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Airports:
2 main
Telecommunications:
125,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 2 FM, 5 (2 relays) TV;
370,000 radios, 325,000 TV; satellite communications ground stations - none

:Macedonia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air and Air Defense Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 590,613; NA fit for military service; 22,913 reach military age
(18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - 7.0 billion dinars (est.), NA% of GDP (1992);
note - conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the current
exchange rate could produce misleading results

:Madagascar Geography

Total area:
587,040 km2
Land area:
581,540 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
4,828 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova
Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)
Climate:
tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Natural resources:
graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious
stones, mica, fish
Land use:
arable land 4%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 58%; forest and
woodland 26%; other 11%; includes irrigated 2%
Environment:
subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification
Note:
world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

:Madagascar People

Population:
12,596,263 (July 1992), growth rate 3.2% (1992)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
93 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
51 years male, 55 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Malagasy (singular and plural); adjective - Malagasy
Ethnic divisions:
basic split between highlanders of predominantly Malayo-Indonesian origin
(Merina and related Betsileo) on the one hand and coastal tribes,
collectively termed the Cotiers, with mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and
Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), on the other;
there are also small French, Indian, Creole, and Comoran communities; no
current, accurate assessment of tribal numbers is available
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian about 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:
French and Malagasy (official)
Literacy:
80% (male 88%, female 73%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in subsistence
agriculture; 175,000 wage earners - agriculture 26%, domestic service 17%,
industry 15%, commerce 14%, construction 11%, services 9%, transportation
6%, other 2%; 51% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
4% of labor force

:Madagascar Government

Long-form name:
Democratic Republic of Madagascar
Type:
republic
Capital:
Antananarivo
Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (plural - NA, singular - faritanin'); Antananarivo, Antsiranana,
Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliary
Independence:
26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy Republic)
Constitution:
21 December 1975; note - a new constitution is to be in place before 1993
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale Populaire); note -
the National Assembly has suspended its operations during 1992 in
preparation for new legislative and presidential elections. In its place, an
interim High Authority of State and a Social and Economic Recovery Council
have been established
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional Court (Haute Cour
Constitutionnelle)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June 1975)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Guy RASANAMAZY (since 8 August 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
some 30 political parties now exist in Madagascar, the most important of
which are the Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier
RATSIRAKA; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM),
RAKOTOVAO-ANDRIATIANA; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence-Revival
(AKFM-R), Pastor Richard ANDRIAMANJATO; Movement for National Unity (VONJY),
Dr. Marojama RAZANABAHINY; Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA),
Norbert ANDRIAMORASATA; Militants for the Establishment of a Proletarian
Regime (MFM), Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA; National Movement for the Independence
of Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja JAONA; National Union for the Defense of
Democracy (UNDD), Albert ZAFY
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held NA 1992); results - Didier
RATSIRAKA (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy RAKOTONIRINA (MFM/MFT) 20%, Dr. Jerome
Marojama RAZANABAHINY (VONJY) 15%, Monja JAONA (MONIMA) 3%
Popular National Assembly:
last held on 28 May 1989 (next to be held 1992); results - AREMA 88.2%, MFM
5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, other 0.8%; seats - (137 total) AREMA 120, MFM
7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1

:Madagascar Government

Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO; Chancery at 2374 Massachusetts
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-5525 or 5526; there is
a Malagasy Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo,
Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620, Antananarivo);
telephone [261] (2) 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18
Flag:
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band
of the same width on hoist side

:Madagascar Economy

Overview:
Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world. Agriculture,
including fishing and forestry, is the mainstay of the economy, accounting
for over 40% of GDP, employing about 80% of the labor force, and
contributing to more than 70% of total export earnings. Industry is largely
confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile
manufacturing; in 1990 it accounted for only 16% of GDP and employed almost
5% of the labor force. In 1986 the government introduced a five-year
development plan that stressed self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice) by
1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports. After
mid-1991, however, output dropped sharply because of protracted
antigovernment strikes and demonstrations for political reform.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, per capita $200; real growth rate
-3.8% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $390 million; expenditures $525 million, including capital
expenditures of $240 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$290 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum products
partners:
France, Japan, Italy, Germany, US
Imports:
$436 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%, petroleum 15%, consumer
goods 14%, food 13%
partners:
France, Germany, UK, other EC, US
External debt:
$4.4 billion (1991)
Industrial production:
growth rate 5.2% (1990 est.); accounts for 16% of GDP
Electricity:
125,000 kW capacity; 450 million kWh produced, 35 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories, breweries,
tanneries, sugar refining plants), light consumer goods industries
(textiles, glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves,
cocoa; food crops - rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts; cattle raising
widespread; almost self-sufficient in rice
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for
domestic consumption
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $136 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3,125 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $491 million
Currency:
Malagasy franc (plural - francs); 1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

:Madagascar Economy

Exchange rates:
Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1 - 1,943.4 (March 1992), 1,835.4 (1991),
1,454.6 (December 1990), 1,603.4 (1989) , 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Madagascar Communications

Railroads:
1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved earth (est.)
Inland waterways:
of local importance only; isolated streams and small portions of Canal des
Pangalanes
Ports:
Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara
Merchant marine:
14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 59,255 GRT/81,509 DWT; includes 9
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1
liquefied gas
Civil air:
8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
148 total, 103 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 34 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial cables, radio relay,
and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations
- 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and broadcast stations - 17 AM, 3 FM, 1 (36
repeaters) TV

:Madagascar Defense Forces

Branches:
Popular Armed Forces (including Intervention Forces, Development Forces,
Aeronaval Forces - including Navy and Air Force), Gendarmerie, Presidential
Security Regiment
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,730,713; 1,625,335 fit for military service; 114,687 reach
military age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $37 million, 2.2% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Malawi Geography

Total area:
118,480 km2
Land area:
94,080 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Pennsylvania
Land boundaries:
2,881 km; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km, Zambia 837 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi)
Climate:
tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to November)
Terrain:
narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills, some mountains
Natural resources:
limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium, coal, and bauxite
Land use:
arable land 25%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 20%; forest and
woodland 50%; other 5%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
landlocked

:Malawi People

Population:
9,605,342 (July 1992), growth rate 1.8% (1992); note - 900,000 Mozambican
refugees in Malawi (1990 est.)
Birth rate:
52 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-17 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
134 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
48 years male, 51 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Malawian(s); adjective - Malawian
Ethnic divisions:
Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni, Ngonde, Asian,
European
Religions:
Protestant 55%, Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 20%; traditional indigenous
beliefs are also practiced
Languages:
English and Chichewa (official); other languages important regionally
Literacy:
22% (male 34%, female 12%) age 15 and over can read and write (1966)
Labor force:
428,000 wage earners; agriculture 43%, manufacturing 16%, personal services
15%, commerce 9%, construction 7%, miscellaneous services 4%, other
permanently employed 6% (1986)
Organized labor:
small minority of wage earners are unionized

:Malawi Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Malawi
Type:
one-party state
Capital:
Lilongwe
Administrative divisions:
24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu, Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga,
Kasungu, Lilongwe, Machinga (Kasupe), Mangochi, Mchinji, Mulanje, Mwanza,
Mzimba, Ntcheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Nsanje, Ntchisi, Rumphi, Salima,
Thyolo, Zomba
Independence:
6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)
Constitution:
6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 July (1964)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly
Judicial branch:
High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Dr. Hastings Kamuzu BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as
President for Life 6 July 1971)
Political parties and leaders:
only party - Malawi Congress Party (MCP), Wadson DELEZA, administrative
secretary; John TEMBO, treasurer general; top party position of secretary
general vacant since 1983
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
President:
President BANDA sworn in as President for Life on 6 July 1971
National Assembly:
last held 27-28 May 1987 (next to be held by May 1992); results - MCP is the
only party; seats - (133 total, 112 elected) MCP 133
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LORCS,
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at 2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-1007
US:
Ambassador Michael T. F. PISTOR; Embassy in new capital city development
area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe); telephone
[265] 730-166; FAX [265] 732-282
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a radiant,
rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of
Afghanistan, which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed
on the hoist side of the black and red bands

:Malawi Economy

Overview:
Landlocked Malawi ranks among the world's least developed countries. The
economy is predominately agricultural, with about 90% of the population
living in rural areas. Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export
revenues. After two years of weak performance, economic growth improved
significantly in 1988-91 as a result of good weather and a broadly based
economic adjustment effort by the government. The economy depends on
substantial inflows of economic assistance from the IMF, the World Bank, and
individual donor nations.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.9 billion, per capita $200; growth rate 4.2%
(1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $398 million; expenditures $510 million, including capital
expenditures of $154 million (FY91 est.)
Exports:
$390 million (f.o.b., 1990 est.)
commodities:
tobacco, tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts
partners:
US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, Germany
Imports:
$560 million (c.i.f., 1990 est.)
commodities:
food, petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment
partners:
South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe
External debt:
$1.8 billion (December 1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 4.0% (1990 est.); accounts for about 18% of GDP (1988)
Electricity:
185,000 kW capacity; 550 million kWh produced, 60 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling, cement, consumer
goods
Agriculture:
accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops - tobacco, sugarcane, cotton, tea, and
corn; subsistence crops - potatoes, cassava, sorghum, pulses; livestock -
cattle and goats
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $215 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,150 million
Currency:
Malawian kwacha (plural - kwacha); 1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala
Exchange rates:
Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1 - 2.7200 (January 1992), 2.8033 (1991), 2.7289
(1990), 2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Malawi Communications

Railroads:
789 km 1.067-meter gauge
Highways:
13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone, gravel, or stabilized
soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth
Inland waterways:
Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km
Ports:
Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota - all on Lake Nyasa (Lake
Malawi)
Civil air:
5 major transport aircraft
Airports:
48 total, 43 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and radio communications
stations; 42,250 telephones; broadcast stations - 10 AM, 17 FM, no TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT
Note:
a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the Beira or
Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa because of insurgent
activity and damage to rail lines

:Malawi Defense Forces

Branches:
Army (including Air Wing and Naval Detachment), Police (including
paramilitary Mobile Force Unit), paramilitary Malawi Young Pioneers
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 2,000,406; 1,016,901 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $22 million, 1.6% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Malaysia Geography

Total area:
329,750 km2
Land area:
328,550 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than New Mexico
Land boundaries:
2,669 km; Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782, Thailand 506 km
Coastline:
4,675 km; Peninsular Malaysia 2,068 km, East Malaysia 2,607 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation, specified boundary in the South
China Sea
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; State of Sabah claimed by
the Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that
divides Brunei into two parts; two islands in dispute with Singapore
Climate:
tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to
February) monsoons
Terrain:
coastal plains rising to hills and mountains
Natural resources:
tin, crude oil, timber, copper, iron ore, natural gas, bauxite
Land use:
arable land 3%; permanent crops 10%; meadows and pastures NEGL%; forest and
woodland 63%; other 24%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
subject to flooding; air and water pollution
Note:
strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern South China Sea

:Malaysia People

Population:
18,410,920 (July 1992), growth rate 2.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
27 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 71 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.6 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Malaysian(s); adjective - Malaysian
Ethnic divisions:
Malay and other indigenous 59%, Chinese 32%, Indian 9%
Religions:
Peninsular Malaysia - Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese predominantly
Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu; Sabah - Muslim 38%, Christian 17%,
other 45%; Sarawak - tribal religion 35%, Buddhist and Confucianist 24%,
Muslim 20%, Christian 16%, other 5%
Languages:
Peninsular Malaysia - Malay (official); English, Chinese dialects, Tamil;
Sabah - English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Mandarin and Hakka
dialects predominate among Chinese; Sarawak - English, Malay, Mandarin,
numerous tribal languages
Literacy:
78% (male 86%, female 70%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
7,258,000 (1991 est.)
Organized labor:
640,000; 10% of total labor force (1990)

:Malaysia Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional monarchy nominally
headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament; Peninsular
Malaysian states - hereditary rulers in all but Melaka, where governors are
appointed by Malaysian Pulau Pinang Government; powers of state governments
are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah - self-governing state, holds 20
seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal
security, and other powers delegated to federal government; Sarawak -
self-governing state within Malaysia, holds 27 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and other
powers delegated to federal government
Capital:
Kuala Lumpur
Administrative divisions:
13 states (negeri-negeri, singular - negeri) and 2 federal territories*
(wilayah-wilayah persekutuan, singular - wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah,
Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau
Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*
Independence:
31 August 1957 (from UK)
Constitution:
31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when Federation of Malaya became
Federation of Malaysia
Legal system:
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts in the
Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
National Day, 31 August (1957)
Executive branch:
paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime minister, deputy prime
minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an upper house or Senate (Dewan
Negara) and a lower house or House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan Yusof Izzudin (since 26
April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul Rahman (since 26
April 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since 16 July 1981); Deputy Prime
Minister Abdul GHAFAR Bin Baba (since 7 May 1986)
Political parties and leaders:
Peninsular Malaysia:
National Front, a confederation of 13 political parties dominated by United
Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru), MAHATHIR bin Mohamad;
Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), LING Liong Sik; Gerakan Rakyat
Malaysia, Datuk LIM Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress (MIC), Datuk S.
Samy VELLU
Sabah:
Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohammed NOOR Mansor; Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Joseph
Pairin KITINGAN; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO), leader NA

:Malaysia Government

Sarawak:
coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party Pesaka Bumiputra
Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Amar Haji Abdul TAIB Mahmud; Sarawak United
People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar James WONG Soon Kai; Sarawak National
Party (SNAP), Datuk Amar James WONG; Parti Bansa Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk
Leo MOGGIE; major opposition parties are Democratic Action Party (DAP), LIM
Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), Fadzil NOOR
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held 21 October 1990 (next to be held by August 1995); results -
National Front 52%, other 48%; seats - (180 total) National Front 127, DAP
20, PAS 7, independents 4, other 22; note - within the National Front, UMNO
got 71 seats and MCA 18 seats
Member of:
APEC, AsDB, ASEAN, C, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-15, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICFTU, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Abdul MAJID Mohamed; Chancery at 2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2700; there are Malaysian
Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York
US:
Ambassador Paul M. CLEVELAND; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala
Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur);
telephone [60] (3) 248-9011; FAX [60] (3) 242-2207
Flag:
fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with white
(bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing a
yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the
star are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of
the US

:Malaysia Economy

Overview:
During the period 1988-91 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to
recover from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.8% in 1989,
10% in 1990, and 8.6% in 1991, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing
output, further increases in foreign direct investment - particularly from
Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home - and increased oil
production. Malaysia has become the world's third-largest producer of
semiconductor devices (after the US and Japan) and the world's largest
exporter of semiconductor devices. Inflation has remained low; unemployment
has stood at 6% of the labor force; and the government has followed prudent
fiscal/monetary policies. The country is not self-sufficient in food, and
some of the rural population subsist at the poverty level. Malaysia's high
export dependence leaves it vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries
or a fall in world commodity prices.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $48.0 billion, per capita $2,670; real growth
rate 8.6% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
4.5% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
5.8% (1991 est.)
Budget:
revenues $12.2 billion; expenditures $14.4 billion, including capital
expenditures of $3.2 billion (1991 est.)
Exports:
$35.4 billion (f.o.b., 1991)
commodities:
electrical manufactures, crude petroleum, timber, rubber, palm oil, textiles
partners:
Singapore, US, Japan, EC
Imports:
$38.7 billion (c.i.f., 1991)
commodities:
food, crude oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods, capital equipment,
chemicals
partners:
Japan, US, Singapore, Germany, UK
External debt:
$21.3 billion (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 18% (1990); accounts for 40% of GDP
Electricity:
5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced, 940 kWh per capita
(1990)
Industries:
Peninsular Malaysia:
rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing
industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing
timber
Sabah:
logging, petroleum production
Sarawak:
agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging
Agriculture:
Peninsular Malaysia:
natural rubber, palm oil, rice
Sabah:
mainly subsistence, but also rubber, timber, coconut, rice

:Malaysia Economy

Sarawak:
rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit of rice in all areas; fish catch
of 608,000 metric tons in 1987
Illicit drugs:
transit point for Golden Triangle heroin going to the US, Western Europe,
and the Third World
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $4.7 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million
Currency:
ringgit (plural - ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen
Exchange rates:
ringgits (M$) per US$1 - 2.6930 (January 1992), 2.7501 (1991), 1.7048
(1990), 2.7088 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Malaysia Communications

Railroads:
Peninsular Malaysia:
1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double track, government owned
Railroads:
Sabah:
136 km 1.000-meter gauge
Highways:
Peninsular Malaysia:
23,600 km (19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly bituminous-surface treatment, and
4,248 km unpaved)
Sabah:
3,782 km
Sarawak:
1,644 km
Inland waterways:
Peninsular Malaysia:
3,209 km
Sabah:
1,569 km
Sarawak:
2,518 km
Pipelines:
crude oil 1,307 km; natural gas 379 km
Ports:
Tanjong Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang, Port Kelang,
Sandakan, Tawau
Merchant marine:
167 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,653,633 GRT/2,444,393 DWT; includes
1 passenger-cargo, 1 short-sea passenger, 64 cargo, 27 container, 2 vehicle
carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off, 1 livestock carrier, 37 petroleum tanker, 5
chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 21 bulk
Civil air:
53 major transport aircraft
Airports:
115 total, 108 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways
over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 18 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
good intercity service provided to Peninsular Malaysia mainly by radio
relay; adequate intercity radio relay network between Sabah and Sarawak via
Brunei; international service good; good coverage by radio and television
broadcasts; 994,860 telephones (1984); broadcast stations - 28 AM, 3 FM, 33
TV; submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable
links to Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations - 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

:Malaysia Defense Forces

Branches:
Royal Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air Force, Royal
Malaysian Police Force, Marine Police, Sarawak Border Scouts
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 4,728,103; 2,878,574 fit for military service; 179,486 reach
military age (21) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $2.4 billion, about 5% of GDP (1992 budget)

:Maldives Geography

Total area:
300 km2
Land area:
300 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
644 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
35-310 nm (defined by geographic coordinates; segment of zone coincides with
maritime boundary with India)
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to March); rainy,
southwest monsoon (June to August)
Terrain:
flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 3%; forest and
woodland 3%; other 84%
Environment:
1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls
Note:
archipelago of strategic location astride and along major sea lanes in
Indian Ocean

:Maldives People

Population:
234,371 (July 1992), growth rate 3.7% (1992)
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
61 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
62 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Maldivian(s); adjective - Maldivian
Ethnic divisions:
Maldivians are a generally homogenous admixture of Sinhalese, Dravidian,
Arab, Austrolasian, and African
Religions:
Sunni Muslim
Languages:
Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic); English spoken by
most government officials
Literacy:
92% (male 92%, female 92%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
Labor force:
66,000 (est.); 25% engaged in fishing industry
Organized labor:
none

:Maldives Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Maldives
Type:
republic
Capital:
Male
Administrative divisions:
19 district (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu, Gaafu Aliff, Gaafu Daalu,
Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu, Naviyani, Noonu, Raa,
Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu
Independence:
26 July 1965 (from UK)
Constitution:
4 June 1964
Legal system:
based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law primarily in
commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 26 July (1965)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Citizens' Council (Majlis)
Judicial branch:
High Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM (since 11 November 1978)
Political parties and leaders:
no organized political parties; country governed by the Didi clan for the
past eight centuries
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
President:
last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September 1994); results -
President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM reelected
Citizens' Council:
last held on 7 December 1989 (next to be held 7 December 1994); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (48 total, 40 elected)
Member of:
AsDB, C, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU,
WHO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Maldives does not maintain an embassy in the US, but does have a UN mission
in New York
US:
the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and makes periodic
visits there; US Consular Agency, Midhath Hilmy, Male; telephone 2581
Flag:
red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical white
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag

:Maldives Economy

Overview:
The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping. Agriculture is
limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide only 10%
of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing 25% of the
work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is also an important
source of government revenue. During the 1980s tourism has become one of the
most important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1988 industry
accounted for about 5% of GDP. Real GDP is officially estimated to have
increased by about 10% annually during the period 1974-90.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $174 million, per capita $770 (1988); real growth
rate 10.1% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10.7% (1990 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NEGL%
Budget:
revenues $67 million; expenditures $82 million, including capital
expenditures of $45 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$52.0 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
fish 57%, clothing 25%
partners:
US, UK, Sri Lanka
Imports:
$128.9 million (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
consumer goods 54%, intermediate and capital goods 33%, petroleum products
13%
partners:
Singapore, Germany, Sri Lanka, India
External debt:
$70 million (December 1989)
Industrial production:
growth rate -5.0% (1988); accounts for 6% of GDP
Electricity:
5,000 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced, 50 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat building, some coconut
processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope), handicrafts
Agriculture:
accounts for almost 30% of GDP (including fishing); fishing more important
than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn, sweet potatoes; most
staple foods must be imported; fish catch of 67,000 tons (1990 est.)
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $125 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million
Currency:
rufiyaa (plural - rufiyaa); 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris
Exchange rates:
rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1 - 10.234 (January 1992), 10.253 (1991), 9.509 (1990),
9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988), 9.2230 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Maldives Communications

Highways:
Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city
Ports:
Male, Gan
Merchant marine:
13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,293 GRT/56,246 DWT; includes 11
cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum tanker
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
2 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
minimal domestic and international facilities; 2,804 telephones; broadcast
stations - 2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Maldives Defense Forces

Branches:
National Security Service (paramilitary police force)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 52,195; 29,162 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $1.8 million, NA% of GDP (1984 est.)

:Mali Geography

Total area:
1,240,000 km2
Land area:
1,220,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
7,243 km; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532
km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline:
none - landlocked
Maritime claims:
none - landlocked
Disputes:
the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was submitted
to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the ICJ
issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
tripoint with Niger
Climate:
subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy, humid, and mild
June to November; cool and dry November to February
Terrain:
mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south,
rugged hills in northeast
Natural resources:
gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium; bauxite, iron ore,
manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use:
arable land 2%; permanent crops NEGL%; meadows and pastures 25%; forest and
woodland 7%; other 66%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
hot, dust-laden harmattan; haze common during dry seasons; desertification
Note:
landlocked

:Mali People

Population:
8,641,178 (July 1992), growth rate 2.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
52 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
21 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
-5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
110 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
43 years male, 47 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Malian(s); adjective - Malian
Ethnic divisions:
Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole) 50%, Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%,
Tuareg and Moor 5%, other 10%
Religions:
Muslim 90%, indigenous beliefs 9%, Christian 1%
Languages:
French (official); Bambara spoken by about 80% of the population; numerous
African languages
Literacy:
32% (male 41%, female 24%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
2,666,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 80%, services 19%, industry and commerce
1% (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)
Organized labor:
National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is umbrella organization for over 13
national unions

:Mali Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Mali
Type:
republic; an interim government appointed by the national reform conference
has organized a series of democratic elections and is scheduled to hand over
power to an elected government on 26 March 1992
Capital:
Bamako
Administrative divisions:
8 regions (regions, singular - region); Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti,
Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou
Independence:
22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French Sudan)
Constitution:
2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981 and March 1985;
new constitution presented during national reform conference in August 1991;
a constitutional referendum is scheduled for 16 January 1992
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic, 22 September (1960)
Executive branch:
Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP) composed of 25
members, predominantly civilian
Legislative branch:
Transition Committee for the Salvation of the People (CTSP)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Lt. Col. Amadou Toumani TOURE
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Soumana SAKO (since 2 April 1991)
Political parties and leaders:
formerly the only party, the Democratic Union of Malian People (UDPM), was
disbanded after the coup of 26 March 1991, and the new regime legalized the
formation of political parties on 5 April 1991; new political parties are
Union of Democratic Forces (UFD), Demba DIALLO; Union for Democracy and
Development (UDD), Moussa Bala COULIBALY; Sudanese Union/African Democratic
Rally (US-RDA), Mamadou Madeira KEITA; African Party for Solidarity and
Justice (ADEMA), Alpha Oumar KONARE; Party for Democracy and Progress (PDP),
Idrissa TRAORE; Democratic Party for Justice (PDJ), Abdul BA; Rally for
Democracy and Progress (RDP), Almany SYLLA; Party for the Unity of Malian
People (PUPM), Nock AGATTIA; Hisboulah al Islamiya, Hamidou DRAMERA; Union
of Progressive Forces (UFP), Yacouba SIDIBE; National Congress of Democratic
Initiative (CNID), Mountaga TALL; Assembly for Justice and Progress, Kady
DRAME; Sudanese Progressive Party (PPS), Sekene Mody SISSOKO; numerous small
parties formed in 1991; 46 total parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
President:
last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held March 1992); results - Gen. Moussa
TRAORE was reelected without opposition

:Mali Government

National Assembly:
last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held NA 1992); results - UDPM was the
only party; seats - (82 total) UDPM 82; note - following the military coup
of 26 March 1991, President TRAORE was deposed and the UDPM was disbanded;
the 25-member CTSP has instituted a multiparty system, and presidential
elections are to be held on 26 March 1992 and legislative elections on 9
February 1992 (new National Assembly to have 116 seats)
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM,
OAU, OIC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WADB, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Mohamed Alhousseyni TOURE; Chancery at 2130 R Street NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-2249 or 939-8950
US:
Ambassador Herbert D. GELBER; Embassy at Rue Rochester NY and Rue Mohamed
V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone [223] 225470;
FAX [233] 22-80-59
Flag:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

:Mali Economy

Overview:
Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about 70% of its land
area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely confined to the
riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the population live as
nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture and
fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.2 billion, per capita $265; real growth rate
2.2% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
-1.6% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $329 million; expenditures $519 million, including capital
expenditures of $178 (1989 est.)
Exports:
$285 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
livestock, peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins
partners:
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
Imports:
$513 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.)
commodities:
textiles, vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals
partners:
mostly franc zone and Western Europe
External debt:
$2.2 billion (1989 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 19.9% (1989 est.); accounts for 7% of GDP
Electricity:
260,000 kW capacity; 750 million kWh produced, 90 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
small local consumer goods and processing, construction, phosphate, gold,
fishing
Agriculture:
accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small subsistence farms;
cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of exports; other crops -
millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; livestock - cattle, sheep, and
goats
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $349 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $3,020 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $190
million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Mali Communications

Railroads:
642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail system through Kayes
Highways:
about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km paved, 3,670 km gravel and improved earth,
10,360 km unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
1,815 km navigable
Civil air:
no major transport aircraft
Airports:
35 total, 27 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
domestic system poor but improving; provides only minimal service with radio
relay, wire, and radio communications stations; expansion of radio relay in
progress; 11,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV;
satellite earth stations - 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT

:Mali Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Republican Guard, National Guard, National
Police, Surete Nationale
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 1,701,050; 966,293 fit for military service; no conscription
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $41 million, 2% of GDP (1989)

:Malta Geography

Total area:
320 km2
Land area:
320 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
140 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
25 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers
Terrain:
mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs
Natural resources:
limestone, salt
Land use:
arable land 38%; permanent crops 3%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 59%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very scarce - increasing
reliance on desalination
Note:
strategic location in central Mediterranean, 93 km south of Sicily, 290 km
north of Libya

:Malta People

Population:
359,231 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
14 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
74 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Maltese (singular and plural); adjective - Maltese
Ethnic divisions:
mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian, English
Religions:
Roman Catholic 98%
Languages:
Maltese and English (official)
Literacy:
84% (male 86%, female 82%) age 15 and over can read and write (1985)
Labor force:
127,200; government (excluding job corps) 37%, services 26%, manufacturing
22%, training programs 9%, construction 4%, agriculture 2% (1990)
Organized labor:
about 40% of labor force

:Malta Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Malta
Type:
parliamentary democracy
Capital:
Valletta
Administrative divisions:
none (administration directly from Valletta)
Independence:
21 September 1964 (from UK)
Constitution:
26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974
Legal system:
based on English common law and Roman civil law; has accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 21 September
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Constitutional Court and Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April 1989)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy
Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO (since 14 May 1987)
Political parties and leaders:
Nationalist Party (NP), Edward FENECH ADAMI; Malta Labor Party (MLP), Alfred
SANT
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 22 February 1992 (next to be held by February 1997); results -
NP 51.8%, MLP 46.5%; seats - (usually 65 total) MLP 36, NP 29; note -
additional seats are given to the party with the largest popular vote to
ensure a legislative majority; current total 69 (MLP 33, NP 36 after
adjustment)
Member of:
C, CCC, CE, CSCE, EBRD, ECE, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IFAD, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, NAM, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Albert BORG OLIVIER DE PUGET; Chancery at 2017 Connecticut Avenue
NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3611 or 3612; there is a
Maltese Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Sally J. NOVETZKE; Embassy at 2nd Floor, Development House, Saint
Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta (mailing address is P. O. Box 535,
Valletta); telephone [356] 240424, 240425, 243216, 243217, 243653, 223654;
FAX same as phone numbers
Flag:
two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper
hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red

:Malta Economy

Overview:
Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic location, and a
productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its food needs, has
limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy sources.
Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on foreign trade and services.
Manufacturing and tourism are the largest contributors to the economy.
Manufacturing accounts for about 27% of GDP, with the electronics and
textile industries major contributors. In 1990 inflation was held to a low
3.0%. Per capita GDP at $7,000 places Malta in the middle-income range of
the world's nations.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $2.5 billion, per capita $7,000 (1991 est.); real
growth rate 5.5% (1990)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.0% (1990)
Unemployment rate:
3.8% (1990)
Budget:
revenues $1.3 billion; expenditures $1.3 billion, including capital
expenditures of $380 million (1992 plan)
Exports:
$l.1 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
clothing, textiles, footwear, ships
partners:
Italy 30%, Germany 22%, UK 11%
Imports:
$2.0 billion (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
food, petroleum, machinery and semimanufactured goods
partners:
Italy 30%, UK 16%, Germany 13%, US 4%
External debt:
$90 million, medium and long term (December 1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate 19.0% (1990); accounts for 27% of GDP
Electricity:
328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced, 2,990 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, electronics, ship repair yard, construction, food manufacturing,
textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco
Agriculture:
accounts for 3% of GDP; overall, 20% self-sufficient; main products -
potatoes, cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers,
green peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; generally adequate supplies of
vegetables, poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal or periodic shortages in
grain, animal fodder, fruits, other basic foodstuffs
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $336 million; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $48
million
Currency:
Maltese lira (plural - liri); 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents
Exchange rates:
Maltese liri (LM) per US$1 - 0.3257 (March 1992), 0.3004 (1991), 0.3172
(1990), 0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988), 0.3451 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Malta Communications

Highways:
1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or gravel, 35
km improved and unimproved earth
Ports:
Valletta, Marsaxlokk
Merchant marine:
658 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,003,001 GRT/15,332,287 DWT;
includes 3 passenger, 13 short-sea passenger, 241 cargo, 14 container, 2
passenger-cargo, 16 roll-on/roll-off, 2 vehicle carrier, 1 barge carrier, 15
refrigerated cargo, 11 chemical tanker, 12 combination ore/oil, 2
specialized tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 124 petroleum tanker, 176 bulk, 23
combination bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry; China owns 2 ships,
former republics of the USSR own 52 ships, Cuba owns 10, Vietnam owns 6,
Yugoslavia owns 9, Romania owns 4
Civil air:
7 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
automatic system satisfies normal requirements; 153,000 telephones;
excellent service by broadcast stations - 8 AM, 4 FM, and 2 TV; submarine
cable and radio relay between islands; international service by 1 submarine
cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Malta Defense Forces

Branches:
Armed Forces, Maltese Police Force
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 95,661; 76,267 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $21.9 million, 1.3% of GDP (1989 est.)

:Man, Isle of Geography

Total area:
588 km2
Land area:
588 km2
Comparative area:
slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
113 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half the time
Terrain:
hills in north and south bisected by central valley
Natural resources:
lead, iron ore
Land use:
arable land NA%; permanent crops NA%; meadows and pastures NA%; forest and
woodland NA%; other NA%; extensive arable land and forests
Environment:
strong westerly winds prevail
Note:
located in Irish Sea equidistant from England, Scotland, and Ireland

:Man, Isle of People

Population:
64,068 (July 1992), growth rate 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
11 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
9 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 78 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.8 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Manxman, Manxwoman; adjective - Manx
Ethnic divisions:
native Manx of Norse-Celtic descent; British
Religions:
Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Society of
Friends
Languages:
English, Manx Gaelic
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) but compulsory education ages 5 to 16
Labor force:
25,864 (1981)
Organized labor:
22 labor unions patterned along British lines

:Man, Isle of Government

Long-form name:
none
Type:
British crown dependency
Capital:
Douglas
Administrative divisions:
none (British crown dependency)
Independence:
none (British crown dependency)
Constitution:
1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act
Legal system:
English law and local statute
National holiday:
Tynwald Day, 5 July
Executive branch:
British monarch, lieutenant governor, prime minister, Executive Council
(cabinet)
Legislative branch:
bicameral Tynwald consists of an upper house or Legislative Council and a
lower house or House of Keys
Judicial branch:
High Court of Justice
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Lieutenant Governor Air Marshal Sir Laurence JONES (since NA 1990)
Head of Government:
President of the Legislative Council Sir Charles KERRUISH (since NA 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
there is no party system and members sit as independents
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
House of Keys:
last held in 1991 (next to be held NA 1996); results - percent of vote NA;
no party system; seats - (24 total) independents 24
Member of:
none
Diplomatic representation:
none (British crown dependency)
Flag:
red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the center; the three
legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order to have the toes
pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided emblem is used
ria), in the center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the
knee; in order to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the
flag, a two-sided emblem is used

:Man, Isle of Economy

Overview:
Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of the economy.
The government's policy of offering incentives to high-technology companies
and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in expanding
employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result, agriculture
and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in their
shares of GNP. Banking now contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing
about 15%. Trade is mostly with the UK.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $490 million, per capita $7,573; real growth rate
NA% (1988)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA%
Unemployment rate:
1.5% (1988)
Budget:
revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million, including capital
expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)
Exports:
$NA
commodities:
tweeds, herring, processed shellfish, meat
partners:
UK
Imports:
$NA
commodities:
timber, fertilizers, fish
partners:
UK
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced, 2,930 kWh per capita (1989)
Industries:
an important offshore financial center; financial services, light
manufacturing, tourism
Agriculture:
cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
Manx pound (plural - pounds); 1 Manx pound (#M) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Manx pounds (#M) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0. 6102 (1987); the Manx pound is at
par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March

:Man, Isle of Communications

Railroads:
36 km electric track, 24 km steam track
Highways:
640 km motorable roads
Ports:
Douglas, Ramsey, Peel
Merchant marine:
79 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,436,196 GRT/2,479,432 DWT; includes
12 cargo, 7 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off, 30 petroleum tanker, 4 chemical
tanker, 5 liquefied gas, 11 bulk; note - a captive register of the United
Kingdom, although not all ships on the register are British owned
Airports:
1 total; 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
24,435 telephones; broadcast stations - 1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

:Man, Isle of Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the UK

:Marshall Islands Geography

Total area:
181.3 km2
Land area:
181.3 km2; includes the atolls of Bikini, Eniwetok, and Kwajalein
Comparative area:
slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
370.4 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
claims US territory of Wake Island
Climate:
wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border typhoon belt
Terrain:
low coral limestone and sand islands
Natural resources:
phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed minerals
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 60%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 40%
Environment:
occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic island chains of 30
atolls and 1,152 islands
Note:
located 3,825 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea; Bikini and
Eniwetok are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War
II battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

:Marshall Islands People

Population:
50,004 (July 1992), growth rate 3.9% (1992)
Birth rate:
47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
52 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
61 years male, 64 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
7.0 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Marshallese (singular and plural); adjective - Marshallese
Ethnic divisions:
almost entirely Micronesian
Religions:
predominantly Christian, mostly Protestant
Languages:
English universally spoken and is the official language; two major
Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; Japanese
Literacy:
93% (male 100%, female 88%) age 15 and over can read and write (1980)
Labor force:
4,800 (1986)
Organized labor:
none

:Marshall Islands Government

Long-form name:
Republic of the Marshall Islands
Type:
constitutional government in free association with the US; the Compact of
Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986
Capital:
Majuro
Administrative divisions:
none
Independence:
21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship; formerly the
Marshall Islands District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Constitution:
1 May 1979
Legal system:
based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the legislature, municipal,
common, and customary laws
National holiday:
Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1 May (1979)
Executive branch:
president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral Nitijela (parliament)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Amata KABUA (since 1979)
Political parties and leaders:
no formal parties; President KABUA is chief political (and traditional)
leader
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
President:
last held 6 January 1992 (next to be held NA; results - President Amata
KABUA was reelected
Parliament:
last held 18 November 1991 (next to be held November 1995); results -
percent of vote NA; seats - (33 total)
Member of:
AsDB, ESCAP (associate), ICAO, SPC, SPF, UN, UNCTAD
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Wilfred I. KENDALL; Chancery at 2433 Massachusetts Avenue, NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-5414
US:
Ambassador William BODDE, Jr.; Embassy at NA address (mailing address is P.
O. Box 1379, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960-1379); telephone
(011) 692-4011; FAX (011) 692-4012
Flag:
blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side corner - orange
(top) and white; there is a white star with four large rays and 20 small
rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

:Marshall Islands Economy

Overview:
Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy. Agricultural
production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important commercial
crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few cattle ranches
supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry is limited to
handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary
source of foreign exchange and employs about 10% of the labor force. The
islands have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987
the US Government provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese
budget of $55 million.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $63 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate
NA% (1989 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
NA
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $55 million; expenditures NA, including capital expenditures of NA
(1987 est.)
Exports:
$2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985)
commodities:
copra, copra oil, agricultural products, handicrafts
partners:
NA
Imports:
$29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985)
commodities:
foodstuffs, beverages, building materials
partners:
NA
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
42,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced, 1,840 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearls; offshore
banking (embryonic)
Agriculture:
coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, copra; pigs, chickens
Economic aid:
under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to provide
approximately $40 million in aid annually
Currency:
US currency is used
Exchange rates:
US currency is used
Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September

:Marshall Islands Communications

Highways:
paved roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein), otherwise stone-, coral-,
or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks
Ports:
Majuro
Merchant marine:
32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,347,312 GRT/4,630,172 DWT; includes
2 cargo, 1 container, 9 petroleum tanker, 18 bulk carrier, 2 combination
ore/oil; note - a flag of convenience registry
Airports:
17 total, 16 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with runways
1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
telephone network - 570 lines (Majuro) and 186 (Ebeye); telex services;
islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government
purposes); broadcast stations - 1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 2 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite communications system
on Kwajalein

:Marshall Islands Defense Forces

Note:
defense is the responsibility of the US

:Martinique Geography

Total area:
1,100 km2
Land area:
1,060 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
290 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to October)
Terrain:
mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano
Natural resources:
coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land
Land use:
arable land 10%; permanent crops 8%; meadows and pastures 30%; forest and
woodland 26%; other 26%; includes irrigated 5%
Environment:
subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that result in an
average of one major natural disaster every five years
Note:
located 625 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

:Martinique People

Population:
371,803 (July 1992), growth rate 1.4% (1992)
Birth rate:
19 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
11 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
75 years male, 81 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Martiniquais (singular and plural); adjective - Martiniquais
Ethnic divisions:
African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture 90%, Caucasian 5%, East Indian,
Lebanese, Chinese less than 5%
Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, Hindu and pagan African 5%
Languages:
French, Creole patois
Literacy:
93% (male 92%, female 93%) age 15 and over can read and write (1982)
Labor force:
100,000; service industry 31.7%, construction and public works 29.4%,
agriculture 13.1%, industry 7.3%, fisheries 2.2%, other 16.3%
Organized labor:
11% of labor force

:Martinique Government

Long-form name:
Department of Martinique
Type:
overseas department of France
Capital:
Fort-de-France
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas department of France)
Independence:
none (overseas department of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
French legal system
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
government commissioner
Legislative branch:
unicameral General Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981)
Head of Government:
Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE (since 5 May 1989); President of
the General Council Emile MAURICE (since NA 1988)
Suffrage:
universal at age 18

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