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5.8% (June 1989, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
2.0% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $361.6 million; expenditures $396.1 million, including capital
expenditures of $74.1 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$30 million (f.o.b., FY88)
commodities:
semitropical produce, light manufactures
partners:
US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%
Imports:
$420 million (c.i.f., FY88)
commodities:
fuel, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan 5%, other 14%
External debt:
NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
154,000 kW capacity; 504 million kWh produced, 8,625 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, finance, structural concrete products, paints, pharmaceuticals,
ship repairing
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must be imported;
produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy products
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $277 million
Currency:
Bermudian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar (Bd$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1 - 1.0000 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Bermuda Communications

Highways:
210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)
Ports:
Freeport, Hamilton, Saint George
Merchant marine:
73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,511,972 GRT/6,093,321 DWT; includes
4 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo, 4 container, 7 roll-on/roll-off, 23 petroleum
tanker, 12 liquefied gas, 18 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
16 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
modern with fully automatic telephone system; 52,670 telephones; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

:Bermuda Defense Forces

Branches:
Bermuda Regiment, Bermuda Police Force, Bermuda Reserve Constabulary
Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Bhutan Geography

Total area:
47,000 km2
Land area:
47,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than half the size of Indiana
Land boundaries:
1,075 km; China 470 km, India 605 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot summers in central
valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas
Terrain:
mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna
Natural resources:
timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide, tourism potential
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
woodland 70%; other 23%
Environment:
violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source of the country
name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon
Note:
landlocked; strategic location between China and India; controls several key
Himalayan mountain passes

:Bhutan People

Population:
1,660,167 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
40 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
126 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
50 years male, 49 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bhutanese (singular and plural); adjective - Bhutanese
Ethnic divisions:
Bhote 60%, ethnic Nepalese 25%, indigenous or migrant tribes 15%
Religions:
Lamaistic Buddhism 75%, Indian- and Nepalese-influenced Hinduism 25%
Languages:
Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects - most widely spoken dialect is
Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA; agriculture 93%, services 5%, industry and commerce 2%; massive lack of
skilled labor
Organized labor:
not permitted

:Bhutan Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Bhutan
Type:
monarchy; special treaty relationship with India
Capital:
Thimphu
Administrative divisions:
18 districts (dzongkhag, singular and plural); Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang,
Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi,
Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdi Phodrang
Independence:
8 August 1949 (from India)
Constitution:
no written constitution or bill of rights
Legal system:
based on Indian law and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary king), 17 December
(1907)
Executive branch:
monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council, Royal Advisory Council
(Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
(Lhengye Shungtsog)
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since 24 July 1972)
Political parties and leaders:
no legal parties
Suffrage:
each family has one vote in village-level elections
Elections:
no national elections
Communists:
no overt Communist presence
Other political or pressure groups:
Buddhist clergy, Indian merchant community; ethnic Nepalese organizations
leading militant antigovernment campaign
Member of:
AsDB, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IMF, IOC, ITU, NAM,
SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO
Diplomatic representation:
no formal diplomatic relations, although informal contact is maintained
between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese
mission to the UN in New York has consular jurisdiction in the US
Flag:
divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper triangle is
orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing line is a
large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

:Bhutan Economy

Overview:
The economy, one of the world's least developed, is based on agriculture and
forestry, which provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and
account for about 50% of GDP. Rugged mountains dominate the terrain and make
the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expensive. The
economy is closely aligned with that of India through strong trade and
monetary links. Low wages in industry lead most Bhutanese to stay in
agriculture. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on
Indian migrant labor. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for
tourists are its most important natural resources.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $320 million, per capita $200; real growth rate
3.1% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12% (FY90)
Unemployment rate:
NA
Budget:
revenues $112 million; expenditures $121 million, including capital
expenditures of $58 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$74 million (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit
partners:
India 93%
Imports:
$106.4 million (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts, vehicles, fabrics
partners:
India 67%
External debt:
$80 million (FY91 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA; accounts for 18% of GDP
Electricity:
353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 1,280 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages, calcium
carbide
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and animal husbandry;
self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other production - rice,
corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$115 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million
Currency:
ngultrum (plural - ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100 chetrum; note - Indian
currency is also legal tender
Exchange rates:
ngultrum (Nu) per US$1 - 25.927 (January 1992), 22.742 (1991), 17.504
(1990), 16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987); note - the Bhutanese
ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Bhutan Communications

Highways:
1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km unimproved earth
Civil air:
1 jet, 2 prop
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
inadequate; 1,990 telephones (1988); 22,000 radios (1990 est.); 85 TVs
(1985); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 1 FM, no TV (1990)

:Bhutan Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Bhutan Army, Palace Guard, Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 406,360; 217,348 fit for military service; 17,316 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Bolivia Geography

Total area:
1,098,580 km2
Land area:
1,084,390 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
6,743 km; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400 km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km,
Peru 900 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since the Atacama
area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca water
rights
Climate:
varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid
Terrain:
rugged Andes Mountains with a highland plateau (Altiplano), hills, lowland
plains of the Amazon basin
Natural resources:
tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten, antimony, silver, iron ore,
lead, gold, timber
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and
woodland 52%; other 20%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to efficient fuel combustion;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake,
with Peru

:Bolivia People

Population:
7,323,048 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
33 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
82 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
59 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bolivian(s); adjective - Bolivian
Ethnic divisions:
Quechua 30%, Aymara 25%, mixed 25-30%, European 5-15%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%; active Protestant minority, especially Evangelical
Methodist
Languages:
Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)
Literacy:
78% (male 85%, female 71%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,700,000; agriculture 50%, services and utilities 26%, manufacturing 10%,
mining 4%, other 10% (1983)
Organized labor:
150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry, construction, and
transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian Workers' Central (COB) labor
federation

:Bolivia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Bolivia
Type:
republic
Capital:
La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of judiciary)
Administrative divisions:
9 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca,
Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija
Independence:
6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Constitution:
2 February 1967
Legal system:
based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 August (1825)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber
of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Jaime PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO
Sanjines (since 6 August 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Movement of the Revolutionary Left (MIR), Jaime PAZ Zamora; Nationalist
Democratic Action (ADN), Hugo BANZER Suarez; Nationalist Revolutionary
Movement (MNR), Gonzalo SANCHEZ de Lozada; Civic Solidarity Union (UCS), Max
FERNANDEZ Rojas; Conscience of the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos PALENQUE
Aviles; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jorge AGREDO; Free Bolivia
Movement (MBL), led by Antonio ARANIBAR; United Left (IU), a coalition of
leftist parties that includes Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P)
led by Walter DELGADILLO, and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto
RAMIREZ; Revolutionary Vanguard - 9th of April (VR-9), Carlos SERRATE Reich
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21 (single)
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - percent of vote
by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a unified
slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on presidential
election results; seats - (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 35, MIR 33, IU 10, CONDEPA
9, PDC 3
Chamber of Senators:
last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - percent of vote
by party NA; note - legislative and presidential candidates run on a unified
slate, so vote percentages are the same as in section on presidential
election results; seats - (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 7, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2, PDC 1

:Bolivia Government

President:
last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993); results - Gonzalo SANCHEZ
de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo BANZER Suarez (ADN) 22%, Jaime PAZ Zamora (MIR)
19%; no candidate received a majority of the popular vote; Jaime PAZ Zamora
(MIR) formed a coalition with Hugo BANZER (ADN); with ADN support PAZ Zamora
won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated on 6
August 1989
Member of:
AG, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM, OAS, OPANAL,
PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at 3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4410 through 4412; there are
Bolivian Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, New York, and San
Francisco
US:
Ambassador Charles R. BOWERS; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru Building,
corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is P. O. Box 425,
La Paz, or APO AA 34032); telephone [591] (2) 350251 or 350120; FAX [591]
(2) 359875
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with the coat
of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana, which has
a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

:Bolivia Economy

Overview:
The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between 1980 and 1985 as La Paz
financed growing budget deficits by expanding the money supply, and
inflation spiraled - peaking at 11,700%. An austere orthodox economic
program adopted by then President Paz Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded
in reducing inflation to between 10% and 20% annually since 1987, eventually
restarting economic growth. Since August 1989, President Paz Zamora has
retained the economic policies of the previous government, keeping inflation
down and continuing moderate growth. Nevertheless, Bolivia continues to be
one of the poorest countries in Latin America, with widespread poverty and
unemployment, and it remains vulnerable to price fluctuations for its
limited exports - agricultural products, minerals, and natural gas.
Moreover, for many farmers, who constitute half of the country's work force,
the main cash crop is coca, which is sold for cocaine processing.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $4.6 billion, per capita $630; real growth rate
4% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
15% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
7% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $900 million; expenditures $825 million, including capital
expenditures of $300 million (1991 est.)
Exports:
$970 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
metals 45%, natural gas 25%, other 30% (coffee, soybeans, sugar, cotton,
timber)
partners:
US 15%, Argentina
Imports:
$760 million (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods
partners:
US 22%
External debt:
$3.3 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (1991); accounts for almost 30% of GDP
Electricity:
849,000 kW capacity; 1,798 million kWh produced, 251 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco, handicrafts,
clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces significant revenues
Agriculture:
accounts for about 20% of GDP (including forestry and fisheries); principal
commodities - coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, timber;
self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
world's second-largest producer of coca (after Peru) with an estimated
47,900 hectares under cultivation; voluntary and forced eradication program
unable to prevent production from rising to 78,400 metric tons in 1991 from
74,700 tons in 1989; government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit;
intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or through Colombia and
Brazil to the US and other international drug markets

:Bolivia Economy

Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $990 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,025 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $340 million
Currency:
boliviano (plural - bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
bolivianos ($B) per US$1 - 3.7534 (January 1992), 3.5806 (1991), 3.1727
(1990), 2.6917 (1989), 2.3502 (1988), 2.0549 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Bolivia Communications

Railroads:
3,684 km total, all narrow gauge; 3,652 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track
Highways:
38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km improved and
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,800 km; petroleum products 580 km; natural gas 1,495 km
Ports:
none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile, Matarani and Ilo
in Peru
Merchant marine:
2 cargo and 1 container ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,951 GRT/26,320
DWT
Civil air:
56 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1,105 total, 943 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways
over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 146 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
radio relay system being expanded; improved international services; 144,300
telephones; broadcast stations - 129 AM, no FM, 43 TV, 68 shortwave; 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Bolivia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, National Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,727,101; 1,122,224 fit for military service; 72,977 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $80 million, 1.6% of GDP (1990 est).

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography

Total area:
51,233 km2
Land area:
51,233 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
1,369 km; Croatia (northwest) 751 km, Croatia (south) 91 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 527 km
Coastline:
20 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
20-meter depth
Exclusive economic zone:
12 nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Serbia and Croatia seek to cantonize Bosnia and Herzegovina; Muslim majority
being forced from many areas
Climate:
hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool
summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast
Terrain:
mountains and valleys
Natural resources:
coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, copper, chromium,
lead, zinc
Land use:
20% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures; 36% forest
and woodland; 16% other; includes 1% irrigated
Environment:
air pollution from metallurgical plants; water scarce; sites for disposing
of urban waste are limited; subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes
Note:
Controls large percentage of important land routes from Western Europe to
Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits

:Bosnia and Herzegovina People

Population:
4,364,000 (July 1991), growth rate 0.5% (1991)
Birth rate:
14.5 births/1,000 population (1991)
Death rate:
6.5 deaths/1,000 population (1991)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1991)
Infant mortality rate:
15.2 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 73 years female (1980-82)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1991)
Nationality:
noun - Muslim, Serb, Croat (s); adjective - Muslim, Serbian, Croatian
Ethnic divisions:
Muslim 44%, Serb 33%, Croat 17%
Religions:
Slavic Muslim 40%, Orthodox 31%, Catholic 15%, Protestant 4%
Languages:
Serbo-Croatian 99%
Literacy:
85.5% (male 94.5%, female 76.7%) age 10 and over can read and write (1981
est.)
Labor force:
1,026,254; 2% agriculture, industry, mining 45% (1991 est.)
Organized labor:
NA

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
emerging democracy
Capital:
Sarajevo
Administrative divisions:
NA
Independence:
December 1918; April 1992 from Yugoslavia
Constitution:
NA
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister
Legislative branch:
NA
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Alija IZETBEGOVIC (since December 1990), Vice President NA
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Jore PELIVAN (since January 1991), Deputy Prime Minister
Muhamed CENGIC and Rusmir MAHMUTCEHAJIC (since January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Party of Democratic Action, Alija IZETBEGOVIC; Croatian Democratic Union,
Mate BOBAN; Serbian Democratic Party, Radovah KARADZIC; Muslim Bosnian
Organization, Muhamed Zulfikar PASIC; Socialist Democratic Party, Nijaz
DURAKOVIC
Suffrage:
at age 16 if employed; universal at age 18
Elections:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE
Diplomatic representation:
NA
Flag:
NA

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy

Overview:
Bosnia and Herzegovina ranked next to Macedonia as the poorest component in
the old Yugoslav federation. Although agriculture has been almost all in
private hands, farms have been small and inefficient, and the republic
traditionally has been a net importer of food. Industry has been greatly
overstaffed, one reflection of the rigidities of Communist central planning
and management. Tito had pushed the development of military industries in
the republic with the result that Bosnia hosted a large share of
Yugoslavia's defense plants. As of April 1992, the newly independent
republic was being torn apart by bitter interethnic warfare that has caused
production to plummet, unemployment and inflation to soar, and human misery
to multiply. The survival of the republic as a political and economic unit
is in doubt. Both Serbia and Croatia have imposed various economic blockades
and may permanently take over large areas populated by fellow ethnic groups.
These areas contain most of the industry. If a much smaller core Muslim
state survives, it will share many Third World problems of poverty,
technological backwardness, and dependence on historically soft foreign
markets for its primary products. In these circumstances, other Muslim
countries might offer assistance.
GDP:
$14 billion; real growth rate --37% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
80% per month (1991)
Unemployment rate:
28% (February 1992 est.)
Budget:
revenues $NA million; expenditures $NA million, including capital
expenditures of $NA million (19__)
Exports:
$2,054 million (1990)
commodities:
manufactured goods (31%), machinery and transport equipment (20.8%), raw
materials (18%), miscellaneous manufactured articles (17.3%), chemicals
(9.4%), fuel and lubricants (1.4%), food and live animals (1.2%)
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics
Imports:
$1,891 million (1990)
commodities:
fuels and lubricants (32%), machinery and transport equipment (23.3%), other
manufactures (21.3%), chemicals (10%), raw materials (6.7%), food and live
animals (5.5%), beverages and tobacco (1.9%)
partners:
principally the other former Yugoslav republics
External debt:
NA
Industrial production:
sharply down because of interethnic and interrepublic warfare (1991-92)
Electricity:
14,400 million kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, 3,303 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
steel production, mining (coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, manganese, and
bauxite), manufacturing (vehicle assembly, textiles, tobacco products,
wooden furniture, 40% of former Yugoslavia's armaments including tank and
aircraft assembly, domestic appliances), oil refining

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Economy

Agriculture:
accounted for 8.6% of national income in 1989; regularly produces less than
50% of food needs; the foothills of northern Bosnia support orchards,
vineyards, livestock, and some wheat and corn; long winters and heavy
precipitation leach soil fertility reducing agricultural output in the
mountains; farms are mostly privately held, small, and not very productive
Illicit drugs:
NA
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
none; note - Croatian dinar used in ethnic Croat areas, Yugoslav dinar used
in all other areas
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Communications

Railroads:
NA km all 1.000-meter gauge (includes NA km electrified)
Highways:
21,168 km total (1991); 11,436 km paved, 8,146 km gravel, 1,586 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 174 km, petroleum products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
maritime - none; inland - Bosanski Brod
Merchant marine:
NA ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA GRT/NA DWT; includes NA cargo, NA
container, NA liquefied gas, NA petroleum tanker
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 main, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
Bosnia's telephone and telegraph network is in need of modernization and
expansion, many urban areas being below average compared with services in
other former Yugoslav republics; 727,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 9
AM, 2 FM, 6 (0 repeaters) TV; 840,000 radios; 1,012,094 TVs; NA submarine
coaxial cables; satellite ground stations - none

:Bosnia and Herzegovina Defense Forces

Branches:
Territorial Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; 39,000 reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Botswana Geography

Total area:
600,370 km2
Land area:
585, 370 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
4,013 km; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km, Zimbabwe 813 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain:
predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Natural resources:
diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda, ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver,
natural gas
Land use:
urable land 2%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 75%; forest and
woodland 2%; other 21%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had severely affected
the important cattle industry; overgazing; desertification
Note:
landlocked

:Botswana People

Population:
1,292,210 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
35 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
42 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
59 years male, 65 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun and ajective - Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic divisions:
Batswana 95%; Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi about 4%; white about 1%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 50%
Languages:
English (official), Setswana
Literacy:
23% (male 32%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
400,000; 198,500 formal sector employees, most others are engaged in cattle
raising and subsistence agriculture (1990 est.); 14,600 are employed in
various mines in South Africa (1990)
Organized labor:
19 trade unions

:Botswana Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Botswana
Type:
parliamentary republic
Capital:
Gaborone
Administrative divisions:
10 districts: Central, Chobe, Ghanzi, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng,
Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern; note - in addition, there may
now be 4 town councils named Francistown, Gaborone, Lobaste Selebi-Pikwe
Independence:
30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)
Constitution:
March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
Legal system:
based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law; judicial review limited to
matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 30 September (1966)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house or House of Chiefs
and a lower house or National Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Quett K. J. MASIRE (since 13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S.
MMUSI (since 3 January 1983)
Political parties and leaders:
Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett MASIRE; Botswana National Front
(BNF), Kenneth KOMA; Boswana People's Party (BPP), Knight MARIPE; Botswana
Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai MPHO
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (38 total, 34 elected) BDP 35, BNF 3
President:
last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October 1994); results - President
Quett K. J. MASIRE was reelected by the National Assembly
Communists:
no known Communist organization; Kenneth KOMA of BNF has long history of
Communist contacts
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, SACU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 7M, 3400
International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or
4991
US:
Ambassador Davie PASSAGE; Embassy at Gaborone (mailing address is P. O. Box
90, Gaborone); telephone [267] 353-982; FAX [267] 356-947
Flag:
light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the center

:Botswana Economy

Overview:
The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and crops.
Agriculture today provides a livelihood for more than 80% of the population,
but produces only about 50% of food needs. The driving force behind the
rapid economic growth of the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry.
This sector, mostly on the strength of diamonds, has gone from generating
25% of GDP in 1980 to over 50% in 1989. No other sector has experienced such
growth, especially not agriculture, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and
poor soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. Although diamond
production remained level in FY91, substantial gains in coal output and
manufacturing helped boost the economy
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $3.6 billion, per capita $2,800; real growth
rate 6.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
12.6% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1,935 million; expenditures $1,885 million, including capital
expenditures of $658 million (FY93)
Exports:
$1.8 billion (f.o.b. 1990)
commodities:
diamonds 80%, copper and nickel 9%, meat 4%, cattle, animal products
partners:
Switzerland, UK, SACU (Southern African Customs Union)
Imports:
$1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs, vehicles and transport equipment, textiles, petroleum products
partners:
Switzerland, SACU (Southern African Customs Union), UK, US
External debt:
$780 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 16.8% (FY86); accounts for about 57% of GDP, including mining
Electricity:
220,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced 858 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining of diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; livestock
processing
Agriculture:
accounts for only 3% of DGP; subsistence farming predominates; cattle
raising supports 50% of the population; must import large share of food
needs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $257 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1,875 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $29
million
Currency:
pula (plural - pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe
Exchange rates:
pula (P) per US$1 - 2.1683 (March 1992), 2.0173 (1991), 1.8601 (1990),
2.0125 (1989), 1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Botswana Communications

Railroads:
712 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone or gravel, 5,177 km
improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth
Civil air:
5 major transport aircraft
Airports:
100 total, 87 unable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
the small system is a combination of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and
a few radio-communications stations; 26,000 telephones; broadcast stations -
7 AM, 13 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Botswana Defense Forces

Branches:
Botswana Defense Force (including Army and Air Wing); Botswana National
Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 271,511; 142,947 fit for military service; 14,473 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $136.4 million, 4.4% of GDP (FY92)

:Bouvet Island Geography

Total area:
58 km2
Land area:
58 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
29.6 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
4 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters; coast is mostly inacessible
Natural resources:
none
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100% (ice)
Environment:
covered by glacial ice
Note:
located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km south-southwest of the Cape of
Good Hope, South Africa

:Bouvet Island People

Population:
uninhabited

:Bouvet Island Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
territory of Norway
Capital:
none; administered from Oslo, Norway

:Bouvet Island Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Bouvet Island Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Telecommunications:
automatic meteorological station

:Bouvet Island Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Norway

:Brazil Geography

Total area:
8,511,965 km2
Land area:
8,456,510 km2; includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas,
Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries:
14,691 km; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French
Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname
597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km
Coastline:
7,491 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
200 nm
Disputes:
short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of Guaira Falls on
the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short sections of boundary with Uruguay
are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the
islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)
Climate:
mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and
narrow coastal belt
Natural resources:
iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium, phosphates, tin, hydropower,
gold, platinum, crude oil, timber
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 19%; forest and
woodland 67%; other 6%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south; deforestation in
Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo
Note:
largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South
American country except Chile and Ecuador

:Brazil People

Population:
158,202,019 (July 1992), growth rate 1.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
25 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
67 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 69 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Brazilian(s); adjective - Brazilian
Ethnic divisions:
Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black, Amerindian; white 55%, mixed
38%, black 6%, other 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic (nominal) 90%
Languages:
Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French
Literacy:
81% (male 82%, female 80%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
57,000,000 (1989 est.); services 42%, agriculture 31%, industry 27%
Organized labor:
13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)

:Brazil Government

Long-form name:
Federative Republic of Brazil
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Brasilia
Administrative divisions:
26 states (estados, singular - estado) and 1 federal district* (distrito
federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal*,
Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas
Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande
do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo,
Sergipe, Tocantins; note - the former territories of Amapa and Roraima
became states in January 1991
Independence:
7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
Constitution:
5 October 1988
Legal system:
based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 7 September (1822)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional) consists of an upper
chamber or Federal Senate (Senado Federal) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies (Camara dos Deputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Federal Tribunal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Fernando Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice
President Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
National Reconstruction Party (PRN), Daniel TOURINHO, president; Brazilian
Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), Orestes QUERCIA, president; Liberal Front
Party (PFL), Hugo NAPOLEAO, president; Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio
(Lula) da SILVA, president; Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz GONZAGA de
Paiva Muniz, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Leonel BRIZOLA,
president; Democratic Social Party (PPS), Paulo MALUF, president; Brazilian
Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Tasso JEREISSATI, president; Popular
Socialist Party (PPS), Roberto FREIRE, president; Communist Party of Brazil
(PCdoB), Joao AMAZONAS, secretary general; Christian Democratic Party (PDC),
Siqueira CAMPOS, president
Suffrage:
voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70; voluntary at age 70
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - PMDB
21%, PFL 17%, PDT 9%, PDS 8%, PRN 7.9%, PTB 7%, PT 7%, other 23.1%; seats -
(503 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 108, PFL 87, PDT 46, PDS 43, PRN 40,
PTB 35, PT 35, other 109
Federal Senate:
last held 3 October 1990 (next to be held November 1994); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (81 total as of 3 February 1991) PMDB 27, PFL
15, PSDB 10, PTB 8, PDT 5, other 16

:Brazil Government

President:
last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17 December 1989 (next to be held
November 1994); results - Fernando COLLOR de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da SILVA
47%; note - first free, direct presidential election since 1960
Communists:
less than 30,000
Other political or pressure groups:
left wing of the Catholic Church and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's
Party are critical of government's social and economic policies
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
MERCOSUR, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Rubens RICUPERO; Chancery at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-2700; there are Brazilian
Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, and New
York, and Consulates in Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nacoes, Lote 3, Brasilia,
Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO AA 34030); telephone [55] (61)
321-7272; FAX [55] (61) 225-9136; there are US Consulates General in Rio de
Janeiro and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in PortoAlegre and Recife
Flag:
green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue celestial
globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each state) arranged in the
same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white equatorial
band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

:Brazil Economy

Overview:
The economy, with large agrarian, mining, and manufacturing sectors, entered
the 1990s with declining real growth, runaway inflation, an unserviceable
foreign debt of $122 billion, and a lack of policy direction. In addition,
the economy remained highly regulated, inward-looking, and protected by
substantial trade and investment barriers. Ownership of major industrial and
mining facilities is divided among private interests - including several
multinationals - and the government. Most large agricultural holdings are
private, with the government channeling financing to this sector. Conflicts
between large landholders and landless peasants have produced intermittent
violence. The Collor government, which assumed office in March 1990, is
embarked on an ambitious reform program that seeks to modernize and
reinvigorate the economy by stabilizing prices, deregulating the economy,
and opening it to increased foreign competition. The government in December
1991 signed a letter of intent with the IMF for a 20-month standby loan.
Having reached an agreement on the repayment of interest arrears accumulated
during 1989 and 1990, Brazilian officials and commercial bankers are engaged
in talks on the reduction of medium- and long-term debt and debt service
payments and on the elimination of remaining interest arrears. A major
long-run strength is Brazil's vast natural resources.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $358 billion, per capita $2,300; real growth rate
1.2% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
478.5% (December 1991, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
4.3% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $164.3 billion; expenditures $170.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $32.9 billion (1990)
Exports:
$31.6 billion (1991)
commodities:
iron ore, soybean bran, orange juice, footwear, coffee
partners:
EC 31%, US 24%, Latin America 11%, Japan 8% (1990)
Imports:
$21.0 billion (1991)
commodities:
crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs, coal
partners:
Middle East and Africa 22%, US 21%, EC 21%, Latin America 18%, Japan 6%
(1990)
External debt:
$118 billion (December 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate--0.5% (1991); accounts for 39% of GDP
Electricity:
58,500,000 kW capacity; 229,824 million kWh produced, 1,479 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron
ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital goods, tin
Agriculture:
world's largest producer and exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate
and second- largest exporter of soybeans; other products - rice, corn,
sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat

:Brazil Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for domestic consumption;
government has a modest eradication program to control cannabis and coca
cultivation; important transshipment country for Bolivian and Colombian
cocaine headed for the US and Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $2.5 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $10.2 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; former Communist countries (1970-89),
$1.3 billion
Currency:
cruzeiro (plural - cruzeiros); 1 cruzeiro (Cr$) = 100 centavos
Exchange rates:
cruzeiros (Cr$) per US$1 - 1,197.38 (January 1992), 406.61 (1991), 68.300
(1990), 2.834 (1989), 0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Brazil Communications

Railroads:
28,828 km total; 24,864 km 1.000-meter gauge, 3,877 km 1.600-meter gauge, 74
km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge, 13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,360 km
electrified
Highways:
1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel or earth
Inland waterways:
50,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,000 km; petroleum products 3,804 km; natural gas 1,095 km
Ports:
Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de
Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos
Merchant marine:
245 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,693,500 GRT/9,623,918 DWT; includes
3 passenger-cargo, 49 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 13 container, 9
roll-on/roll-off, 57 petroleum tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas,
14 combination ore/oil, 71 bulk, 2 combination bulk; in addition, 2 naval
tankers and 4 military transport are sometimes used commercially
Civil air:
198 major transport aircraft
Airports:
3,563 total, 2,911 usable; 420 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 22 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 550 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good system; extensive radio relay facilities; 9.86 million telephones;
broadcast stations - 1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151 shortwave; 3 coaxial
submarine cables, 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations and 64 domestic
satellite earth stations

:Brazil Defense Forces

Branches:
Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil (including Marines), Brazilian Air Force,
Military Police (paramilitary)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 41,515,103; 27,987,257 fit for military service; 1,644,571
reach military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.1 billion, 0.3% of GDP (1990)

:British Indian Ocean Territory Geography

Total area:
60 km2
Land area:
60 km2; includes the island of Diego Garcia
Comparative area:
about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
698 km
Maritime claims:
Territorial sea:
UK announced establishment of 200-nm fishery zone in August 1991
Disputes:
the entire Chagos Archipelago is claimed by Mauritius
Climate:
tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)
Natural resources:
coconuts, fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
archipelago of 2,300 islands
Note:
Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies strategic location
in central Indian Ocean; island is site of joint US-UK military facility

:British Indian Ocean Territory People

Population:
no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000 islanders
Ethnic divisions:
civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to Mauritius before
construction of UK and US defense facilities

:British Indian Ocean Territory Government

Long-form name:
British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form name); abbreviated BIOT
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
none
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952)
Head of Government:
Commissioner Mr. T. G. HARRIS; Administrator Mr. R. G. WELLS (since NA
1991); note - both reside in the UK
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
white with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and six blue
wavy horizontal stripes bearing a palm tree and yellow crown centered on the
outer half of the flag

:British Indian Ocean Territory Economy

Overview:
All economic activity is concentrated on the largest island of Diego Garcia,
where joint UK-US defense facilities are located. Construction projects and
various services needed to support the military installations are done by
military and contract employees from the UK and the US. There are no
industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.
Electricity:
provided by the US military

:British Indian Ocean Territory Communications

Highways:
short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on Diego Garcia
Ports:
Diego Garcia
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego Garcia
Telecommunications:
minimal facilities; broadcast stations (operated by US Navy) - 1 AM, 1 FM, 1
TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:British Indian Ocean Territory Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:British Virgin Islands Geography

Total area:
150 km2
Land area:
150 km2; includes the island of Anegada
Comparative area:
about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds
Terrain:
coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 33%; forest and
woodland 7%; other 33%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July to October
Note:
strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

:British Virgin Islands People

Population:
12,555 (July 1992), growth rate 1.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
20 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
20 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
71 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - British Virgin Islander(s); adjective - British Virgin Islander
Ethnic divisions:
over 90% black, remainder of white and Asian origin
Religions:
Protestant 86% (Methodist 45%, Anglican 21%, Church of God 7%, Seventh-Day
Adventist 5%, Baptist 4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 2%, other 2%), Roman Catholic
6%, none 2%, other 6% (1981)
Languages:
English (official)
Literacy:
98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970)
Labor force:
4,911 (1980)
Organized labor:
NA% of labor force

:British Virgin Islands Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Road Town
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
1 June 1977
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Territory Day, 1 July
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief minister, Executive Council (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor P. A.
PENFOLD (since NA 1991)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
United Party (UP), Conrad MADURO; Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity
STOUTT; Independent Progressive Movement (IPM), Cyril B. ROMNEY
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held 12 November 1990 (next to be held by November 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (9 total) VIP 6, IPM 1, independents 2
Member of:
CARICOM (associate), CDB, ECLAC (associate), IOC, OECS, UNESCO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of UK)
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the Virgin
Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat of
arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical column of six oil
lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

:British Virgin Islands Economy

Overview:
The economy, one of the most prosperous in the Caribbean area, is highly
dependent on the tourist industry, which generates about 21% of the national
income. In 1985 the government offered offshore registration to companies
wishing to incorporate in the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation
fees generated about $2 million in 1987. Livestock raising is the most
significant agricultural activity. The islands' crops, limited by poor
soils, are unable to meet food requirements.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $130 million, per capita $10,600; real growth
rate 6.3% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL%
Budget:
revenues $51 million; expenditures $88 million, including capital
expenditures of $38 million (1991)
Exports:
$2.7 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
rum, fresh fish, gravel, sand, fruits, animals
partners:
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
Imports:
$11.5 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
building materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery
partners:
Virgin Islands (US), Puerto Rico, US
External debt:
$4.5 million (1985)
Industrial production:
growth rate--4.0% (1985)
Electricity:
10,500 kW capacity; 43 million kWh produced, 3,510 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block, offshore
financial center
Agriculture:
livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:British Virgin Islands Communications

Highways:
106 km motorable roads (1983)
Ports:
Road Town
Airports:
3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone service; submarine cable
communication links to Bermuda; broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, 1 TV

:British Virgin Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Brunei Geography

Total area:
5,770 km2
Land area:
5,270 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Delaware
Land boundaries:
381 km; Malysia 381 km
Coastline:
161 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides the country; all of
the Spratly Islands are claimed by China, Taiwan, and Vietnam; parts of them
are claimed by Malaysia and the Philippines; in 1984, Brunei established an
exclusive fishing zone that encompasses Louisa Reef, but has not publicly
claimed the island
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid, rainy
Terrain:
flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland in west
Natural resources:
crude oil, natural gas, timber
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 79%; other 18%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare
Note:
close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking Indian and Pacific
Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost an enclave of
Malaysia

:Brunei People

Population:
269,319 (July 1992), growth rate 2.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
27 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
26 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bruneian(s); adjective - Bruneian
Ethnic divisions:
Malay 64%, Chinese 20%, other 16%
Religions:
Muslim (official) 63%, Buddhism 14%, Christian 8%, indigenous beliefs and
other 15% (1981)
Languages:
Malay (official), English, and Chinese
Literacy:
77% (male 85%, female 69%) age 15 and over can read and write (1981)
Labor force:
89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor force is foreign (1988);
government 47.5%; production of oil, natural gas, services, and construction
41.9%; agriculture, forestry, and fishing 3.8% (1986)
Organized labor:
2% of labor force

:Brunei Government

Long-form name:
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Type:
constitutional sultanate
Capital:
Bandar Seri Begawan
Administrative divisions:
4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular - daerah); Belait, Brunei and Muara,
Temburong, Tutong
Independence:
1 January 1984 (from UK)
Constitution:
29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended under a State of Emergency
since December 1962, others since independence on 1 January 1984)
Legal system:
based on Islamic law
National holiday:
23 February (1984)
Executive branch:
sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council (Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Sultan and Prime Minister His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji
HASSANAL Bolkiah Mu`izzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)
Political parties and leaders:
Brunei United National Party (inactive), Anak HASANUDDIN, chairman; Brunei
National Democratic Party (the first legal political party and now banned),
leader NA
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held in March 1962; in 1970 the Council was changed to an appointive
body by decree of the sultan and no elections are planned
Member of:
APEC, ASEAN, C, ESCAP, G-77, ICAO, IDB, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WHO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Mohamed KASSIM bin Haji Mohamed Daud; Chancery at 2600 Virginia
Avenue NW, Suite 3000, Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-0159
US:
Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Third Floor, Teck Guan Plaza, Jalan Sultan,
American Embassy Box B, APO AP 96440; telephone [673] (2) 229-670; FAX [673]
(2) 225-293
Flag:
yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width) and black
starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is
superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top
of a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by
two upraised hands

:Brunei Economy

Overview:
The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship,
government regulation and welfare measures, and village tradition. It is
almost totally supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with
revenues from the petroleum sector accounting for more than 50% of GDP. Per
capita GDP of $8,800 is among the highest in the Third World, and
substantial income from overseas investment supplements domestic production.
The government provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and
housing.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.5 billion, per capita $8,800; real growth rate
1% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.3% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
3.7%, shortage of skilled labor (1989)
Budget:
revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $255 million (1989 est.)
Exports:
$2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products
partners:
Japan 53%, UK 12%, South Korea 9%, Thailand 7%, Singapore 5% (1990)
Imports:
$1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, chemicals
partners:
Singapore 35%, UK 26%, Switzerland 9%, US 9%, Japan 5% (1990)
External debt:
none
Industrial production:
growth rate 12.9% (1987); accounts for 52.4% of GDP
Electricity:
310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced, 2,400 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
petroleum, petroleum refining, liquefied natural gas, construction
Agriculture:
imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops and livestock include
rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $153 million
Currency:
Bruneian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1 - 1.7454 (January 1991), 1.8125 (1990),
1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986); note - the
Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Brunei Communications

Railroads:
13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line
Highways:
1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another 52 km under
construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved
Inland waterways:
209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters
Pipelines:
crude oil 135 km; petroleum products 418 km; natural gas 920 km
Ports:
Kuala Belait, Muara
Merchant marine:
7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 348,476 GRT/340,635
DWT
Civil air:
4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200, 1 Boeing 737-200)
Airports:
2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway over
3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m
Telecommunications:
service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international
service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage good; 33,000
telephones (1987); broadcast stations - 4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio
receivers (1987); satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

:Brunei Defense Forces

Branches:
Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force, and Royal Brunei Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 75,330; 43,969 fit for military service; 2,595 reach military
age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $233.1 million, 7.1% of GDP (1988)

:Bulgaria Geography

Total area:
110,910 km2
Land area:
110,550 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Tennessee
Land boundaries:
1,881 km; Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and
Montenegro 318 km, Turkey 240 km
Coastline:
354 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Macedonia question with Greece and Macedonia
Climate:
temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south
Natural resources:
bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land
Land use:
arable land 34%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
woodland 35%; other 10%; includes irrigated 11%
Environment:
subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation; air pollution
Note:
strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from
Europe to Middle East and Asia

:Bulgaria People

Population:
8,869,161 (July 1992), growth rate --0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
13 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Bulgarian(s); adjective - Bulgarian
Ethnic divisions:
Bulgarian 85.3%, Turk 8.5%, Gypsy 2.6%, Macedonian 2.5%, Armenian 0.3%,
Russian 0.2%, other 0.6%
Religions:
Bulgarian Orthodox 85%; Muslim 13%; Jewish 0.8%; Roman Catholic 0.5%; Uniate
Catholic 0.2%; Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 0.5%
Languages:
Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown
Literacy:
93% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
4,300,000; industry 33%, agriculture 20%, other 47% (1987)
Organized labor:
Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Edinstvo
(Unity) People's Trade Union (splinter confederation from KNSB); Podkrepa
(Support) Labor Confederation, legally registered in January 1990

:Bulgaria Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Bulgaria
Type:
emerging democracy, diminishing Communist Party influence
Capital:
Sofia
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Burgas, Grad Sofiya, Khaskovo,
Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Sofiya, Varna
Independence:
22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)
Constitution:
adopted 12 July 1991
Legal system:
based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
3 March (1878)
Executive branch:
president, chairman of the Council of Ministers (premier), two deputy
chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranie)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Zhelyu ZHELEV (since 1 August 1990)
Head of Government:
Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Filip DIMITROV (since 8
November 1991); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Deputy Prime
Minister) Stoyan GANEV (since 8 November 1991); Deputy Chairman of the
Council of Ministers Nikolay VASILEV (since 8 November 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
government:
Union of Democratic Forces (UDF), Filip DIMITROV, chairman, consisting of
United Democratic Center, Democratic Party, Radical Democratic Party,
Christian Democratic Union, Alternative Social Liberal Party, Republican
Party, Civic Initiative Movement, Union of the Repressed, and about a dozen
other groups; Movement for Rights and Freedoms (pro-Muslim party) (MRF),
Ahmed DOGAN, chairman, supports UDF but not officially in coalition with it
opposition:
Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP),
Zhan VIDENOV, chairman
Suffrage:
universalandcompulsoryatage 18
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held 13 October 1991; results - BSP 33%, UDF 34%, MRF 7.5%; seats -
(240 total) BSP 106, UDF 110, Movement for Rights and Freedoms 24
President:
last held 12 January 1992; second round held 19 January 1992; results -
Zhelyu ZHELEV was elected by popular vote
Communists:
Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP), formerly Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP),
501,793 members; several small Communist parties

:Bulgaria Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Ecoglasnost; Podkrepa (Support) Labor Confederation; Fatherland Union;
Bulgarian Democratic Youth (formerly Communist Youth Union); Confederation
of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria (KNSB); Nationwide Committee for
Defense of National Interests; Peasant Youth League; Bulgarian Agrarian
National Union - United (BZNS); Bulgarian Democratic Center; "Nikola Petkov"
Bulgarian Agrarian National Union; Internal Macedonian Revolutionary
Organization - Union of Macedonian Societies (IMRO-UMS); numerous regional,
ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendas
Member of:
BIS, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IIB, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NACC, NSG, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ognyan PISHEV; Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC

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