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2,525 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical, but moderate
Terrain:
mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs
Natural resources:
timber, fish, cobalt
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 19%; meadows and pastures 5%; forest and
woodland 31%; other 44%
Environment:
occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five archipelagoes
Note:
Makatea in French Polynesia is one of the three great phosphate rock islands
in the Pacific Ocean - the others are Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and
Nauru

:French Polynesia People

Population:
205,620 (July 1992), growth rate 2.3% (1992)
Birth rate:
28 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
5 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
15 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
68 years male, 73 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
3.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - French Polynesian(s); adjective - French Polynesian
Ethnic divisions:
Polynesian 78%, Chinese 12%, local French 6%, metropolitan French 4%
Religions:
mainly Christian; Protestant 54%, Roman Catholic 30%, other 16%
Languages:
French and Tahitian (both official)
Literacy:
98% (male 98%, female 98%) age 14 and over but definition of literacy not
available (1977)
Labor force:
76,630 employed (1988)
Organized labor:
NA

:French Polynesia Government

Long-form name:
Territory of French Polynesia
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1946
Capital:
Papeete
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 5 archipelagic
divisions named Archipel des Marquises, Archipel des Tuamotu, Archipel des
Tubuai, Iles du Vent, and Iles Sous-le-Vent; note - Clipperton Island is
administered by France from French Polynesia
Independence:
none (overseas territory of France)
Constitution:
28 September 1958 (French Constitution)
Legal system:
based on French system
National holiday:
Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)
Executive branch:
French president, high commissioner of the republic, president of the
Council of Ministers, vice president of the Council of Ministers, Council of
Ministers
Legislative branch:
unicameral Territorial Assembly
Judicial branch:
Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the
Republic Jean MONTPEZAT (since November 1987)
Head of Government:
President of the Council of Ministers Gaston FLOSSE (since 10 May 1991);
Vice President of the Council of Ministers Joel BUILLARD (since 12 September
1991)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Rally (Tahoeraa Huiraatira; Gaullist), Gaston FLOSSE; Polynesian
Union Party (Te Tiarama; centrist), Alexandre LEONTIEFF; New Fatherland
Party (Ai'a Api), Emile VERNAUDON; Polynesian Liberation Front (Tavini
Huiraatira), Oscar TEMARU; other small parties
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
National Assembly last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held June 1993);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (2 total) People's Rally
(Gaullist) 1, New Fatherland Party 1
French Senate:
last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September 1992); results -
percent of vote by party NA; seats - (1 total) party NA
Territorial Assembly:
last held 17 March 1991 (next to be held March 1996); results - percent of
vote by party NA; seats - (41 total) People's Rally (Gaullist) 18,
Polynesian Union Party 14, New Fatherland Party 5, other 4
Member of:
FZ, ICFTU, SPC, WMO
Diplomatic representation:
as an overseas territory of France, French Polynesian interests are
represented in the US by France

:French Polynesia Government

Flag:
the flag of France is used

:French Polynesia Economy

Overview:
Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in the region, French
Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one in which a high
proportion of the work force is either employed by the military or supports
the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP and is a primary
source of hard currency earnings.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $1.2 billion, per capita $6,000; real growth rate
NA% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.9% (1989)
Unemployment rate:
14.9% (1988 est.)
Budget:
revenues $614 million; expenditures $957 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1988)
Exports:
$88.9 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark meat
partners:
France 54%, US 17%, Japan 17%
Imports:
$765 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
fuels, foodstuffs, equipment
partners:
France 53%, US 11%, Australia 6%, NZ 5%
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
72,000 kW capacity; 265 million kWh produced, 1,390 kWh per capita (1990)
Industries:
tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts
Agriculture:
coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit; poultry, beef, dairy
products
Economic aid:
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-88),
$3.95 billion
Currency:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural - francs); 1 CFP franc (CFPF)
= 100 centimes
Exchange rates:
Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per US$1 - 97.81 (January
1992), 102.57 (1991), 99.00 (1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27
(1987); note - linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French franc
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:French Polynesia Communications

Highways:
600 km (1982)
Ports:
Papeete, Bora-bora
Merchant marine:
3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,128 GRT/6,710 DWT; includes 2
passenger-cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo; note - a captive subset of the French
register
Civil air:
about 6 major transport aircraft
Airports:
43 total, 41 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV sets; broadcast
stations - 5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:French Polynesia Defense Forces

Branches:
French forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force), Gendarmerie
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 50,844; NA fit for military service
Note:
defense is responsibility of France

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Geography

Total area:
7,781 km2
Land area:
7,781 km2; includes Ile Amsterdam, Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles
Crozet; excludes Terre Adelie claim of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica that
is not recognized by the US
Comparative area:
slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
none
Coastline:
1,232 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm (Iles Kerguelen only)
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
Terre Adelie claim in Antarctica is not recognized by the US
Climate:
antarctic
Terrain:
volcanic
Natural resources:
fish, crayfish
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes
Note:
located in the southern Indian Ocean about equidistant between Africa,
Antarctica, and Australia

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands People

Population:
summer (January 1991) - 200, winter (July 1992) - 150, growth rate 0.0%
(1992); note - mostly researchers

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Government

Long-form name:
Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Type:
overseas territory of France since 1955; governed by High Administrator
Bernard de GOUTTES (since May 1990), who is assisted by a 7-member
Consultative Council and a 12-member Scientific Council
Capital:
none; administered from Paris, France
Administrative divisions:
none (overseas territory of France); there are no first-order administrative
divisions as defined by the US Government, but there are 3 districts named
Ile Crozet, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Saint-Paul et Amsterdam; excludes Terre
Adelie claim in Antarctica that is not recognized by the US
Flag:
the flag of France is used

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Economy

Overview:
Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and geophysical
research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fishing catches
landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships are exported to France and
Reunion.
Budget:
$33.6 million (1990)

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Communications

Ports:
none; offshore anchorage only
Merchant marine:
12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 192,752 GRT/334,400 DWT; includes 1
cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum tanker, 1
liquefied gas, 2 bulk, 1 multifunction large load carrier; note - a captive
subset of the French register
Telecommunications:
NA

:French Southern and Antarctic Lands Defense Forces

Branches:
French Forces (including Army, Navy, Air Force)
Note:
defense is the responsibility of France

:Gabon Geography

Total area:
267,670 km2
Land area:
257,670 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Colorado
Land boundaries:
2,551 km; Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km, Equatorial Guinea 350 km
Coastline:
885 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
maritime boundary dispute with Equatorial Guinea because of disputed
sovereignty over islands in Corisco Bay
Climate:
tropical; always hot, humid
Terrain:
narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south
Natural resources:
crude oil, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore
Land use:
arable land 1%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 18%; forest and
woodland 78%; other 2%
Environment:
deforestation

:Gabon People

Population:
1,106,355 (July 1992), growth rate 1.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
29 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
14 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
100 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
51 years male, 56 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
4.1 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Gabonese (singular and plural); adjective - Gabonese
Ethnic divisions:
about 40 Bantu tribes, including four major tribal groupings (Fang, Eshira,
Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000 expatriate Africans and Europeans,
including 27,000 French
Religions:
Christian 55-75%, Muslim less than 1%, remainder animist
Languages:
French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira, Bandjabi
Literacy:
61% (male 74%, female 48%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
120,000 salaried; agriculture 65.0%, industry and commerce 30.0%, services
2.5%, government 2.5%; 58% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
there are 38,000 members of the national trade union, the Gabonese Trade
Union Confederation (COSYGA)

:Gabon Government

Long-form name:
Gabonese Republic
Type:
republic; multiparty presidential regime (opposition parties legalized 1990)
Capital:
Libreville
Administrative divisions:
9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue, Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga,
Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo, Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem
Independence:
17 August 1960 (from France)
Constitution:
21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975
Legal system:
based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial review of
legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction not accepted
National holiday:
Renovation Day (Gabonese Democratic Party established), 12 March (1968)
Executive branch:
president, prime minister, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967)
Head of Government:
Prime Minister Casimir OYE-MBA (since 3 May 1990)
Political parties and leaders:
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG, former sole party), El Hadj Omar BONGO,
president; National Recovery Movement - Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons);
Gabonese Party for Progress (PGP); National Recovery Movement
(Morena-Original); Association for Socialism in Gabon (APSG); Gabonese
Socialist Union (USG); Circle for Renewal and Progress (CRP); Union for
Democracy and Development (UDD)
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
National Assembly:
last held on 28 October 1990 (next to be held by NA); results - percent of
vote NA; seats - (120 total, 111 elected) PDG 62, National Recovery Movement
- Lumberjacks (Morena-Bucherons) 19, PGP 18, National Recovery Movement
(Morena-Original) 7, APSG 6, USG 4, CRP 1, independents 3
President:
last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held December 1993); results -
President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition
Member of:
ACCT, ACP, AfDB, BDEAC, CCC, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, FZ, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICC, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS (associate), NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador-designate Alexandre SAMBAT; Chancery at 2034 20th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-1000

:Gabon Government

US:
Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE; Embassy at Boulevard de la Mer, Libreville
(mailing address is B. P. 4000, Libreville); telephone (241) 762003/4, or
743492
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

:Gabon Economy

Overview:
The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until the early 1970s, is now
dominated by the oil sector. During the period 1981-85, oil accounted for
about 46% of GDP, 83% of export earnings, and 65% of government revenues on
average. The high oil prices of the early 1980s contributed to a substantial
increase in per capita income, stimulated domestic demand, reinforced
migration from rural to urban areas, and raised the level of real wages to
among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year slide of Gabon's
economy, which began with falling oil prices in 1985, was reversed in 1989
because of a near doubling of oil prices over their 1988 lows. In 1990 the
economy posted strong growth despite serious strikes, but debt servicing
problems are hindering economic advancement. The agricultural and industrial
sectors are relatively underdeveloped, except for oil.
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $3.3 billion, per capita $3,090; real growth rate
13% (1990 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3% (1989 est.)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including capital
expenditures of $277 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$1.16 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
crude oil 70%, manganese 11%, wood 12%, uranium 6%
partners:
France 53%, US 22%, FRG, Japan
Imports:
$0.78 billion (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products, construction materials,
manufactures, machinery
partners:
France 48%, US 2.6%, FRG, Japan, UK
External debt:
$3.4 billion (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate -10% (1988 est.)
Electricity:
315,000 kW capacity; 995 million kWh produced, 920 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
petroleum, food and beverages, timber, cement, plywood, textiles, mining -
manganese, uranium, gold
Agriculture:
accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); cash crops -
cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food; small
fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume (a
tropical softwood) is the most important timber product
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $66 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2,225 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $27 million
Currency:
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural - francs); 1 CFA franc (CFAF)
= 100 centimes

:Gabon Economy

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per US$1 - 269.01 (January
1992), 282.11 (1991), 272.26 (1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54
(1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Gabon Communications

Railroads:
649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track (Transgabonese Railroad)
Highways:
7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km earth
Inland waterways:
1,600 km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil 270 km; petroleum products 14 km
Ports:
Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville
Merchant marine:
2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563 GRT/25,330 DWT
Civil air:
15 major transport aircraft
Airports:
70 total, 59 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways
over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate system of cable, radio relay, tropospheric scatter links and
radiocommunication stations; 15,000 telephones; broadcast stations - 6 AM, 6
FM, 3 (5 repeaters) TV; satellite earth stations - 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 12 domestic satellite

:Gabon Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Presidential Guard, National Gendarmerie, National
Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 267,580; 134,665 fit for military service; 9,262 reach military
age (20) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $102 million, 3.2% of GDP (1990 est.)

:The Gambia Geography

Total area:
11,300 km2
Land area:
10,000 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Delaware
Land boundaries:
740 km; Senegal 740 km
Coastline:
80 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
18 nm
Continental shelf:
not specific
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite
Climate:
tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler, dry season (November
to May)
Terrain:
flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills
Natural resources:
fish
Land use:
arable land 16%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 9%; forest and
woodland 20%; other 55%; includes irrigated 3%
Environment:
deforestation
Note:
almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent of Africa

:The Gambia People

Population:
902,089 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
47 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
17 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
0 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
129 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
47 years male, 51 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Gambian(s); adjective - Gambian
Ethnic divisions:
African 99% (Mandinka 42%, Fula 18%, Wolof 16%, Jola 10%, Serahuli 9%, other
4%); non-Gambian 1%
Religions:
Muslim 90%, Christian 9%, indigenous beliefs 1%
Languages:
English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous vernaculars
Literacy:
27% (male 39%, female 16%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
400,000 (1986 est.); agriculture 75.0%, industry, commerce, and services
18.9%, government 6.1%; 55% population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
25-30% of wage labor force

:The Gambia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of The Gambia
Type:
republic under multiparty democratic rule
Capital:
Banjul
Administrative divisions:
5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River, MacCarthy Island, North Bank,
Upper River, Western
Independence:
18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal signed an agreement on 12
December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for the creation of a
loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the agreement was
dissolved on 30 September 1989
Constitution:
24 April 1970
Legal system:
based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law, and customary law;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
National holiday:
Independence Day, 18 February (1965)
Executive branch:
president, vice president, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Representatives
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice
President Bakary Bunja DARBO (since 12 May 1982)
Political parties and leaders:
People's Progressive Party (PPP), Dawda K. JAWARA, secretary general;
National Convention Party (NCP), Sheriff DIBBA; Gambian People's Party
(GPP), Hassan Musa CAMARA; United Party (UP), leader NA; People's Democratic
Organization of Independence and Socialism (PDOIS), leader NA; People's
Democratic Party (PDP), Jabel SALLAH
Suffrage:
universal at age 21
Elections:
House of Representatives:
last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held by March 1992); results - PPP
56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%; seats - (43 total, 36 elected) PPP
31, NCP 5
President:
last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992); results - Sir Dawda
JAWARA (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha DIBBA (NCP) 25.2%, Assan Musa CAMARA
(GPP) 13.7%
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, IDA,
IDB, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IOC, ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW,
Washington, DC 20005; telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359
US:
Ambassador Arlene RENDER; Embassy at Pipeline Road (Kairaba Avenue), Fajara,
Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19, Banjul); telephone Serrekunda
[220] 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

:The Gambia Government

Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges, and green

:The Gambia Economy

Overview:
The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural resources and has a
limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's poorest countries with a
per capita income of about $230. About 75% of the population is engaged in
crop production and livestock raising, which contribute 30% to GDP.
Small-scale manufacturing activity - processing peanuts, fish, and hides -
accounts for less than 10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia
imports one-third of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods.
Exports are concentrated on peanut products (about 75% of total value).
GDP:
exchange rate conversion - $207 million, per capita $235; real growth rate
3% (FY91 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
6.0% (FY91)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $79 million; expenditures $84 million, including capital
expenditures of $21 million (FY90)
Exports:
$116 million (f.o.b., FY90)
commodities:
peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels
partners:
Japan 60%, Europe 29%, Africa 5%, US 1, other 5% (1989)
Imports:
$147 million (f.o.b., FY90)
commodities:
foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery and transport
equipment
partners:
Europe 57%, Asia 25%, USSR/EE 9%, US 6%, other 3% (1989)
External debt:
$336 million (December 1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 6.7%; accounts for 5.8% of GDP (FY90)
Electricity:
30,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced, 75 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural machinery assembly,
woodworking, metalworking, clothing
Agriculture:
accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the population; imports
one-third of food requirements; major export crop is peanuts; the other
principal crops - millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava, palm kernels;
livestock - cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing resources not
fully exploited
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $93 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $535 million;
Communist countries (1970-89), $39 million
Currency:
dalasi (plural - dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs
Exchange rates:
dalasi (D) per US$1 - 8.790 (March 1992), 8.803 (1991), 7.883 (1990), 7.5846
(1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987)
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:The Gambia Communications

Highways:
3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151 km
unimproved earth
Inland waterways:
400 km
Ports:
Banjul
Civil air:
4 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m
Telecommunications:
adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500 telephones; broadcast
stations - 3 AM, 2 FM; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:The Gambia Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, National Gendarmerie, National Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 194,480; 98,271 fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - more than $1 million, 0.7% of GDP (1989)
\

:Gaza Strip Geography

Total area:
380 km2
Land area:
380 km2
Comparative area:
slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
62 km; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km
Coastline:
40 km
Maritime claims:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Disputes:
Israeli occupied with status to be determined
Climate:
temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers
Terrain:
flat to rolling, sand- and dune- covered coastal plain
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 13%, permanent crops 32%, meadows and pastures 0%, forest and
woodland 0%, other 55%
Environment:
desertification
Note:
The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with Israel in
control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David accords and reaffirmed by
President Bush's post - Gulf crisis peace initiative, the final status of
the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors,
and a peace treaty be-tween Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will
resolve the respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process,
it is US policy that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip
has yet to be determined. In the US view, the term West Bank describes all
of the area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before
the 1967 Arab-Israeli war. With respect to negotiations envisaged in the
framework agreement, however, it is US policy that a distinction must be
made between Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's
special status and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the
final status of Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the
rest of the West Bank.
The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military authorities and
Israeli civil administration; it is US policy that the final status of the
Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties;
these negotiations will determine how this area is to be governed.
There are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip.

:Gaza Strip People

Population:
681,026 (July 1992), growth rate 3.6% (1992); in addition, there are 4,000
Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip (1992 est.)
Birth rate:
46 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
6 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 4 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
41 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
66 years male, 68 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.9 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
NA
Ethnic divisions:
Palestinian Arab and other 99.8%, Jewish 0.2%
Religions:
Muslim (predominantly Sunni) 99%, Christian 0.7%, Jewish 0.3%
Languages:
Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew; English widely understood
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
(excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) small industry, commerce and business
32.0%, construction 24.4%, service and other 25.5%, and agriculture 18.1%
(1984)
Organized labor:
NA

:Gaza Strip Government

Long-form name:
none

:Gaza Strip Economy

Overview:
In 1990 roughly 40% of Gaza Strip workers were employed across the border by
Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural enterprises, with worker
remittances accounting for about one-third of GNP. The construction,
agricultural, and industrial sectors account for about 15%, 12%, and 8% of
GNP, respectively. Gaza depends upon Israel for some 90% of its external
trade. Unrest in the territory in 1988-92 (intifadah) has raised
unemployment and substantially lowered the standard of living of Gazans. The
Persian Gulf crisis and its aftershocks also have dealt severe blows to Gaza
since August 1990. Worker remittances from the Gulf states have plunged,
unemployment has increased, and exports have fallen dramatically. The area's
economic outlook remains bleak.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $380 million, per capita $590; real growth rate -
30% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
20% (1990 est.)
Budget:
revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $33.3 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY88)
Exports:
$30 million (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
citrus
partners:
Israel, Egypt
Imports:
$255 million (c.i.f., 1989)
commodities:
food, consumer goods, construction materials
partners:
Israel, Egypt
External debt:
$NA
Industrial production:
growth rate 10% (1989); accounts for about 8% of GNP
Electricity:
power supplied by Israel
Industries:
generally small family businesses that produce textiles, soap, olive-wood
carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis have established some
small-scale modern industries in an industrial center
Agriculture:
accounts for about 12% of GNP; olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables,
beef, dairy products
Economic aid:
NA
Currency:
new Israeli shekel (plural - shekels); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new
agorot
Exchange rates:
new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1 - 2.2984 (January 1992), 2.2792 (1991),
2.0162 (1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987)
Fiscal year:
previously 1 April - 31 March; FY91 was 1 April - 3l December, and since 1
January 1992 the fiscal year has conformed to the calendar year

:Gaza Strip Communications

Railroads:
one line, abandoned and in disrepair, some trackage remains
Highways:
small, poorly developed indigenous road network
Ports:
facilities for small boats to service the city of Gaza
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m
Telecommunications:
broadcast stations - no AM, no FM, no TV

:Gaza Strip Defense Forces

Branches:
NA
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 136,311; NA fit for military service
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP

:Georgia Geography

Total area:
69,700 km2
Land area:
69,700 km2
Comparative area:
slightly larger than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
1,461 km; Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Coastline:
310 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
NA nm
Continental Shelf:
NA meter depth
Exclusive economic zone:
NA nm
Exclusive fishing zone:
NA nm
Territorial sea:
NA nm, Georgian claims unknown; 12 nm in 1973 USSR-Turkish Protocol
concerning the sea boundary between the two states in the Black Sea
Disputes:
none
Climate:
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Terrain:
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser
Caucasus Mountains in the south; Colchis lowland opens to the Black Sea in
the west; Kura River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood
plains, foothills of Colchis lowland
Natural resources:
forest lands, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ores, copper, minor coal
and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and
citrus growth
Land use:
NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures; NA% forest
and woodland; NA% other; includes 200,000 hectares irrigated
Environment:
air pollution, particularly in Rustavi; heavy pollution of Kura River, Black
Sea

:Georgia People

Population:
5,570,978 (July 1992), growth rate 0.8% (1992)
Birth rate:
17 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
34 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
67 years male, 75 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.2 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Georgian(s); adjective - Georgian
Ethnic divisions:
Georgian 68.8%, Armenian 9.0%, Russian Azari 5.1%, Ossetian 3.2%, Abkhaz
1.7%, other 4.8%
Religions:
Russian Orthodox 10%, Georgian Orthodox 65%, Armenian Orthodox 8%, Muslim
11%, unknown 6%
Languages:
Georgian (official language) 71%, Russian 9%, other 20% - Armenian 7%,
Azerbaijani 6%
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write
Labor force:
2,834,000; agriculture 29.1% (1988), government NA%, industry 17.8%, other
53.1%
Organized labor:
NA

:Georgia Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Georgia
Type:
republic
Capital:
T'bilisi (Tbilisi)
Administrative divisions:
2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika);
Abkhazia (Sukhumi), Ajaria (Batumi); note - the administrative centers of
the autonomous republics are included in parentheses; there are no oblasts -
the rayons around T'bilisi are under direct republic jurisdiction; also
included is the South Ossetia Autonomous Oblast
Independence:
9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union); formerly Georgian Soviet Socialist
Republic
Constitution:
adopted NA, effective NA
Legal system:
NA
National holiday:
Independence Day, 9 April 1991
Executive branch:
State Council, chairman of State Council, Council of Ministers, prime
minister
Legislative branch:
unicameral Supreme Soviet
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Chairman of State Council Eduard SHEVARDNADZE (since March 1992)
Head of Government:
Acting Prime Minister Tengiz SIGUA (since January 1992); First Deputy Prime
Minister Otar KVILITAYA (since January 1992); First Deputy Prime Minister
Tengiz KITOVANI (since March 1992)
Political parties and leaders:
All-Georgian Merab Kostava Society, Vazha ADAMIA, chairman; All-Georgian
Tradionalists' Union, Akakiy ASATIANI, chairman; Georgian National Front -
Radical Union, Ruslan GONGADZE, chairman; Social-Democratic Party, Guram
MUCHAIDZE, chairman; All-Georgian Rustaveli Society, Akakiy BAKRADZE,
chairman; Georgian Monarchists' Party, Teymur JORJOLIANI, chairman; Georgian
Popular Front, Nodar NATADZE, chairman; National Democratic Party, Georgiy
CHANTURIA, chairman; National Independence Party, Irakliy TSERETELI,
chairman; Charter 1991 Party, Tedo PAATASHVILI, chairman; Democratic Georgia
Party, Georgiy SHENGELAYA, Chairman
Suffrage:
universal at age 18
Elections:
Georgian Parliament:
last held November 1990; results - 7-party coalition Round Table - Free
Georgia 62%, other 38%; seats - (250) Round Table - Free Georgia 155, other
95
President:
Zviad GAMSAKHURDIYA, 87% of vote
Other political or pressure groups:
NA
Member of:
CSCE, IMF, World Bank

:Georgia Government

Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador NA, Chancery at NA NW, Washington, DC 200__; telephone (202) NA
US:
Ambassador NA; Embassy at NA (mailing address is APO New York 09862)
Flag:
maroon field with small rectangle in upper left corner; rectangle divided
horizontally with black on top, white below

:Georgia Economy

Overview:
Among the former Soviet republics, Georgia is noted for its Black Sea
tourist industry, its large output of citrus fruits and tea, and the amazing
diversity of an industrial sector that accounted, however, for less than 2%
of the USSR's output. Another salient characteristic of the economy has been
a flourishing private sector (compared with the other republics). Almost 30%
of the labor force is employed in agriculture and 18% in industry. Mineral
resources consist of manganese and copper, and, to a lesser extent,
molybdenum, arsenic, tungsten, and mercury. Except for very small quantities
of domestic oil, gas, and coal, fuel must be imported from neighboring
republics. Oil and its products are delivered by pipeline from Azerbaijan to
the port of Batumi for export and local refining. Gas is supplied in
pipelines from Krasnodar and Stavropol'. Georgia is nearly self-sufficient
in electric power, thanks to abundant hydropower stations as well as some
thermal power stations. The dismantling of central economic controls is
being delayed by political factionalism, marked by armed struggles between
the elected government and the opposition, and industrial output seems to
have fallen more steeply in Georgia in 1991 than in any other of the former
Soviet republics. To prevent further economic decline, Georgia must
establish domestic peace and must maintain economic ties to the other former
Soviet republics while developing new links to the West.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - $NA; per capita $NA; real growth rate - 23%
(1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
approximately 90% (1991)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA
million (1991)
Exports:
$176 million (f.o.b., 1990)
commodities:
citrus fruits, tea, other agricultural products; diverse types of machinery;
ferrous and nonferrous metals; textiles
partners:
NA
Imports:
$1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1990)
commodities:
machinery and parts, fuel, transport equipment, textiles
partners:
NA
External debt:
$650 million (1991 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate - 19% (1991)
Electricity:
4,575,000 kW capacity; 15,300 million kWh produced, about 2,600 kWh per
capita (1991)
Industries:
Heavy industrial products include raw steel, rolled steel, cement, lumber;
machine tools, foundry equipment, electric mining locomotives, tower cranes,
electric welding equipment, machinery for food preparation, meat packing,
dairy, and fishing industries; air-conditioning electric motors up to 100 kW
in size, electric motors for cranes, magnetic starters for motors; devices
for control of industrial processes; trucks, tractors, and other farm
machinery; light industrial products, including cloth, hosiery, and shoes

:Georgia Economy

Agriculture:
accounted for 97% of former USSR citrus fruits and 93% of former USSR tea;
berries and grapes; sugar; vegetables, grains, and potatoes; cattle, pigs,
sheep, goats, and poultry
Illicit drugs:
illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for domestic consumption;
status of government eradication programs unknown; used as transshipment
points for illicit drugs to Western Europe
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $NA billion; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-86), $NA million;
Communist countries (1971-86), $NA million
Currency:
as of May 1992, retaining ruble as currency
Exchange rates:
NA
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Georgia Communications

Railroads:
1,570 km, does not include industrial lines (1990)
Highways:
33,900 km total; 29,500 km hard surfaced, 4,400 km earth (1990)
Inland waterways:
NA km perennially navigable
Pipelines:
crude oil NA km, refined products NA km, natural gas NA km
Ports:
maritime - Batumi, Poti; inland - NA
Merchant marine:
54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 715,802 GRT/1,108,068 DWT; includes 16
bulk cargo, 34 oil tanker, 2 chemical tanker, and 2 specialized liquid
carrier
Civil air:
NA major transport aircraft
Airports:
NA total, NA usable; NA with permanent-surface runways; NA with runways over
3,659 m; NA with runways 2,440-3,659 m; NA with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor telephone service; 339,000 unsatisfied applications for telephones (31
January 1992); international links via landline to CIS members and Turkey;
low capacity satellite earth station and leased international connections
via the Moscow international gateway switch

:Georgia Defense Forces

Branches:
Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops), National Guard; CIS
Forces (Ground, Navy, Air, and Air Defense)
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, NA fit for military service; NA reach military age (18)
annually
Defense expenditures:
$NA, NA% of GNP

:Germany Geography

Total area:
356,910 km2
Land area:
349,520 km2; comprises the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany,
the German Democratic Republic, and Berlin following formal unification on 3
October 1990
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
3,790 km; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czechoslovakia 815 km, Denmark 68
km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km,
Switzerland 334 km
Coastline:
2,389 km
Maritime claims:
Continental shelf:
200 m (depth) or to depth of exploitation
Exclusive fishing zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
North Sea and Schleswig-Holstein coast of Baltic Sea - 3 nm (extends, at one
point, to 16 nm in the Helgolander Bucht); remainder of Baltic Sea - 12 nm
Disputes:
the boundaries of Germany were set by the Treaty on the Final Settlement
With Respect to Germany signed 12 September 1990 in Moscow by the Federal
Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, France, the United
Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union; this Treaty entered into
force on 15 March 1991; a subsequent Treaty between Germany and Poland,
reaffirming the German-Polish boundary, was signed on 14 November 1990 and
took effect on 16 January 1992
Climate:
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional
warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity
Terrain:
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Natural resources:
iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt,
nickel
Land use:
arable land 34%; permanent crops 1%; meadows and pastures 16%; forest and
woodland 30%; other 19%; includes irrigated 1%
Environment:
air and water pollution; groundwater, lakes, and air quality in eastern
Germany are especially bad; significant deforestation in the eastern
mountains caused by air pollution and acid rain
Note:
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the
Baltic Sea

:Germany People

Population:
80,387,283 (July 1992), growth rate 0.5% (1992)
Birth rate:
11 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
11 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
5 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
7 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
73 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
1.4 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - German(s); adjective - German
Ethnic divisions:
primarily German; small Danish and Slavic minorities
Religions:
Protestant 45%, Roman Catholic 37%, unaffiliated or other 18%
Languages:
German
Literacy:
99% (male NA%, female NA%) age 15 and over can read and write (1970 est.)
Labor force:
36,750,000; industry 41%, agriculture 6%, other 53% (1987)
Organized labor:
47% of labor force (1986 est.)

:Germany Government

Long-form name:
Federal Republic of Germany
Type:
federal republic
Capital:
Berlin; note - the shift from Bonn to Berlin will take place over a period
of years with Bonn retaining many administrative functions and several
ministries
Administrative divisions:
16 states (lander, singular - land); Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Berlin,
Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen,
Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt,
Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringen
Independence:
18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of
occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II;
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and
included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic
(GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR
zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October
1990; all four power rights formally relinquished 15 March 1991
Constitution:
23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law
Legal system:
civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction
National holiday:
German Unity Day, 3 October (1990)
Executive branch:
president, chancellor, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
bicameral parliament (no official name for the two chambers as a whole)
consists of an upper chamber or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower
chamber or Federal Diet (Bundestag)
Judicial branch:
Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)
Leaders:
Chief of State:
President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1 July 1984)
Head of Government:
Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)
*** No entry for this item ***
Political parties and leaders:
Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut KOHL, chairman; Christian Social
Union (CSU), Theo WAIGEL; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Otto Count
LAMBSDORFF, chairman; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Bjoern ENGHOLM, -
chairman; - Green - Party - Ludger VOLMER, Christine WEISKE, co-chairmen
(after the 2 December 1990 election the East and West German Green Parties
united); Alliance 90 united to form one party in September 1991, Petra
MORAWE, chairwoman; Republikaner, Franz SCHOENHUBER; National Democratic
Party (NPD), Walter BACHMANN; Communist Party (DKP), Rolf PRIEMER
Suffrage:
universal at age 18

:Germany Government

Elections:
Federal Diet:
last held 2 December 1990 (next to be held October 1994); results - CDU
36.7%, SPD 33.5%, FDP 11.0%, CSU 7.1%, Green Party (West Germany) 3.9%, PDS
2.4%, Republikaner 2.1%, Alliance 90/Green Party (East Germany) 1.2%, other
2.1%; seats - (662 total, 656 statutory with special rules to allow for
slight expansion) CDU 268, SPD 239, FDP 79, CSU 51, PDS 17, Alliance
90/Green Party (East Germany) 8; note - special rules for this election
allowed former East German parties to win seats if they received at least 5%
of vote in eastern Germany
*** No entry for this item ***
Communists:
West - about 40,000 members and supporters; East - about 200,000 party
members (December 1991)
Other political or pressure groups:
expellee, refugee, and veterans groups
Member of:
AfDB, AG (observer), AsDB, BDEAC, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, COCOM, CSCE, EBRD, EC,
ECE, EIB, ESA, FAO, G-5, G-7, G-10, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC,
ICFTU, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INMARSAT, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NATO, NEA, OAS (observer), OECD, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,
UNESCO, UNIDO, UNHCR, UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Immo STABREIT will become Ambassador in late summer/early
fall 1992; Chancery at 4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007;
telephone (202) 298-4000; there are German Consulates General in Atlanta,
Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and
New York, and Consulates in Miami and New Orleans
US:
Ambassador Robert M. KIMMITT; Embassy at Deichmanns Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2
(mailing address is APO AE 09080); telephone [49] (228) 3391; there is a US
Branch Office in Berlin and US Consulates General in Frankfurt, Hamburg,
Leipzig, Munich, and Stuttgart
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow

:Germany Economy

Overview:
The Federal Republic of Germany is making substantial progress in
integrating and modernizing eastern Germany, but at a heavy economic cost.
Western Germany's growth in 1991 slowed to 3.1% - the lowest rate since 1987
- because of slack world growth and higher interest rates and taxes required
by the unification process. While western Germany's economy was in recession
in the last half of 1991, eastern Germany's economy bottomed out after a
nearly two-year freefall and shows signs of recovery, particularly in the
construction, transportation, and service sectors. Eastern Germany could
begin a fragile recovery later, concentrated in 1992 in construction,
transportation, and services. The two regions remain vastly different,
however, despite eastern Germany's progress. Western Germany has an advanced
market economy and is a world leader in exports. It has a highly urbanized
and skilled population that enjoys excellent living standards, abundant
leisure time, and comprehensive social welfare benefits. Western Germany is
relatively poor in natural resources, coal being the most important mineral.
Western Germany's world-class companies manufacture technologically advanced
goods. The region's economy is mature: services and manufacturing account
for the dominant share of economic activity, and raw materials and
semimanufactured goods constitute a large portion of imports. In recent
years, manufacturing has accounted for about 31% of GDP, with other sectors
contributing lesser amounts. Gross fixed investment in 1990 accounted for
about 21% of GDP. In 1991, GDP in the western region was an estimated
$19,200 per capita. In contrast, eastern Germany's economy is shedding the
obsolete heavy industries that dominated the economy during the Communist
era. Eastern Germany's share of all-German GDP is only about 7%, and eastern
productivity is just 30% that of the west. The privatization agency for
eastern Germany, the Treuhand, is rapidly selling many of the 11,500 firms
under its control. The pace of private investment is starting to pick up,
but questions about property rights and environmental liabilities remain.
Eastern Germany has one of the world's largest reserves of low-grade lignite
coal but little else in the way of mineral resources. The quality of
statistics from eastern Germany is improving, yet many gaps remain; the
federal government began producing all-German data for select economic
statistics at the start of 1992. The most challenging economic problem is
promoting eastern Germany's economic reconstruction - specifically, finding
the right mix of fiscal, monetary, regulatory, and tax policies that will
spur investment in eastern Germany - without destabilizing western Germany's
economy or damaging relations with West European partners. The biggest
danger is that excessive wage settlements and heavy federal borrowing could
fuel inflation and prompt the German Central Bank, the Bundesbank, to keep a
tight monetary policy to choke off a wage-price spiral. Meanwhile, the FRG
has been providing billions of dollars to help the former Soviet republics
and the reformist economies of Eastern Europe.
GDP:
purchasing power equivalent - Federal Republic of Germany: $1,331.4 billion,
per capita $16,700; real growth rate 0.7%; western Germany: $1,235.8
billion, per capita $19,200; real growth rate 3.1%; eastern Germany $95.6
billion, per capita $5,870; real growth rate - 30% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
West - 3.5% (1991); East - NA%
Unemployment rate:
West - 6.3% (1991); East - 11% (1991)
Budget:
West (federal, state, local) - revenues $684 billion; expenditures $704
billion, including capital expenditures $NA (1990), East - NA
Exports:
West - $324.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989)

:Germany Economy

commodities:
manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools, chemicals, motor
vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%, raw
materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%
Exports:
partners:
EC 53.3% (France 12.7%, Netherlands 8.3%, Italy 9.1%, UK 8.3%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7.3%), other Western Europe 15.9%, US 7.1%, Eastern
Europe 4.1%, OPEC 2.7% (1990)
Imports:
West - $346.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989)
commodities:
manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%, fuels 9.7%, raw materials
7.1%
partners:
EC 51.7% (France 11.7%, Netherlands 10.1%, Italy 9.3%, UK 6.7%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7.2%), other Western Europe 13.4%, US 6.6%, Eastern
Europe 3.8%, OPEC 2.5% (1990)
External debt:
West - $500 million (June 1988); East - $20.6 billion (1989)
Industrial production:
growth rates, West - 5.4% (1990); East - 30% (1991 est.)
Electricity:
133,000,000 kW capacity; 580,000 million kWh produced, 7,390 kWh per capita
(1991)
Industries:
West - among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics; food and
beverages; East - metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding,
machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum refining
Agriculture:
West - accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs,
poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987;
East - accounts for about 10% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
principal crops - wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net
importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987
Economic aid:
West - donor - ODA and OOF commitments (1970-89), $75.5 billion; East -
donor - $4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-89)
Currency:
deutsche mark (plural - deutsche marks); 1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige
Exchange rates:
deutsche marks (DM) per US$1 - 1.6611 (March 1992), 1.6595 (1991), 1.6157
(1990), 1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987)
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Germany Communications

Railroads:
West - 31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter standard
gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km
nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km
electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified); East -
14,025 km total; 13,750 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 275 km 1.000-meter or
other narrow gauge; 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter standard gauge double-track;
3,475 km overhead electrified (1988)
Highways:
West - 466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km autobahn,
32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state highways
(Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737 km of
secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen); East - 124,604 km total; 47,203
km concrete, asphalt, stone block, of which 1,855 km are autobahn and
limited access roads, 11,326 are trunk roads, and 34,022 are regional roads;
77,401 municipal roads (1988)
Inland waterways:
West - 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by craft of 1,000-metric ton
capacity or larger; major rivers include the Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is
an important connection between the Baltic Sea and North Sea; East - 2,319
km (1988)
Pipelines:
crude oil 3,644 km; petroleum products 3,946 km; natural gas 97,564 km
(1988)
Ports:
maritime - Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen, Hamburg, Kiel,
Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; inland - 31
major
Merchant marine:
607 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,210,060 GRT/6,626,333 DWT; includes
3 passenger, 5 short-sea passenger, 324 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo, 135
container, 31 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 5 railcar carrier, 6 barge carrier, 11
oil tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 22 liquefied gas tanker, 5 combination
ore/oil, 14 combination bulk, 15 bulk; note - the German register includes
ships of the former East and West Germany; during 1991 the fleet underwent
major restructuring as surplus ships were sold off
Civil air:
239 major transport aircraft
Airports:
462 total, 455 usable; 242 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways
over 3,659 m; 40 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
West - highly developed, modern telecommunication service to all parts of
the country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000 telephones;
intensively developed, highly redundant cable and radio relay networks, all
completely automatic; broadcast stations - 80 AM, 470 FM, 225 (6,000
repeaters) TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations - 12
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT antennas, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT antennas,
EUTELSAT, and domestic systems; 2 HF radiocommunication centers;
tropospheric links East - badly needs modernization; 3,970,000 telephones;
broadcast stations - 23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV (15 Soviet TV repeaters); 6,181,860
TVs; 6,700,000 radios; 1 satellite earth station operating in INTELSAT and
Intersputnik systems

:Germany Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, Federal Border Police
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 20,300,359; 17,612,677 fit for military service; 414,330 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $39.5 billion, 2.5% of GDP (1991)

:Ghana Geography

Total area:
238,540 km2
Land area:
230,020 km2
Comparative area:
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
2,093 km; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline:
539 km
Maritime claims:
Contiguous zone:
24 nm
Continental shelf:
200 nm
Exclusive economic zone:
200 nm
Territorial sea:
12 nm
Disputes:
none
Climate:
tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in
southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain:
mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Natural resources:
gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber
Land use:
arable land 5%; permanent crops 7%; meadows and pastures 15%; forest and
woodland 37%; other 36%; includes irrigated NEGL%
Environment:
recent drought in north severely affecting marginal agricultural activities;
deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry, northeasterly harmattan wind
(January to March)
Note:
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake

:Ghana People

Population:
16,185,351 (July 1992), growth rate 3.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
45 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
13 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 1 migrant/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
86 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
53 years male, 57 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
6.3 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Ghanaian(s); adjective - Ghanaian
Ethnic divisions:
black African 99.8% (major tribes - Akan 44%, Moshi-Dagomba 16%, Ewe 13%, Ga
8%), European and other 0.2%
Religions:
indigenous beliefs 38%, Muslim 30%, Christian 24%, other 8%
Languages:
English (official); African languages include Akan, Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and
Ga
Literacy:
60% (male 70%, female 51%) age 15 and over can read and write (1990 est.)
Labor force:
3,700,000; agriculture and fishing 54.7%, industry 18.7%, sales and clerical
15.2%, services, transportation, and communications 7.7%, professional 3.7%;
48% of population of working age (1983)
Organized labor:
467,000 (about 13% of labor force)

:Ghana Government

Long-form name:
Republic of Ghana
Type:
military
Capital:
Accra
Administrative divisions:
10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern,
Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence:
6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)
Constitution:
24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981
Legal system:
based on English common law and customary law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday:
Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Executive branch:
chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council (PNDC), PNDC, Cabinet
Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly dissolved after 31 December 1981 coup, and
legislative powers were assumed by the Provisional National Defense Council
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court
Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government:
Chairman of the Provisional National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry
John RAWLINGS (since 31 December 1981)
Political parties and leaders:
none; political parties outlawed after 31 December 1981 coup
Suffrage:
none
Elections:
no national elections; district assembly elections held in 1988-89
Member of:
ACP, AfDB, C, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-24, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO,
ITU, LORCS, NAM, OAU, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIIMOG, UPU, WCL,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation:
Ambassador Dr. Joseph ABBEY; Chancery at 3512 International Drive NW,
Washington, DC 20008; telephone (202) 686-4520; there is a Ghanaian
Consulate General in New York
US:
Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of Danquah
Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra); telephone [233]
(21) 775348, 775349
Flag:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a large
black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia, which has a
coat of arms centered in the yellow band

:Ghana Economy

Overview:
Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana has been
implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983, including
moves toward privatization and relaxation of government controls. Heavily
dependent on cocoa, gold, and timber exports, economic growth so far has not
spread substantially to other areas of the economy. The costs of sending
peacekeeping forces to Liberia and preparing for the transition to a
democratic government have been boosting government expenditures and
undercutting structural adjustment reforms. Ghana opened a stock exchange in
1990. Much of the economic improvement in 1991 was caused by favorable
weather (following a severe drought the previous year) that led to plentiful
harvests in Ghana's agriculturally based economy.
GDP:
$6.2 billion; per capita $400; real growth rate 5% (1991 est.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
10% (1991 est.)
Unemployment rate:
10% (1991)
Budget:
revenues $821 million; expenditures $782 million, including capital
expenditures of $151 million (1990 est.)
Exports:
$843 million (f.o.b., 1991 est.)
commodities:
cocoa 45%, gold, timber, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum
partners:
US 23%, UK, other EC
Imports:
$1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1991 est.)
commodities:
petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods, capital equipment
partners:
US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR
External debt:
$3.1 billion (1990 est.)
Industrial production:
growth rate 7.4% in manufacturing (1989); accounts for almost 1.5% of GDP
Electricity:
1,180,000 kW capacity; 4,140 million kWh produced, 265 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing, aluminum, food processing
Agriculture:
accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing and forestry); the
major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops - rice, coffee, cassava,
peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-89), $455 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $2.6 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist countries (1970-89), $106
million
Currency:
cedi (plural - cedis); 1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas
Fiscal year:
calendar year

:Ghana Communications

Railroads:
953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads undergoing
major renovation
Highways:
32,250 km total; 6,084 km concrete or bituminous surface, 26,166 km gravel,
laterite, and improved earth surfaces
Inland waterways:
Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 168 km of perennial navigation for
launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km of arterial and feeder
waterways
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
Tema, Takoradi
Merchant marine:
5 cargo and 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,435
GRT/69,167 DWT
Civil air:
8 major transport aircraft
Airports:
10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; none with runways over
3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
poor to fair system handled primarily by microwave links; 42,300 telephones;
broadcast stations - 4 AM, 1 FM, 4 (8 translators) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

:Ghana Defense Forces

Branches:
Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Civil Defense
Manpower availability:
males 15-49, 3,661,558; 2,049,842 fit for military service; 170,742 reach
military age (18) annually
Defense expenditures:
exchange rate conversion - $30 million, less than 1% of GNP (1989 est.)

:Gibraltar Geography

Total area:
6.5 km2
Land area:
6.5 km2
Comparative area:
about 11 times the size of the Mall in Washington, DC
Land boundaries:
1.2 km; Spain 1.2 km
Coastline:
12 km
Maritime claims:
Exclusive fishing zone:
3 nm
Territorial sea:
3 nm
Disputes:
source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK
Climate:
Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers
Terrain:
a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock
Natural resources:
negligible
Land use:
arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; meadows and pastures 0%; forest and
woodland 0%; other 100%
Environment:
natural freshwater sources are meager, so large water catchments (concrete
or natural rock) collect rain water
Note:
strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links the North Atlantic
Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

:Gibraltar People

Population:
29,651 (July 1992), growth rate 0.1% (1992)
Birth rate:
18 births/1,000 population (1992)
Death rate:
8 deaths/1,000 population (1992)
Net migration rate:
- 9 migrants/1,000 population (1992)
Infant mortality rate:
6 deaths/1,000 live births (1992)
Life expectancy at birth:
72 years male, 79 years female (1992)
Total fertility rate:
2.5 children born/woman (1992)
Nationality:
noun - Gibraltarian(s); adjective - Gibraltar
Ethnic divisions:
mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, and Spanish descent
Religions:
Roman Catholic 74%, Protestant 11% (Church of England 8%, other 3%), Moslem
8%, Jewish 2%, none or other 5% (1981)
Languages:
English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian, Portuguese, and Russian
also spoken; English used in the schools and for official purposes
Literacy:
NA% (male NA%, female NA%)
Labor force:
about 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers); UK military establishments
and civil government employ nearly 50% of the labor force
Organized labor:
over 6,000

:Gibraltar Government

Long-form name:
none
Digraph:
f Assembly *** last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held March 1992);
results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) SL 8,
GCL/AACR 7
Type:
dependent territory of the UK
Capital:
Gibraltar
Administrative divisions:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Independence:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Constitution:
30 May 1969
Legal system:
English law
National holiday:
Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March)
Executive branch:
British monarch, governor, chief minister, Gibraltar Council, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)
Legislative branch:
unicameral House of Assembly
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court, Court of Appeal
Leaders:
Chief of State:
Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor and
Commander in Chief Adm. Sir Derek REFFELL (since NA 1989)
Head of Government:
Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since 25 March 1988)
Political parties and leaders:
Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe BOSSANO; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association
for the Advancement of Civil Rights (GCL/AACR), leader NA; Gibraltar Social
Democrats, Peter CARUANA; Gibraltar National Party, Joe GARCIA
Suffrage:
universal at age 18, plus other UK subjects resident six months or more
Elections:
House of Assembly:
last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held March 1992); results - percent
of vote by party NA; seats - (18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, GCL/AACR 7
Other political or pressure groups:
Housewives Association, Chamber of Commerce, Gibraltar Representatives
Organization
Diplomatic representation:
none (dependent territory of the UK)
Flag:
two horizontal bands of white (top, double width) and red with a
three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the
castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

:Gibraltar Economy

Overview:
The economy depends heavily on British defense expenditures, revenue from
tourists, fees for services to shipping, and revenues from banking and
finance activities. Because more than 70% of the economy is in the public
sector, changes in government spending have a major impact on the level of
employment. Construction workers are particularly affected when government
expenditures are cut.
GNP:
exchange rate conversion - $182 million, per capita $4,600; real growth rate
5% (FY87)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.6% (1988)
Unemployment rate:
NA%
Budget:
revenues $136 million; expenditures $139 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (FY88)
Exports:
$82 million (f.o.b., 1988)
commodities:
(principally reexports) petroleum 51%, manufactured goods 41%, other 8%
partners:
UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG
Imports:
$258 million (c.i.f., 1988)
commodities:
fuels, manufactured goods, and foodstuffs
partners:
UK, Spain, Japan, Netherlands
External debt:
$318 million (1987)
Industrial production:
growth rate NA%
Electricity:
47,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 6,670 kWh per capita (1991)
Industries:
tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support to large UK
naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port; light
manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy, beer,
and canned fish
Agriculture:
none
Economic aid:
US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $0.8 million; Western (non-US)
countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-89), $188 million
Currency:
Gibraltar pound (plural - pounds); 1 Gibraltar pound (#G) = 100 pence
Exchange rates:
Gibraltar pounds (#G) per US$1 - 0.5799 (March 1992), 0.5652 (1991), 0.5603
(1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987); note - the Gibraltar
pound is at par with the British pound
Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June

:Gibraltar Communications

Railroads:
1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only
Highways:
50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete
Pipelines:
none
Ports:
Gibraltar
Merchant marine:
21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 795,356 GRT/1,490,737 DWT; includes 5
cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 6 petroleum tanker, 1 chemical
tanker, 6 bulk; note - a flag of convenience registry
Civil air:
1 major transport aircraft
Airports:
1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
Telecommunications:
adequate, automatic domestic system and adequate international
radiocommunication and microwave facilities; 9,400 telephones; broadcast
stations - 1 AM, 6 FM, 4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

:Gibraltar Defense Forces

Branches:
British Army, Royal Navy, Royal Air Force
Note:

Book of the day: