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Terrain: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains

Natural resources: bauxite, timber, gold (widely scattered), cinnabar,
kaolin, fish

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 82% forest and woodland; 18% other

Environment: mostly an unsettled wilderness

- People
Population: 97,781 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--French Guianese (sing., pl.); adjective--French Guiana

Ethnic divisions: 66% black or mulatto; 12% Caucasian; 12% East Indian,
Chinese, Amerindian; 10% other

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

Language: French

Literacy: 73%

Labor force: 23,265; 60.6% services, government, and commerce,
21.2% industry, 18.2% agriculture (1980)

Organized labor: 7% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Department of Guiana

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Cayenne

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, commissioner of the republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and a unicameral
Regional Council

Judicial branch: highest local court is the Court of Appeals based in
Martinique with jurisdiction over Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre LACROIX
(since NA August 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Guianese Socialist Party (PSG),
Gerard Holder; Rally for the Republic (RPR), Paulin Brune;
Guyanese Democratic Action (ADG), Andre Lecante; Union for French
Democracy (UDF), Claude Ho A Chuck; National Front, Guy Malon;
Popular and National Party of Guiana (PNPG), Claude Robo;
National Anti-Colonist Guianese Party (PANGA), Michel Kapel

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Regional Council--last held 16 March 1986 (next to be
held March 1991);
results--PSG 43%, RPR 27.7%, ADG 12.2%, UDF 8.9%, FN 3.7%,
PNPG 1.4%, others 3.1%;
seats--(31 total) PSG 15, RPR 9, ADG 4, UDF 3;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) PSG 1;

French National Assembly--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) PSG 1, RPR 1

Communists: Communist party membership negligible

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France
the interests of French Guiana are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: The economy is tied closely to that of France through subsidies
and imports. Besides the French space center at Kourou, fishing and forestry are
the most important economic activities, with exports of fish and fish products
(mostly shrimp) accounting for about two-thirds of total revenue in 1985. The
large reserves of tropical hardwoods, not fully exploited, support an expanding
sawmill industry that provides sawn logs for export. Cultivation of crops--rice,
cassava, bananas, and sugarcane--are limited to the coastal area, where the
population is largely concentrated. French Guiana is heavily dependent on
imports of food and energy. Unemployment is a serious problem, particularly
among younger workers, with an unemployment rate of 15%.

GDP: $210 million, per capita $3,230; real growth rate NA% (1982)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1987)

Budget: revenues $735 million; expenditures $735 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1987)

Exports: $37.0 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--shrimp, timber,
rum, rosewood essence;
partners--US 41%, Japan 18%, France 9% (1984)

Imports: $297.7 million (c.i.f., 1986);
commodities--food (grains, processed meat), other consumer goods, producer
goods, petroleum;
partners--France 55%, Trinidad and Tobago 13%, US 3% (1984)

External debt: $1.2 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 185 million kWh produced, 1,950 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: construction, shrimp processing, forestry products,
rum, gold mining

Agriculture: some vegetables for local consumption; rice, corn,
manioc, cocoa, bananas, sugar

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $1.1 billion

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 680 km total; 510 km paved, 170 km improved and unimproved
earth

Inland waterways: 460 km, navigable by small oceangoing vessels and
river and coastal steamers; 3,300 km possibly navigable by native craft

Ports: Cayenne

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 11 total, 11 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair open wire and radio relay system;
18,100 telephones; stations--5 AM, 7 FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
1Military manpower: males 15-49 27,866; 18,430 fit for military
service

Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: French Polynesia
(overseas territory of France)
- Geography
Total area: 3,941 km2; land area: 3,660 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than one-third the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 2,525 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderate

Terrain: mixture of rugged high islands and low islands with reefs

Natural resources: timber, fish, cobalt

Land use: 1% arable land; 19% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures;
31% forest and woodland; 44% other

Environment: occasional cyclonic storm in January; includes five
archipelagoes

Note: Makatea is one of three great phosphate rock islands in
the Pacific (others are Banaba or Ocean Island in Kiribati and Nauru)

- People
Population: 190,181 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--French Polynesian(s); adjective--French Polynesian

Ethnic divisions: 78% Polynesian, 12% Chinese, 6% local French,
4% metropolitan French

Religion: mainly Christian; 55% Protestant, 32% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official), Tahitian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 57,863 employed (1983)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of French Polynesia

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Papeete

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: based on French system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, high commissioner of the republic,
president of the Council of Ministers, vice president of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981); High Commissioner of the Republic Jean MONTPEZAT
(since NA November 1987);

Head of Government--President of the Council of Ministers
Alexandre LEONTIEFF (since 9 December 1987); Vice President of the
Council of Ministers Georges KELLY (since 9 December 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Tahoeraa Huiraatira (Gaullist),
Gaston Flosse; Pupu Here Ai'a, Jean Juventin; Front de Liberation, Oscar
Temaru; Ai'a Api, Emile Vernaudon; Ia Mana Te Nunaa, Jacques Drollet;
Pupu Taina, Michel Law; Toatiraa Polynesia, Arthur Chung; Te E'a Api,
Francis Sanford

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Territorial Assembly--last held 16 March 1986 (next to be held
March 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(41 total) Tahoeraa Huiraatira 24, Amuitahiraa Mo
Porinesia 6, Pupu Here Ai'a 4, Ia Mana 3, Front de Liberation 2,
other 2;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) Democrats for Progress 1;

French National Assembly last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be
held June 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) Rally for the Republic 1, Ai'a Api 1

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
French Polynesian interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: Since 1962, when France stationed military personnel in
the region, French Polynesia has changed from a subsistence economy to one
in which a high proportion of the work force is either employed by the military
or supports the tourist industry. Tourism accounts for about 20% of GDP
and is a primary source of hard currency earnings.

GDP: $2.24 billion, per capita $6,400; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 8% (1986 est.)

Budget: revenues $431; expenditures $418, including capital expenditures
of $NA (1986)

Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--coconut products 79%, mother-of-pearl 14%, vanilla, shark
meat;
partners--France 44%, US 21%

Imports: $767 million (c.i.f., 1986);
commodities--fuels, foodstuffs, equipment;
partners--France 50%, US 16%, New Zealand 6%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 72,000 kW capacity; 265 million kWh produced, 1,350 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, pearls, agricultural processing, handicrafts

Agriculture: coconut and vanilla plantations; vegetables and fruit;
poultry, beef, dairy products

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $3.6 billion

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1--104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987),
125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French
franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 600 km (1982)

Ports: Papeete, Bora-bora

Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,732
GRT/4,191 DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo; note--a subset of
the French register

Civil air: about 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 43 total, 41 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 12 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 33,200 telephones; 84,000 radio receivers; 26,400 TV
sets; stations--5 AM, 2 FM, 6 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: French Southern and Antarctic Lands
(overseas territory of France)
- Geography
Total area: 7,781 km2; land area: 7,781 km2; includes Ile Amsterdam,
Ile Saint-Paul, Iles Kerguelen, and Iles Crozet; excludes claim not
recognized by the US of about 500,000 km2 in Antarctica known as Terre Adelie

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Delaware

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,232 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploration;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claim in Antarctica (Terre Adelie) not recognized by the US

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic

Natural resources: fish, crayfish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: Ile Amsterdam and Ile Saint-Paul are extinct volcanoes

Note: located in the southern Indian Ocean about equidistant
between Africa, Antarctica, and Australia

- People
Population: 210 (July 1990), growth rate 0.00% (1990); mostly
researchers

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands

Type: overseas territory of France governed by High Administrator
Claude CORBIER (since NA 1988)

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to servicing meteorological and
geophysical research stations and French and other fishing fleets. The fishing
catches landed on Iles Kerguelen by foreign ships
are exported to France and Reunion.

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Merchant marine: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
217,203 GRT/348,632 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 3 refrigerated cargo,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 2 bulk;
note--a subset of the French register

Telecommunications: NA

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Gabon
- Geography
Total area: 267,670 km2; land area: 257,670 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: 2,551 km total; Cameroon 298 km, Congo 1,903 km,
Equatorial Guinea 350 km

Coastline: 885 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Equatorial Guinea

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; hilly interior; savanna in east and south

Natural resources: crude oil, manganese, uranium, gold, timber, iron ore

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures;
78% forest and woodland; 2% other

Environment: deforestation

- People
Population: 1,068,240 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 106 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Gabonese (sing., pl.); adjective--Gabonese

Ethnic divisions: about 40 Bantu tribes, including four major tribal
groupings (Fang, Eshira, Bapounou, Bateke); about 100,000 expatriate Africans
and Europeans, including 27,000 French

Religion: 55-75% Christian, less than 1% Muslim, remainder animist

Language: French (official), Fang, Myene, Bateke, Bapounou/Eschira,
Bandjabi

Literacy: 61.6%

Labor force: 120,000 salaried; 65.0% agriculture, 30.0% industry and
commerce, 2.5% services, 2.5% government; 58% of population of working age
(1983)

Organized labor: there are 38,000 members of the national trade union,
the Gabonese Trade Union Confederation (COSYGA)

- Government
Long-form name: Gabonese Republic

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime since 1964

Capital: Libreville

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Estuaire, Haut-Ogooue,
Moyen-Ogooue, Ngounie, Nyanga, Ogooue-Ivindo, Ogooue-Lolo,
Ogooue-Maritime, Woleu-Ntem

Independence: 17 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 21 February 1961, revised 15 April 1975

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme
Court; compulsory ICJ jurisdiction not accepted

National holiday: Renovation Day (Gabonese Democratic Party established),
12 March (1968)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President El Hadj Omar BONGO (since 2 December 1967);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Leon MEBIAME (since 16 April 1975)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Gabonese Social
Democratic Rally (RSDG), El Hadj Omar Bongo, president; formerly
Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG), which was dissolved in February 1990

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held on 9 November 1986 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--President Omar BONGO was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held on 17 February 1985 (next to be
held by February 1992);
results--PDG was the only party;
seats--(120 total, 111 elected) PDG 111

Communists: no organized party; probably some Communist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Conference of East and Central
African States, EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICCO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, OPEC, UDEAC,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jean Robert ODZAGA; Chancery
at 2034 20th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 797-1000;
US--Ambassador Keith L. WAUCHOPE; Embassy at Boulevard de la Mer,
Libreville (mailing address is B. P. 4000, Libreville); telephone 762003
or 762004, 761337, 721348, 740248

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and blue

- Economy
Overview: The economy, dependent on timber and manganese until the early
1970s, is now dominated by the oil sector. During the period 1981-85 oil
accounted for about 46% of GDP, 83% of export earnings, and 65% of government
revenues on average. The high oil prices of the early 1980s contributed to a
substantial increase in per capita income, stimulated domestic demand,
reinforced migration from rural to urban areas, and raised the level of real
wages to among the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The three-year slide of
Gabon's economy, which began with falling oil prices in 1985, stabilized
in 1989 because of a near doubling of oil prices over their 1988 lows.
The agricultural and industrial sectors are relatively underdeveloped,
accounting for only 8% and 10%, respectively, of GDP in 1986.

GDP: $3.2 billion, per capita $3,200; real growth rate 0% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $927 million; expenditures $1.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $33 million (1988)

Exports: $1.14 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--crude oil 70%, manganese 11%, wood 12%, uranium 6%;
partners--France 53%, US 22%, FRG, Japan

Imports: $0.76 billion (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--foodstuffs, chemical products, petroleum products,
construction materials, manufactures, machinery;
partners--France 48%, US 2.6%, FRG, Japan, UK

External debt: $2.0 billion (October 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.7% (1986)

Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 980 million kWh produced,
920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sawmills, petroleum, food and beverages; mining of
increasing importance (especially manganese and uranium)

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP (including fishing and forestry);
cash crops--cocoa, coffee, palm oil; livestock not developed; importer of food;
small fishing operations provide a catch of about 20,000 metric tons; okoume
(a tropical softwood) is the most important timber product

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $64 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.7 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $27 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 649 km 1.437-meter standard-gauge single track
(Transgabonese Railroad)

Highways: 7,500 km total; 560 km paved, 960 km laterite, 5,980 km earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km perennially navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 270 km; refined products, 14 km

Ports: Owendo, Port-Gentil, Libreville

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,563
GRT/25,330 DWT

Civil air: 11 major transport aircraft

Airports: 79 total, 68 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with
runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of open-wire, radio relay,
tropospheric scatter links and radiocommunication stations; 13,800 telephones;
stations--6 AM, 6 FM, 8 TV; satellite earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT and 12 domestic satellite

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 266,110; 133,158 fit for military
service; 9,282 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.2% of GDP, or $102 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: The Gambia
- Geography
Total area: 11,300 km2; land area: 10,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Delaware

Land boundary: 740 km with Senegal

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of boundary with Senegal is indefinite

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (June to November); cooler,
dry season (November to May)

Terrain: flood plain of the Gambia River flanked by some low hills

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 16% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
20% forest and woodland; 55% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: deforestation

Note: almost an enclave of Senegal; smallest country on the continent
of Africa

- People
Population: 848,147 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 140 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Gambian(s); adjective--Gambian

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42% Mandinka, 18% Fula, 16% Wolof, 10%
Jola, 9% Serahuli, 4% other); 1% non-Gambian

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% Christian, 1% indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, other indigenous
vernaculars

Literacy: 25.1%

Labor force: 400,000 (1986 est.); 75.0% agriculture, 18.9% industry,
commerce, and services, 6.1% government; 55% population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 25-30% of wage labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of The Gambia

Type: republic

Capital: Banjul

Administrative divisions: 5 divisions and 1 city*; Banjul*, Lower River,
MacCarthy Island, North Bank, Upper River, Western

Independence: 18 February 1965 (from UK); The Gambia and Senegal signed
an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called
for the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the
agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

Constitution: 24 April 1970

Legal system: based on a composite of English common law, Koranic law,
and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 February (1965)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Alhaji Sir Dawda Kairaba
JAWARA (since 24 April 1970); Vice President Bakary Bunja DARBO (since 12
May 1982)

Political parties and leaders: People's Progressive Party (PPP),
Dawda K. Jawara, secretary general; National Convention Party (NCP),
Sheriff Dibba; Gambian People's Party (GPP), Assan Musa Camara; United
Party (UP); People's Democratic Organization of Independence and Socialism
(PDOIS)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held on 11 March 1987 (next to be held March 1992);
results--Sir Dawda Jawara (PPP) 61.1%, Sherif Mustapha Dibba (NCP) 25.2%,
Assan Musa Camara (GPP) 13.7%;

House of Representatives--last held on 11 March 1987 (next to
be held by March 1992);
results--PPP 56.6%, NCP 27.6%, GPP 14.7%, PDOIS 1%;
seats--(43 total, 36 elected) PPP 31, NCP 5

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, IRC,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ousman A. SALLAH; Chancery at
Suite 720, 1030 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20005;
telephone (202) 842-1356 or 842-1359;
US--Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Pipeline Road
(Kairaba Avenue), Fajara, Banjul (mailing address is P. M. B. No. 19,
Banjul); telephone Serrekunda p220o 92856 or 92858, 91970, 91971

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue with white edges,
and green

- Economy
Overview: The Gambia has no important mineral or other natural
resources and has a limited agricultural base. It is one of the world's
poorest countries with a per capita income of about $250. About 75% of
the population is engaged in crop production and livestock raising, which
contributes about 30% to GDP. Small-scale manufacturing
activity--processing peanuts, fish, and hides--accounts for less than
10% of GDP. Tourism is a growing industry. The Gambia imports about 33%
of its food, all fuel, and most manufactured goods. Exports are
concentrated on peanut products (over 75% of total value).

GDP: $195 million, per capita $250; real growth rate 4.6% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $75 million; expenditures $67 million, including
capital expenditures of $21 million (FY89)

Exports: $133 million (f.o.b., FY89);
commodities--peanuts and peanut products, fish, cotton lint, palm kernels;
partners--Ghana 49%, Europe 27%, Japan 12%, US 1% (1986)

Imports: $105 million (c.i.f., FY89);
commodities--foodstuffs, manufactures, raw materials, fuel, machinery
and transport equipment;
partners--Europe 55% (EC 39%, other 16%), Asia 20%, US 11%, Senegal 4%
(1986)

External debt: $330 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.3% (FY88)

Electricity: 29,000 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced, 80 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: peanut processing, tourism, beverages, agricultural
machinery assembly, woodworking, metalworking, clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP and employs about 75% of the
population; imports one-third of food requirements; major export crop is
peanuts; the principal crops--millet, sorghum, rice, corn, cassava,
palm kernels; livestock--cattle, sheep, and goats; forestry and fishing
resources not fully exploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $84 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $422 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $39 million

Currency: dalasi (plural--dalasi); 1 dalasi (D) = 100 bututs

Exchange rates: dalasi (D) per US$1--8.3232 (December 1989),
7.5846 (1989), 6.7086 (1988), 7.0744 (1987), 6.9380 (1986), 3.8939 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 3,083 km total; 431 km paved, 501 km gravel/laterite, and 2,151
km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 400 km

Ports: Banjul

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate network of radio relay and wire; 3,500
telephones; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 182,308; 92,001 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Gaza Strip
Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with
Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President
Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West
Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace
treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned
parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will resolve the
respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy
that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be
determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the area
west of the Jordan under Jordanian administration before the 1967 Arab-Israeli
war. With respect to negotiations envisaged in the framework agreement, however,
it is US policy that a distinction must be made between Jerusalem and the rest
of the West Bank because of the city's special status and circumstances.
Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of Jerusalem could be
different in character from that of the rest of the West Bank.

- Geography
Total area: 380km2; land area: 380 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 62 km total; Egypt 11 km, Israel 51 km

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Climate: temperate, mild winters, dry and warm to hot summers

Terrain: flat to rolling, sand and dune covered coastal plain

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 13% arable land, 32% permanent crops, 0% meadows and pastures,
0% forest and woodland, 55% other

Environment: desertification

Note: there are 18 Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip

- People
Population: 615,575 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990); in addition,
there are 2,500 Jewish settlers in the Gaza Strip

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 55 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: NA

Ethnic divisions: 99.8% Palestinian Arab and other, 0.2% Jewish

Religion: 99% Muslim (predominantly Sunni), 0.7% Christian, 0.3% Jewish

Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely
understood

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: (excluding Israeli Jewish settlers) 32.0% small industry,
commerce and business, 24.4% construction, 25.5% service and other, and
18.1% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Note: The Gaza Strip is currently governed by Israeli military authorities
and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
Gaza Strip will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties. These
negotiations will determine how this area is to be governed.

- Economy
Overview: Nearly half of the labor force of the Gaza Strip is employed
across the border by Israeli industrial, construction, and agricultural
enterprises, with worker transfer funds accounting for 40% of GNP in 1989. The
once dominant agricultural sector now contributes only 13% to GNP, about the
same as that of the construction sector, and industry accounts for 7%. Gaza
depends upon Israel for 90% of its imports and as a market for 80% of its
exports. Unrest in the territory in 1988-89 (intifadah) has raised
unemployment and substantially lowered the incomes of the population.

GNP: $380 million, per capita $650; real growth rate NA% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $36.6 million; expenditures $32.0 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $88 million;
commodities--citrus;
partners--Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

Imports: $260 million;
commodities--food, consumer goods, construction materials;
partners--Israel, Egypt (1989 est.)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
have established some small-scale modern industries in an industrial center

Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef, dairy
products

Aid: none

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--1.9450 (January
1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-March 31

- Communications
Railroads: one line, abandoned and in disrepair, but trackage remains

Highways: small, poorly developed indigenous road network

Ports: facilities for small boats to service Gaza

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m

Telecommunications: stations--no AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: German Democratic Republic
(East Germany)
- Geography
Total area: 108,330 km2; land area: 105,980 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 2,296 km total; Czechoslovakia 459 km, Poland 456 km,
FRG 1,381 km

Coastline: 901 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: it is US policy that the final borders of Germany have not been
established; the US is seeking to settle the property claims of US nationals
against the GDR

Climate: temperate; cloudy, cold winters with frequent rain and snow;
cool, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat plain with hills and mountains in south

Natural resources: lignite, potash, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt,
nickel

Land use: 45% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures;
28% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: significant deforestation in mountains caused by air
pollution and acid rain

Note: strategic location on North European Plain and near the entrance to
the Baltic Sea; West Berlin is an enclave (about 116 km by air or 176 km
by road from FRG)

- People
Population: 16,307,170 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--German(s); adjective--German

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% German, 0.3% Slavic and other

Religion: 47% Protestant, 7% Roman Catholic, 46% unaffiliated or other;
less than 5% of Protestants and about 25% of Roman Catholics active participants

Language: German

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 8,960,000; 37.5% industry, 21.1% services, 10.8% agriculture
and forestry, 10.3% commerce, 7.4% transport and communications,
6.6% construction, 3.1% handicrafts, 3.2% other (1987)

Organized labor: 87.7% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: German Democratic Republic; abbreviated GDR

Type: Communist state

Capital: East Berlin (not officially recognized by France, UK, and US,
which together with the USSR have special rights and responsibilities in Berlin)

Administrative divisions: 14 districts (bezirke, singular--bezirk);
Cottbus, Dresden, Erfurt, Frankfurt, Gera, Halle, Karl-Marx-Stadt, Leipzig,
Magdeburg, Neubrandenburg, Potsdam, Rostock, Schwerin, Suhl

Independence: self-government proclaimed 7 October 1949, with permission
of the Soviet authorities

Constitution: 9 April 1968, amended 7 October 1974

Legal system: civil law system modified by Communist legal theory;
no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Foundation of the German Democratic Republic,
7 October (1949)

Executive branch: Council of State abolished on 5 April 1990,
post of president to be created; chairman of the Council of
Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Chamber (Volkskammer)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State--Acting President of the People's
Chamber Sabine BERGMANN-POHL (since 5 April 1990);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Lothar DE MAIZIERE (since 12 April 1990); Deputy Chairman Peter-Michael
DIESTEL (since 16 April 1990)

Political parties and leaders:
Alliance for Germany--Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Lothar de
Maiziere, chairman; German Social Union (DSU), Hans-Wilhelm Ebeling,
chairman; and Democratic Awakening (DA), Rainer Eppelmann, chairman;

Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), Markus Meckel, acting chairman;

Party for Democratic Socialism (PDS, former Communist), Gregor Gysi,
chairman;

League of Free Democrats (BFD)--Liberals, Rainer Ortleb,
chairman; Free Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno Menzel, chairman; and
German Forum Party (DFP), Juergen Schmieder, chairman;

Alliance '90--New Forum, Baerbel Bohley, Jens Reich, Sebastian
Pflugbeil, spokespersons; Democracy Now, Konrad Weiss, spokesperson;
and United Left, Herbert Misslitz, spokesperson;

Greens Party (GP), Vera Wollenberger, spokesperson;

Democratic Peasants' Party (DBD), Guenther Maleuda, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
People's Chamber--last held on 18 March 1990 (next to be held
March NA);
results--Alliance for Germany--CDU 40.9%, DSU 6.3%, DA 0.9%;
SPD 21.8; BFD 5.3%; SPD 21.8%; PDS 16.3%;
Alliance '90 2.9%; DBD 2.2%; GP 2.0%; NDPD 0.4%; others 1.0%;
seats--(400 total, including 66 from East Berlin) Alliance for
Germany--CDU 164, DSU 25, DA 4; SPD 87; BFD 21; PDS 65; Alliance '90
12, DBD 9; GP 8; NDPD 2; others 3

Communists: 500,000 to 700,000 party members (1990)

Member of: CEMA, IAEA, IBEC, ICES, ILO, IMO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Gerhard HERDER; Chancery at
1717 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 232-3134;
US--Ambassador Richard C. BARKLEY; Embassy at 1080 Berlin, Neustaedtische
Kirchstrasse 4-5, East Berlin (mailing address is Box E, APO New York 09742);
telephone p37o (2) 220-2741

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow with
the coat of arms centered; the coat of arms contains, in yellow, a hammer and
compass encircled by a wreath of grain with a black, red, and gold ribbon at the
bottom; similar to the flag of the FRG which does not have a coat of arms

- Economy
Overview: The GDR is moving rapidly away from its centrally planned
economy. As the 1990s begin, economic integration with West Germany
appears inevitable, beginning with the establishment of a common
currency. The opening of the border with the FRG in late 1989 and the
continuing emigration of hundreds of thousands of skilled workers had
brought growth to a standstill by yearend 1989. Features of the old
economic regime that will quickly change: (a) the collectivization
of 95% of East German farms; (b) state ownership of nearly all
transportation facilities, industrial plants, foreign trade
organizations, and financial institutions; (c) the 65% share in trade
of the USSR and other CEMA countries; and (d) the detailed control over
economic details exercised by Party and state. Once integrated into
the thriving West German economy, the area will have to stem the
outflow of workers and renovate the obsolescent industrial base. After an
initial readjustment period, living standards and quality of output will
steadily rise toward West German levels.

GNP: $159.5 billion, per capita $9,679; real growth rate 1.2%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $123.5 billion; expenditures $123.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $33 billion (1986)

Exports: $30.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--machinery and transport equipment 47%, fuels and metals
16%, consumer goods 16%, chemical products and building materials 13%,
semimanufactured goods and processed foodstuffs 8%;
partners--USSR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, FRG, Hungary, Bulgaria,
Switzerland, Romania

Imports: $31.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--fuels and metals 40%, machinery and transport equipment
29%, chemical products and building materials 9%;
partners--CEMA countries 65%, non-Communist 33%, other 2%

External debt: $20.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.7% (1989 est.)

Electricity: (including East Berlin) 24,585,000 kW capacity;
122,500 million kWh produced, 7,390 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metal fabrication, chemicals, brown coal, shipbuilding,
machine building, food and beverages, textiles, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GNP (including fishing and
forestry); principal crops--wheat, rye, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, fruit;
livestock products include pork, beef, chicken, milk, hides and skins; net
importer of food; fish catch of 193,600 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor--$4.0 billion extended bilaterally to non-Communist less
developed countries (1956-88)

Currency: GDR mark (plural--marks); 1 GDR mark (M) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: GDR marks (M) per US$1--3.01 (1988), 3.00 (1987),
3.30 (1986), 3.70 (1985), 3.64 (1984)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 14,005 km total; 13,730 km 1.435-meter standard gauge,
275 km 1.000-meter or other narrow gauge, 3,830 (est.) km 1.435-meter
double-track standard gauge; 2,754 km overhead electrified (1986)

Highways: 124,615 km total; 47,214 km concrete, asphalt, stone block,
of which 1,913 km are autobahn and limited access roads, 11,261 are trunk
roads, and 34,040 are regional roads; 77,401 municipal roads (1985)

Inland waterways: 2,319 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,301 km; refined products, 500 km; natural gas,
2,150 km (1988)

Ports: Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Sassnitz; river ports are East Berlin,
Riesa, Magdeburg, and Eisenhuttenstadt on the Elbe or Oder Rivers and connecting
canals

Merchant marine: 145 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,349,537
GRT/1,733,089 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 89 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo,
6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 16 container, 1 multifunction large-load carrier,
2 railcar carrier, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
2 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas tanker, 16 bulk

Civil air: 45 major transport aircraft

Airports: 190 total, 190 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runway over 3,659 m; 45 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 40 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--23 AM, 17 FM, 21 TV; 15 Soviet TV relays;
6,181,860 TV sets; 6,700,000 radio receivers; at least 1 satellite earth
station

- Defense Forces
Branches: National People's Army, Border Troops, Air and Air Defense
Command, People's Navy

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 7,944,305; of the 4,045,396 males
15-49, 3,243,970 are fit for military service; 91,579 reach military age (18)
annually; of the 3,898,909 females 15-49, 3,117,847 are fit for military
service; 85,892 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 16.2 billion marks, 5.4% of total budget (1989);
note--conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Germany, Federal Republic of
(West Germany)
- Geography
Total area: 248,580 km2; land area: 244,280 km2; includes West Berlin

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 4,256 km total; Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km,
Czechoslovakia 356 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, GDR 1,381 km;
Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Switzerland 334 km

Coastline: 1,488 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm (extends, at one point, to 16 nm in the
Helgolander Bucht)

Disputes: it is US policy that the final borders of Germany have
not been established

Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers;
occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber

Land use: 30% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures;
30% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution

Note: West Berlin is an exclave (about 116 km by air or 176 km by
road from FRG)

- People
Population: 62,168,200 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--German(s); adjective--German

Ethnic divisions: primarily German; Danish minority

Religion: 45% Roman Catholic, 44% Protestant, 11% other

Language: German

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 27,790,000; 41.6% industry, 35.4% services and other,
18.2% trade and transport, 4.8% agriculture (1987)

Organized labor: 9,300,000 total; 7,760,000 in German Trade Union
Federation (DGB); union membership constitutes about 40% of union-eligible labor
force, 34% of total labor force, and 35% of wage and salary earners (1986)

- Government
Long-form name: Federal Republic of Germany; abbreviated FRG

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bonn

Administrative divisions: 10 states (lander, singular--land);
Baden-Wurttemberg, Bayern, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen, Niedersachsen,
Nordrhein-Westfalen, Rheinland-Pfalz, Saarland, Schleswig-Holstein

Constitution: 23 May 1949, provisional constitution known as Basic Law

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: NA

Executive branch: president, chancellor, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlament) consists of
an upper chamber or Federal Assembly (Bundesrat) and a lower chamber or
National Assembly (Bundestag)

Judicial branch: Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Richard von WEIZSACKER (since 1
July 1984);

Head of Government--Chancellor Dr. Helmut KOHL (since 4 October 1982)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Helmut
Kohl; Christian Social Union (CSU), Theo Waigel; Free Democratic Party (FDP),
Otto Lambsdorff; Social Democratic Party (SPD), Hans-Jochen Vogel; National
Democratic Party (NPD), Martin Mussgnug; Republikaner, Franz Schoerhuber;
Communist Party (DKP), Herbert Mies; Green Party--Realos faction,
Joschka Fischer; Green Party--Fundis faction, Jutta Ditfurth

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly--last held 25 January 1987 (next to be held by
18 January 1991); results--SPD 37.0%, CDU 34.5%, CSU 9.8%, FDP 9.1%,
Green Party 8.2%, others 1.4%;
seats--(497 total, 22 are elected by the West Berlin House of
Representatives and have limited voting rights) SPD 186, CDU 174,
CSU 49, FDP 46, Green Party 42

Communists: about 40,000 members and supporters

Other political or pressure groups: expellee, refugee, and veterans
groups

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EIB, EMS, ESA,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American
Development Bank, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jeurgen RUHFUS; Chancery at
4645 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 298-4000;
there are FRG Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston,
Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and New York, and Consulates in Miami
and New Orleans;
US--Ambassador Vernon WALTERS; Embassy at Deichmanns Avenue, 5300 Bonn 2
(mailing address is APO New York 09080); telephone 49 (228) 3391; there are
US Consulates General in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, and Stuttgart

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and yellow;
similar to the flag of the GDR which has a coat of arms in the center

- Economy
Overview: West Germany, a major economic power and a leading exporter,
has a highly urbanized and skilled population that enjoys excellent
living standards and comprehensive social welfare benefits. The FRG is
poor in natural resources, coal being the most important
mineral. The FRG's comparative advantage lies in the technologically
advanced production stages. Thus manufacturing and services dominate
economic activity, and raw materials and semimanufactures constitute
a large proportion of imports. In 1988 manufacturing accounted for
35% of GDP, with other sectors contributing lesser amounts. The major
economic problem in 1989 is persistent unemployment of over 8%. The FRG is well
poised to take advantage of the increasing economic integration of the European
Community. The dramatic opening of the boundary with East Germany in late 1989
poses new economic challenges that could tax even this powerful economy.

GDP: $945.7 billion, per capita $15,300; real growth rate 4.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 8.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $539 billion; expenditures $563 billion, including
capital expenditures of $11.5 billion (1988)

Exports: $323.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--manufactures 86.6% (including machines and machine tools,
chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel products), agricultural products 4.9%,
raw materials 2.3%, fuels 1.3%;
partners--EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 9%, Italy 9%, UK 9%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 18%, US 10%, Eastern Europe 4%,
OPEC 3% (1987)

Imports: $250.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--manufactures 68.5%, agricultural products 12.0%, fuels 9.7%,
raw materials 7.1%;
partners--EC 52.7% (France 12%, Netherlands 11%, Italy 10%, UK 7%,
Belgium-Luxembourg 7%), other West Europe 15%, US 6%, Japan 6%,
Eastern Europe 5%, OPEC 3% (1987)

External debt: $500 million (June 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1988)

Electricity: (including West Berlin) 110,075,000 kW capacity; 452,390
million kWh produced, 7,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: among world's largest producers of iron, steel, coal, cement,
chemicals, machinery, ships, vehicles, and machine tools; electronics, food and
beverages

Agriculture: accounts for about 2% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); diversified crop and livestock farming; principal crops and livestock
include potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbage, cattle, pigs,
poultry; net importer of food; fish catch of 202,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $60.0 billion

Currency: deutsche mark (plural--marks);
1 deutsche mark (DM) = 100 pfennige

Exchange rates: deutsche marks (DM) per US$1--1.6918 (January 1990),
1.8800 (1989), 1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 31,443 km total; 27,421 km government owned, 1.435-meter
standard gauge (12,491 km double track, 11,501 km electrified); 4,022 km
nongovernment owned, including 3,598 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (214 km
electrified) and 424 km 1.000-meter gauge (186 km electrified)

Highways: 466,305 km total; 169,568 km primary, includes 6,435 km
autobahn, 32,460 km national highways (Bundesstrassen), 65,425 km state
highways (Landesstrassen), 65,248 km county roads (Kreisstrassen); 296,737
km of secondary communal roads (Gemeindestrassen)

Inland waterways: 5,222 km, of which almost 70% are usable by
craft of 1,000-metric ton capacity or larger; major rivers include the
Rhine and Elbe; Kiel Canal is an important connection between the Baltic
Sea and the North Sea

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,343 km; refined products, 3,446 km; natural gas,
95,414 km

Ports: maritime--Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Cuxhaven, Emden, Bremen,
Hamburg, Kiel, Lubeck, Wilhelmshaven; inland--27 major

Merchant marine: 422 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,436,568
GRT/4,297,520 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 7 short-sea passenger, 218 cargo,
4 refrigerated cargo, 95 container, 20 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 railcar
carrier, 7 barge carrier, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 12 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 21 chemical tanker, 15 liquefied gas,
5 combination ore/oil, 13 combination bulk

Civil air: 194 major transport aircraft

Airports: 466 total, 457 usable; 240 with permanent-surface runways; 3
with runways over 3,659 m; 41 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed, modern telecommunication service
to all parts of the country; fully adequate in all respects; 40,300,000
telephones; stations--87 AM, 205 (376 relays) FM, 300 (6,400 relays)
TV; 6 submarine coaxial cables; satellite earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (12 Atlantic Ocean, 2 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic
systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,006,352; 13,883,536 fit for military
service; 326,666 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GDP (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Ghana
- Geography
Total area: 238,540 km2; land area: 230,020 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,093 km total; Burkina 548 km, Ivory Coast 668 km,
Togo 877 km

Coastline: 539 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast;
hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north

Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area

Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese,
fish, rubber

Land use: 5% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 15% meadows and pastures;
37% forest and woodland; 36% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent drought in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; dry,
northeasterly harmattan wind (January to March)

Note: Lake Volta is world's largest artificial lake

- People
Population: 15,165,243 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ghanaian(s); adjective--Ghanaian

Ethnic divisions: 99.8% black African (major tribes--44% Akan,
16% Moshi-Dagomba, 13% Ewe, 8% Ga), 0.2% European and other

Religion: 38% indigenous beliefs, 30% Muslim, 24% Christian, 8% other

Language: English (official); African languages include Akan,
Moshi-Dagomba, Ewe, and Ga

Literacy: 53.2%

Labor force: 3,700,000; 54.7% agriculture and fishing, 18.7% industry,
15.2% sales and clerical, 7.7% services, transportation, and communications,
3.7% professional; 48% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 467,000 (about 13% of labor force)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Ghana

Type: military

Capital: Accra

Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central,
Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta,
Western

Independence: 6 March 1957 (from UK, formerly Gold Coast)

Constitution: 24 September 1979; suspended 31 December 1981

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)

Executive branch: chairman of the Provisional National Defense
Council (PNDC), PNDC, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly dissolved after 31
December 1981 coup, and legislative powers were assumed by the
Provisional National Defense Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the Provisional
National Defense Council Flt. Lt. (Ret.) Jerry John RAWLINGS (since 31 December
1981)

Political parties and leaders: none; political parties outlawed
after 31 December 1981 coup

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: a small number of Communists and sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eric K. OTOO; Chancery at
2460 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-0761;
there is a Ghanaian Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Raymond C. EWING; Embassy at Ring Road East, East of
Danquah Circle, Accra (mailing address is P. O. Box 194, Accra);
telephone 775347 through 775349

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with a
large black five-pointed star centered in the gold band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Bolivia which has a coat
of arms centered in the yellow band

- Economy
Overview: Supported by substantial international assistance, Ghana
has been implementing a steady economic rebuilding program since 1983.
Good harvests in 1988 featured the 6% growth in GNP. Moves toward privatization
and relaxation of government controls continued in 1988-89, although at a
slower-than-expected pace. In 1988 service on the $2.8 billion debt was
equivalent to 75% of export earnings. As Ghana obtains concessional loans
and pays off high-interest debt, however, debt service is expected to fall
below 30% of export earnings in the early 1990s. The economic rebuilding
program has both helped and harmed the manufacturing sector, for example,
by improving the supply of raw materials and by increasing competition from
imports. The long-term outlook is favorable provided that the political
structure can endure the slow pace at which living standards are improving
and can manage the problems stemming from excessive population growth.

GNP: $5.2 billion, per capita $400; real growth rate 6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 32.7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 26% (April 1987)

Budget: revenues $769 million; expenditures $749 million, including
capital expenditures of $179 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $977 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--cocoa 60%, timber, gold, tuna, bauxite, and aluminum;
partners--US 23%, UK, other EC

Imports: $988 million (c.i.f., 1987);
commodities--petroleum 16%, consumer goods, foods, intermediate goods,
capital equipment;
partners--US 10%, UK, FRG, France, Japan, South Korea, GDR

External debt: $3.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.5% in manufacturing (1987)

Electricity: 1,172,000 kW capacity; 4,110 million kWh produced,
280 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, fishing,
aluminum, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for more than 50% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); the major cash crop is cocoa; other principal crops--rice, coffee,
cassava, peanuts, corn, shea nuts, timber; normally self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $424 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.9 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $78 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$84 million

Currency: cedi (plural--cedis); 1 cedi (C) = 100 pesewas

Exchange rates: cedis (C) per US$1--301.68 (December 1989), 270.00 (1989),
202.35 (1988), 153.73 (1987), 89.20 (1986), 54.37 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 953 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 32 km double track; railroads
undergoing major renovation

Highways: 28,300 km total; 6,000 km concrete or bituminous surface,
22,300 km gravel, laterite, and improved earth surfaces

Inland waterways: Volta, Ankobra, and Tano Rivers provide 155 km of
perennial navigation for launches and lighters; Lake Volta provides 1,125 km
of arterial and feeder waterways

Pipelines: none

Ports: Tema, Takoradi

Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
52,016 GRT/66,627 DWT

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 10 total, 9 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor to fair system of open-wire and cable, radio
relay links; 38,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, no FM, 9 TV; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Palace Guard, paramilitary
People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,437,300; 1,927,817 fit for military
service; 167,778 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.9% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Gibraltar
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 1.2 km with Spain

Coastline: 12 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 3 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: source of occasional friction between Spain and the UK

Climate: Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

Terrain: a narrow coastal lowland borders The Rock

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: natural freshwater sources are meager so large
water catchments (concrete or natural rock) collect rain water

Note: strategic location on Strait of Gibraltar that links
the North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea

- People
Population: 29,572 (July 1990), growth rate 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Gibraltarian; adjective--Gibraltar

Ethnic divisions: mostly Italian, English, Maltese, Portuguese, and
Spanish descent

Religion: 75% Roman Catholic, 8% Church of England, 2.25% Jewish

Language: English and Spanish are primary languages; Italian, Portuguese,
and Russian also spoken; English used in the schools and for official
purposes

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: about 14,800 (including non-Gibraltar laborers); UK military
establishments and civil government employ nearly 50% of the labor force

Organized labor: over 6,000

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Gibraltar

Administrative divisions: none (colony of the UK)

Independence: none (colony of the UK)

Constitution: 30 May 1969

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Commonwealth Day (second Monday of March), 12 March 1990

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister, Gibraltar
Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor and Commander in Chief Air Chief Marshal Sir Peter TERRY (since
NA 1985);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Joe BOSSANO (since NA March 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Labor Party (SL), Joe
Bossano; Gibraltar Labor Party/Association for the Advancement of Civil
Rights (GCL/AACR), Adolfo Canepa; Independent Democratic Party, Joe
Pitaluga

Suffrage: universal at age 18, plus other UK subjects resident six
months or more

Elections:
House of Assembly: last held on 24 March 1988 (next to be held
March 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(18 total, 15 elected) SL 8, GCL/AACR 7

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Housewives Association, Chamber of
Commerce, Gibraltar Representatives Organization

Diplomatic representation: none (colony of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, double-width) and red with a
three-towered red castle in the center of the white band; hanging from the
castle gate is a gold key centered in the red band

- Economy
Overview: The economy depends heavily on British defense expenditures,
revenue from tourists, fees for services to shipping, and revenues from
banking and finance activities. Because more than 70% of the economy
is in the public sector, changes in government spending have a major
impact on the level of employment. Construction workers are particularly
affected when government expenditures are cut.

GNP: $129 million, per capita $4,450; real growth rate NA% (FY85)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $105 million; expenditures $104 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY87)

Exports: $62.2 million (1985);
commodities--(principally reexports) petroleum 75%, beverages and
tobacco 12%, manufactured goods 8%;
partners--UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

Imports: $147 million (1985);
commodities--manufactured goods, fuels, and foodstuffs;
partners--UK, Morocco, Portugal, Netherlands, Spain, US, FRG

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 46,000 kW capacity; 200 million kWh produced, 6,770 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, construction, commerce; support
to large UK naval and air bases; transit trade and supply depot in the port;
light manufacturing of tobacco, roasted coffee, ice, mineral waters, candy,
beer, and canned fish

Agriculture: NA

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $0.8 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$162.5 million

Currency: Gibraltar pound (plural--pounds);
1 Gibraltar pound (LG) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Gibraltar pounds (LG) per US$1--0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);
note--the Gibraltar pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 1.000-meter-gauge system in dockyard area only

Highways: 50 km, mostly good bitumen and concrete

Ports: Gibraltar

Merchant marine: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,126,060
GRT/4,189,948 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container,
16 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker
1 combination oil/ore, 1 liquefied gas, 13 bulk; note--a flag of convenience
registry

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