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1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing vessels with drafts
ranging up to 7 m can navigate many of the principal waterways
Ports:
Paramaribo, Moengo
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT; includes 2 cargo,
1 container
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
46 total, 40 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
international facilities good; domestic microwave system; 27,500 telephones;
broadcast stations - 5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

:Suriname Defense Forces

Branches:
National Army (including Navy which is company-size, small Air Force
element), Civil Police, People's Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 109,551; 65,250 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Svalbard Geography

Total area:
62,049 km2
Land area:
62,049 km2; includes Spitsbergen and Bjornoya (Bear Island)
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
3,587 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway, not recognized by Russia
Territorial sea:
4 nm
Disputes:
focus of maritime boundary dispute in the Barents Sea between Norway and
Russia
Climate:
arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current; cool summers, cold winters;
North Atlantic Current flows along west and north coasts of Spitsbergen,
keeping water open and navigable most of the year
Terrain:
wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered; west coast clear of
ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts
Natural resources:
coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%; there are no trees and the only bushes are
crowberry and cloudberry
Environment:
great calving glaciers descend to the sea
Note:
located 445 km north of Norway where the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea,
Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet

:Svalbard People

Population:
3,181 (July 1992), growth rate -3.9% (1992); about one-third of the
population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen and Svea on
Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Russian areas (Barentsburg and
Pyramiden on Vestspitsbergen); about 9 persons live at the Polish research
station
Birth rate:
NA births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
NA deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NA migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
NA deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
NA years male, NA years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
NA children born/woman (1992)
Ethnic divisions:
Russian 64%, Norwegian 35%, other 1% (1981)
Languages:
Russian, Norwegian
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA
Organized labor:
none

:Svalbard Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo, through
a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty (9
February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway
Capital:
Longyearbyen
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991)
Head of Government:
Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)
Member of:
none
Flag:
the flag of Norway is used

:Svalbard Economy

Overview:
Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By treaty (9
February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights to
exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK,
Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies
still mining are Norwegian and Russian. The settlements on Svalbard are
essentially company towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs
nearly 60% of the Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local
services, and provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some
trapping of seal, polar bear, fox, and walrus.
Budget:
revenues $13.3 million, expenditures $13.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Electricity:
21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced, 11,420 kWh per capita (1989)
Currency:
Norwegian krone (plural - kroner); 1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1 - 6.5189 (March 1992), 6.4829 (1991), 6.2597
(1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987)

:Svalbard Communications

Ports:
limited facilities - Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay
Airports:
4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
5 meteorological/radio stations; local telephone service; broadcast stations
- 1 AM, 1 (2 repeaters) FM, 1 TV; satellite communication with Norwegian
mainland

:Svalbard Defense Forces

Note:
demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)

:Swaziland Geography

Total area:
17,360 km2
Land area:
17,200 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:
535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain:
mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Natural resources:
asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and
diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use:
arable land 8%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 67%; forest and
woodland 6%; other 19%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
Note:
landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

:Swaziland People

Population:
913,008 (July 1992), growth rate 2.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
12 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-6 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
98 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
52 years male, 60 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Swazi(s); adjective - Swazi
Ethnic divisions:
African 97%, European 3%
Religions:
Christian 60%, indigenous beliefs 40%
Languages:
English and siSwati (official); government business conducted in English
Literacy:
55% (male 57%, female 54%) age 15 and over can read and write (1976)
Labor force:
195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture; about 92,000 wage
earners (many only intermittently), with agriculture and forestry 36%,
community and social services 20%, manufacturing 14%, construction 9%, other
21%; 16,800 employed in South Africa mines (1990)
Organized labor:
about 10% of wage earners

:Swaziland Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Swaziland
Type:
monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth
Capital:
Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)
Administrative divisions:
4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence:
6 September 1968 (from UK)
Constitution:
none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on 12 April 1973; a new
constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not been formally
presented to the people
Legal system:
based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts, Swazi
traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament is advisory and consists of an upper house or Senate
and a lower house or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Obed DLAMINI (since 12 July 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on 13 October 1978
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
indirect parliamentary election through Swaziland's Tinkhundala System
scheduled for November 1992
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, PCA, SACU, SADCC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA; Chancery at 3400 International Drive NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 362-6683
US:
Ambassador Stephen H. ROGERS; Embassy at Central Bank Building, Warner
Street, Mbabane (mailing address is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane); telephone [268]
46441 through 5; FAX [268] 45959
Flag:
three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red
band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and white
shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels, all
placed horizontally

:Swaziland Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies most of the
labor force and contributes nearly 25% to GDP. Manufacturing, which includes
a number of agroprocessing factories, accounts for another quarter of GDP.
Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore
deposits were depleted in 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for
asbestos. Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of
hard currency. Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with
Mozambique, Swaziland is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it
receives 75% of its imports and to which it sends about half of its exports.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $563 million, per capita $725; real growth rate
5.0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
13% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $335.4 million; expenditures $360.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY93 est.)
Exports:
$557 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, citrus, canned fruit
partners:
South Africa 50% (est.), EC, Canada
Imports:
$632 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, petroleum products,
foodstuffs, chemicals
partners:
South Africa 75% (est.), Japan, Belgium, UK
External debt:
$290 million (1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA; accounts for 26% of GDP (1989)
Electricity:
60,000 kW capacity; 155 million kWh produced, 180 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar
Agriculture:
accounts for 23% of GDP and over 60% of labor force; mostly subsistence
agriculture; cash crops - sugarcane, cotton, maize, tobacco, rice, citrus
fruit, pineapples; other crops and livestock - corn, sorghum, peanuts,
cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $142 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $518 million
Currency:
lilangeni (plural - emalangeni); 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
emalangeni (E) per US$1 - 2.7814 (January 1992), 2.7563 (1991), 2.5863
(1990), 2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987); note - the Swazi
emalangeni is at par with the South African rand
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Swaziland Communications

Railroads:
297 km (plus 71 km disused), 1.067-meter gauge, single track
Highways:
2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil, and 1,113 km improved earth
Civil air:
4 major transport aircraft
Airports:
23 total, 21 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines and low-capacity
microwave links; 17,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 7 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Swaziland Defense Forces

Branches:
Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 197,654; 114,204 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $11 million, about 2% of GNP (1989)

:Sweden Geography

Total area:
449,964 km2
Land area:
410,928 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than California
Land boundaries:
2,205 km total; Finland 586 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline:
3,218 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy
summers; subarctic in north
Terrain:
mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Natural resources:
zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber, uranium, hydropower potential
Land use:
arable land 7%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 2%; forest and
woodland 64%; other 27%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
water pollution; acid rain
Note:
strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

:Sweden People

Population:
8,602,157 (July 1992), growth rate 0.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
13 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
2 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Swede(s); adjective - Swedish
Ethnic divisions:
homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority; foreign born or
first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks,
Turks) about 12%
Religions:
Evangelical Lutheran 94%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Pentecostal 1%, other 3.5%
(1987)
Languages:
Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants speak
native languages
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1979 est.)
Labor force:
4,552,000 community, social and personal services 38.3%, mining and
manufacturing 21.2%, commerce, hotels, and restaurants 14.1%, banking,
insurance 9.0%, communications 7.2%, construction 7.0%, agriculture,
fishing, and forestry 3.2% (1991)
Organized labor:
80% of labor force (1990 est.)

:Sweden Government

Long-form name:
Kingdom of Sweden
Type:
constitutional monarchy
Capital:
Stockholm
Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (lan, singular and plural); Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan,
Gavleborgs Lan, Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan,
Jamtlands Lan, Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads
Lan, Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan,
Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan, Stockholms Lan,
Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan, Vasternorrlands Lan,
Vastmanlands Lan
Independence:
6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established
Constitution:
1 January 1975
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June
Executive branch:
monarch, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral parliament (Riksdag)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess
VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the King (born 14 July 1977)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Carl BILDT (since 3 October 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling four-party coalition consists of the Moderate Party (conservative),
Carl BILDT; Liberal People's Party, Bengt WESTERBERG; Center Party, Olof
JOHANSSON; and the Christian Democratic Party, Alf SVENSSON; Social
Democratic Party, Ingvar CARLSSON; New Democracy Party, Count Ian
WACHTMEISTER; Left Party (VP; Communist), Lars WERNER; Swedish Communist
Party (SKP), Rune PETTERSSON; Communist Workers' Party, Rolf HAGEL; Green
Party, no formal leader
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Riksdag:
last held 15 September 1991 (next to be held NA September 1994); results -
Social Democratic Party 37.6%, Moderate Party (conservative) 21.9%, Liberal
People's Party 9.1%, Center Party 8.5%, Christian Democrats 7.1%, New
Democracy 6.7%, Left Party (Communist) 4.5%, Green Party 3.4%, other 1.2%;
seats - (349 total) Social Democratic 138, Moderate Party (conservative) 80,
Liberal People's Party 33, Center Party 31, Christian Democrats 26, New
Democracy 25, Left Party (Communist) 16; note - the Green Party has no seats
in the Riksdag because it received less than the required 4% of the vote
Communists:
VP and SKP; VP, formerly the Left Party-Communists, is reported to have
roughly 17,800 members and attracted 5.8% of the vote in the 1988 election;
VP dropped the Communist label in 1990, but maintains a Marxist ideology

:Sweden Government

Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer) AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA,
FAO, G-6, G-8, G-9, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IOC, IOM
(observer), ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest), NC, NEA, NIB, OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20037; telephone (202) 944-5600; there are Swedish
Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York
US:
Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101, S-115 89
Stockholm; telephone [46] (8) 783-5300; FAX [46] (8) 661-1964
Flag:
blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the vertical
part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog
(Danish flag)

:Sweden Economy

Overview:
Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during World War I through
World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a
mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has
essentially full employment, a modern distribution system, excellent
internal and external communications, and a skilled labor force. Timber,
hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy that is
heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for
about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for
50% of output and exports. In the last few years, however, this
extraordinarily favorable picture has been clouded by inflation, growing
absenteeism, and a gradual loss of competitiveness in international markets.
The new center-right government, facing a sagging economic situation which
is unlikely to improve until 1993, is pushing full steam ahead with economic
reform proposals to end Sweden's recession and to prepare for possible EC
membership in 1995. The free-market-oriented reforms are designed to spur
growth, maintain price stability, lower unemployment, create a more
efficient welfare state, and further adapt to EC standards. The measures
include: cutting taxes, particularly the value-added tax (VAT) and levies on
new and small business; privatization; liberalizing foreign ownership
restrictions; and opening the welfare system to competition and private
alternatives, which the government will still finance. Growth is expected to
remain flat in 1992, but increase slightly in 1993, while inflation should
remain around 3% for the next few years. On the down side, unemployment may
climb to slightly over 4% in 1993, and the budget deficit will reach nearly
$9 billion in 1992.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $147.6 billion, per capita $17,200; real
growth rate -1.1% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8.0% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
2.7% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $67.5 billion; expenditures $78.7 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY92 est.)
Exports:
$54.5 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel
products, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products
partners:
EC, (FRG, UK, Denmark), US, Norway
Imports:
$50.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles,
foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing
partners:
EC 55.3%, US 8.4% (1990)
External debt:
$10.7 billion (November 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5.3% (1991)
Electricity:
39,716,000 kW capacity; 142,000 million kWh produced, 16,700 kWh per capita
(1991)

:Sweden Economy

Industries:
iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts,
armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products accounting for
37% of farm income; main crops - grains, sugar beets, potatoes; 100%
self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.3 billion
Currency:
Swedish krona (plural - kronor); 1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore
Exchange rates:
Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1 - 6.0259 (March 1992), 6.0475 (1991) 5.9188
(1990), 6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Sweden Communications

Railroads:
12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ) - 10,819 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double track; 182 km
0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately owned railways - 511
km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified); 371 km 0.891-meter gauge
(all electrified)
Highways:
97,400 km (51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km unimproved earth)
Inland waterways:
2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges
Pipelines:
natural gas 84 km
Ports:
Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo, Stockholm; numerous
secondary and minor ports
Merchant marine:
186 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,665,902 GRT/3,646,165 DWT; includes
10 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 43 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 12
vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 33 petroleum tanker, 28 chemical tanker,
4 specialized tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 7 combination ore/oil, 12 bulk, 1
combination bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo
Civil air:
115 major transports
Airports:
254 total, 252 usable; 139 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 94 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic and international facilities; 8,200,000 telephones;
mainly coaxial and multiconductor cables carry long-distance network;
parallel microwave network carries primarily radio, TV and some telephone
channels; automatic system; broadcast stations - 5 AM, 360 (mostly
repeaters) FM, 880 (mostly repeaters) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 EUTELSAT

:Sweden Defense Forces

Branches:
Swedish Army, Swedish Navy, Swedish Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,129,996; 1,858,944 fit for military service; 57,492 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $6.2 billion, about 4% of GDP (FY91)

:Switzerland Geography

Total area:
41,290 km2
Land area:
39,770 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey
Land boundaries:
1,852 km total; Austria 164 km, France 573 km, Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein
41 km, Germany 334 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy winters; cool
to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a central plateau
of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes
Natural resources:
hydropower potential, timber, salt
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and
woodland 26%; other 23%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
dominated by Alps
Note:
landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe

:Switzerland People

Population:
6,828,023 (July 1992), growth rate 0.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
76 years male, 83 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Swiss (singular and plural); adjective - Swiss
Ethnic divisions:
total population - German 65%, French 18%, Italian 10%, Romansch 1%, other
6%; Swiss nationals - German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other
1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 47.6%, Protestant 44.3%, other 8.1% (1980)
Languages:
total population - German 65%, French 18%, Italian 12%, Romansch 1%, other
4%; Swiss nationals - German 74%, French 20%, Italian 4%, Romansch 1%, other
1%
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
3,310,000; 904,095 foreign workers, mostly Italian; services 50%, industry
and crafts 33%, government 10%, agriculture and forestry 6%, other 1% (1989)
Organized labor:
20% of labor force

:Switzerland Government

Long-form name:
Swiss Confederation
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Bern
Administrative divisions:
26 cantons (cantons, singular - canton in French; cantoni, singular -
cantone in Italian; kantone, singular - kanton in German); Aargau,
Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve,
Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden,
Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino,
Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich
Independence:
1 August 1291
Constitution:
29 May 1874
Legal system:
civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative
acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general obligatory
character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation, 1 August (1291)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Federal Council (German - Bundesrat, French -
Conseil Federal, Italian - Consiglio Federale)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (German - Bundesversammlung, French - Assemblee
Federale, Italian - Assemblea Federale) consists of an upper council or
Council of States (German - Standerat, French - Conseil des Etats, Italian -
Consiglio degli Stati) and a lower council or National Council (German -
Nationalrat, French - Conseil National, Italian - Consiglio Nazionale)
Judicial branch:
Federal Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Rene FELBER (1992 calendar year; presidency rotates annually);
Vice President Adolf OGI (term runs concurrently with that of president)
Political parties and leaders:
Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno HUNZIKER, president; Social Democratic
Party (SPS), Helmut HUBACHER, chairman; Christian Democratic People's Party
(CVP), Eva SEGMULLER-WEBER, chairman; Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans
UHLMANN, president; Green Party (GPS), Peter SCHMID, president; Automobile
Party (AP), DREYER; Alliance of Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz JAEGER,
president; Swiss Democratic Party (SD), NA; Evangelical People's Party
(EVP), Max DUNKI, president; Workers' Party (PdA; Communist), Jean
SPIELMANN, general secretary; Ticino League, leader NA Liberal Party (LPS),
Gilbert COUTAU, president
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Council of States:
last held throughout 1991 (next to be held NA 1995); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (46 total) FDP 18, CVP 16, SVP 4, SPS 3, LPS 3,
LdU 1, Ticino League 1

:Switzerland Government

National Council:
last held 20 October 1991 (next to be held NA October 1995); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (200 total) FDP 44, SPS 42, CVP 37, SVP
25, GPS 14, LPS 10, AP 8, LdU 6, SD 5, EVP 3, PdA 2, Ticino League 2, other
2
Communists:
4,500 members (est.)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA,
FAO, G-8, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IEA, IFAD, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM (guest),
NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO,
UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER; Chancery at 2900 Cathedral Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-7900; there are Swiss Consulates
General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San
Francisco
US:
Ambassador Joseph B. GILDENHORN; Embassy at Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern;
telephone [41] (31) 437-011; FAX [41] (31) 437-344; there is a Branch Office
of the Embassy in Geneva and a Consulate General in Zurich
Flag:
red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that does not
extend to the edges of the flag

:Switzerland Economy

Overview:
Switzerland's economic success is matched in few other nations. Per capita
output, general living standards, education and science, health care, and
diet are unsurpassed in Europe. Economic stability helps promote the
important banking and tourist sectors. Since World War II, Switzerland's
economy has adjusted smoothly to the great changes in output and trade
patterns in Europe and presumably can adjust to the challenges of the 1990s,
particularly to the further economic integration of Western Europe and the
amazingly rapid changes in East European political and economic prospects.
After 8 years of growth, the economy experienced a mild recession in 1991
because monetary policy was tightened to combat inflation and because of the
weak international economy. In the second half of 1992, however, Switzerland
is expected to resume growth, despite inflation and unemployment problems.
GDP growth for 1992 may be just under 1%, inflation should drop from 5.9% to
3.5%, and the trade deficit will continue to decline after dropping by over
15% to $5 billion, due to increased exports to Germany. Unemployment,
however, is forecast to rise to 1.6% in 1992, up from 1.3% in 1991 and 0.5%
in 1990.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $147.4 billion, per capita $21,700; real
growth rate -0.2% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.9% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
1.3% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $24.0 billion; expenditures $23.8 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$62.2 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs,
textiles and clothing
partners:
Western Europe 64% (EC 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%
Imports:
$68.5 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
agricultural products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
textiles, construction materials
partners:
Western Europe 78% (EC 71%, other 7%), US 6%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 0.4% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
17,710,000 kW capacity; 59,070 million kWh produced, 8,930 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments
Agriculture:
dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient; food shortages -
fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains, eggs,
fruits, vegetables, meat
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $3.5 billion

:Switzerland Economy

Currency:
Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural - francs, franken, or franchi); 1
Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or centesimi
Exchange rates:
Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1 - 1.4037 (January 1992),
1.4340 (1991), 1.3892 (1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Switzerland Communications

Railroads:
5,174 km total; 2,971 km are government owned and 2,203 km are nongovernment
owned; the government network consists of 2,897 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99%
electrified; the nongovernment network consists of 710 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 1,418 km 1.000-meter gauge, and 75 km 0.790-meter gauge
track, 100% electrified
Highways:
62,145 km total (all paved), of which 18,620 km are canton and 1,057 km are
national highways (740 km autobahn); 42,468 km are communal roads
Inland waterways:
65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen to Bodensee); 12 navigable
lakes
Pipelines:
crude oil 314 km, natural gas 1,506 km
Ports:
Basel (river port)
Merchant marine:
22 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 325,234 GRT/576,953 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 chemical tanker, 2 specialized tanker, 9
bulk, 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
89 major transport aircraft
Airports:
66 total, 65 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways over
3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
excellent domestic, international, and broadcast services; 5,890,000
telephones; extensive cable and microwave networks; broadcast stations - 7
AM, 265 FM, 18 (1,322 repeaters) TV; communications satellite earth station
operating in the INTELSAT (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean) system

:Switzerland Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Frontier Guards, Fortification Guards
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,798,632; 1,544,191 fit for military service; 43,952 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $4.6 billion, about 2% of GDP (1990)

:Syria Geography

Total area:
185,180 km2
Land area:
184,050 km2 (including 1,295 km2 of Israeli-occupied territory)
Comparative area:
slightly larger than North Dakota
Land boundaries:
2,253 km total; Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km,
Turkey 822 km
Coastline:
193 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
6 nm beyond territorial sea limit
Territorial sea:
35 nm
Disputes:
separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights is Israeli
occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with Iraq over
Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Climate:
mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild, rainy
winters (December to February) along coast
Terrain:
primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain; mountains in
west
Natural resources:
crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores, asphalt, iron ore, rock
salt, marble, gypsum
Land use:
arable land 28%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 46%; forest and
woodland 3%; other 20%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Note:
there are 38 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

:Syria People

Population:
13,730,436 (July 1992), growth rate 3.8% (1992); in addition, there are at
least 14,500 Druze and 14,000 Jewish settlers in the Israeli-occupied Golan
Heights (1992 est.)
Birth rate:
44 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
45 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 67 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Syrian(s); adjective - Syrian
Ethnic divisions:
Arab 90.3%; Kurds, Armenians, and other 9.7%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim 74%, Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects 16%, Christian
(various sects) 10%, tiny Jewish communities in Damascus, Al Qamishli, and
Aleppo
Languages:
Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic, Circassian; French widely
understood
Literacy:
64% (male 78%, female 51%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,400,000; miscellaneous and government services 36%, agriculture 32%,
industry and construction 32%; majority unskilled; shortage of skilled labor
(1984)
Organized labor:
5% of labor force

:Syria Government

Long-form name:
Syrian Arab Republic
Type:
republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963
Capital:
Damascus
Administrative divisions:
14 provinces (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah,
Al Qunaytirah, Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda', Dar`a, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab,
Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Rif Dimashq, Tartus
Independence:
17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration);
formerly United Arab Republic
Constitution:
13 March 1973
Legal system:
based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious courts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 17 April (1946)
Executive branch:
president, three vice presidents, prime minister, three deputy prime
ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral People's Council (Majlis al-Chaab)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial Council, Court of Cassation,
State Security Courts
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Hafiz al-ASAD (since 22 February 1971); Vice Presidents `Abd
al-Halim KHADDAM, Vice President Rif`at al-ASAD, and Vice President Muhammad
Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Mahmud ZU`BI (since 1 November 1987); Deputy Prime Minister
Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984); Deputy Prime Minister Salim
YASIN (since NA December 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Mahmud QADDUR (since
NA May 1985)
Political parties and leaders:
ruling party is the Arab Socialist Resurrectionist (Ba`th) Party; the
Progressive National Front is dominated by Ba`thists but includes
independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist Party (ASP), Arab
Socialist Union (ASU), Syrian Communist Party (SCP), Arab Socialist Unionist
Movement, and Democratic Socialist Union Party
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 2 December 1991 (next to be held December 1998); results -
President Hafiz al-ASAD was reelected for a fourth seven-year term with
99.98% of the vote
People's Council:
last held 22-23 May 1990 (next to be held NA May 1994); results - Ba`th
53.6%, ASU 3.2%, SCP 3.2%, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 2.8%, ASP 2%,
Democratic Socialist Union Party 1.6%, independents 33.6%; seats - (250
total) Ba`th 134, ASU 8, SCP 8, Arab Socialist Unionist Movement 7, ASP 5,
Democratic Socialist Union Party 4, independents 84; note - the People's
Council was expanded to 250 seats total prior to the May 1990 election

:Syria Government

Communists:
Syrian Communist Party (SCP)
Other political or pressure groups:
non-Ba`th parties have little effective political influence; Communist party
ineffective; conservative religious leaders; Muslim Brotherhood
Member of:
ABEDA, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ESCWA, FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Walid MOUALEM; Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC
20008; telephone (202) 232-6313
US:
Ambassador Christopher W. S. ROSS; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh, Al Mansur Street
No. 2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29, Damascus); telephone [963]
(11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315, 714108, 337178, 333232; FAX
[963] (11) 718-687
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two small
green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band and of Iraq,
which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal
line centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which
has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

:Syria Economy

Overview:
Syria's state-dominated Ba`thist economy has benefited from the Gulf war,
increased oil production, good weather, and economic deregulation. Economic
growth averaged nearly 12% annually in 1990-91, buoyed by increased oil
production and improved agricultural performance. The Gulf war of early 1991
provided Syria an aid windfall of several billion dollars from Arab,
European, and Japanese donors. These inflows more than offset Damascus's
war-related costs and will help Syria cover some of its debt arrears,
restore suspended credit lines, and initiate selected military and civilian
purchases. For the long run, Syria's economy is still saddled with a large
number of poorly performing public sector firms; investment levels remain
low; and industrial and agricultural productivity is poor. A major long-term
concern is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by Turkey when
its vast dam and irrigation projects are completed by mid-decade.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $30 billion, per capita $2,300; real growth rate
11% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
25% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $5.4 billion; expenditures $7.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.9 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 40%, farm products 13%, textiles, phosphates (1989)
partners:
USSR and Eastern Europe 42%, EC 31%, Arab countries 17%, US/Canada 2% (1989)
Imports:
$2.7 billion (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
foodstuffs and beverages 21%, metal and metal products 16%, machinery 14%,
textiles, petroleum products (1989)
partners:
EC 42%, USSR and Eastern Europe 13%, other Europe 13%, US/Canada 8%, Arab
countries 6% (1989)
External debt:
$5.2 billion in hard currency (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6% (1991 est.); accounts for 17% of GDP
Electricity:
3,005,000 kW capacity; 8,800 million kWh produced, 680 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco, phosphate rock mining,
petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all major crops
(wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown mainly on rainfed land
causing wide swings in production; animal products - beef, lamb, eggs,
poultry, milk; not self-sufficient in grain or livestock products
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538 million; Western (non-US)
ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $1.23 billion; OPEC bilateral
aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; former Communist countries (1970-89), $3.3
billion
Currency:
Syrian pound (plural - pounds); 1 Syrian pound (#S) = 100 piasters

:Syria Economy

Exchange rates:
Syrian pounds (#S) per US$1 - 22.0 (promotional rate since 1991), 11.2250
(fixed rate 1987-90), 3.9250 (fixed rate 1976-87)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Syria Communications

Railroads:
2,350 km total; 2,035 km standard gauge, 315 km 1.050-meter (narrow) gauge
Highways:
28,000 km total; 22,000 km paved, 3,000 km gravel or crushed stone, 3,000 km
improved earth
Inland waterways:
672 km; minimal economic importance
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,304 km, petroleum products 515 km
Ports:
Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas
Merchant marine:
29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 85,417 GRT/138,078 DWT; includes 25
cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 2 bulk
Civil air:
35 major transport aircraft
Airports:
104 total, 100 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system currently undergoing significant improvement; 512,600
telephones; broadcast stations - 9 AM, 1 FM, 17 TV; satellite earth stations
- 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Intersputnik, 1 submarine cable; coaxial
cable and radio relay to Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Turkey

:Syria Defense Forces

Branches:
Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Navy, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Air
Defense Forces, Police and Security Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 3,012,671; 1,691,660 fit for military service; 145,976 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, 8% of GDP (1989)

:Taiwan Geography

Total area:
35,980 km2
Land area:
32,260 km2; includes the Pescadores, Matsu, and Quemoy
Comparative area:
slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,448 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia,
Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; Paracel Islands occupied by
China, but claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Japanese-administered
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands/Diaoyu Tai) claimed by China and Taiwan
Climate:
tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon (June to August);
cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year
Terrain:
eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently rolling plains in
west
Natural resources:
small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone, marble, and asbestos
Land use:
arable land 24%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
woodland 55%; other 15%; irrigated 14%
Environment:
subject to earthquakes and typhoons

:Taiwan People

Population:
20,878,556 (July 1992), growth rate 1.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Chinese (singular and plural); adjective - Chinese
Ethnic divisions:
Taiwanese 84%, mainland Chinese 14%, aborigine 2%
Religions:
mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist 93%, Christian 4.5%, other 2.5%
Languages:
Mandarin Chinese (official); Taiwanese (Miu) and Hakka dialects also used
Literacy:
91.2% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990)
Labor force:
7,900,000; industry and commerce 53%, services 22%, agriculture 15.6%, civil
administration 7% (1989)
Organized labor:
2,728,000 or about 44% (1991)

:Taiwan Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
multiparty democratic regime; opposition political parties legalized in
March, 1989
Capital:
Taipei
Administrative divisions:
the authorities in Taipei claim to be the government of all China; in
keeping with that claim, the central administrative divisions include 2
provinces (sheng, singular and plural) and 2 municipalities* (shih, singular
and plural) - Fu-chien (some 20 offshore islands of Fujian Province
including Quemoy and Matsu), Kao-hsiung*, T'ai-pei*, and Taiwan (the island
of Taiwan and the Pescadores islands); the more commonly referenced
administrative divisions are those of Taiwan Province - 16 counties (hsien,
singular and plural), 5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), and 2
special municipalities** (chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua,
Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*, Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan,
Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li, Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung,
T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*, T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**,
T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, and Yun-lin; the provincial capital is at
Chung-hsing-hsin-ts'un; note - Taiwan uses the Wade-Giles system for
romanization
Constitution:
25 December 1947, presently undergoing revision
Legal system:
based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
National Day (Anniversary of the Revolution), 10 October (1911)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, premier of the Executive Yuan, vice premier of
the Executive Yuan, Executive Yuan
Legislative branch:
unicameral Legislative Yuan, unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
Judicial Yuan
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988); Vice President LI Yuan-zu
(since 20 May 1990)
Head of Government:
Premier (President of the Executive Yuan) HAO Po-ts'un (since 2 May 1990);
Vice Premier (Vice President of the Executive Yuan) SHIH Ch'i-yang (since NA
July 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
Kuomintang (Nationalist Party), LI Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic Socialist
Party and Young China Party controlled by Kuomintang; Democratic Progressive
Party (DPP); Labor Party; 27 other minor parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 20
Elections:
President:
last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - President
LI Teng-hui was reelected by the National Assembly
Vice President:
last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held NA March 1996); results - LI
Yuan-zu was elected by the National Assembly

:Taiwan Government

Legislative Yuan:
last held 2 December 1989 (next to be held NA December 1992); results - KMT
65%, DPP 33%, independents 2%; seats - (304 total, 102 elected) KMT 78, DPP
21, independents 3
Elections:
National Assembly:
first National Assembly elected in November 1947 with a supplementary
election in December 1986; second National Assembly elected in December 1991
Member of:
expelled from UN General Assembly and Security Council on 25 October 1971
and withdrew on same date from other charter-designated subsidiary organs;
expelled from IMF/World Bank group April/May 1980; seeking to join GATT;
attempting to retain membership in INTELSAT; suspended from IAEA in 1972,
but still allows IAEA controls over extensive atomic development; APEC,
AsDB, ICC, ICFTU, IOC
Diplomatic representation:
none; unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of the US
are maintained through a private instrumentality, the Coordination Council
for North American Affairs (CCNAA) with headquarters in Taipei and field
offices in Washington and 10 other US cities with all addresses and
telephone numbers NA
US:
unofficial commercial and cultural relations with the people of Taiwan are
maintained through a private institution, the American Institute in Taiwan
(AIT), which has offices in Taipei at #7, Lane 134, Hsiu Yi Road, Section 3,
telephone [886] (2) 709-2000, and in Kao-hsiung at #2 Chung Cheng 3d Road,
telephone [886] (7) 224-0154 through 0157, and the American Trade Center at
Room 3207 International Trade Building, Taipei World Trade Center, 333
Keelung Road Section 1, Taipei 10548, telephone [886] (2) 720-1550
Flag:
red with a dark blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a
white sun with 12 triangular rays

:Taiwan Economy

Overview:
Taiwan has a dynamic capitalist economy with considerable government
guidance of investment and foreign trade and partial government ownership of
some large banks and industrial firms. Real growth in GNP has averaged about
9% a year during the past three decades. Export growth has been even faster
and has provided the impetus for industrialization. Agriculture contributes
about 4% to GNP, down from 35% in 1952. Taiwan currently ranks as number 13
among major trading countries. Traditional labor-intensive industries are
steadily being replaced with more capital- and technology-intensive
industries. Taiwan has become a major investor in China, Thailand,
Indonesia, the Philippines, and Malaysia. The tightening of labor markets
has led to an influx of foreign workers, both legal and illegal.
GNP:
purchasing power equivalent - $150.8 billion, per capita $7,380; real growth
rate 5.2% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.1% (1990); 3.8% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
1.7% (1990); 1.5% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $30.3 billion; expenditures $30.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$67.2 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
electrical machinery 18.2%, textiles 15.6%, general machinery and equipment
14.8%, basic metals and metal products 7.8%, foodstuffs 1.7%, plywood and
wood products 1.6% (1989)
partners:
US 36.2%, Japan 13.7% (1989)
Imports:
$54.7 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and equipment 15.3%, basic metals 13.0%, chemical and chemical
products 11.1%, crude oil 5%, foodstuffs 2.2% (1989)
partners:
Japan 31%, US 23%, FRG 5% (1989)
External debt:
$1.1 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.5% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
17,000,000 kW capacity; 76,900 million kWh produced, 3,722 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
electronics, textiles, chemicals, clothing, food processing, plywood, sugar
milling, cement, shipbuilding, petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GNP and 16% of labor force (includes part-time farmers);
heavily subsidized sector; major crops - vegetables, rice, fruit, tea;
livestock - hogs, poultry, beef, milk, cattle; not self-sufficient in wheat,
soybeans, corn; fish catch increasing, 1.4 million metric tons (1988)
Economic aid:
US, including Ex-Im (FY46-82), $4.6 billion; Western (non-US) countries, ODA
and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $500 million
Currency:
New Taiwan dollar (plural - dollars); 1 New Taiwan dollar (NT$) = 100 cents

:Taiwan Economy

Exchange rates:
New Taiwan dollars per US$1 - 25.000 (February 1992), 25.748 (1991), 27.108
(1990), 26.407 (1989) 28.589 (1988), 31.845 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Taiwan Communications

Railroads:
about 4,600 km total track with 1,075 km common carrier lines and 3,525 km
industrial lines; common carrier lines consist of the 1.067-meter gauge 708
km West Line and the 367 km East Line; a 98.25 km South Link Line connection
was completed in late 1991; common carrier lines owned by the government and
operated by the Railway Administration under Ministry of Communications;
industrial lines owned and operated by government enterprises
Highways:
20,041 km total; 17,095 km bituminous or concrete pavement, 2,371 km crushed
stone or gravel, 575 km graded earth
Pipelines:
petroleum products 615 km, natural gas 97 km
Ports:
Kao-hsiung, Chi-lung (Keelung), Hua-lien, Su-ao, T'ai-tung
Merchant marine:
213 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,491,539 GRT/9,082,118 DWT; includes
1 passenger, 42 cargo, 15 refrigerated cargo, 73 container, 17 petroleum
tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 58 bulk, 1
roll-on/roll-off, 2 combination bulk
Airports:
40 total, 39 usable; 36 with permanent-surface runways; 3 with runways over
3,659 m; 16 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
best developed system in Asia outside of Japan; 7,800,000 telephones;
extensive microwave transmission links on east and west coasts; broadcast
stations - 91 AM, 23 FM, 15 TV (13 repeaters); 8,620,000 radios; 6,386,000
TVs (5,680,000 color, 706,000 monochrome); satellite earth stations - 1
Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT; submarine cable links to
Japan (Okinawa), the Philippines, Guam, Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia,
Australia, Middle East, and Western Europe

:Taiwan Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy (including Marines), Air Force, Taiwan General Garrison
Headquarters, Ministry of National Defense
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,982,717; 4,652,586 fit for military service; about 180,706
currently reach military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $9.16 billion, 4.5% of GNP (FY92)

:Tajikistan Geography

Total area:
143,100 km2
Land area:
142,700 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land boundaries:
3,651 km total; Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km,
Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
boundary with China under dispute
Climate:
midlatitude semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain:
Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in
north, Kafirnigan and Vakhsh Valleys in southeast
Natural resources:
significant hydropower potential, petroleum, uranium, mercury, small
production of petroleum, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten
Land use:
6% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes NA% irrigated
Environment:
NA
Note:
landlocked

:Tajikistan People

Population:
5,680,242 (July 1992), growth rate 3.0% (1992)
Birth rate:
40 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
74 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
64 years male, 70 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
5.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Tajik(s); adjective - Tajik
Ethnic divisions:
Tajik 62%, Uzbek 24%, Russian 8%, Tatar 2%, other 4%
Religions:
Sunni Muslim approximately 80%, Shi`a Muslim 5%
Languages:
Tajik (official) NA%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
1,938,000; agriculture and forestry 43%, industry and construction 22%,
other 35% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Tajikistan Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Tajikistan
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dushanbe
Administrative divisions:
3 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and one autonomous oblast*;
Gorno-Badakhshan*; Kurgan-Tyube, Kulyab, Leninabad (Khudzhand); note - the
rayons around Dushanbe are under direct republic jurisdiction; an oblast
usually has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the
administrative center name following in parentheses)
Independence:
9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union); formerly Tajikistan Soviet Socialist
Republic
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978
Legal system:
based on civil law system; no judicial review of legislative acts
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
NA
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Rakhman NABIYEV (since NA September 1991); note - a government of
National Reconciliation was formed in May 1992; NABIYEV is titular head
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Akbar MIRZOYEV (since 10 January 1992); First Deputy Prime
Minister Davlat USMON
Political parties and leaders:
Tajik Democratic Party, Shodmon YUSUF, chairman; Rastokhez (Rebirth), Tohir
ABDULJABAR, chairman; Islamic Revival Party, Sharif HIMMOT-ZODA, chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 27 October 1991 (next to be held NA); results - Rakhman NABIYEV,
Communist Party 60%; Daolat KHUDONAZAROV, Democratic Party, Islamic Rebirth
Party and Rastokhoz Party 30%
Supreme Soviet:
last held 25 February 1990 (next to be held NA); results - Communist Party
99%, other 1%; seats - (230 total) Communist Party 227, other 3
Communists:
NA
Other political or pressure groups:
Kazi Kolon, Akbar TURAJON-SODA, Muslim leader
Member of:
CSCE, IMF, UN
Diplomatic representation:
NA
US:
Ambassador-designate Stan ESCUDERO; Embassy at Interim Chancery, #39 Ainii
Street; Residences: Oktyabrskaya Hotel, Dushanbe (mailing address is APO AE
09862); telephone [8] (011) 7-3772-24-32-23

:Tajikistan Government

Flag:
NA; still in the process of designing one

:Tajikistan Economy

Overview:
Tajikistan has had the lowest standard of living and now faces the bleakest
economic prospects of the 15 former Soviet republics. Agriculture is the
main economic sector, normally accounting for 38% of employment and
featuring cotton and fruits. Industry is sparse, bright spots including
electric power and aluminum production based on the country's sizable
hydropower resources and a surprising specialty in the production of
metal-cutting machine tools. In 1991 and early 1992, disruptions in food
supplies from the outside have severely strained the availability of food
throughout the republic. The combination of the poor food supply, the
general disruption of industrial links to suppliers and markets, and
political instability have meant that the republic's leadership could make
little progress in economic reform in 1991 and early 1992.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate -9% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
84% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
25% (1991 est.)
Budget:
$NA
Exports:
$706 million (1990)
commodities:
aluminum, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
partners:
Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan
Imports:
$1.3 billion (1990)
commodities:
chemicals, machinery and transport equipment, textiles, foodstuffs
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (end of 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -2.0% (1991)
Electricity:
4,575,000 kW capacity; 17,500 million kWh produced, 3,384 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
aluminum, zinc, lead, chemicals and fertilizers, cement, vegetable oil,
metal-cutting machine tools, refrigerators and freezers
Agriculture:
cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, pigs, sheep and goats,
yaks
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Tajikistan Communications

Railroads:
480 km all 1.520-meter (broad) gauge (includes NA km electrified); does not
include industrial lines (1990); 258 km between Dushanbe (Tajikistan) and
Termez (Uzbekistan), connects with the railroad system of the other
republics of the former Soviet Union at Tashkent in Uzbekistan
Highways:
29,900 km total (1990); 24,400 km hard surfaced, 8,500 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Civil air:
NA
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
poorly developed; telephone density NA; linked by landline or microwave with
other CIS member states and by leased connections via the Moscow
international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations -
Orbita and INTELSAT (TV receive only)

:Tajikistan Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground, Air, and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Tanzania Geography

Total area:
945,090 km2
Land area:
886,040 km2; includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
Comparative area:
slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
3,402 km total; Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756
km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline:
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint
in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be indefinite since it is reported that the
indefinite section of the Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled
Climate:
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain:
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Natural resources:
hydropower potential, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones,
gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
arable land 5%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 40%; forest and
woodland 47%; other 7%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent droughts affected
marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

:Tanzania People

Population:
27,791,552 (July 1992), growth rate 3.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
49 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
15 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
103 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
50 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Tanzanian(s); adjective - Tanzanian
Ethnic divisions:
mainland - native African consisting of well over 100 tribes 99%; Asian,
European, and Arab 1%
Religions:
mainland - Christian 33%, Muslim 33%, indigenous beliefs 33%; Zanzibar -
almost all Muslim
Languages:
Swahili and English (official); English primary language of commerce,
administration, and higher education; Swahili widely understood and
generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of
most people is one of the local languages; primary education is generally in
Swahili
Literacy:
46% (male 62%, female 31%) age 15 and over can read and write (1978)
Labor force:
732,200 wage earners; 90% agriculture, 10% industry and commerce (1986 est.)
Organized labor:
15% of labor force

:Tanzania Government

Long-form name:
United Republic of Tanzania
Type:
republic
Capital:
Dar es Salaam; some government offices have been transferred to Dodoma,
which is planned as the new national capital by the end of the 1990s
Administrative divisions:
25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro,
Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South,
Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar
Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West, Ziwa Magharibi
Independence:
Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UN trusteeship under
British administration); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from
UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United
Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29
October 1964
Constitution:
15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own Constitution but remains subject to
provisions of the union Constitution)
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to
matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Union Day, 26 April (1964)
Executive branch:
president, first vice president and prime minister of the union, second vice
president and president of Zanzibar, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal, High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985); First Vice President
John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990); Second Vice President Salmin AMOUR
(since 9 November 1990)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister John MALECELA (since 9 November 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM or Revolutionary Party), Ali Hassan
MWINYI, party chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - Ali
Hassan MWINYI was elected without opposition
National Assembly:
last held 28 October 1990 (next to be held NA October 1995); results - CCM
is the only party; seats - (241 total, 168 elected) CCM 168
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, EADB, ECA, FAO, FLS, G-6, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

:Tanzania Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador-designate Charles Musama NYIRABU; Chancery at 2139 R Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6125
US:
Ambassador Edmund DE JARNETTE, Jr.; Embassy at 36 Laibon Road (off Bagamoyo
Road), Dar es Salaam (mailing address is P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam);
telephone [255] (51) 66010/13; FAX [255] (51)66701
Flag:
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is
blue

:Tanzania Economy

Overview:
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is
heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 47% of GDP,
provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry
accounts for 8% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural
products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced
in mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank, the
International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to
rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991
was featured by a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase
in output of minerals led by gold.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $6.9 billion, per capita $260 (1989 est.); real
growth rate 4.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
16.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $495 million; expenditures $631 million, including capital
expenditures of $118 million (FY90)
Exports:
$478 million (f.o.b., FY91 est.)
commodities:
coffee, cotton, sisal, tea, cashew nuts, meat, tobacco, diamonds, gold,
coconut products, pyrethrum, cloves (Zanzibar)
partners:
FRG, UK, Japan, Netherlands, Kenya, Hong Kong, US
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., FY91 est.)
commodities:
manufactured goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece
goods, crude oil, foodstuffs
partners:
FRG, UK, US, Japan, Italy, Denmark
External debt:
$5.2 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.2% (1988); accounts for 8% of GDP
Electricity:
405,000 kW capacity; 905 million kWh produced, 35 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine),
diamond and gold mining, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles, wood
products, fertilizer
Agriculture:
accounts for over 45% of GDP; topography and climatic conditions limit
cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash crops - coffee, sisal, tea,
cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco,
cloves (Zanzibar); food crops - corn, wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, and
vegetables; small numbers of cattle, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient
in food grain production
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $400 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $9.8 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $614
million

:Tanzania Economy

Currency:
Tanzanian shilling (plural - shillings); 1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100
cents
Exchange rates:
Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1 - 236.01 (February (1992), 219.16 (1991),
195.06 (1990), 143.38 (1989), 99.29 (1988), 64.26 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July-30 June

:Tanzania Communications

Railroads:
3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km 1.000-meter gauge, 6.4 km
double track, 962 km Tazara Railroad 1.067-meter gauge; 115 km 1.000-meter
gauge planned by end of decade
Highways:
total 81,900 km, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or crushed stone; remainder
improved and unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa
Pipelines:
crude oil 982 km
Ports:
Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza on Lake
Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports
Merchant marine:
6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 19,185 GRT/22,916 DWT; includes 2
passenger-cargo, 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
104 total, 94 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3, 659 m; 43 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system operating below capacity; open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; broadcast stations - 12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1
Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Tanzania Defense Forces

Branches:
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (TPDF; including Army, Navy, and Air
Force); paramilitary Police Field Force Unit; Militia
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 5,747,542; 3,319,116 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $119 million, about 2% of GDP (FY89 budget)

:Thailand Geography

Total area:
514,000 km2
Land area:
511,770 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming
Land boundaries:
4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506
km
Coastline:
3,219 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
boundary dispute with Laos; unresolved maritime boundary with Vietnam
Climate:
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry,
cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot
and humid
Terrain:
central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains elsewhere
Natural resources:
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum,
lignite, fluorite
Land use:
arable land 34%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 1%; forest and
woodland 30%; other 31%; includes irrigated 7%
Environment:
air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area
Note:
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore

:Thailand People

Population:
57,624,180 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
20 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:

Book of the day: