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Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, Executive Council, chief minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented by Governor Michael
J. BRADLEY (since 1987)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Washington MISSIC (since NA 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Democratic Movement (PDM), Oswald SKIPPINGS; Progressive National
Party (PNP), Washington MISSIC; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel
MISSICK
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislative Council:
last held on 3 April 1991 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (20 total, 13 elected) PNP 8, PDM 5
Member of:
CDB
Diplomatic representation:
as a dependent territory of the UK, the interests of the Turks and Caicos
Islands are represented in the US by the UK
US:
none
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield is yellow
and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

:Turks and Caicos Islands Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore banking. Only
subsistence farming - corn and beans - exists on the Caicos Islands, so that
most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be imported.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth
rate NA% (1986)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
12% (1989)
Budget:
revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million, including capital
expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)
Exports:
$2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84)
commodities:
lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
partners:
US, UK
Imports:
$26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84)
commodities:
foodstuffs, drink, tobacco, clothing
partners:
US, UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
9,050 kW capacity; 11.1 million kWh produced, 1,140 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing, tourism, offshore financial services
Agriculture:
subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans; fishing more
important than farming; not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89),
$110 million
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Turks and Caicos Islands Communications

Highways:
121 km, including 24 km tarmac
Ports:
Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour
Civil air:
Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks Air Ltd. (cargo service)
Airports:
7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones; broadcast stations - 3 AM,
no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Turks and Caicos Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Tuvalu Geography

Total area:
26 km2
Land area:
26 km2
Comparative area:
about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
24 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to November); westerly
gales and heavy rain (November to March)
Terrain:
very low-lying and narrow coral atolls
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
severe tropical storms are rare
Note:
located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

:Tuvalu People

Population:
9,494 (July 1992), growth rate 1.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
61 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Tuvaluans(s); adjective - Tuvaluan
Ethnic divisions:
96% Polynesian
Religions:
Church of Tuvalu (Congregationalist) 97%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.4%, Baha'i
1%, other 0.6%
Languages:
Tuvaluan, English
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
none

:Tuvalu Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
democracy
Capital:
Funafuti
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)
Constitution:
1 October 1978
National holiday:
Independence Day, 1 October (1978)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament (Palamene)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General
Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October 1989); Deputy Prime
Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Parliament:
last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by NA September 1993); results
- percent of vote NA; seats - (12 total)
Member of:
ACP, C (special), ESCAP, SPC, SPF, UPU
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador (vacant)
US:
none
Flag:
light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the
outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow
five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

:Tuvalu Economy

Overview:
Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with poor soil.
The country has no known mineral resources and few exports. Subsistence
farming and fishing are the primary economic activities. The islands are too
small and too remote for development of a tourist industry. Government
revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and coins and worker
remittances. Substantial income is received annually from an international
trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New Zealand, and the UK and
supported also by Japan and South Korea.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate
NA% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.9% (1984)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $4.3 million; expenditures $4.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989)
Exports:
$1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.)
commodities:
copra
partners:
Fiji, Australia, NZ
Imports:
$2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.)
commodities:
food, animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods
partners:
Fiji, Australia, NZ
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA
Electricity:
2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced, 330 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing, tourism, copra
Agriculture:
coconuts, copra
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $101 million
Currency:
Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Tuvaluan dollar
($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3117 (March
1992), 1.2835 (1991), 1.2799 (1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267
(1987)
Fiscal year:
NA

:Tuvalu Communications

Highways:
8 km gravel
Ports:
Funafuti, Nukufetau
Merchant marine:
1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043 GRT/450 DWT
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - 1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones; 4,000 radios;
108 telephones

:Tuvalu Defense Forces

Branches:
Police Force
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GNP

:Uganda Geography

Total area:
236,040 km2
Land area:
199,710 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km,
Zaire 765 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June
to August); semiarid in northeast
Terrain:
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Natural resources:
copper, cobalt, limestone, salt
Land use:
arable land 23%; permanent crops 9%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and
woodland 30%; other 13%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion
Note:
landlocked

:Uganda People

Population:
19,386,104 (July 1992), growth rate 3.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
51 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
91 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
50 years male, 52 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ugandan(s); adjective - Ugandan
Ethnic divisions:
African 99%, European, Asian, Arab 1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, rest indigenous beliefs
Languages:
English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu and Nilotic
languages
Literacy:
48% (male 62%, female 35%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
4,500,000 (est.); 50% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
125,000 union members

:Uganda Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Uganda
Type:
republic
Capital:
Kampala
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern, Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda,
Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western
Independence:
9 October 1962 (from UK)
Constitution:
8 September 1967, in process of constitutional revision
Legal system:
government plans to restore system based on English common law and customary
law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Resistance Council
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since 29 January 1986); Vice
President Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since NA January 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister George Cosmas ADYEBO (since NA January 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - National Resistance Movement (NRM); note - the Uganda Patriotic
Movement (UPM), Ugandan People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and
Conservative Party (CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political
activities
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Resistance Council:
last held 11-28 February 1989 (next to be held by January 1995); results -
NRM was the only party; seats - (278 total, 210 indirectly elected) 210
members elected without party affiliation
Other political or pressure groups:
Uganda People's Front (UPF), Uganda People's Christian Democratic Army
(UPCDA), Ruwenzori Movement
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IGADD, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI; 5909 16th Street NW, Washington,
DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-7100 through 7102
US:
Ambassador Johnnie CARSON; Embassy at Parliament Avenue, Kampala (mailing
address is P. O. Box 7007, Kampala); telephone [256] (41) 259792, 259793,
259795

:Uganda Government

Flag:
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and
red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested
crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

:Uganda Economy

Overview:
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular
rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. The economy has
been devastated by widespread political instability, mismanagement, and
civil war since independence in 1962, keeping Uganda poor with a per capita
income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels of the early 1970s, as
does industrial production.) Agriculture is the most important sector of the
economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export
crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986 the government
has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency
reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing petroleum
prices, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially
aimed at dampening inflation, which was running at over 300% in 1987, and
boosting production and export earnings. During the period 1990-91, the
economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the
rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and
exports, and gradually improving domestic security.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $5.6 billion, per capita $300; real growth rate
4.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
35% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million, including capital
expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)
Exports:
$208 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
coffee 97%, cotton, tea
partners:
US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%
Imports:
$209 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
petroleum products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation
equipment, food
partners:
Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%
External debt:
$1.9 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.0% (1990); accounts for 5% of GDP
Electricity:
175,000 kW capacity; 315 million kWh produced, 15 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Agriculture:
mainly subsistence; accounts for 57% of GDP and over 80% of labor force;
cash crops - coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops - cassava, potatoes,
corn, millet, pulses; livestock products - beef, goat meat, milk, poultry;
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-89), $145 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.4 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $169
million

:Uganda Economy

Currency:
Ugandan shilling (plural - shillings); 1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1 - 1,031.3 (March 1992), 734.0 (1991),
428.85 (1990), 223.1 (1989), 106.1 (1988), 42.8 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Uganda Communications

Railroads:
1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track
Highways:
26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel, and
laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks
Inland waterways:
Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward; Victoria
Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at Jinja and Port Bell,
both on Lake Victoria
Merchant marine:
1 roll-on/roll-off (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,697 GRT
Civil air:
6 major transport aircraft
Airports:
35 total, 27 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways over
3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system with microwave and radio communications stations; broadcast
stations - 10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite communications ground stations - 1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

:Uganda Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, about 4,132,887; about 2,243,933 for military service
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Ukraine Geography

Total area:
603,700 km2
Land area:
603,700 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Texas
Land boundaries:
4,558 km total; Belarus 891 km, Czechoslovakia 90 km, Hungary 103 km,
Moldova 939 km, Poland 428 km, Romania (southwest) 169 km, Romania (west)
362 km, Russia 1,576 km
Coastline:
2,782 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental shelf:
NA meter depth
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
NA nm
Disputes:
potential border disputes with Moldova and Romania in northern Bukovina and
southern Odessa oblast
Climate:
temperate continental; subtropical only on the southern Crimean coast;
precipitation disproportionately distributed, highest in west and north,
lesser in east and southeast; winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to
cold farther inland; summers are warm across the greater part of the
country, hot in the south
Terrain:
most of Ukraine consists of fertile plains (steppes) and plateaux, mountains
being found only in the west (the Carpathians), and in the Crimean peninsula
in the extreme south
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, manganese, natural gas, oil, salt, sulphur, graphite,
titanium, magnesium, kaolin, nickel, mercury, timber
Land use:
56% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; 30% other; includes 3% irrigated
Environment:
air and water pollution, deforestation, radiation contamination around
Chernobyl nuclear plant
Note:
strategic position at the crossroads between Europe and Asia; second largest
country in Europe

:Ukraine People

Population:
51,940,426 (July 1992), growth rate 0.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
22 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ukrainian(s); adjective - Ukrainian
Ethnic divisions:
Ukrainian 73%, Russian 22%, Jewish 1%, other 4%
Religions:
Ukrainian Autonomous Orthodox, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox, Ukrainian
Catholic (Uniate), Protestant, Jewish
Languages:
Ukrainian, Russian, Romanian, Polish
Literacy:
NA%
Labor force:
25,277,000; industry and construction 41%, agriculture and forestry 19%,
health, education, and culture 18%, trade and distribution 8%, transport and
communication 7%, other 7% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Ukraine Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
republic
Capital:
Kiev (Kyyiv)
Administrative divisions:
24 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and 1 autonomous republic*
(avtomnaya respublika); Chernigov, Cherkassy, Chernovtsy, Dnepropetrovsk,
Donetsk, Ivano-Frankovsk, Khar'kov, Kherson, Khmel'nitskiy, Kiev,
Kirovograd, Krym (Simferopol')*, Lugansk, L'vov, Nikolayev, Odessa, Poltava,
Rovno, Sumy, Ternopol', Vinnitsa, Volyn' (Lutsk), Zakarpat (Uzhgorod),
Zaporozh'ye, Zhitomir; note - an oblast usually has the same name as its
administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name
following in parentheses)
Independence:
24 August 1991; 1 December 1991 de facto from USSR; note - formerly the
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in the Soviet Union
Constitution:
currently being drafted
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 August (1991)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Council
Judicial branch:
being organized
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Leonid M. KRAVCHUK (since 5 December 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Vitol'd FOKIN (since 14 November 1991); two First Deputy
Prime Ministers: Valentyn SYMONENKO and Konstantyn MASYK (since 21 May
1991); two Deputy Prime Ministers: Oleh SLEPICHEV and Viktor SYTNYK (since
21 May 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Ukrainian Republican Party, Levko LUKYANENKO, chairman; Green Party, Yuriy
SHCHERBAK, chairman; Social Democratic Party, Andriy NOSENKO, chairman;
Ukrainian Democratic Party, Yuriy BADZO, chairman; Democratic Rebirth Party,
Oleksandr Volodymyr GRINEV, Oleksandr FILENKO, YEMETS, Miroslav POPOVICH,
Sergei LYLYK, Oleksandr BAZYLYUK, Valeriy KHMELKO, leaders; People's Party
of Ukraine, Leopold TABURYANSKIY, chairman; Peasant Democratic Party, Jerhiy
PLACHYNDA, chairman; Ukrainian Socialist Party, Oleksandr MOROZ, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 1 December 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - Leonid
KRAVCHUK 61.59%, Vyacheslav CHERNOVIL 23.27%, Levko LUKYANENKO 4.49%,
Volodymyr GRINEV 4.17%, Iher YUKHNOVSKY 1.74%, Leopold TABURYANSKIY 0.57%
Supreme Council:
last held 4 March 1990 (next scheduled for 1995, may be held earlier in late
1992 or 1993); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (NA total)
number of seats by party NA

:Ukraine Government

Communists:
Communist Party of Ukraine was banned by decree of the Supreme Council on 30
August 1991
Other political or pressure groups:
Ukraninan People's Movement for Restructuring (RUKH)
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, CE, ECE, IAEA, IMF, INMARSAT, IOC, ITU, NACC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Oleh H. BILORUS; Embassy at 1828 L Street, NW, Suite 711,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 296-6960
US:
Ambassador Roman POPADIUK; Embassy at ;10 Vul. Yuriy Kotsubinskoho, Kiev
(mailing address is APO AE 09862); telephone (044) 244-7349; FAX (044)
244-7350
Flag:
two horizontal bars of equal size: azure (sky blue) top half, golden yellow
bottom half (represents grainfields under a blue sky)

:Ukraine Economy

Overview:
Because of its size, geographic location, Slavic population, and rich
resources, the loss of Ukraine was the final and most bitter blow to the
Soviet leaders wishing to preserve some semblance of the old political,
military, and economic power of the USSR. After Russia, the Ukrainian
republic was far and away the most important economic component of the
former Soviet Union producing more than three times the output of the
next-ranking republic. Its fertile black soil generated more than one fourth
of Soviet agricultural output, and its farms provided substantial quantities
of meat, milk, grain and vegetables to other republics. Likewise, its
well-developed and diversified heavy industry supplied equipment and raw
materials to industrial and mining sites in other regions of the USSR. In
early 1992 the continued wholesale disruption of economic ties and the lack
of an institutional structure necessary to formulate and implement economic
reforms preclude a near-term recovery of output.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate -10% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
83% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
not finalized as of May 1992
Exports:
$13.5 billion (1990)
commodities:
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, chemicals, machinery
and transport equipment, grain, meat
partners:
Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Imports:
$16.7 billion (1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles
partners:
none
*** No entry for this item ***
External debt:
$10.4 billion (end of 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -4.5% (1991)
Electricity:
NA kW capacity; 298,000 million kWh produced, 5,758 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
coal, electric power, ferrous and nonferrous metals, machinery and transport
equipment, chemicals, food-processing
Agriculture:
grain, vegetables, meat, milk
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
$NA

:Ukraine Economy

Currency:
as of August 1992 using ruble and Ukrainian coupons as legal tender; Ukraine
plans to withdraw the ruble from circulation and convert to a coupon-based
economy on 1 October 1992; Ukrainian officials claim this will be an interim
move toward introducing a Ukrainian currency - the hryvnya - possibly as
early as January 1993
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Ukraine Communications

Railroads:
22,800 km all 1.500-meter gauge; does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
273,700 km total (1990); 236,400 km hard surfaced, 37,300 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
maritime - Berdyansk, Il'ichevsk Kerch', Kherson, Mariupol' (formerly
Zhdanov), Nikolayev, Odessa, Sevastopol', Yuzhnoye; inland - Kiev
Merchant marine:
338 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,117,595 GRT/5,403,685 DWT; includes
221 cargo, 11 container, 9 barge carriers, 59 bulk cargo, 9 petroleum
tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 24 passenger
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
inheriting part of the former USSR system, Ukraine has about 7 million
telephone lines (13.5 telephones for each 100 persons); as of 31 January
1990, 3.56 million applications for telephones could not be satisfied;
international calls can be made via satellite, by landline to other CIS
countries, and through the Moscow international switching center; satellite
earth stations employ INTELSAT, INMARSAT, and Intersputnik

:Ukraine Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground Navy, Air, and Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:United Arab Emirates Geography

Total area:
83,600 km2
Land area:
83,600 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km, Qatar 20 km
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant line
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm (assumed), 12 nm for Ash Shariqah (Sharjah)
Disputes:
boundary with Qatar is unresolved; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia; no
defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line in far north;
claims two islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran (Jazireh-ye Tonb-e
Bozorg or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); claims
island in the Persian Gulf jointly administered with Iran (Jazireh-ye Abu
Musa or Abu Musa,)
Climate:
desert; cooler in eastern mountains
Terrain:
flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand dunes of vast desert
waste- land; mountains in east
Natural resources:
crude oil and natural gas
Land use:
arable land NEGL%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest
and woodland NEGL%; other 98%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural freshwater resources being
overcome by desalination plants; desertification
Note:
strategic location along southern approaches to Strait of Hormuz, a vital
transit point for world crude oil

:United Arab Emirates People

Population:
2,522,315 (July 1992), growth rate 5.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
3 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
27 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
23 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
70 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Emirian(s), adjective - Emirian
Ethnic divisions:
Emirian 19%, other Arab 23%, South Asian (fluctuating) 50%, other
expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians) 8%; less than 20% of the
population are UAE citizens (1982)
Religions:
Muslim 96% (Shi`a 16%); Christian, Hindu, and other 4%
Languages:
Arabic (official); Persian and English widely spoken in major cities; Hindi,
Urdu
Literacy:
68% (male 70%, female 63%) age 10 and over but definition of literacy not
available (1980)
Labor force:
580,000 (1986 est.); industry and commerce 85%, agriculture 5%, services 5%,
government 5%; 80% of labor force is foreign
Organized labor:
trade unions are illegal

:United Arab Emirates Government

Long-form name:
United Arab Emirates (no short-form name); abbreviated UAE
Type:
federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central government and
other powers reserved to member emirates
Capital:
Abu Dhabi
Administrative divisions:
7 emirates (imarat, singular - imarah); Abu Zaby (Abu Dhabi), `Ajman, Al
Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy, Ra's al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn
Independence:
2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)
Constitution:
2 December 1971 (provisional)
Legal system:
secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and in several
member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains influential
National holiday:
National Day, 2 December (1971)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers, prime minister, deputy
prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Federal National Council (Majlis Watani Itihad)
Judicial branch:
Union Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN, (since 2 December 1971),
ruler of Abu Dhabi; Vice President Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since
8 October 1990), ruler of Dubayy
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Shaykh Maktum bin Rashid al-MAKTUM (since 8 October 1990),
ruler of Dubayy; Deputy Prime Minister Sultan bin Zayid Al NUHAYYAN (since
20 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
none
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
none
Other political or pressure groups:
a few small clandestine groups may be active
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Muhammad bin Husayn Al SHAALI; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New
Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500
US:
Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street, Abu Dhabi
(mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone [971] (2) 336691,
afterhours 338730; FAX [971] (2) 318441; there is a US Consulate General in
Dubayy (Dubai)
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a thicker
vertical red band on the hoist side

:United Arab Emirates Economy

Overview:
The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's highest incomes per
capita outside the OECD nations. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and
the fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities.
Since 1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE has undergone a profound
transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to
a modern state with a high standard of living. At present levels of
production, crude oil reserves should last for over 100 years.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $33.7 billion, per capita $14,100 (1990); real
growth rate 11% (1989)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.5% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL (1988)
Budget:
revenues $3.8 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)
Exports:
$21.3 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
crude oil 65%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates
partners:
Japan 35%, Singapore 6%, US 4%, Korea 3%
Imports:
$11.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
food, consumer and capital goods
partners:
Japan 14%, UK 10%, US 9%, Germany 9%
External debt:
$11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)
Industrial production:
NA
Electricity:
5,800,000 kW capacity; 17,000 million kWh produced, 7,115 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction materials, some boat
building, handicrafts, pearling
Agriculture:
accounts for 2% of GDP and 5% of labor force; cash crop - dates; food
products - vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy, fish; only 25%
self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
donor - pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed countries
(1979-89)
Currency:
Emirian dirham (plural - dirhams); 1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils
Exchange rates:
Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1 - 3.6710 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:United Arab Emirates Communications

Highways:
2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded earth
Pipelines:
crude oil 830 km, natural gas, including natural gas liquids, 870 km
Ports:
Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina' Jabal `Ali, Mina' Khalid, Mina' Rashid,
Mina' Saqr, Mina' Zayid
Merchant marine:
55 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,033,866 GRT/1,772,646 DWT; includes
18 cargo, 8 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off, 20 petroleum tanker, 4 bulk, 1
refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier
Civil air:
10 major transport aircraft
Airports:
37 total, 34 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways over
3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate system of microwave and coaxial cable; key centers are Abu Dhabi
and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; broadcast stations - 8 AM, 3 FM, 12 TV;
satellite communications ground stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2
Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain,
India, and Pakistan; tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; microwave to Saudi
Arabia

:United Arab Emirates Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 974,288; 533,673 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.47 billion, 5.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

:United Kingdom Geography

Total area:
244,820 km2
Land area:
241,590 km2; includes Rockall and Shetland Islands
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
360 km; Ireland 360 km
Coastline:
12,429 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
as defined in continental shelf orders or in accordance with agreed upon
boundaries
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Northern Ireland question with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain;
Argentina claims Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South
Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego
Garcia in British Indian Ocean Territory; Rockall continental shelf dispute
involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have signed a
boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in Antarctica
(British Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over the North Atlantic
Current; more than half of the days are overcast
Terrain:
mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains in east and
southeast
Natural resources:
coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk,
gypsum, lead, silica
Land use:
arable land 29%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 48%; forest and
woodland 9%; other 14%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
pollution control measures improving air, water quality; because of heavily
indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from tidal waters
Note:
lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from France and now
being linked by tunnel under the English Channel

:United Kingdom People

Population:
57,797,514 (July 1992), growth rate 0.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective - British
Ethnic divisions:
English 81.5%, Scottish 9.6%, Irish 2.4%, Welsh 1.9%, Ulster 1.8%, West
Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other 2.8%
Religions:
Anglican 27.0 million, Roman Catholic 5.3 million, Presbyterian 2.0 million,
Methodist 760,000, Jewish 410,000
Languages:
English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form of Gaelic
(about 60,000 in Scotland)
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1978 est.)
Labor force:
26,177,000; services 60.6%, manufacturing and construction 27.2%, government
8.9%, energy 2.1%, agriculture 1.2% (June 1991)
Organized labor:
40% of labor force (1991)

:United Kingdom Government

Long-form name:
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; abbreviated UK
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
London
Administrative divisions:
47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties, 26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands
areas
England:
39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire, Buckingham,
Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon, Dorset,
Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater
Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle
of Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk,
Northampton, Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford,
Shropshire, Somerset, South Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and
Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*, West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire
Northern Ireland:
26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena, Ballymoney, Banbridge,
Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine, Cookstown, Craigavon, Down,
Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn, Londonderry, Magherafelt,
Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down, Omagh, Strabane
Scotland:
9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and Galloway, Fife,
Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde, Tayside,
Western Isles*
Wales:
8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys, South
Glamorgan, West Glamorgan
Independence:
1 January 1801, United Kingdom established
Constitution:
unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice
Dependent areas:
Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands,
Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Guernsey, Hong Kong, Jersey,
Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, South Georgia and
the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands
Legal system:
common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental influences; no
judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations
National holiday:
Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second Saturday in June)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or House of Lords and a
lower house or House of Commons
Judicial branch:
House of Lords
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES
(son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister John MAJOR (since 28 November 1990)

:United Kingdom Government

Political parties and leaders:
Conservative and Unionist Party, John MAJOR; Labor Party, John SMITH;
Liberal Democrats (LD), Jeremy (Paddy) ASHDOWN; Scottish National Party,
Alex SALMOND; Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru), Dafydd Iwan WIGLEY; Ulster
Unionist Party (Northern Ireland), James MOLYNEAUX; Democratic Unionist
Party (Northern Ireland), Rev. Ian PAISLEY; Ulster Popular Unionist Party
(Northern Ireland), James KILFEDDER; Social Democratic and Labor Party
(SDLP, Northern Ireland), John HUME; Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland), Gerry
ADAMS; Alliance Party (Northern Ireland), John ALDERDICE; Democratic Left,
Nina TEMPLE
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Commons:
last held 9 April 1992 (next to be held by NA April 1997); results -
Conservative 41.9%, Labor 34.5%, Liberal Democratic 17.9%, other 5.7%; seats
- (651 total) Conservative 336, Labor 271, Liberal Democratic 20, other 24
Communists:
15,961
Other political or pressure groups:
Trades Union Congress, Confederation of British Industry, National Farmers'
Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, C, CCC, CDB, CE, CERN, COCOM, CP, CSCE,
EBRD, EC, ECA (associate), ECE, ECLAC, EIB, ESCAP, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NATO, NEA, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UN
Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council, UPU, WCL, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Sir Robin RENWICK; Chancery at 3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-1340; there are British Consulates
General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Dallas, Miami, and Seattle
US:
Ambassador Raymond G. H. SEITZ; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square, London,
W.1A1AE, (mailing address is FPO AE 09498-4040); telephone [44] (71)
499-9000; FAX 409-1637; there are US Consulates General in Belfast and
Edinburgh
Flag:
blue with the red cross of Saint George (patron saint of England) edged in
white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of Saint Patrick (patron saint
of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of Saint
Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack;
the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a
number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and
others
Note:
Hong Kong is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China in
1997

:United Kingdom Economy

Overview:
The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and financial centers, and
its economy ranks among the four largest in Europe. The economy is
essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture of social welfare
programs and government ownership. Prime Minister MAJOR has continued the
basic thrust of THATCHER's efforts to halt the expansion of welfare measures
and promote extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European
standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor
force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing
about 27% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an
energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary
energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any
industrial nation. In mid-1990 the economy fell into recession after eight
years of strong economic expansion, which had raised national output by one
quarter. Britain's inflation rate, which has been consistently well above
those of her major trading partners, declined significantly in 1991. Between
1986 and 1990 unemployment fell from 11% to about 6%, but crept back up to
8% in 1991 because of the economic slowdown. As a major trading nation, the
UK will continue to be greatly affected by world boom or recession, swings
in the international oil market, productivity trends in domestic industry,
and the terms on which the economic integration of Europe proceeds.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $915.5 billion, per capita $15,900; real
growth rate -1.9% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
8.1% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $435 billion; expenditures $469 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$186.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods,
transport equipment
partners:
EC 53.2% (FRG 12.7%, France 10.5%, Netherlands 7.0%), US 12.4%
Imports:
$211.9 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer
goods
partners:
EC 52.2% (FRG 15.6%, France 9.3%, Netherlands 8.4%), US 11.5%
External debt:
$10.5 billion (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 0% (1991)
Electricity:
98,000,000 kW capacity; 316,500 million kWh produced, 5,520 kWh per capita
(1991)

:United Kingdom Economy

Industries:
production machinery including machine tools, electric power equipment,
equipment for the automation of production, railroad equipment,
shipbuilding, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, electronics and
communications equipment, metals, chemicals, coal, petroleum, paper and
paper products, food processing, textiles, clothing, and other consumer
goods
Agriculture:
accounts for only 1.5% of GDP and 1% of labor force; highly mechanized and
efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products produced;
about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of 665,000
metric tons (1987)
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $21.0 billion
Currency:
British pound or pound sterling (plural - pounds); 1 British pound (#) = 100
pence
Exchange rates:
British pounds (#) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April-31 March

:United Kingdom Communications

Railroads:
Great Britain - 16,629 km total; British Railways (BR) operates 16,629 km
1.435-meter (standard) gauge (4,205 km electrified and 12,591 km double or
multiple track); several additional small standard-gauge and narrow-gauge
lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland Railways (NIR)
operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, including 190 km double track
Highways:
UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved (including 2,573 km
limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland, 23,499 km (22,907 paved,
592 km gravel)
Inland waterways:
2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km; Port Authorities, 706 km;
other, 979 km
Pipelines:
crude oil (almost all insignificant) 933 km, petroleum products 2,993 km,
natural gas 12,800 km
Ports:
London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool, Dover, Sullom Voe,
Southampton
Merchant marine:
224 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,905,571 GRT/4,840,862 DWT; includes
7 passenger, 21 short-sea passenger, 37 cargo, 27 container, 14
roll-on/roll-off, 10 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar
carrier, 66 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 9 liquefied gas, 1
combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 26 bulk, 1 combination bulk
Civil air:
618 major transport aircraft
Airports:
498 total, 385 usable; 249 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 133 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
technologically advanced domestic and international system; 30,200,000
telephones; equal mix of buried cables, microwave and optical-fiber systems;
excellent countrywide broadcast systems; broadcast stations - 225 AM, 525
(mostly repeaters) FM, 207 (3,210 repeaters) TV; 40 coaxial submarine
cables; 5 satellite ground stations operating in INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean
and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT systems; at least 8 large
international switching centers

:United Kingdom Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Royal Navy (including Royal Marines), Royal Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 14,462,820; 12,122,497 fit for military service; no
conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $42 billion, 4.3% of GDP (FY91)

:United States Geography

Total area:
9,372,610 km2
Land area:
9,166,600 km2; includes only the 50 states and District of Colombia
Comparative area:
about three-tenths the size of Russia; about one-third the size of Africa;
about one-half the size of South America (or slightly larger than Brazil);
slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times the size of
Western Europe
Land boundaries:
12,248.1 km; Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km with Alaska), Mexico 3,326
km, Cuba (US naval base at Guantanamo) 29.1 km
Coastline:
19,924 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
not specified
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary disputes with Canada (Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait
of Juan de Fuca); US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only
mutual agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease;
Haiti claims Navassa Island; US has made no territorial claim in Antarctica
(but has reserved the right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of
any other nation; Marshall Islands claims Wake Island
Climate:
mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to arctic (Alaska); arid
to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry chinook wind
Terrain:
vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains in east;
rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic
topography in Hawaii
Natural resources:
coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium, bauxite, gold, iron,
mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc, crude oil, natural gas,
timber
Land use:
arable land 20%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 26%; forest and
woodland 29%; other 25%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
pollution control measures improving air and water quality; acid rain;
agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of sparse
natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes, and
earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in northern
Alaska is a major impediment to development
Note:
world's fourth-largest country (after Russia, Canada, and China)

:United States People

Population:
254,521,000 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
10 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - American(s); adjective - American
Ethnic divisions:
white 84.1%, black 12.4%, other 3.5% (1989)
Religions:
Protestant 56%, Roman Catholic 28%, Jewish 2%, other 4%, none 10% (1989)
Languages:
predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority
Literacy:
98% (male 97%, female 98%) age 25 and over having completed 5 or more years
of schooling (1989)
Labor force:
126,867,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed); civilian labor force
125,303,000 (1991)
Organized labor:
16,568,000 members; 16.1% of total wage and salary employment which was
102,786,000 (1991)

:United States Government

Long-form name:
United States of America; abbreviated US or USA
Type:
federal republic; strong democratic tradition
Capital:
Washington, DC
Administrative divisions:
50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia,
Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri,
Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York,
North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming
Independence:
4 July 1776 (from England)
Constitution:
17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789
Dependent areas:
American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island; Jarvis Island, Johnston
Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island, Northern Mariana
Islands, Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 July (1776)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or
House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE
(since 20 January 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Republican Party, Richard N. BOND, national committee chairman; Jeanie
AUSTIN, co-chairman; Democratic Party, Ronald H. BROWN, national committee
chairman; several other groups or parties of minor political significance
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
George BUSH (Republican Party) 53.37%, Michael DUKAKIS (Democratic Party)
45.67%, other 0.96%
Senate:
last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
Democratic Party 51%, Republican Party 47%, other 2%; seats - (100 total)
Democratic Party 56, Republican Party 44
House of Representatives:
last held 6 November 1990 (next to be held 3 November 1992); results -
Democratic Party 52%, Republican Party 44%, other 4%; seats - (435 total)
Democratic Party 267, Republican Party 167, Socialist 1

:United States Government

Communists:
Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus HALL, general
secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members), Jack BARNES,
national secretary
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, BIS, CCC, COCOM, CP, CSCE, EBRD,
ECE, ECLAC, FAO, ESCAP, G-2, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS, OECD, PCA, SPC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNRWA, UN Security Council, UN Trusteeship Council,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
US Representative to the UN, Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799
United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4050, after
hours (212) 415-4444; FAX (212) 415-4443
Flag:
thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing 50
small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset horizontal rows of
six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five stars; the 50 stars
represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13 original colonies;
known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis for a number
of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico
Note:
since 18 July 1947, the US has administered the Trust Territory of the
Pacific Islands, but recently entered into a new political relationship with
three of the four political units; the Northern Mariana Islands is a
Commonwealth in political union with the US (effective 3 November 1986);
Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with the US that was approved
by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has not been completed in
Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands; the Federated States of Micronesia signed a Compact
of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986); the Republic of
the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with the US
(effective 21 October 1986)

:United States Economy

Overview:
The US has the most powerful, diverse, and technologically advanced economy
in the world, with a per capita GDP of $22,470, the largest among major
industrial nations. The economy is market oriented with most decisions made
by private individuals and business firms and with government purchases of
goods and services made predominantly in the marketplace. In 1989 the
economy enjoyed its seventh successive year of substantial growth, the
longest in peacetime history. The expansion featured moderation in wage and
consumer price increases and a steady reduction in unemployment to 5.2% of
the labor force. In 1990, however, growth slowed to 1% because of a
combination of factors, such as the worldwide increase in interest rates,
Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August, the subsequent spurt in oil prices, and
a general decline in business and consumer confidence. In 1991 output failed
to recover, unemployment grew, and signs of recovery proved premature.
Ongoing problems for the 1990s include inadequate investment in economic
infrastructure, rapidly rising medical costs, and sizable budget and trade
deficits.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $5,673 billion, per capita $22,470; real
growth rate -0.7% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.2% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
6.6% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $1,054 billion; expenditures $1,323 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY91)
Exports:
$428.1 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
capital goods, automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer
goods, agricultural products
partners:
Western Europe 27.3%, Canada 22.1%, Japan 12.1% (1989)
Imports:
$499.4 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
crude and partly refined petroleum, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods,
industrial raw materials, food and beverages
partners:
Western Europe 21.5%, Japan 19.7%, Canada 18.8% (1989)
External debt:
NA
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.9% (1991)
Electricity:
776,550,000 kW capacity; 3,020,000 million kWh produced, 12,080 kWh per
capita (1990)
Industries:
leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified; petroleum, steel,
motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals, electronics, food
processing, consumer goods, fishing, lumber, mining
Agriculture:
accounts for 2% of GDP and 2.8% of labor force; favorable climate and soils
support a wide variety of crops and livestock production; world's second
largest producer and number one exporter of grain; surplus food producer;
fish catch of 5.0 million metric tons (1988)

:United States Economy

Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for domestic consumption with 1987 production
estimated at 3,500 metric tons or about 25% of the available marijuana;
ongoing eradication program aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not
reduced production
Economic aid:
donor - commitments, including ODA and OOF, (FY80-89), $115.7 billion
Currency:
United States dollar (plural - dollars); 1 United States dollar (US$) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
British pounds:
(#) per US$ - 0.5599 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603 (1990), 0.6099
(1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987)
Canadian dollars:
(Can$) per US$ - 1.1926 (March 1992), 1.1457 (1991), 1.1668 (1990), 1.1840
(1989), 1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987)
French francs:
(F) per US$ - 5.6397, (March 1992), 5.6421 (1991), 5.4453 (1990), 6.3801
(1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987)
Italian lire:
(Lit) per US$ - 1,248.4 (March 1992), 1,240.6 (1991), 1,198.1 (1990),
1.372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987)
Japanese yen:
(Y) per US$ - 132.70 (March 1992), 134.71 (1991), 144.79 (1990), 137.96
(1989), 128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987)
German deutsche marks:
(DM) per US$ - 1.6611 (March 1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157 (1990), 1.8800
(1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:United States Communications

Railroads:
270,312 km
Highways:
6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways
Inland waterways:
41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive of the Great Lakes (est.)
Pipelines:
petroleum 275,800 km, natural gas 305,300 km (1985)
Ports:
Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Cleveland,
Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville,
Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco,
Savannah, Seattle, Tampa, Wilmington
Merchant marine:
396 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 12,969 GRT/20,179 DWT; includes 3
passenger-cargo, 38 cargo, 25 bulk, 174 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 14
liquefied gas, 129 intermodal; in addition, there are 231 government-owned
vessels
Civil air:
8,252 commercial multiengine transport aircraft (weighing 9,000 kg and over)
including 6,036 jet, 831 turboprop, 1,382 piston (December 1989)
Airports:
14,177 total, 12,417 usable; 4,820 with permanent-surface runways; 63 with
runways over 3,659 m; 325 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2,524 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
182,558,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 4,892 AM, 5,200 FM (including
3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting), 7,296 TV (including 796
commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200 commercial cable);
495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV sets (1982); satellite
ground stations - 45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

:United States Defense Forces

Branches:
Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine Corps),
Department of the Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 66,458,000; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $323.5 billion, 5.7% of GNP (1991)

:Uruguay Geography

Total area:
176,220 km2
Land area:
173,620 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Washington State
Land boundaries:
1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km
Coastline:
660 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Territorial sea:
200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes:
short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two short sections
of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la Invernada area of
the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the Rio Quarai and the
Uruguay)
Climate:
warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown
Terrain:
mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland
Natural resources:
soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 78%; forest and
woodland 4%; other 10%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

:Uruguay People

Population:
3,141,533 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
10 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
23 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Uruguayan(s); adjective - Uruguayan
Ethnic divisions:
white 88%, mestizo 8%, black 4%
Religions:
Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends church regularly)
66%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 2%, nonprofessing or other 30%
Languages:
Spanish
Literacy:
96% (male 97%, female 96%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
1,355,000 (1991 est.); government 25%, manufacturing 19%, agriculture 11%,
commerce 12%, utilities, construction, transport, and communications 12%,
other services 21% (1988 est.)
Organized labor:
Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers' Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor
Federation

:Uruguay Government

Long-form name:
Oriental Republic of Uruguay
Type:
republic
Capital:
Montevideo
Administrative divisions:
19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Artigas, Canelones,
Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno, Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado,
Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro, Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano,
Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres
Independence:
25 August 1828 (from Brazil)
Constitution:
27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended 27 June 1973, new
constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980
Legal system:
based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 25 August (1828)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral General Assembly (Asamblea General) consists of an upper chamber
or Chamber of Senators (Camara de Senadores) and a lower chamber or Chamber
of Representatives (Camera de Representantes)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Luis Alberto LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo
AGUIRRE Ramirez (since 1 March 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
National (Blanco) Party, Carlos CAT; Colorado Party, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez;
Broad Front Coalition, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera - includes Communist Party led
by Jaime PEREZ and National Liberation Movement (MLN) or Tupamaros led by
Eleuterio FERNANDEZ Huidobro; New Space Coalition consists of the Party of
the Government of the People (PGP), Hugo BATALLA; Christian Democratic Party
(PDC), leader NA; and Civic Union, Humberto CIGANDA
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
Luis Alberto LACALLE Herrera (Blanco) 37%, Jorge BATLLE Ibanez (Colorado)
29%, Liber SEREGNI Mosquera (Broad Front) 20%
Chamber of Senators:
last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%; seats - (30 total)
Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2
Chamber of Representatives:
last held NA November 1989 (next to be held NA November 1994); results -
Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, other 1%; seats -
(99 total) number of seats by party NA
Communists:
50,000

:Uruguay Government

Member of:
AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO
(correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, PCA,
RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Eduardo MACGILLICUDDY; Chancery at 1918 F Street NW, Washington,
DC 20006; telephone (202) 331-1313 through 1316; there are Uruguayan
Consulates General in Los Angeles, Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in
New Orleans
US:
Ambassador Richard C. BROWN; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
(mailing address is APO AA 34035); telephone [598] (2) 23-60-61 or 48-77-77;
FAX [598] (2) 48-86-11
Flag:
nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating with
blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow
sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately
triangular and wavy

:Uruguay Economy

Overview:
The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of the early 1980s.
In 1988 real GDP grew by only 0.5% and in 1989 by 1.5%. The recovery was led
by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture alone
contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and
generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock,
particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In 1991,
domestic growth improved somewhat over 1990, but various government factors,
including concentration on the external sector, adverse weather conditions,
and greater attention to bringing down inflation and reducing the fiscal
deficit kept output from expanding rapidly. In a major step toward greater
regional economic cooperation, Uruguay joined Brazil, Argentina, and
Paraguay in forming the Southern Cone Common Market (Mercosur). President
LACALLE continues to press ahead with a broad economic reform plan to reduce
state intervention in the economy, but he faces strong opposition.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $9.1 billion, per capita $2,935; real growth rate
2.3% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
60% (1992 est.)
Unemployment rate:
8.5% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $165 million (1988)
Exports:
$1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
hides and leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%
partners:
Brazil, US, Argentina, Germany
Imports:
$1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
fuels and lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment,
industrial chemicals
partners:
Brazil 23%, Argentina 17%, US 10%, EC 27.1% (1990)
External debt:
$4.2 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -1.4% (1990), accounts for almost 25% of GDP
Electricity:
2,065,000 kW capacity; 5,677 million kWh produced, 1,819 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear, leather apparel,
tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine
Agriculture:
large areas devoted to livestock grazing; wheat, rice, corn, sorghum;
self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $420 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $69 million
Currency:
new Uruguayan peso (plural - pesos); 1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100
centesimos

:Uruguay Economy

Exchange rates:
new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1 - 2,732.8 (March 1992), 2,018.8 (1991),
1,171.0 (1990), 605.5 (1989), 359.4 (1988), 226.7 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Uruguay Communications

Railroads:
3,000 km, all 1.435-meter (standard) gauge and government owned
Highways:
49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km earth
Inland waterways:
1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft
Ports:
Montevideo, Punta del Este
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 56,737 GRT/104,143 DWT; includes 1
cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
90 total, 83 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo; new nationwide microwave
network; 337,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 99 AM, no FM, 26 TV, 9
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Uruguay Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Naval Air Arm, Coast Guard, and Marines), Air Force,
Grenadier Guards, Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 745,728; 605,392 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $168 million, 2.2% of GDP (1988)

:Uzbekistan Geography

Total area:
447,400 km2
Land area:
425,400 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
6,221 km total; Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099
km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Coastline:
0 km
note:
Uzbekistan does border the Aral Sea (420 km)
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
mostly mid latitude desert; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain:
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; Fergana valley in east
surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in
west
Natural resources:
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc,
tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical
pesticides and natural salts
Note:
landlocked

:Uzbekistan People

Population:
21,626,784 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
34 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-2 migrants/1,000 population (1992); note - 179,000 persons left Uzbekistan
in 1990

Book of the day: