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory)
partially overlaps Argentine claim
Climate:
temperate; desert in north; cool and damp in south
Terrain:
low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Natural resources:
copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 16%; forest and
woodland 21%; other 56%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
subject to severe earthquakes, active volcanism, tsunami; Atacama Desert one
of world's driest regions; desertification
Note:
strategic location relative to sea lanes between Atlantic and Pacific Oceans
(Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

:Chile People

Population:
13,528,945 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
21 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
17 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 77 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Chilean(s); adjective - Chilean
Ethnic divisions:
European and European-Indian 95%, Indian 3%, other 2%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 89%, Protestant 11%, and small Jewish population
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
93% (male 94%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
4,728,000; services 38.3% (includes government 12%); industry and commerce
33.8%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 19.2%; mining 2.3%; construction
6.4% (1990)
Organized labor:
13% of labor force (1990)

:Chile Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Chile
Type:
republic
Capital:
Santiago
Administrative divisions:
13 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez
del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Atacama, Bio-Bio, Coquimbo, Libertador
General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena,
Maule, Region Metropolitana, Tarapaca, Valparaiso; note - the US does not
recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
18 September 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended 30 July 1989
Legal system:
based on Code of 1857 derived from Spanish law and subsequent codes
influenced by French and Austrian law; judicial review of legislative acts
in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consisting of an upper house
or Senate (Senado) and a lower house or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Patricio AYLWIN Azocar (since 11 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Concertation of Parties for Democracy now consists mainly of five parties -
Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Eduardo FREI Ruiz-Tagle; Party for
Democracy (PPD), Erich SCHNAKE; Radical Party (PR), Carlos GONZALEZ Marquez;
Social Democratic Party (PSP), Roberto MUNOZ Barros; Socialist Party (PS),
Ricardo NUNEZ; National Renovation (RN), Andres ALLAMAND; Independent
Democratic Union (UDI), Julio DITTBORN; Center-Center Union (UCC), Francisco
Juner ERRAZURIZA; Communist Party of Chile (PCCh), Volodia TEITELBOIM;
Movement of Revolutionary Left (MIR) is splintered, no single leader
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (120 total) Concertation of
Parties for Democracy 72 (PDC 38, PPD 17, PR 5, other 12), RN 29, UDI 11,
right-wing independents 8
President:
last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994);
results - Patricio AYLWIN (PDC) 55.2%, Hernan BUCHI 29.4%, other 15.4%
Senate:
last held 14 December 1989 (next to be held December 1993 or January 1994);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (46 total, 38 elected)
Concertation of Parties for Democracy 22 (PDC 13, PPD 5, PR 2, PSD 1, PRSD
1), RN 6, UDI 2, independents 8

:Chile Government

Communists:
The PCCh has legal party status and has less than 60,000 members
Other political or pressure groups:
revitalized university student federations at all major universities
dominated by opposition political groups; labor - United Labor Central (CUT)
includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor
confederations; Roman Catholic Church
Member of:
CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES,
LAIA, LORCS, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMOGIP,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTV, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Patricio SILVA Echenique; Chancery at 1732 Massachusetts Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 785-1746; there are Chilean
Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia,
and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Curtis KAMMAN; Embassy at Codina Building, 1343 Agustinas,
Santiago (mailing address is APO AA 34033); telephone [56] (2) 671-0133; FAX
[56] (2) 699-1141
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square
the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band;
the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center; design was based
on the US flag

:Chile Economy

Overview:
The government of President Aylwin, which took power in 1990, has opted to
retain the orthodox economic policies of Pinochet, although the share of
spending for social welfare has risen slightly. In 1991 growth in GDP
recovered to 5.5% (led by consumer spending) after only 2.1% growth in 1990.
The tight monetary policy of 1990 helped cut the rate of inflation from
27.3% in 1990 to 18.7% in 1991. Despite a 12% drop in copper prices, the
trade surplus rose in 1991, and international reserves increased.
Inflationary pressures are not expected to ease much in 1992, and economic
growth is likely to approach 7%.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $30.5 billion, per capita $2,300; real growth
rate 5.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
18.7% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
6.5% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $7.6 billion; expenditures $8.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $772 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$8.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
copper 50%, other metals and minerals 7%, wood products 6.5%, fish and
fishmeal 9%, fruits 5% (1989)
partners:
EC 36%, US 18%, Japan 14%, Brazil 6% (1989)
Imports:
$7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum, wheat, capital goods, spare parts, raw materials
partners:
EC 20%, US 20%, Japan 11%, Brazil 10% (1989)
External debt:
$16.2 billion (October 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.9% (1991 est.); accounts for 36% of GDP
Electricity:
5,502,800 kW capacity; 21,470 million kWh produced, 1,616 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
copper, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood
and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Agriculture:
accounts for about 9% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); major
exporter of fruit, fish, and timber products; major crops - wheat, corn,
grapes, beans, sugar beets, potatoes, deciduous fruit; livestock products -
beef, poultry, wool; self-sufficient in most foods; 1989 fish catch of 6.1
million metric tons; net agricultural importer
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $521 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.6 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $386 million
Currency:
Chilean peso (plural - pesos); 1 Chilean peso (Ch$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Chilean pesos (Ch$) per US$1 - 368.66 (January 1992), 349.37 (1991), 305.06
(1990), 267.16 (1989), 245.05 (1988), 219.54 (1987)

:Chile Economy

Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Chile Communications

Railroads:
7,766 km total; 3,974 km 1.676-meter gauge, 150 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 3,642 km 1.000-meter gauge; electrification, 1,865 km 1.676-meter
gauge, 80 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
79,025 km total; 9,913 km paved, 33,140 km gravel, 35,972 km improved and
unimproved earth (1984)
Inland waterways:
725 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 755 km; petroleum products 785 km; natural gas 320 km
Ports:
Antofagasta, Iquique, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, San Antonio,
Talcahuano, Arica
Merchant marine:
33 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 468,873 GRT/780,932 DWT; includes 11
cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 bulk; note - in
addition, 2 naval tanker and 2 military transport are sometimes used
commercially
Civil air:
29 major transport aircraft
Airports:
390 total, 349 usable; 48 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 58 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
modern telephone system based on extensive microwave relay facilities;
768,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 159 AM, no FM, 131 TV, 11
shortwave; satellite ground stations - 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3
domestic

:Chile Defense Forces

Branches:
Army of the Nation, National Navy (including Naval Air, Coast Guard, and
Marines), Air Force of the Nation, Carabineros of Chile (National Police),
Investigative Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 3,600,654; 2,685,924 fit for military service; 118,480 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1 billion, 3.4% of GDP (1991 est.)

:China Geography

Total area:
9,596,960 km2
Land area:
9,326,410 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than the US
Land boundaries:
22,143.34 km; Afghanistan 76 km, Bhutan 470 km, Burma 2,185 km, Hong Kong 30
km, India 3,380 km, Kazakhstan 1,533 km, North Korea 1,416 km, Kyrgyzstan
858 km, Laos 423 km, Macau 0.34 km, Mongolia 4,673 km, Nepal 1,236 km,
Pakistan 523 km, Russia (northeast) 3,605 km, Russia (northwest) 40 km,
Tajikistan 414 km, Vietnam 1,281 km
Coastline:
14,500 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
claim to shallow areas of East China Sea and Yellow Sea
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
boundary with India; bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve
disputed sections of the boundary with Russia; boundary with Tajikistan
under dispute: a short section of the boundary with North Korea is
indefinite; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
Malaysia, Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; maritime
boundary dispute with Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands
occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; claims
Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto, as does Taiwan, (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu
Tai)
Climate:
extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills
in east
Natural resources:
coal, iron ore, crude oil, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese,
molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, world's
largest hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 31%; forest and
woodland 14%; other 45%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
frequent typhoons (about five times per year along southern and eastern
coasts), damaging floods, tsunamis, earthquakes; deforestation; soil
erosion; industrial pollution; water pollution; air pollution;
desertification
Note:
world's third-largest country (after Russia and Canada)

:China People

Population:
1,169,619,601 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
32 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 72 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Chinese (singular and plural); adjective - Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Han Chinese 93.3%; Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol,
Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities 6.7%
Religions:
officially atheist, but traditionally pragmatic and eclectic; most important
elements of religion are Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism; Muslim 2-3%,
Christian 1% (est.)
Languages:
Standard Chinese (Putonghua) or Mandarin (based on the Beijing dialect);
also Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan
(Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, and minority languages (see
ethnic divisions)
Literacy:
73% (male 84%, female 62%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
567,400,000; agriculture and forestry 60%, industry and commerce 25%,
construction and mining 5%, social services 5%, other 5% (1990 est.)
Organized labor:
All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU) follows the leadership of the
Chinese Communist Party; membership over 80 million or about 65% of the
urban work force (1985)

:China Government

Long-form name:
People's Republic of China; abbreviated PRC
Type:
Communist Party - led state
Capital:
Beijing
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions* (zizhiqu,
singular and plural), and 3 municipalities** (shi, singular and plural);
Anhui, Beijing Shi**, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi*, Guizhou, Hainan,
Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning,
Nei Mongol*, Ningxia*, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai Shi**, Shanxi,
Sichuan, Tianjin Shi**, Xinjiang*, Xizang*, Yunnan, Zhejiang; note - China
considers Taiwan its 23rd province
Independence:
unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC, Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty
replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912, People's Republic established
1 October 1949
Constitution:
most recent promulgated 4 December 1982
Legal system:
a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal law; rudimentary
civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes in effect since 1
January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve civil,
administrative, criminal, and commercial law
National holiday:
National Day, 1 October (1949)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, premier, five vice premiers, State Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui)
Judicial branch:
Supreme People's Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988); Vice President WANG Zhen
(since 8 April 1988)
Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto):
DENG Xiaoping (since mid-1977)
Head of Government:
Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since 24 November 1987, Premier since 9
April 1988); Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979); Vice Premier TIAN
Jiyun (since 20 June 1983); Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988);
Vice Premier ZOU Jiahua (since 8 April 1991); Vice Premier ZHU Rongji (since
8 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
- Chinese Communist Party (CCP), JIANG Zemin, general secretary of the
Central Committee (since 24 June 1989); also, eight registered small parties
controlled by CCP
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National People's Congress:
last held March 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results - CCP is the only
party but there are also independents; seats - (2,976 total) CCP and
independents 2,976 (indirectly elected at county or xian level)
President:
last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993); results - YANG Shangkun
was nominally elected by the Seventh National People's Congress

:China Government

Communists:
49,000,000 party members (1990 est.)
Other political or pressure groups:
such meaningful opposition as exists consists of loose coalitions, usually
within the party and government organization, that vary by issue
Member of:
AfDB, APEC, AsDB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UN Security Council, UNTSO, UN Trusteeship
Council, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at 2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese
Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco
US:
Ambassador J. Stapleton ROY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3, Beijing (mailing
address is 100600, PSC 461, Box 50, Beijing or FPO AP 96521-0002); telephone
[86] (1) 532-3831; FAX [86] (1) 532-3178; there are US Consulates General in
Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang
Flag:
red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the
flag) in the upper hoist-side corner

:China Economy

Overview:
Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been trying to move the
economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned economy to a more
productive and flexible economy with market elements, but still within the
framework of monolithic Communist control. To this end the authorities have
switched to a system of household responsibility in agriculture in place of
the old collectivization, increased the authority of local officials and
plant managers in industry, permitted a wide variety of small-scale
enterprise in services and light manufacturing, and opened the foreign
economic sector to increased trade and joint ventures. The most gratifying
result has been a strong spurt in production, particularly in agriculture in
the early 1980s. Industry also has posted major gains, especially in coastal
areas near Hong Kong and opposite Taiwan, where foreign investment and
modern production methods have helped spur production of both domestic and
export goods. Aggregate output has more than doubled since 1978. On the
darker side, the leadership has often experienced in its hybrid system the
worst results of socialism (bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of
capitalism (windfall gains and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has
periodically backtracked, retightening central controls at intervals and
thereby lessening the credibility of the reform process. In 1991 output rose
substantially, particularly in the favored coastal areas. Popular
resistance, changes in central policy, and loss of authority by rural cadres
have weakened China's population control program, which is essential to the
nation's long-term economic viability.
GNP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 6% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.1% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
4.0% in urban areas (1991)
Budget:
deficit $9.5 billion (1990)
Exports:
$71.9 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
textiles, garments, telecommunications and recording equipment, petroleum,
minerals
partners:
Hong Kong, Japan, US, USSR, Singapore (1990)
Imports:
$63.8 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
specialized industrial machinery, chemicals, manufactured goods, steel,
textile yarn, fertilizer
partners:
Hong Kong, Japan, US, Germany, Taiwan (1990)
External debt:
$51 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 14.0% (1991); accounts for 45% of GNP
Electricity:
138,000,000 kW capacity (1990); 670,000 million kWh produced (1991), 582 kWh
per capita (1991)
Industries:
iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments, textiles, petroleum, cement,
chemical fertilizers, consumer durables, food processing

:China Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers of rice,
potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial crops
include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock
products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 8 million metric
tons in 1986
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle
Economic aid:
donor - to less developed countries (1970-89) $7.0 billion; US commitments,
including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $13.5 billion
Currency:
yuan (plural - yuan); 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao
Exchange rates:
yuan (Y) per US$1 - 5.4481 (January 1992), 5.3234 (1991), 4.7832 (1990),
3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:China Communications

Railroads:
total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge; of these 11,200 km are double track
standard-gauge lines; 6,900 km electrified (1990); 10,000 km dedicated
industrial lines (gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)
Highways:
about 1,029,000 km (1990) all types roads; 170,000 km (est.) paved roads,
648,000 km (est.) gravel/improved earth roads, 211,000 km (est.) unimproved
earth roads and tracks
Inland waterways:
138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 9,700 km (1990); petroleum products 1,100 km; natural gas 6,200 km
Ports:
Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Xingang,
Zhanjiang, Ningbo, Xiamen, Tanggu, Shantou
Merchant marine:
1,454 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,887,312 GRT/20,916,127 DWT;
includes 25 passenger, 42 short-sea passenger, 18 passenger-cargo, 6
cargo/training, 801 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 77 container, 19
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 multifunction/barge carrier, 177 petroleum tanker,
10 chemical tanker, 254 bulk, 3 liquefied gas, 1 vehicle carrier, 9
combination bulk, 1 barge carrier; note - China beneficially owns an
additional 194 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 7,077,089
DWT that operate under Panamanian, British, Hong Kong, Maltese, Liberian,
Vanuatu, Cyprus, and Saint Vincent registry
Civil air:
284 major transport aircraft (1988 est.)
Airports:
330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface runways; fewer than 10
with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 200 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
domestic and international services are increasingly available for private
use; unevenly distributed internal system serves principal cities,
industrial centers, and most townships; 11,000,000 telephones (December
1989); broadcast stations - 274 AM, unknown FM, 202 (2,050 repeaters) TV;
more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million TVs; satellite earth
stations - 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT,
and 55 domestic

:China Defense Forces

Branches:
People's Liberation Army (PLA), PLA Navy (including Marines), PLA Air Force,
People's Armed Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 339,554,712; 188,995,620 fit for military service; 11,691,967
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $12-15 billion, NA of GNP (1991 est.)

:Christmas Island Geography

Total area:
135 km2
Land area:
135 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
138.9 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Natural resources:
phosphate
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
almost completely surrounded by a reef
Note:
located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

:Christmas Island People

Population:
929 (July 1992), growth rate NA% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Christmas Islander(s); adjective - Christmas Island
Ethnic divisions:
Chinese 61%, Malay 25%, European 11%, other 3%; no indigenous population
Religions:
Buddhist 36.1%, Muslim 25.4%, Christian 17.7% (Roman Catholic 8.2%, Church
of England 3.2%, Presbyterian 0.9%, Uniting Church 0.4%, Methodist 0.2%,
Baptist 0.1%, and other 4.7%), none 12.7%, unknown 4.6%, other 3.5% (1981)
Languages:
English
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining Company of Christmas
Island, Ltd.
Organized labor:
NA

:Christmas Island Government

Long-form name:
Territory of Christmas Island
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
The Settlement
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
Christmas Island Act of 1958
Legal system:
under the authority of the governor general of Australia
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, Advisory
Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
none
Judicial branch:
none
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator W. A. MCKENZIE (since NA)
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

:Christmas Island Economy

Overview:
Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in
December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine as no longer
economically viable. Plans have been under way to reopen the mine and also
to build a casino and hotel to develop tourism, with a possible opening date
during the first half of 1992.
GDP:
NA - $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
phosphate
partners:
Australia, NZ
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
NA
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
11,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced, 13,170 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Agriculture:
NA
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3360 (January 1992), 1.2836 (1991),
1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Christmas Island Communications

Ports:
Flying Fish Cove
Airports:
1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
4,000 radios (1982)

:Christmas Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Clipperton Island Geography

Total area:
7 km2
Land area:
7 km2
Comparative area:
about 12 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
11.1 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claimed by Mexico
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
coral atoll
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other (coral) 100%
Environment:
reef about 8 km in circumference
Note:
located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific Ocean; also called
Ile de la Passion

:Clipperton Island People

Population:
uninhabited

:Clipperton Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
French possession administered by France from French Polynesia by High
Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT
Capital:
none; administered by France from French Polynesia

:Clipperton Island Economy

Overview:
The only economic activity is a tuna fishing station.

:Clipperton Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

:Clipperton Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Cocos Islands Geography

Total area:
14 km2
Land area:
14 km2; main islands are West Island and Home Island
Comparative area:
about 24 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
2.6 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
pleasant, modified by the southeasttrade wind for about nine months of the
year; moderate rain fall
Terrain:
flat, low-lying coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and other vegetation
Note:
located 1,070 km southwest of Sumatra (Indonesia) in the Indian Ocean about
halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka

:Cocos Islands People

Population:
597 (July 1992), growth rate - 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Cocos Islander(s); adjective - Cocos Islander
Ethnic divisions:
mostly Europeans on West Island and Cocos Malays on Home Island
Religions:
almost all Sunni Muslims
Languages:
English
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
none

:Cocos Islands Government

Long-form name:
Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Type:
territory of Australia
Capital:
West Island
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Independence:
none (territory of Australia)
Constitution:
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955
Legal system:
based upon the laws of Australia and local laws
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general of Australia, administrator, chairman of
the Islands Council
Legislative branch:
unicameral Islands Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Administrator B. CUNNINGHAM (since NA); Chairman of the Islands Council Haji
Wahin bin BYNIE (since NA)
Suffrage:
NA
Elections:
NA
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)
Flag:
the flag of Australia is used

:Cocos Islands Economy

Overview:
Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash crop. Copra and
fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local gardens and fishing
contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most other
necessities must be imported from Australia.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
copra
partners:
Australia
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
foodstuffs
partners:
Australia
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
1,000 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, 2,980 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra products
Agriculture:
gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts
Economic aid:
none
Currency:
Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3360 (January 1992), 1.2836 (1991),
1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Cocos Islands Communications

Ports:
none; lagoon anchorage only
Airports:
1 airfield with permanent-surface runway, 1,220-2,439 m; airport on West
Island is a link in service between Australia and South Africa
Telecommunications:
250 radios (1985); linked by telephone, telex, and facsimile communications
via satellite with Australia; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV

:Cocos Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia

:Colombia Geography

Total area:
1,138,910 km2
Land area:
1,038,700 km2; includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and
Serranilla Bank
Comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
7,408 km; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900,
Venezuela 2,050 km
Coastline:
3,208 km; Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
not specified
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela;
territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago de San Andres y
Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank
Climate:
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Terrain:
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes mountains, eastern
lowland plains
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops 2%; meadows and pastures 29%; forest and
woodland 49%; other 16%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; deforestation; soil damage from
overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts
Note:
only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and
Caribbean Sea

:Colombia People

Population:
34,296,941 (July 1992), growth rate 1.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
24 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
31 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Colombian(s); adjective - Colombian
Ethnic divisions:
mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Indian 3%, Indian
1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
87% (male 88%, female 86%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
12,000,000 (1990); services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990)
Organized labor:
984,000 members (1989), about 8.2% of labor force; the Communist-backed
Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest labor organization, with about
725,000 members (including all affiliate unions)

:Colombia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Colombia
Type:
republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Capital:
Bogota
Administrative divisions:
23 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento), 5 commissariats*
(comisarias, singular - comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias,
singular - intendencia); Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar,
Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba,
Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta,
Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y
Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes*, Vichada*;
note - there may be a new special district (distrito especial) named Bogota;
the Constitution of 5 July 1991 states that the commissariats and
intendancies are to become full departments and a capital district (distrito
capital) of Santa Fe de Bogota is to be established by 1997
Independence:
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Constitution:
5 July 1991
Legal system:
based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme
Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Executive branch:
president, presidential designate, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of a nationally elected upper chamber
or Senate (Senado) and a nationally elected lower chamber or House of
Representatives (Camara de Representantes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 7 August 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Liberal Party (PL), Cesar GAVIRIA Trujillo, president; Social Conservative
Party (PCS), Misael PASTRANA Borrero; National Salvation Movement (MSN),
Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado; Democratic Alliance M-19 (AD/M-19) is headed by 19th
of April Movement (M-19) leader Antonio NAVARRO Wolf, coalition of small
leftist parties and dissident liberals and conservatives; Patriotic Union
(UP) is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of
Colombia (FARC) and Colombian Communist Party (PCC), Carlos ROMERO
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994); results - Cesar GAVIRIA
Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro GOMEZ Hurtado (National Salvation Movement)
24%, Antonio NAVARRO Wolff (M-19) 13%, Rodrigo LLOREDA (Conservative) 12%
Senate:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (102 total) Liberal 58, Conservative 22, AD/M-19
9, MSN 5, UP 1, others 7

:Colombia Government

House of Representatives:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held March 1994); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (161 total) Liberal 87, Conservative 31, AD/M-19
13, MSN 10, UP 3, other 17
Communists:
18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth Organization (JUCO)
Other political or pressure groups:
three insurgent groups are active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces
of Colombia (FARC), led by Manuel MARULANDA and Alfonso CANO; National
Liberation Army (ELN), led by Manuel PEREZ; and dissidents of the recently
demobilized People's Liberation Army (EPL) led by Francisco CARABALLO
Member of:
AG, CDB, CG, ECLAC, FAO, G-3, G-11, G-24, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG,
UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jaime GARCIA Parra; Chancery at 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington,
DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-8338; there are Colombian Consulates General
in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San
Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Atlanta, Boston, Detroit, Los Angeles,
and Tampa
US:
Ambassador Morris D. BUSBY; Embassy at Calle 38, No. 8-61, Bogota (mailing
address is P. O. Box A. A. 3831, Bogota or APO AA 34038); telephone [57] (1)
285-1300 or 1688; FAX [571] 288-5687; there is a US Consulate in
Barranquilla
Flag:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar
to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of
arms superimposed in the center

:Colombia Economy

Overview:
Economic development has slowed gradually since 1986, but growth rates
remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative economic policies have
kept inflation and unemployment near 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid
development of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries over the past
four years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices - Colombia's
major export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the
summer of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, and drug-related violence
have dampened growth, but significant economic reforms are likely to
facilitate a resurgent economy in the medium term. These reforms center on
fiscal restraint, trade liberalization, and privatization of state utilities
and commercial banks.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $45 billion, per capita $1,300; real growth rate
3.7% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
26.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
10.5% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93 billion, capital
expenditures $1.03 billion (1989 est.)
Exports:
$7.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
petroleum (19%), coffee, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers
partners:
US 40%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%
Imports:
$6.1 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, paper
products
partners:
US 36%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%
External debt:
$17.0 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 1% (1991 est.); accounts for 21% of GDP
Electricity:
9,624,000 kW capacity; 38,856 million kWh produced, 1,150 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals,
metal products, cement; mining - gold, coal, emeralds, iron, nickel, silver,
salt
Agriculture:
growth rate 3% (1991 est.) accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds
and livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a
wide variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa
beans, oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming
more important
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis, coca, and opium; about 37,500 hectares of coca
under cultivation; major supplier of cocaine to the US and other
international drug markets

:Colombia Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.6 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3.3 billion,
Communist countries (1970-89), $399 million
Currency:
Colombian peso (plural - pesos); 1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1 - 711.88 (January 1992), 633.08 (1991),
550.00 (1990), 435.00 (1989), 336.00 (1988), 242.61 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Colombia Communications

Railroads:
3,386 km; 3,236 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track (2,611 km in use), 150 km
1. 435-meter gauge
Highways:
75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and gravel surfaces
Inland waterways:
14,300 km, navigable by river boats
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural
gas liquids 125 km
Ports:
Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres, Santa Marta,
Tumaco
Merchant marine:
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 289,794 GRT/443,369 DWT; includes 9
cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 3 petroleum tanker, 8 bulk, 10 container; note -
in addition, 2 naval tankers are sometimes used commercially
Civil air:
83 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1,167 total, 1,023 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 191 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations
and 11 domestic satellite earth stations

:Colombia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines), Air
Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 9,214,691; 6,240,601 fit for military service; 353,691 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $624 million, 1.4% of GDP (1991)

:Comoros Geography

Total area:
2,170 km2
Land area:
2,170 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
340 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims French-administered Mayotte
Climate:
tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)
Terrain:
volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains to low hills
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 35%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 7%; forest and
woodland 16%; other 34%
Environment:
soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; cyclones possible during rainy
season
Note:
important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

:Comoros People

Population:
493,853 (July 1992), growth rate 3.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
84 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
55 years male, 59 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Comoran(s); adjective - Comoran
Ethnic divisions:
Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 86%, Roman Catholic 14%
Languages:
official languages are Arabic and French but majority of population speak
Comoran, a blend of Swahili and Arabic
Literacy:
48% (male 56%, female 40%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
140,000 (1982); agriculture 80%, government 3%; 51% of population of working
age (1985)
Organized labor:
NA

:Comoros Government

Long-form name:
Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros
Type:
independent republic
Capital:
Moroni
Administrative divisions:
three islands; Njazidja, Nzwani, and Mwali, formerly Grand Comore, Anjouan,
and Moheli respectively; note - there are also four municipalities named
Domoni, Fomboni, Moroni, and Mutsamudu
Independence:
31 December 1975 (from France)
Constitution:
1 October 1978, amended October 1982 and January 1985
Legal system:
French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1975)
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Said Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990); coordinator of National
Unity Government (de facto prime minister) - Mohamed Taki ABDULKARIM (1
January 1992)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Federal Assembly:
last held 22 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (42 total) Udzima 42
President:
last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996); results - Said Mohamed
DJOHAR (Udzima) 55%, Mohamed TAKI Abdulkarim (UNDC) 45%
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, ILO, IMF,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN; Chancery (temporary) at the Comoran Permanent
Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017;
telephone (212) 972-8010
US:
Ambassador Kenneth N. PELTIER; Embassy at address NA, Moroni (mailing
address B. P. 1318, Moroni); telephone 73-22-03, 73-29-22
Flag:
green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the crescent
points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are four white
five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent; the
crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four
stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago - Mwali, Njazidja,
Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial collectivity of France, but
claimed by the Comoros)

:Comoros Economy

Overview:
One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of several islands
that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly increasing
population, and few natural resources. The low educational level of the
labor force contributes to a low level of economic activity, high
unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign grants and technical
assistance. Agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry, is the
leading sector of the economy. It contributes about 34% to GDP, employs 80%
of the labor force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not
self-sufficient in food production, and rice, the main staple, accounts for
90% of imports. During the period 1982-86 the industrial sector grew at an
annual average rate of 5.3%, but its contribution to GDP was only 5% in
1988. Despite major investment in the tourist industry, which accounts for
about 25% of GDP, growth has stagnated since 1983. A sluggish growth rate of
1.5% during 1985-90 has led to large budget deficits, declining incomes, and
balance-of-payments difficulties. Preliminary estimates for 1991 show a
moderate increase in the growth rate based on increased exports, tourism,
and government investment outlays.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $260 million, per capita $540; real growth rate
2.7% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.0% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
over 16% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $88 million; expenditures $92 million, including capital
expenditures of $13 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$16 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra, ylang-ylang
partners:
US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2% (1988)
Imports:
$41 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products, consumer goods
partners:
Europe 62% (France 22%), Africa 5%, Pakistan, China (1988)
External debt:
$196 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
16,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
perfume distillation, textiles, furniture, jewelry, construction materials,
soft drinks
Agriculture:
accounts for 34% of GDP; most of population works in subsistence agriculture

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