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Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1989 est.); accounts for 3% of GDP
Electricity:
52,100 kW capacity; 95 million kWh produced, 1,482 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing, alcohol, household
appliances)
Agriculture:
accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton, fruits, vegetables, and
livestock; other crops - bananas, coconuts, cucumbers, mangoes, sugarcane;
not self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
US commitments, $10 million (1985-88); Western (non-US) countries, ODA and
OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $50 million
Currency:
East Caribbean dollar (plural - dollars); 1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1 - 2.70 (fixed rate since 1976)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Antigua and Barbuda Communications

Railroads:
64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge used almost
exclusively for handling sugarcane
Highways:
240 km
Ports:
Saint John's
Merchant marine:
105 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 364,891 GRT/552,475 DWT; includes 71
cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 12 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1
multifunction large load carrier, 1 oil tanker, 12 chemical tanker, 2 bulk;
note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
11 major transport aircraft
Airports:
3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones; tropospheric scatter
links with Saba and Guadeloupe; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV, 2
shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

:Antigua and Barbuda Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua and Barbuda Police
Force (including the Coast Guard)
Manpower availability:
NA
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.4 million, 1% of GDP (FY91)

:Arctic Ocean Geography

Total area:
14,056,000 km2
Land area:
14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea,
East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea,
Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US; smallest of the world's
four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, and Indian Ocean)
Coastline:
45,389 km
Disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges; winters
characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather conditions,
and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight, damp and
foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow
Terrain:
central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack that averages
about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be three times
that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream, but nearly
straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (Russia) to Denmark
Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by open
seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter and
extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50%
continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a
central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera,
Nansen Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the
Fram Basin
Natural resources:
sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, oil and
gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals, whales)
Environment:
endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice islands
occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved from
glaciers in western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow
cover in March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and
lasts about 10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from
October to June; fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from
disruptions or damage
Note:
major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern access to the Pacific
Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to superstructure icing from
October to May; strategic location between North America and Russia;
shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and western Russia,
floating research stations operated by the US and Russia

:Arctic Ocean Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural resources,
including crude oil, natural gas, fish, and seals.

:Arctic Ocean Communications

Ports:
Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (Russia), Prudhoe Bay (US)
Telecommunications:
no submarine cables
Note:
sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest Passage
(North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are important seasonal
waterways

:Argentina Geography

Total area:
2,766,890 km2
Land area:
2,736,690 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than four times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km, Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay
1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km
Coastline:
4,989 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive economic zone:
nm limits unknown
Territorial sea:
12 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)
Disputes:
short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short section of
the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered Falkland
Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British- administered South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica
Climate:
mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest
Terrain:
rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling plateau of
Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border
Natural resources:
fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc, tin, copper, iron ore, manganese,
crude oil, uranium
Land use:
arable land 9%; permanent crops 4%; meadows and pastures 52%; forest and
woodland 22%; other 13%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes; pamperos are
violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated soil
degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in Buenos Aires
Note:
second-largest country in South America (after Brazil); strategic location
relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans
(Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

:Argentina People

Population:
32,901,234 (July 1992), growth rate 1.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
20 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Argentine(s); adjective - Argentine
Ethnic divisions:
white 85%; mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups 15%
Religions:
nominally Roman Catholic 90% (less than 20% practicing), Protestant 2%,
Jewish 2%, other 6%
Languages:
Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French
Literacy:
95% (male 96%, female 95%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
10,900,000; agriculture 12%, industry 31%, services 57% (1985 est.)
Organized labor:
3,000,000; 28% of labor force

:Argentina Government

Long-form name:
Argentine Republic
Type:
republic
Capital:
Buenos Aires
Administrative divisions:
23 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), and 1 district**
(distrito); Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes,
Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza,
Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa
Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucuman; note - the national
territory is in the process of becoming a province; the US does not
recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence:
9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Constitution:
1 May 1853
Legal system:
mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Revolution Day, 25 May (1810)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of an upper chamber
or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de
Diputados)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Carlos Saul MENEM (since 8 July 1989); Vice President (position
vacant)
Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (JP), Carlos Saul MENEM, Peronist umbrella political
organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Mario LOSADA, moderately left of
center; Union of the Democratic Center (UCD), Jorge AGUADO, conservative
party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar ALENDE, leftist party; several
provincial parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Chamber of Deputies:
last held in three phases during late 1991 for half of 254 seats, total
current breakdown of seats - JP 122, UCR 85, UCD 10, other 37
President:
last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held NA May 1995); results - Carlos Saul
MENEM was elected
Senate:
last held May 1989, but provincial elections in late 1991 set the stage for
indirect elections by provincial senators for one-third of 46 seats in the
national senate in May 1992; total current breakdown of seats - JP 27, UCR
14, others 5
Communists:
some 70,000 members in various party organizations, including a small
nucleus of activists

:Argentina Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Peronist-dominated labor movement, General Confederation of Labor
(Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization), Argentine Industrial Union
(manufacturers' association), Argentine Rural Society (large landowners'
association), business organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church,
the Armed Forces
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-6, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77,
GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAES, LAIA, LORCS,
MERCOSUR, OAS, PCA, RG, UN, UNAVEM, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG,
UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Carlos ORTIZ DE ROZAS; Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are
Argentine Consulates General in Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San
Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago,
and Los Angeles
US:
Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia, 1425 Buenos Aires
(mailing address is APO AA 34034); telephone [54] (1) 774- 7611 or 8811,
9911; Telex 18156 AMEMBAR
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light blue;
centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known
as the Sun of May

:Argentina Economy

Overview:
Argentina is rich in natural resources and has a highly literate population,
an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a diversified industrial base.
Nevertheless, following decades of mismanagement and statist policies, the
economy has encountered major problems in recent years, leading to
escalating inflation and a recession during 1988-90. Since 1978, Argentina's
external debt has nearly doubled to $58 billion, creating severe debt
servicing difficulties and hurting the country's creditworthiness with
international lenders. Elected in 1989, President Menem has implemented a
comprehensive economic restructuring program that shows signs of reversing
Argentina's economic decline and putting it on a path of stable, sustainable
growth.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $101.2 billion, per capita $3,100; real growth
rate 5.5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
83.8% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
6.4% (October 1991)
Budget:
revenues $13.6 billion; expenditures $16.6 billion, including capital
expenditures of $2.5 billion (1991)
Exports:
$12 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool
partners:
US 12%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands
Imports:
$8 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and lubricants,
agricultural products
partners:
US 22%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands
External debt:
$61 billion (January 1992)
Industrial production:
growth rate 20% (1991 est.); accounts for 30% of GDP
Electricity:
17,059,000 kW capacity; 47,357 million kWh produced, 1,450 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
food processing, motor vehicles, consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and
petrochemicals, printing, metallurgy, steel
Agriculture:
accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces abundant food for both
domestic consumption and exports; among world's top five exporters of grain
and beef; principal crops - wheat, corn, sorghum, soybeans, sugar beets
Illicit drugs:
increasing use as a transshipment country for cocaine headed for the US and
Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $1.0 billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.4 billion;
Communist countries (1970-89), $718 million
Currency:
peso (plural - pesos); 1 pesos = 100 centavos

:Argentina Economy

Exchange rates:
pesos per US$1 - 0.99076 (Feburary 1992), 0.95355 (1991), 0.48759 (1990),
0.04233 (1989), 0.00088 (1988), 0.00021 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Argentina Communications

Railroads:
34,172 km total (includes 209 km electrified); includes a mixture of
1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter narrow
gauge, and 0.750-meter narrow gauge
Highways:
208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel, 101,000 km improved
earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
11,000 km navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 4,090 km; petroleum products 2,900 km; natural gas 9,918 km
Ports:
Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario, Santa Fe
Merchant marine:
98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,235,385 GRT/1,952,307 DWT; includes
35 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 1 railcar carrier, 33 oil
tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 10 bulk; in addition, 2 naval
tankers and 1 military transport are sometimes used commercially
Civil air:
56 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1,702 total, 1,473 usable; 137 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 326 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones (12,000 public telephones);
microwave widely used; broadcast stations - 171 AM, no FM, 231 TV, 13
shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; domestic satellite
network has 40 earth stations

:Argentina Defense Forces

Branches:
Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air Force,
National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture (Coast Guard only),
National Aeronautical Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 8,101,856; 6,568,885 fit for military service; 276,457 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $700 million, 1.5% of GDP (1991)

:Armenia Geography

Total area:
29,800 km2
Land area:
28,400 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maryland
Land boundaries:
1,254 km total; Azerbaijan (east) 566 km, Azerbaijan (south) 221 km, Georgia
164 km, Iran 35 km, Turkey 268 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
violent and longstanding dispute with Azerbaijan over ethnically Armenian
exclave of Nagorno-Karabakh; some irredentism by Armenians living in
southern Georgia; traditional demands on former Armenian lands in Turkey
have greatly subsided
Climate:
continental, hot, and subject to drought
Terrain:
high Armenian Plateau with mountain; little forest land; fast flowing
rivers; good soil in Aras River valley
Natural resources:
small deposits of gold, copper, molybdenum, zinc, alumina
Land use:
10% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; NA% irrigated
Environment:
pollution of Razdan and Aras Rivers; air pollution in Yerevan

:Armenia People

Population:
3,415,566 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
22 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
35 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 74 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.7 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Armenian(s); adjective - Armenian
Ethnic divisions:
Armenian 93.3%, Russian 1.5%, Kurd 1.7%, other 3.5%
Religions:
Armenian Orthodox 94%
Languages:
Armenian 93%, Russian 2%, other 5%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (NA)
Labor force:
1,630,000; industry and construction 42%, agriculture and forestry 18%,
other 40%(1990)
Organized labor:
NA

:Armenia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Armenia
Type:
republic
Capital:
Yerevan
Administrative divisions:
none - all rayons are under direct republic jurisdiction
Independence:
Armenian Republic formed 29 November 1920 and became part of the Soviet
Union on 30 December 1922; on 23 September 1991, Armenia renamed itself the
Republic of Armenia
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978, effective NA
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
President, Council of Ministers, prime minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral body - Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN (since 16 October 1991), Vice
President Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since 16 October 1991)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Gagik ARUTYUNYAN (since November 1991), First Deputy Prime
Minister Grant BAGRATYAN (since NA September 1990); Supreme Soviet Chairman
- Babken ARARKTSYAN
Political parties and leaders:
Armenian National Movement, Husik LAZARYAN, chairman; National
Self-Determination Association, Pakvyr HAYRIKIAN, chairman; National
Democratic Union, Vazgen MANUKYAN, chairman; Democratic Liberal Party,
Ramkavar AZATAKAN, chairman; Dashnatktsutyan Party, Rouben MIRZAKHANIN;
Chairman of Parliamentary opposition - Mekhak GABRIYELYAN
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 16 October 1990 (next to be held NA); results - elected by the
Supreme Soviet, Levon Akopovich TER-PETROSYAN 86%; radical nationalists
about 7%
Supreme Soviet:
last held 20 May 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by
party NA; seats - (259 total); number of seats by party NA
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE, NACC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Charge d'Affaires ad interim, Aleksandr ARZOUMANIAN
US:
Ambassador (vacant); Steven R. MANN, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel
Hrazdan (telephone 8-011-7-8852-53-53-32); (mailing address is APO AE
09862); telephone 8-011-7-885-215-1122 (voice and FAX); 8-011-7-885-215-1144
(voice)

:Armenia Government

Flag:
NA

:Armenia Economy

Overview:
Armenia under the old centrally planned Soviet system had built up textile,
machine-building, and other industries and had become a key supplier to
sister republics. In turn, Armenia had depended on supplies of raw materials
and energy from the other republics. Most of these supplies enter the
republic by rail through Azerbaijan (85%) and Georgia (15%). The economy has
been severely hurt by ethnic strife with Azerbaijan over control of the
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, a mostly Armenian-populated enclave
within the national boundaries of Azerbaijan. In addition to outright
warfare, the strife has included interdiction of Armenian imports on the
Azerbaijani railroads and expensive airlifts of supplies to beleagured
Armenians in Nagorno-Karabakh. An earthquake in December 1988 destroyed
about one-tenth of industrial capacity and housing, the repair of which has
not been possible because the supply of funds and real resources has been
disrupted by the reorganization and subsequent dismantling of the central
USSR administrative apparatus. Among facilities made unserviceable by the
earthquake are the Yerevan nuclear power plant, which had supplied 40% of
Armenia's needs for electric power and a plant that produced one-quarter of
the output of elevators in the former USSR. Armenia has some deposits of
nonferrous metal ores (bauxite, copper, zinc, and molybdenum) that are
largely unexploited. For the mid-term, Armenia's economic prospects seem
particularly bleak because of ethnic strife and the unusually high
dependence on outside areas, themselves in a chaotic state of
transformation.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate --10% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
91%
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
Exports:
$176 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and
chemicals (1991)
partners:
NA
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery, energy, consumer goods (1991)
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate --9.6% (1991)
Electricity:
NA kW capacity; 10,433 million kWh produced, about 3,000 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
diverse, including (in percent of output of former USSR) metalcutting
machine tools (6.7%), forging-pressing machines (4.7%), electric motors
(8.7%), tires (2.1%), knitted wear (5.6%), hosiery (2.3%), shoes (2.2%),
silk fabric (5.3%), washing machines (2.0%); also chemicals, trucks,
watches, instruments, and microelectronics

:Armenia Economy

Agriculture:
only 10% of land area is arable; employs 18% of labor force; citrus, cotton,
and dairy farming; vineyards near Yerevan are famous for brandy and other
liqueurs
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis mostly for domestic consumption; used as a
transshipment point for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Armenia Communications

Railroads:
840 km all 1.000-meter gauge (includes NA km electrified); does not include
industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
11,300 km total (1990); 10,500 km hard surfaced, 800 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
none - landlocked
Merchant marine:
none:
landlocked
Civil air:
none
Airports:
NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
Armenia has about 260,000 telephones, of which about 110,000 are in Yerevan;
average telephone density is 8 per 100 persons; international connections to
other former republics of the USSR are by landline or microwave and to other
countries by satellite and by leased connection through the Moscow
international gateway switch; broadcast stations - 100% of population
receives Armenian and Russian TV programs; satellite earth station -
INTELSAT

:Armenia Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GDP

:Aruba Geography

Total area:
193 km2
Land area:
193 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
68.5 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
12 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain:
flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Natural resources:
negligible; white sandy beaches
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt
Note:
28 km north of Venezuela

:Aruba People

Population:
64,692 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
16 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Aruban(s); adjective - Aruban
Ethnic divisions:
mixed European/Caribbean Indian 80%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 82%, Protestant 8%, also small Hindu, Muslim, Confucian, and
Jewish minority
Languages:
Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, English
dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
NA, but most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)
Organized labor:
Aruban Workers' Federation (FTA)

:Aruba Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
part of the Dutch realm - full autonomy in internal affairs obtained in 1986
upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles
Capital:
Oranjestad
Administrative divisions:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Independence:
none (part of the Dutch realm); note - in 1990, Aruba requested and received
from the Netherlands cancellation of the agreement to automatically give
independence to the island in 1996
Constitution:
1 January 1986
Legal system:
based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common law influence
National holiday:
Flag Day, 18 March
Executive branch:
Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral legislature (Staten)
Judicial branch:
Joint High Court of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980), represented by
Governor General Felipe B. TROMP (since 1 January 1986)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February 1989)
Political parties and leaders:
Electoral Movement Party (MEP), Nelson ODUBER; Aruban People's Party (AVP),
Henny EMAN; National Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro KELLY; New
Patriotic Party (PPN), Eddy WERLEMEN; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny
NISBET; Aruban Democratic Party (PDA), Leo BERLINSKI; Democratic Action '86
(AD '86), Arturo ODUBER; Organization for Aruban Liberty (OHA), Glenbert
CROES; governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Legislature:
last held 6 January 1989 (next to be held by NA January 1993); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (21 total) MEP 10, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPN 1,
PPA 1
Member of:
ECLAC (associate), INTERPOL, IOC, UNESCO (associate), WCL, WTO (associate)
Diplomatic representation:
none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)
Flag:
blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower portion and
a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side corner

:Aruba Economy

Overview:
Tourism is the mainstay of the economy, although offshore banking and oil
refining and storage are also important. Hotel capacity expanded rapidly
between 1985 and 1989 and nearly doubled in 1990 alone. Unemployment has
steadily declined from about 20% in 1986 to about 3% in 1991. The reopening
of the local oil refinery, once a major source of employment and foreign
exchange earnings, promises to give the economy an additional boost.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $854 million, per capita $13,600; real growth
rate l0% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
8% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
3% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including capital
expenditures of $42 million (1988)
Exports:
$134.4 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
mostly petroleum products
partners:
US 64%, EC
Imports:
$488 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, manufactures
partners:
US 8%, EC
External debt:
$81 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA
Electricity:
310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 15,000 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, transshipment facilities, oil refining
Agriculture:
poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural activity to the
cultivation of aloes, some livestock, and fishing
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-89), $220
million
Currency:
Aruban florin (plural - florins); 1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1 - 1.7900 (fixed rate since 1986)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Aruba Communications

Highways:
Aruba has a system of all-weather highways
Ports:
Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas
Civil air:
Air Aruba has a fleet of 3 intermediate-range Boeing aircraft
Airports:
government-owned airport east of Oranjestad accepts transatlantic flights
Telecommunications:
generally adequate; extensive interisland radio relay links; 72,168
telephones; broadcast stations - 4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 sea cable to Sint
Maarten

:Aruba Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Geography

Total area:
5 km2
Land area:
5 km2; includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle, and East Islets) and Cartier
Island
Comparative area:
about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
74.1 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploration
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical
Terrain:
low with sand and coral
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other - grass and sand 100%
Environment:
surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National Nature Reserve
established in August 1983
Note:
located in extreme eastern Indian Ocean between Australia and Indonesia, 320
km off the northwest coast of Australia

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands People

Population:
no permanent inhabitants; seasonal caretakers

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Government

Long-form name:
Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands
Type:
territory of Australia administered by the Australian Minister for Arts,
Sports, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories - Roslyn KELLY
Capital:
none; administered from Canberra, Australia
Administrative divisions:
none (territory of Australia)
Legal system:
relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia
Diplomatic representation:
none (territory of Australia)

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Economy

Overview:
no economic activity

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only

:Ashmore and Cartier Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic visits by the Royal
Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force

:Atlantic Ocean Geography

Total area:
82,217,000 km2
Land area:
82,217,000 km2; includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait,
Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea,
Norwegian Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies
Comparative area:
slightly less than nine times the size of the US; second-largest of the
world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than Indian Ocean
or Arctic Ocean)
Coastline:
111,866 km
Disputes:
some maritime disputes (see littoral states)
Climate:
tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa near Cape
Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur from
May to December, but are most frequent from August to November
Terrain:
surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and
Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad, circular
system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water gyre
in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin;
maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench
Natural resources:
oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel
aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones
Environment:
endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles,
and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US, southern Brazil, and
eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake
Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial waste and municipal
sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea; icebergs
common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic from
February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the
Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur in the extreme southern
Atlantic
Note:
ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic from October
to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October; persistent fog can be
a hazard to shipping from May to September; major choke points include the
Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez Canals;
strategic straits include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida, Mona
Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic shipping
lanes subject to icebergs from February to August; the Equator divides the
Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean
Kiel Canal and Saint Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways

:Atlantic Ocean Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to exploitation of natural resources,
especially fish, dredging aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and crude oil and
natural gas production (Caribbean Sea and North Sea).

:Atlantic Ocean Communications

Ports:
Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium), Barcelona (Spain),
Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco), Colon (Panama), Copenhagen
(Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland), Hamburg (Germany), Helsinki
(Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain), Le Havre (France), Lisbon
(Portugal), London (UK), Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal
(Canada), Naples (Italy), New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria),
Oslo (Norway), Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam
(Netherlands), Saint Petersburg (formerly Leningrad; Russia), Stockholm
(Sweden)
Telecommunications:
numerous submarine cables with most between continental Europe and the UK,
North America and the UK, and in the Mediterranean; numerous direct links
across Atlantic via INTELSAT satellite network

:Australia Geography

Total area:
7,686,850 km2
Land area:
7,617,930 km2; includes Macquarie Island
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than the US
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
25,760 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
12 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)
Climate:
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north
Terrain:
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast
Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten,
mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, crude oil
Land use:
arable land 6%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 58%; forest and
woodland 14%; other 22%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast; limited
freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular, tropical,
invigorating, sea breeze known as the doctor occurs along west coast in
summer; desertification
Note:
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country

:Australia People

Population:
17,576,354 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
15 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
7 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Australian(s); adjective - Australian
Ethnic divisions:
Caucasian 95%, Asian 4%, Aboriginal and other 1%
Religions:
Anglican 26.1%, Roman Catholic 26.0%, other Christian 24.3%
Languages:
English, native languages
Literacy:
100% (male 100%, female 100%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980 est.)
Labor force:
8,630,000 (September 1991); finance and services 33.8%, public and community
services 22.3%, wholesale and retail trade 20.1%, manufacturing and industry
16.2%, agriculture 6.1% (1987)
Organized labor:
40% of labor force (November 1991)

:Australia Government

Long-form name:
Commonwealth of Australia
Type:
federal parliamentary state
Capital:
Canberra
Administrative divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales,
Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria,
Western Australia
Independence:
1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Constitution:
9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901
Dependent areas:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands,
Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norfolk Island
Legal system:
based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations
National holiday:
Australia Day, 26 January
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a
lower house or House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since February 1952), represented by Governor General
William George HAYDEN (since 16 February 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Paul John KEATING (since 20 December 1991); Deputy Prime
Minister Brian HOWE (since 4 June 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
government:
Australian Labor Party, Paul John KEATING
opposition:
Liberal Party, John HEWSON; National Party, Timothy FISCHER; Australian
Democratic Party, John COULTER
Suffrage:
universal and compulsory at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 24 March 1990 (next to be held by NA November 1993); results -
Labor 39.7%, Liberal-National 43%, Australian Democrats and independents
11.1%; seats - (148 total) Labor 78, Liberal-National 69, independent 1
Senate:
last held 11 July 1987 (next to be held by NA July 1993); results - Labor
43%, Liberal-National 42%, Australian Democrats 8%, independents 2%; seats -
(76 total) Labor 32, Liberal-National 34, Australian Democrats 7,
independents 3
Communists:
4,000 members (est.)

:Australia Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Australian Democratic Labor Party (anti-Communist Labor Party splinter
group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party
splinter group)
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), ANZUS, APEC, AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, C, CCC, COCOM,
CP, EBRD, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, G-8, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, IDA, IEA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU,
LORCS, MTCR, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, PCA, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIIMOG, UNTAG, UNTSO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Michael J. COOK; Chancery at 1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20036; telephone (202) 797-3000; there are Australian
Consulates General in Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York,
Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco
US:
Ambassador Melvin F. SEMBLER; Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian
Capital Territory 2600 (mailing address is APO AP 96549); telephone [61] (6)
270-5000; FAX [61] (6) 270-5970; there are US Consulates General in
Melbourne, Perth, and Sydney, and a Consulate in Brisbane
Flag:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large
seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is a
representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small
five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

:Australia Economy

Overview:
Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy, with a per
capita GDP comparable to levels in industrialized West European countries.
Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural
products, minerals, metals, and fossil fuels. Of the top 25 exports, 21 are
primary products, so that, as happened during 1983-84, a downturn in world
commodity prices can have a big impact on the economy. The government is
pushing for increased exports of manufactured goods, but competition in
international markets continues to be severe.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $280.8 billion, per capita $16,200; real
growth rate --0.6% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (September 1991)
Unemployment rate:
10.5% (November 1991)
Budget:
revenues $76.9 billion; expenditures $75.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of NA (FY91)
Exports:
$41.7 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
metals, minerals, coal, wool, cereals, meat, manufacturers
partners:
Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%, UK, Taiwan, Hong
Kong
Imports:
$37.8 billion (f.o.b., FY91)
commodities:
manufactured raw materials, capital equipment, consumer goods
partners:
US 24%, Japan 19%, UK 6%, FRG 7%, NZ 4% (1990)
External debt:
$130.4 billion (June 1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate --0.9% (1991); accounts for 32% of GDP
Electricity:
40,000,000 kW capacity; 155,000 million kWh produced, 8,960 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals,
steel, motor vehicles
Agriculture:
accounts for 5% of GNP and 37% of export revenues; world's largest exporter
of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton, and among top wheat exporters;
major crops - wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit; livestock - cattle, sheep,
poultry
Illicit drugs:
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products;
government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation
and output of poppy straw concentrate
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $10.4 billion
Currency:
Australian dollar (plural - dollars); 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Australian dollars ($A) per US$1 - 1.3360 (January 1992), 1.2836 (1991),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987)

:Australia Economy

Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Australia Communications

Railroads:
40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge; 1,130 km electrified;
government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers of privately owned
track) (1985)
Highways:
837,872 km total; 243,750 km paved, 228,396 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft
Pipelines:
crude oil 2,500 km; petroleum products 500 km; natural gas 5,600 km
Ports:
Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong, Hobart,
Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville
Merchant marine:
85 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,324,803 GRT/3,504,385 DWT; includes
2 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 8 container, 11 roll-on/roll-off, 1 vehicle
carrier, 17 petroleum tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 1
combination ore/oil, 30 bulk, 1 combination bulk
Civil air:
about 150 major transport aircraft
Airports:
481 total, 440 usable; 237 with permanent-surface runways, 1 with runway
over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 268 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good international and domestic service; 8.7 million telephones; broadcast
stations - 258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to New Zealand, Papua New
Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service; satellite stations - 4
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

:Australia Defense Forces

Branches:
Australian Army, Royal Australian Navy, Royal Australian Air Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,769,005; 4,153,060 fit for military service; 138,117 reach
military age (17) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $7.5 billion, 2.4% of GDP (FY92 budget)

:Austria Geography

Total area:
83,850 km2
Land area:
82,730 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
2,591 km total; Czechoslovakia 548 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy
430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Slovenia 262 km, Switzerland 164 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
none
Climate:
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands
and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Terrain:
mostly mountains with Alps in west and south; mostly flat, with gentle
slopes along eastern and northern margins
Natural resources:
iron ore, crude oil, timber, magnesite, aluminum, lead, coal, lignite,
copper, hydropower
Land use:
arable land 17%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 24%; forest and
woodland 39%; other 19%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
because of steep slopes, poor soils, and cold temperatures, population is
concentrated on eastern lowlands
Note:
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many
easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube

:Austria People

Population:
7,867,541 (July 1992), growth rate 0.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
12 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
8 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 80 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Austrian(s); adjective - Austrian
Ethnic divisions:
German 99.4%, Croatian 0.3%, Slovene 0.2%, other 0.1%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 85%, Protestant 6%, other 9%
Languages:
German
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1974 est.)
Labor force:
3,470,000 (1989); services 56.4%, industry and crafts 35.4%, agriculture and
forestry 8.1%; an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in other European
countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about 6% of labor
force (1988)
Organized labor:
60.1% of work force; the Austrian Trade Union Federation has 1,644,408
members (1989)

:Austria Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Austria
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Vienna
Administrative divisions:
9 states (bundeslander, singular - bundesland); Burgenland, Karnten,
Niederosterreich, Oberosterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg,
Wien
Independence:
12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)
Constitution:
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)
Legal system:
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts
by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme
courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 26 October (1955)
Executive branch:
president, chancellor, vice chancellor, Council of Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung) consists of an upper council
or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower council or National Council
(Nationalrat)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil and criminal cases,
Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for bureaucratic cases,
Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for constitutional cases
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
Head of Government:
Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986); Vice Chancellor Erhard
BUSEK (since 2 July 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPO), Franz VRANITZKY, chairman;
Austrian People's Party (OVP), Erhard BUSEK, chairman; Freedom Party of
Austria (FPO), Jorg HAIDER, chairman; Communist Party (KPO), Walter
SILBERMAYER, chairman; Green Alternative List (GAL), Johannes VOGGENHUBER,
chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 19; compulsory for presidential elections
Elections:
National Council:
last held 7 October 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - SPO 43%,
OVP 32.1%, FPO 16.6%, GAL 4.5%, KPO 0.7%, other 0.32%; seats - (183 total)
SPO 80, OVP 60, FPO 33, GAL 10
President:
last held 24 May 1992 (next to be held 1996); results of Second Ballot -
Thomas KLESTIL 57%, Rudolf STREICHER 43%
Communists:
membership 15,000 est.; activists 7,000-8,000

:Austria Government

Other political or pressure groups:
Federal Chamber of Commerce and Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation
(primarily Socialist); three composite leagues of the Austrian People's
Party (OVP) representing business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented League
of Austrian Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay
organization, Catholic Action
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, Australia Group, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE,
EBRD, ECE, EFTA, ESA, FAO, G-9, GATT, HG, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM,
ISO, ITU, LORCS, MTRC, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNDOF, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIIMOG, UNTSO, UPU, WCL,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Friedrich HOESS; Embassy at 3524 International Court NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 895-6700; there are Austrian
Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
US:
Ambassador Roy Michael HUFFINGTON; Embassy at Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091,
Vienna (mailing address is APO AE 09108-0001); telephone [43] (1) 31-55-11;
FAX [43] (1) 310-0682; there is a US Consulate General in Salzburg
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

:Austria Economy

Overview:
Austria boasts a prosperous and stable capitalist economy with a sizable
proportion of nationalized industry and extensive welfare benefits. Thanks
to an excellent raw material endowment, a technically skilled labor force,
and strong links to German industrial firms, Austria occupies specialized
niches in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and produces
almost enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force in
agriculture. Improved export prospects resulting from German unification and
the opening of Eastern Europe, boosted the economy during 1990 and to a
lesser extent in 1991. GDP growth slowed from 4.9% in 1990 to 3% in 1991 -
mainly due to the weaker world economy - and is expected to drop to around
2% in 1992. Inflation is forecasted at about 4%, while unemployment probably
will increase moderately through 1992 before declining in 1993. Living
standards are comparable with the large industrial countries of Western
Europe. Problems for the l990s include an aging population, the high level
of subsidies, and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within budget
capabilities. Austria, which has applied for EC membership, was involved in
EC and European Free Trade Association negotiations for a European Economic
Area and will have to adapt its economy to achieve freer interchange of
goods, services, capital, and labor within the EC.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $164.1 billion, per capita $20,985; real
growth rate 3% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.3% (1991, annual rate)
Unemployment rate:
5.8% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $47.7 billion; expenditures $53.0 billion, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1990)
Exports:
$40 billion (1991)
commodities:
machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles, paper products,
chemicals
partners:
EC 65.8%, (Germany 39%), EFTA 9.1%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 9.0%, Japan
1.7%, US 2.8%
Imports:
$50.2 billion (1991)
commodities:
petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles, chemicals,
textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals
partners:
EC 67.8% (Germany is 43.0%), EFTA 6.9%, Eastern Europe/former USSR 6.0%,
Japan 4.8%, US 3.9%
External debt:
$11.8 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
2.0% (1991)
Electricity:
17,600,000 kW capacity; 49,500 million kWh produced, 6,500 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals, electrical, paper and
pulp, tourism, mining

:Austria Economy

Agriculture:
accounts for 3.2% of GDP (including forestry); principal crops and animals -
grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets, sawn wood, cattle, pigs, poultry;
80-90% self-sufficient in food
Economic aid:
donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $2.4 billion
Currency:
Austrian schilling (plural - schillings); 1 Austrian schilling (S) = 100
groschen
Exchange rates:
Austrian schillings (S) per US$1 - 11.068 (January 1992), 11.676 (1991),
11.370 (1990), 13.231 (1989), 12.348 (1988), 12.643 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Austria Communications

Railroads:
6,028 km total; 5,388 km government owned and 640 km privately owned (1.435-
and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,403 km 1.435-meter standard gauge of which 3,051
km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked; 363 km 0.760-meter narrow
gauge of which 91 km is electrified
Highways:
95,412 km total; 34,612 km are the primary network (including 1,012 km of
autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 km of provincial roads); of this
number, 21,812 km are paved and 12,800 km are unpaved; in addition, there
are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth)
Inland waterways:
446 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 554 km; natural gas 2,611 km; petroleum products 171 km
Ports:
Vienna, Linz (river ports)
Merchant marine:
31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 130,966 GRT/219,130 DWT; includes 26
cargo, 1 container, 4 bulk
Civil air:
25 major transport aircraft
Airports:
55 total, 55 usable; 20 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6
AM, 21 (545 repeaters) FM, 47 (870 repeaters) TV; satellite ground stations
for Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

:Austria Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Flying Division, Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,011,895; 1,693,244 fit for military service; 51,788 reach
military age (19) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.8 billion, 1% of GDP (1991)

:Azerbaijan Geography

Total area:
86,600 km2
Land area:
86,100 km2; includes the Nakhichevan' Autonomous Republic and the
Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast; region's autonomy was abolished by
Azerbaijan Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Maine
Land boundaries:
2,013 km total; Armenia (west) 566 km, Armenia (southwest) 221 km, Georgia
322 km, Iran (south) 432 km, Iran (southwest) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey
9 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
NA
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm; Azerbaijani claims in Caspian Sea unknown; 10 nm fishing zone
provided for in 1940 treaty regarding trade and navigation between Soviet
Union and Iran
Disputes:
violent and longstanding dispute with Armenia over status of
Nagorno-Karabakh, lesser dispute concerns Nakhichevan'; some Azeris desire
absorption of and/or unification with the ethnically Azeri portion of Iran;
minor irredentist disputes along Georgia border
Climate:
dry, semiarid steppe; subject to drought
Terrain:
large, flat Kura Lowland (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus
Mountains to the north, Karabakh Upland in west; Baku lies on Aspheson
Peninsula that juts into Caspian Sea
Natural resources:
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes 70% of cultivated land irrigated (1.2
million hectares)
Environment:
local scientists consider Apsheron Peninsula, including Baku and Sumgait,
and the Caspian Sea to be "most ecologically devastated area in the world"
because of severe air and water pollution
Note:
landlocked; major polluters are oil, gas, and chemical industries

:Azerbaijan People

Population:
7,450,787 (July 1992), growth rate 1.6% (1992)
Birth rate:
26 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
7 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
--3 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
45 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
65 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Azerbaijani(s); adjective - Azerbaijani
Ethnic divisions:
Azeri 82.7%, Russian 5.6%, Armenian 5.6%, Daghestanis 3.2%, other 2.9%; note
- Armenian share may be less than 5.6% because many Armenians have fled the
ethnic violence since 1989 census
Religions:
Moslem 87%, Russian Orthodox 5.6%, Armenian Orthodox 5.6%, other 1.8%
Languages:
Azeri 82%, Russian 7%, Armenian 5%, other 6%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1992 est.)
Labor force:
2,789,000; agriculture and forestry 32%, industry and construction 26%,
other 42% (1990)
Organized labor:
NA (1992)

:Azerbaijan Government

Long-form name:
Azerbaijani Republic; short-form name: Azerbaijan
Type:
republic
Capital:
Baku (Baky)
Administrative divisions:
1 autonomous republic (avtomnaya respublika), Nakhichevan' (administrative
center at Nakhichevan'); note - all rayons except for the exclave of
Nakhichevan' are under direct republic jurisdiction;1 autonomous oblast,
Nagorno-Karabakh (officially abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26
November 1991) has declared itself Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Independence:
28 May 1918; on 28 April 1920, Azerbaijan became the Soviet Socialist
Republic of Azerbaijan; on 30 April 1992 it became the Azerbaijani Republic;
independence declared 30 August 1991
Constitution:
adopted NA April 1978
Legal system:
based on civil law system
National holiday:
NA
Executive branch:
president, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
National Parliament (Milli Majlis) was formed on the basis of the National
Council (Milli Shura)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President-elect Ebulfez ELCIBEY (since 7 June 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Rahim GUSEYNOV (since 14 May 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
NA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Parliament:
last held NA September 1990 (next expected to be held late 1992); results -
seats - (360 total) Communists 280, Democratic Bloc 45 (grouping of
opposition parties), other 15, vacant 20; note - these figures are
approximate
President:
held 8 September 1991 (next to be held 7 June 1992); results - Ebulfez
ELCIBEY (6,390 unofficial)
Other political or pressure groups:
Self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Member of:
CIS, CSCE, IMF, OIC, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
NA
US:
Ambassador (vacant); Robert MILES, Charge d'Affaires; Embassy at Hotel
Intourist (telephone 8-011-7-8922-91-79-56) plus 8 hours; (mailing address
is APO New York is 09862); telephone NA

:Azerbaijan Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and
eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band

:Azerbaijan Economy

Overview:
Azerbaijan is less developed industrially than either Armenia or Georgia,
the other Transcaucasian states. It resembles the Central Asian states in
its majority Muslim population, high structural unemployment, and low
standard of living. The economy's most prominent products are cotton, oil,
and gas. Production from the Caspian oil and gas field has been in decline
for several years. With foreign assistance, the oil industry might generate
the funds needed to spur industrial development. However, civil unrest,
marked by armed conflict in the Nagorno-Karabakh region between Muslim
Azeris and Christian Armenians, makes foreign investors wary. Azerbaijan
accounts for 1.5% to 2% of the capital stock and output of the former Soviet
Union. Although immediate economic prospects are not favorable because of
civil strife, lack of economic reform, political disputes about new economic
arrangements, and the skittishness of foreign investors, Azerbaijan's
economic performance was the best of all former Soviet republics in 1991
largely because of its reliance on domestic resources for industrial output.
GDP:
$NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate --0.7% (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
87% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992)
Exports:
$780 million (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
oil and gas, chemicals, oilfield equipment, textiles, cotton (1991)
partners:
mostly CIS countries
Imports:
$2.2 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, consumer durables, foodstuffs, textiles (1991)
External debt:
$1.3 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3.8% (1991)
Electricity:
6,025,000 kW capacity; 23,300 million kWh produced, 3,280 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel,
iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Agriculture:
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs,
sheep and goats
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Azerbaijan Communications

Railroads:
2,090 km (includes NA km electrified); does not include industrial lines
(1990)
Highways:
36,700 km total (1990); 31,800 km hard surfaced; 4,900 km earth
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
NA
Ports:
inland - Baku (Baky)
Merchant marine:
none - landlocked
Civil air:
none
Airports:
NA
Telecommunications:
quality of local telephone service is poor; connections to other former USSR
republics by landline or microwave and to countries beyond the former USSR
via the Moscow international gateway switch; Azeri and Russian TV broadcasts
are received; Turkish and Iranian TV broadcasts are received from INTELSAT
through a TV receive-only earth station

:Azerbaijan Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA; NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA million, NA% of GDP

:The Bahamas Geography

Total area:
13,940 km2
Land area:
10,070 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Connecticut
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
3,542 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream
Terrain:
long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills
Natural resources:
salt, aragonite, timber
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest
and woodland 32%; other 67%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms that cause extensive flood
damage
Note:
strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island chain

:The Bahamas People

Population:
255,811 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
19 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
69 years male, 76 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun--Bahamian(s); adjective--Bahamian
Ethnic divisions:
black 85%, white 15%
Religions:
Baptist 32%, Anglican 20%, Roman Catholic 19%, Methodist 6%, Church of God
6%, other Protestant 12%, none or unknown 3%, other 2% (1980)
Languages:
English; some Creole among Haitian immigrants
Literacy:
90% (male 90%, female 89%) age 15 and over but definition of literacy not
available (1963 est.)
Labor force:
127,400; government 30%, hotels and restaurants 25%, business services
10%, agriculture 5% (1989)
Organized labor:
25% of labor force

:The Bahamas Government

Long-form name:
The Commonwealth of The Bahamas
Type:
commonwealth
Capital:
Nassau
Administrative divisions:
21 districts; Abaco, Acklins Island, Andros Island, Berry Islands,
Biminis, Cat Island, Cay Lobos, Crooked Island, Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand
Bahama, Harbour Island, Inagua, Long Cay, Long Island, Mayaguana,
New Providence, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador,
Spanish Wells
Independence:
10 July 1973 (from UK)
Constitution:
10 July 1973
Legal system:
based on English common law
National holiday:
National Day, 10 July (1973)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor general, prime minister, deputy prime
minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower
house or House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Acting Governor General Sir Clifford DARLING (since 2 January 1992)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Sir Lynden Oscar PINDLING (since 16 January 1967)
Political parties and leaders:
Progressive Liberal Party (PLP), Sir Lynden O. PINDLING; Free National
Movement (FNM), Hubert Alexander INGRAHAM
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held 19 June 1987 (next to be held by NA June 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA; seats--(49 total) PLP 32, FNM 17
*** No entry for this item ***
Other political or pressure groups:
Vanguard Nationalist and Socialist Party (VNSP), a small leftist party
headed
by Lionel CAREY; Trade Union Congress (TUC), headed by Arlington MILLER
Member of:
ACP, C, CCC, CARICOM, CDB, ECLAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
ICFTU, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAS, OPANAL, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Margaret E. McDONALD; Chancery at 2220 Massachusetts
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 319-2660; there are
Bahamian Consulates General in Miami and New York;

:The Bahamas Government

US:
Ambassador Chic HECHT; Embassy at Mosmar Building, Queen Street, Nassau
(mailing address is P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau); telephone (809) 322-1181 or
328-2206; FAX (809) 328-7838
Diplomatic representation:
*** No entry for this item ***
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and aquamarine with
a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

:The Bahamas Economy

Overview:
The Bahamas is a stable, middle-income developing nation whose economy is
based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone provides
about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000 people or
40% of the local work force. The economy has slackened in recent years, as
the annual increase in the number of tourists slowed. Nonetheless, the per
capita GDP of $9,900 is one of the highest in the region.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent--$2.5 billion, per capita $9,900; real growth
rate 1.0% (1990 est.)
*** No entry for this item ***
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
7.3% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
16.0% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $627.5 million; expenditures $727.5 million, including capital
expenditures of $100 million (1992, projected)
*** No entry for this item ***
Exports:
$306 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.);
commodities:
pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish;
partners:
US 41%, Norway 30%, Denmark 4%
Imports:
$1.14 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.);
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels;
partners:
US 35%, Nigeria 21%, Japan 13%, Angola 11%
External debt:
$1.2 billion (December 1990)
Industrial production:
growth rate 3% (1990); accounts for 15% of GDP
Electricity:
368,000 kw capacity; 857 million kWh produced 3,339 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
tourism, banking, cement, oil refining and transshipment, salt production,
rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral welded steel pipe
*** No entry for this item ***
Agriculture:
accounts for less than 5% of GDP; dominated by small-scale producers;
principal products--citrus fruit, vegetables, poultry; large net importer of
food
*** No entry for this item ***
Illicit drugs:
transshipment point for cocaine
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY85-89), $1.0 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $345
million
Currency:
Bahamian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bahamian dollar (B$) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:The Bahamas Communications

Highways:
2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 1,050 km gravel
Ports:
Freeport, Nassau
Merchant marine:
778 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,129,173 GRT/30,002,421 DWT;
includes 48 passenger, 19 short-sea passenger, 152 cargo, 37
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 42 container, 6 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier,

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