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Defense expenditures: 7.2% of GDP, or $2.8 billion (FY90 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: El Salvador
- Geography
Total area: 21,040 km2; land area: 20,720 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: 545 km total; Guatemala 203 km, Honduras 342 km

Coastline: 307 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond 12 nm)

Disputes: several sections of the boundary with Honduras are in dispute

Climate: tropical; rainy season (May to October); dry season (November to
April)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow coastal belt and central plateau

Natural resources: hydropower and geothermal power, crude oil

Land use: 27% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 29% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 30% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: The Land of Volcanoes; subject to frequent and sometimes
very destructive earthquakes; deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Note: smallest Central American country and only one without a
coastline on Caribbean Sea

- People
Population: 5,309,865 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 49 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Salvadoran(s); adjective--Salvadoran

Ethnic divisions: 89% mestizo, 10% Indian, 1% white

Religion: about 97% Roman Catholic, with activity by Protestant groups
throughout the country

Language: Spanish, Nahua (among some Indians)

Literacy: 65%

Labor force: 1,700,000 (1982 est.); 40% agriculture,
16% commerce, 15% manufacturing, 13% government, 9% financial services,
6% transportation; shortage of skilled labor and a large pool of unskilled
labor, but manpower training programs improving situation (1984 est.)

Organized labor: 15% total labor force; 10% agricultural labor force; 7%
urban labor force (1987 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of El Salvador

Type: republic

Capital: San Salvador

Administrative divisions: 14 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Ahuachapan, Cabanas, Chalatenango, Cuscatlan,
La Libertad, La Paz, La Union, Morazan, San Miguel, San Salvador, Santa Ana,
San Vicente, Sonsonate, Usulutan

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 20 December 1983

Legal system: based on civil and Roman law, with traces of common
law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Alfredo CRISTIANI (since
1 June 1989); Vice President Jose Francisco MERINO (since 1 June 1989)

Political parties and leaders: National Republican Alliance
(ARENA), Armando Calderon Sol; Christian Democratic Party (PDC), Jose
Antonio Morales Erlich; National Conciliation Party (PCN), Ciro Cruz
Zepeda; Democratic Action (AD), Ricardo Gonzalez Camacho; Salvadoran
Authentic Institutional Party (PAISA), Roberto Escobar Garcia; Patria
Libre (PL), Hugo Barrera; Authentic Christian Movement (MAC), Julio
Rey Prendes; Salvadoran Popular Party (PPS), Francisco Quinonez;
Democratic Convergence (CD), a coalition composed of the Social
Democratic Party (PSD), Mario Rene Roldan; the National Revolutionary
Movement (MNR), Guillermo Ungo; and the Popular Social Christian Movement
(MPSC), Ruben Zamora

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 19 March 1989 (next to be held March 1994);
results--Alfredo Cristiani (ARENA) 53.8%, Fidel Chavez Mena (PDC) 36.6%,
other 9.6%;

Legislative Assembly--last held 20 March 1988 (next to be
held March 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total) ARENA 32, MAC 13, PDC 9, PCN 6

Other political or pressure groups:

Leftist revolutionary movement--Farabundo Marti National
Liberation Front (FMLN), leadership body of the insurgency;
Popular Liberation Forces (FPL), Armed Forces of National Resistance
(FARN), People's Revolutionary Army (ERP), Salvadoran Communist
Party/Armed Forces of Liberation (PCES/FAL),
and Central American Workers' Revolutionary Party (PRTC)/Popular
Liberation Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARLP);

Militant front organizations--Revolutionary Coordinator
of Masses (CRM; alliance of front groups), Popular Revolutionary
Bloc (BPR), Unified Popular Action Front (FAPU), Popular Leagues
of 28 February (LP-28), National Democratic Union (UDN), and
Popular Liberation Movement (MLP); Revolutionary Democratic Front (FDR),
coalition of CRM and Democratic Front (FD); FD consists of
moderate leftist groups--Independent Movement of Professionals and Technicians
of El Salvador (MIPTES), National Revolutionary Movement (MNR), and Popular
Social Christian Movement (MPSC);

Extreme rightist vigilante organizations--Anti-Communist Army (ESA);
Maximiliano Hernandez
Brigade; Organization for Liberation From Communism (OLC);

Labor organizations--Federation of Construction and Transport
Workers Unions (FESINCONSTRANS), independent; Salvadoran Communal
Union (UCS), peasant association; Unitary Federation of Salvadoran Unions
(FUSS), leftist; National Federation of Salvadoran Workers (FENASTRAS),
leftist; Democratic Workers Central (CTD), moderate; General
Confederation of Workers (CGT), moderate; Popular Democratic Unity (UPD),
moderate labor coalition which includes FESINCONSTRANS, and other
democratic labor organizations; National Unity of Salvadoran Workers
(UNTS), leftist; National Union of Workers and Peasants (UNOC),
moderate labor coalition of democratic labor organizations;

Business organizations--National Association of Private Enterprise
(ANEP), conservative; Productive Alliance (AP), conservative; National
Federation of Salvadoran Small Businessmen (FENAPES), conservative

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Miguel Angel SALAVERRIA;
Chancery at 2308 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 265-3480 through 3482; there are Salvadoran Consulates General in
Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco,
US--Ambassador William G. WALKER; Embassy at 25 Avenida Norte No. 1230,
San Salvador (mailing address is APO Miami 34023); telephone p503o 26-7100

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a
round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA AMERICA
CENTRAL; similar to the flag of Nicaragua which has a different coat of arms
centered in the white band--it features a triangle encircled by the words
REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on top and AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom;
also similar to the flag of Honduras which has five blue stars arranged
in an X pattern centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: The economy experienced a modest recovery during the period
1983-86, after a sharp decline in the early 1980s. Real GDP grew by 1.5% a
year on the strength of value added by the manufacturing and service sectors.
In 1987 the economy expanded by 2.5% as agricultural output recovered from the
1986 drought. The agricultural sector accounts for 25% of GDP, employs about 40%
of the labor force, and contributes about 66% to total exports. Coffee is the
major commercial crop, contributing 60% to export earnings. The manufacturing
sector, based largely on food and beverage processing, accounts for 17% of GDP
and 16% of employment. Economic losses due to guerrilla sabotage total more
than $2.0 billion since 1979. The costs of maintaining a large military
seriously constrain the government's ability to provide essential social
services.

GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $1,020 (1988); real growth rate 0.9% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.8% (September 1989)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1989)

Budget: revenues $688 million; expenditures $725 million, including
capital expenditures of $112 million (1988)

Exports: $497 million (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--coffee 60%, sugar, cotton, shrimp;
partners--US 49%, FRG 24%, Guatemala 7%, Costa Rica 4%, Japan 4%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--petroleum products, consumer goods, foodstuffs, machinery,
construction materials, fertilizer;
partners--US 40%, Guatemala 12%, Venezuela 7%, Mexico 7%, FRG 5%, Japan 4%

External debt: $1.7 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1989)

Electricity: 669,000 kW capacity; 1,813 million kWh produced,
350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles, clothing, petroleum
products, cement

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 40% of labor force (including
fishing and forestry); coffee most important commercial crop; other
products--sugarcane, corn, rice, beans, oilseeds, beef, dairy products,
shrimp; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $353 million

Currency: Salvadoran colon (plural--colones); 1 Salvadoran
colon (C) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Salvadoran colones (C) per US$1--5.0000 (fixed rate
since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 602 km 0.914-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 10,000 km total; 1,500 km paved, 4,100 km gravel, 4,400 km
improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: Rio Lempa partially navigable

Ports: Acajutla, Cutuco

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airports: 125 total, 84 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: nationwide trunk radio relay system; connection into
Central American Microwave System; 116,000 telephones; stations--77 AM, no FM,
5 TV, 2 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Guard, National Police,
Treasury Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,180,751; 754,350 fit for military
service; 68,805 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 4% of GDP, or $220 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Equatorial Guinea
- Geography
Total area: 28,050 km2; land area: 28,050 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 539 km total; Cameroon 189 km, Gabon 350 km

Coastline: 296 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Gabon

Climate: tropical; always hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains rise to interior hills; islands are
volcanic

Natural resources: timber, crude oil, small unexploited deposits
of gold, manganese, uranium

Land use: 8% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures;
51% forest and woodland; 33% other

Environment: subject to violent windstorms

Note: insular and continental regions rather widely separated

- People
Population: 368,935 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 118 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s);
adjective--Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Ethnic divisions: indigenous population of Bioko, primarily Bubi, some
Fernandinos; Rio Muni, primarily Fang; less than 1,000 Europeans, mostly
Spanish

Religion: natives all nominally Christian and predominantly Roman
Catholic; some pagan practices retained

Language: Spanish (official), pidgin English, Fang, Bubi, Ibo

Literacy: 40%

Labor force: 172,000 (1986 est.); 66% agriculture, 23% services,
11% industry (1980); labor shortages on plantations; 58% of population
of working age (1985)

Organized labor: no formal trade unions

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Equatorial Guinea

Type: republic

Capital: Malabo

Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia);
Bioko, Rio Muni; note--there may now be 6 provinces named Bioko Norte,
Bioko Sur, Centro Sur, Kie-Ntem, Litoral, Wele Nzas

Independence: 12 October 1968 (from Spain; formerly Spanish Guinea)

Constitution: 15 August 1982

Legal system: in transition; partly based on Spanish civil law and
tribal custom

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 October (1968)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of People's Representatives
(Camara de Representantes del Pueblo)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Brig. Gen. Teodoro OBIANG NGUEMA
MBASOGO (since 3 August 1979);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Cristino SERICHE Bioko Malabo (since
15 August 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Isidoro Eyi Monsuy Andeme
(since 15 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Democratic Party
for Equatorial Guinea (PDEG), Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, party leader

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
President--last held 25 June 1989 (next to be held 25 June 1996);
results--President Brig. Gen. Obiang Nguema Mbasogo was reelected without
opposition;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 10 July 1988 (next to be
held 10 July 1993);
results--PDEG is the only party;
seats--(41 total) PDEG 41

Communists: no significant number but some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Conference of East and Central African
States, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Damaso OBIANG NDONG; Chancery at
801 Second Avenue, Suite 1403, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 599-1523;
US--Ambassador Chester E. NORRIS, Jr.; Embassy at Calle de Los Ministros,
Malabo (mailing address is P. O. Box 597, Malabo); telephone 2406 or 2507

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side and the coat of arms centered
in the white band; the coat of arms has six yellow six-pointed stars
(representing the mainland and five offshore islands) above a gray shield
bearing a silk-cotton tree and below which is a scroll with the motto
UNIDAD, PAZ, JUSTICIA (Unity, Peace, Justice)

- Economy
Overview: The economy, destroyed during the regime of former
President Macias Nguema, is now based on agriculture, forestry,
and fishing, which account for about 60% of GNP and nearly all exports.
Subsistence agriculture predominates, with cocoa, coffee, and wood
products providing income, foreign exchange, and government
revenues. There is little industry. Commerce accounts
for about 10% of GNP, and the construction, public works, and service
sectors for about 34%. Undeveloped natural resources include titanium,
iron ore, manganese, uranium, and alluvial gold. Oil exploration is
taking place under concessions offered to US, French, and Spanish firms.

GNP: $103 million, per capita $293; real growth rate NA% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 6.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $23 million; expenditures $31 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $30 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--coffee,
timber, cocoa beans;
partners--Spain 44%, FRG 19%, Italy 12%, Netherlands 11% (1987)

Imports: $50 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--petroleum,
food, beverages, clothing, machinery;
partners--Spain 34%, Italy 16%, France 14%, Netherlands 8% (1987)

External debt: $191 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 60 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, sawmilling

Agriculture: cash crops--timber and coffee from Rio Muni, cocoa
from Bioko; food crops--rice, yams, cassava, bananas, oil palm nuts,
manioc, livestock

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY81-88), $11 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $100 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $55 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: Rio Muni--1,024 km; Bioko--216 km

Ports: Malabo, Bata

Merchant marine: 2 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,413
GRT/6,699 DWT; includes 1 cargo and 1 passenger-cargo

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system with adequate government services;
international communications from Bata and Malabo to African and European
countries; 2,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, and possibly Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 77,363; 39,174 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 11% of GNP (FY81 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Ethiopia
- Geography
Total area: 1,221,900 km2; land area: 1,101,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 5,141 km total; Djibouti 459 km, Kenya 861 km,
Somalia 1,600 km, Sudan 2,221 km

Coastline: 1,094 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: southern half of the boundary with Somalia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic
Somalis; territorial dispute with Somalia over the Ogaden; separatist movement
in Eritrea; antigovernment insurgencies in Tigray and other areas

Climate: tropical monsoon with wide topographic-induced variation;
prone to extended droughts

Terrain: high plateau with central mountain range divided by Great
Rift Valley

Natural resources: small reserves of gold, platinum, copper, potash

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 41% meadows and pastures;
24% forest and woodland; 22% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: geologically active Great Rift Valley susceptible to
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion;
desertification; frequent droughts; famine

Note: strategic geopolitical position along world's busiest
shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; major resettlement
project ongoing in rural areas will significantly alter population distribution
and settlement patterns over the next several
decades

- People
Population: 51,666,622 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ethiopian(s); adjective--Ethiopian

Ethnic divisions: 40% Oromo, 32% Amhara and Tigrean, 9% Sidamo, 6%
Shankella, 6% Somali, 4% Afar, 2% Gurage, 1% other

Religion: 40-45% Muslim, 35-40% Ethiopian Orthodox, 15-20% animist, 5%
other

Language: Amharic (official), Tigrinya, Orominga, Arabic, English (major
foreign language taught in schools)

Literacy: 55.2%

Labor force: 18,000,000; 80% agriculture and animal
husbandry, 12% government and services, 8% industry and construction
(1985)

Organized labor: All Ethiopian Trade Union formed by the government in
January 1977 to represent 273,000 registered trade union members

- Government
Long-form name: People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Type: Communist state

Capital: Addis Ababa

Administrative divisions: 14 administrative regions (plural--NA,
singular--kifle hager); Arsi, Bale, Eritrea, Gamo Gofa, Gojam,
Gonder, Harerge, Ilubabor, Kefa, Shewa, Sidamo, Tigray, Welega,
Welo; note--the administrative structure may be changing to 25
administrative regions (astedader akababiwach, singular--astedader
akababee) and 5 autonomous
regions* (rasgez akababiwach, singular--rasgez akababee); Addis Ababa,
Arsi, Aseb*, Asosa, Bale, Borena, Dire Dawa*, East Gojam,
East Harerge, Eritrea*, Gambela, Gamo Gofa, Ilubabor, Kefa, Metekel,
Nazaret, North Gonder, North Shewa, North Welo, Ogaden*, Omo, Sidamo,
South Gonder, South Shewa, South Welo, Tigray*, Welega, West Gojam,
West Harerge, West Shewa

Independence: oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest
in the world--at least 2,000 years

Constitution: 12 September 1987

Legal system: complex structure with civil, Islamic, common, and
customary law influences; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Revolution Day, 12 September (1974)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of State
prime minister, five deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Shengo)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President MENGISTU Haile-Mariam (Chairman from
11 September 1977 until becoming President on 10 September 1987);
Vice President FISSEHA Desta (since 10 September 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister (Acting) and Deputy Prime
Minister HAILU Yimenu (since 7 November 1989);
Deputy Prime Minister WOLLE Chekol (since 21 November 1989);
Deputy Prime Minister ALEMU Abebe (since 10 September 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister TESFAYE Dinka (since 10 September 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister ASHAGRE Yigletu (since 21 November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Workers' Party of
Ethiopia (WPE), Mengistu Haile-Mariam, secretary general

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 10 September 1987 (next to be held September
1992);
results--National Assembly elected President Mengistu Haile-Mariam;

National Assembly--last held 14 June 1987 (next to be
held June 1992);
results--WPE is the only party;
seats--(835 total) WPE 835

Other political or pressure groups: important dissident groups include
Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) in Eritrea; Tigrean People's
Liberation Front (TPLF) and Ethiopian Peoples Democratic Movement
in Tigray, Welo, and border regions; Oromo Liberation Front in Welega and
Harerge regions

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICO, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Counselor, Charge d'Affaires ad interim
GIRMA Amare; Chancery at 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 234-2281 or 2282;
US--Charge d'Affaires Robert G. HOUDEK; Embassy at Entoto Street,
Addis Ababa (mailing address is P.O. Box 1014, Addis Ababa);
telephone 254-233-4141

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), yellow, and red;
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and the colors of her flag
were so often adopted by other African countries upon independence that they
became known as the pan-African colors

- Economy
Overview: Ethiopia is one of the poorest and least developed countries in
Africa. Its economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which accounts for
about 45% of GDP, 90% of exports, and 80% of total employment; coffee generates
over 60% of export earnings. The manufacturing sector is heavily dependent on
inputs from the agricultural sector. The economy is centrally planned, and over
90% of large-scale industry is state run. Favorable agricultural weather
largely explains the 4.5% growth in output in FY89.

GDP: $6.6 billion, per capita $130, real growth rate 4.5% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: NA; shortage of skilled manpower

Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $1.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY87)

Exports: $418 million (f.o.b., FY88); commodities--coffee 60%,
hides;
partners--US, FRG, Djibouti, Japan, PDRY, France, Italy

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., FY88),
commodities--food, fuels, capital goods;
partners--USSR, Italy, FRG, Japan, UK, US, France

External debt: $2.6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 0.2% (FY88 est.)

Electricity: 330,000 kW capacity; 700 million kWh produced,
14 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: cement, textiles, food processing, oil refinery

Agriculture: accounts for 45% of GDP and is the most important sector of
the economy even though frequent droughts, poor cultivation practices, and
state economic policies keep farm output low; famines not uncommon;
export crops of coffee and oilseeds grown partly on state farms;
estimated 50% of agricultural production at subsistence level;
principal crops and livestock--cereals, pulses, coffee, oilseeds,
potatoes, sugarcane, vegetables, hides and skins, cattle, sheep, goats

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $471 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $8 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.0 billion


Currency: birr (plural--birr); 1 birr (Br) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: birr (Br) per US$1--2.0700 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 8 July-7 July

- Communications
Railroads: 988 km total; 681 km 1.000-meter gauge; 307 km 0.950-meter
gauge (nonoperational)

Highways: 44,300 km total; 3,650 km bituminous, 9,650 km gravel, 3,000 km
improved earth, 28,000 km unimproved earth

Ports: Aseb, Mitsiwa

Merchant marine: 14 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,837
GRT/92,067 DWT; includes 10 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll off cargo, 1 livestock
carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 21 major transport aircraft

Airports: 152 total, 111 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 51 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: open-wire and radio relay system adequate for
government use; open-wire to Sudan and Djibouti; radio relay to Kenya and
Djibouti; stations--4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 45,000 TV sets; 3,300,000 radios;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense

Military manpower: males 15-49, 11,438,616; 5,922,555 fit for military
service; 589,231 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 8.5% of GDP (1988)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Europa Island
(French possession)
- Geography
Total area: 28 km2; land area: 28 km2

Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 22.2 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: NA

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; heavily wooded

Environment: wildlife sanctuary

Note: located in the Mozambique Channel 340 km west of Madagascar

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of
the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: 1 meteorological station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 12,170 km2; land area: 12,170 km2; includes the two
main islands of East and West Falkland and about 200 small islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 100 meter depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

Climate: cold marine; strong westerly winds, cloudy, humid; rain occurs on
more than half of days in year; occasional snow all year, except in January
and February, but does not accumulate

Terrain: rocky, hilly, mountainous with some boggy, undulating plains

Natural resources: fish and wildlife

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 99% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 1% other

Environment: poor soil fertility and a short growing season

Note: deeply indented coast provides good natural harbors

- People
Population: 1,958 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Falkland Islander(s); adjective--Falkland Island

Ethnic divisions: almost totally British

Religion: primarily Anglican, Roman Catholic, and United Free Church;
Evangelist Church, Jehovah's Witnesses, Lutheran, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education up to age 15

Labor force: 1,100 (est.); about 95% in agriculture, mostly sheepherding

Organized labor: Falkland Islands General Employees Union, 400 members

- Government
Long-form name: Colony of the Falkland Islands

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Stanley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor William Hugh FULLERTON (since NA 1988)

Political parties: NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Council--last held 3 October 1985 (next to be
held October 1990); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(10 total, 8 elected) number of seats by party NA

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Falkland Island coat of arms in a white disk centered on the outer half of
the flag; the coat of arms contains a white ram (sheep raising is the major
economic activity) above the sailing ship Desire (whose crew discovered
the islands) with a scroll at the bottom bearing the motto DESIRE THE
RIGHT

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on sheep farming, which directly or
indirectly employs most of the work force. A few dairy herds are kept to meet
domestic consumption of milk and milk products, and crops grown are primarily
those for providing winter fodder. Major sources of income are from the export
of high-grade wool to the UK and the sale of stamps and coins. Rich stocks of
fish in the surrounding waters are not presently exploited by the islanders, but
development plans called for the islands to have six trawlers by 1989.
In 1987 the government began to sell fishing licenses to foreign trawlers
operating within the Falklands exclusive fishing zone. These license
fees amount to more than $25 million per year. To encourage tourism, the
Falkland Islands Development Corporation has built three lodges for
visitors who are attracted by the abundant wildlife and trout fishing.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $11 million; expenditures $11.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $1.2 million (FY87)

Exports: at least $14.7 million;
commodities--wool, hides and skins, and other;
partners--UK, Netherlands, Japan (1987 est.)

Imports: at least $13.9 million;
commodities--food, clothing, fuels, and machinery;
partners--UK, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Japan (1987 est.)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,200 kW capacity; 17 million kWh produced, 8,700 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: wool processing

Agriculture: predominantly sheep farming; small dairy herds and
fodder crops

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $102 million

Currency: Falkland pound (plural--pounds); 1 Falkland pound
(LF) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Falkland pound (LF) per US$1--0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);
note--the Falkland pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 510 km total; 30 km paved, 80 km gravel, and 400 km unimproved
earth

Ports: Port Stanley

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220 to 2,439 m

Telecommunications: government-operated radiotelephone and private
VHF/CB radio networks provide effective service to almost all points on
both islands; 590 telephones; stations--2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station with links through London to other countries

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Faroe Islands
(part of the Danish realm)
- Geography
Total area: 1,400 km2; land area: 1,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than eight times the size of
Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 764 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 4 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: mild winters, cool summers; usually overcast; foggy, windy

Terrain: rugged, rocky, some low peaks; cliffs along most of coast

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 98% other

Environment: precipitous terrain limits habitation to small coastal
lowlands; archipelago of 18 inhabited islands and a few uninhabited
islets

Note: strategically located along important sea lanes in
northeastern Atlantic about midway between Iceland and Shetland Islands

- People
Population: 47,715 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Faroese (sing., pl.); adjective--Faroese

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Scandinavian population

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran

Language: Faroese (derived from Old Norse), Danish

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 17,585; largely engaged in fishing, manufacturing,
transportation, and commerce

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

Capital: Torshavn

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark)

Independence: part of the Danish realm; self-governing overseas
administrative division of Denmark

Constitution: Danish

Legal system: Danish

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Executive branch: Danish monarch, high commissioner, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet (Landsstyri)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Logting)

Judicial branch: none

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since 14 January 1972), represented by
High Commissioner Bent KLINTE (since NA);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jogvan SUNDSTEIN (since 17 January
1989)

Political parties and leaders: four-party ruling
coalition--People's Party, Jogvan Sundstein; Republican Party,
Signer Hansen; Progressive and Fishing Industry Party combined with the
Christian People's Party (CPP-PFIP); Home Rule Party, Hilmar Kass;
opposition--Social Democratic Party, Atli P. Dam; Cooperation
Coalition Party, Pauli Ellefsen; Progress Party

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
Parliament--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(32 total) three-party coalition 21 (People's Party 8, Cooperation
Coalition Party 7, Republican Party 6);
Social Democrat 7, CPP-PFIP 2, Home Rule 2

Communists: insignificant number

Member of: Nordic Council

Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing overseas administrative
division of Denmark)

Flag: white with a red cross outlined in blue that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

- Economy
Overview: The Faroese enjoy the high standard of living
characteristic of the Danish and other Scandinavian economies.
Fishing is the dominant economic activity. It employs over
25% of the labor force, accounts for about 25% of GDP, and
contributes over 80% to export revenues. A handicraft industry
employs about 20% of the labor force. Because of cool summers
agricultural activities are limited to raising sheep and to
potato and vegetable cultivation. There is a labor shortage, and
immigrant workers accounted for 5% of the work force in 1989. Denmark
annually subsidizes the economy, perhaps on the order of 15% of GDP.

GDP: $662 million, per capita $14,000; real growth rate 3%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: labor shortage

Budget: revenues $176 million; expenditures $176 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY86)

Exports: $267 million (f.o.b., 1986);
commodities--fish and fish products 86%, animal feedstuffs, transport
equipment;
partners--Denmark 18%, US 14%, FRG, France, UK, Canada

Imports: $363 million (c.i.f., 1986);
commodities--machinery and transport equipment 38%, food and livestock
11%, fuels 10%, manufactures 10%, chemicals 5%;
partners: Denmark 46%, FRG, Norway, Japan, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 80,000 kW capacity; 280 million kWh produced, 5,910 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, shipbuilding, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and employs 27% of labor force;
principal crops--potatoes and vegetables; livestock--sheep; annual fish catch
about 360,000 metric tons

Aid: none

Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--6.560 (January
1990), 7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091 (1986), 10.596 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 200 km

Ports: Torshavn, Tvoroyri; 8 minor

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 17,249
GRT/11,887 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 2 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo; note--a subset of the Danish register

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international communications; fair domestic
facilities; 27,900 telephones; stations--1 AM, 3 (10 repeaters) FM,
3 (29 repeaters) TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Denmark
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Fiji
- Geography
Total area: 18,270 km2; land area: 18,270 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,129 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines)

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; only slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin

Natural resources: timber, fish, gold, copper; offshore oil
potential

Land use: 8% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures;
65% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes from November to January;
includes 332 islands of which approximately 110 are inhabited

Note: located 2,500 km north of New Zealand in the South Pacific
Ocean

- People
Population: 759,567 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Fijian(s); adjective--Fijian

Ethnic divisions: 49% Indian, 46% Fijian, 5% European, other Pacific
Islanders, overseas Chinese, and others

Religion: Fijians are mainly Christian, Indians are Hindu with a Muslim
minority

Language: English (official); Fijian; Hindustani

Literacy: 80%

Labor force: 176,000; 60% subsistence agriculture, 40% wage earners (1979)

Organized labor: about 45,000 employees belong to some 46 trade
unions, which are organized along lines of work and ethnic origin (1983)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Fiji

Type: military coup leader Major General Sitiveni Rabuka formally
declared Fiji a republic on 6 October 1987

Capital: Suva

Administrative divisions: 4 divisions and 1 dependency*; Central, Eastern,
Northern, Rotuma*, Western

Independence: 10 October 1970 (from UK)

Constitution: 10 October 1970 (suspended 1 October 1987); note--a new
constitution was proposed on 23 September 1988 and awaits final approval

Legal system: based on British system

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 October (1970)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: the bicameral Parliament, consisting of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives,
was dissolved following the coup of 14 May 1987; the proposed
constitution of NA September 1988 provides for a bicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Ratu Sir Penaia Kanatabatu GANILAU
(since 5 December 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Ratu Sir Kamisese MARA (since 5
December 1987); note--Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara served as prime minister from
10 October 1970 until the 5-11 April 1987 election; after a second coup led
by Major General Sitiveni Rabuka on 25 September 1987, Ratu Mara was
reappointed as prime minister

Political parties and leaders: Alliance, primarily Fijian,
Ratu Mara; National Federation, primarily Indian, Siddiq Koya;
Western United Front, Fijian, Ratu Osea Gavidi; Fiji Labor Party,
Adi Kuini Bavadra; coalition of the National Federation Party
and the Fiji Labor Party, Adi Kuini Vuikaba Bavadra

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: some

Member of: ACP, ADB, Colombo Plan, EC (associate), ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Counselor (Commercial), Vice Consul, Charge
d'Affaires ad interim Abdul H. YUSUF; Chancery at Suite 240, 2233 Wisconsin
Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; telephone (202) 337-8320; there is a
Fijian Consulate in New York;
US--Ambassador Leonard ROCHWARGER; Embassy at 31 Loftus Street, Suva
(mailing address is P. O. Box 218, Suva); telephone p679o 314-466 or 314-069

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and the Fijian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield depicts
a yellow lion above a white field quartered by the cross of St. George featuring
stalks of sugarcane, a palm tree, bananas, and a white dove

- Economy
Overview: Fiji's economy is primarily agricultural, with a large
subsistence sector. Sugar exports are a major source of foreign exchange
and sugar processing accounts for one-third of industrial output.
Industry, including sugar milling, contributes 10% to GDP. Fiji
traditionally earned considerable sums of hard currency from the 250,000
tourists who visited each year. In 1987, however, after two military
coups, the economy went into decline. GDP dropped by 7.8% in
1987 and by another 2.5% in 1988; political uncertainly created a drop in
tourism, and the worst drought of the century caused sugar production
to fall sharply. In contrast, sugar and tourism turned in strong
performances in 1989, and the economy rebounded vigorously.

GDP: $1.32 billion, per capita $1,750; real growth rate 12.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.8% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 11% (1988)

Budget: revenues $260 million; expenditures $233 million,
including capital expenditures of $47 million (1988)

Exports: $312 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--sugar 49%, copra, processed fish, lumber;
partners--UK 45%, Australia 21%, US 4.7%

Imports: $454 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--food 15%, petroleum products, machinery, consumer goods;
partners--US 4.8%, NZ, Australia, Japan

External debt: $398 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 15% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 215,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced, 440 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, copra, tourism, gold, silver, fishing, clothing,
lumber, small cottage industries

Agriculture: principal cash crop is sugarcane; coconuts, cassava, rice,
sweet potatoes, and bananas; small livestock sector includes cattle, pigs,
horses, and goats

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1980-87), $677 million

Currency: Fijian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Fijian dollar
(F$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Fijian dollars (F$) per US$1--1.4950 (January 1990),
1.4833 (1989), 1.4303 (1988), 1.2439 (1987), 1.1329 (1986), 1.1536 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 644 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, belonging to the
government-owned Fiji Sugar Corporation

Highways: 3,300 km total (1984)--390 km paved; 1,200 km
bituminous-surface treatment; 1,290 km gravel, crushed stone, or stabilized
soil surface; 420 unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 203 km; 122 km navigable by motorized craft and
200-metric-ton barges

Ports: Lambasa, Lautoka, Savusavu, Suva

Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 42,872 GRT/49,795
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 2
liquefied gas, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker

Civil air: 1 DC-3 and 1 light aircraft

Airports: 26 total, 24 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern local, interisland, and international
(wire/radio integrated) public and special-purpose telephone, telegraph, and
teleprinter facilities; regional radio center; important COMPAC cable link
between US-Canada and New Zealand-Australia; 53,228 telephones; stations--7 AM,
1 FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: integrated ground and naval forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 194,433; 107,317 fit for military
service; 7,864 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1988)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Finland
- Geography
Total area: 337,030 km2; land area: 305,470 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: 2,578 km total; Norway 729 km, Sweden 536 km,
USSR 1,313 km

Coastline: 1,126 km excluding islands and coastal indentations

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild
because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea,
and more than 60,000 lakes

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes
and low hills

Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

Land use: 8% arable land; 0% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and pastures;
76% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: permanently wet ground covers about 30% of land;
population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

Note: long boundary with USSR; Helsinki is northernmost national
capital on European continent

- People
Population: 4,977,325 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Finn(s); adjective--Finnish

Ethnic divisions: Finn, Swede, Lapp, Gypsy, Tatar

Religion: 97% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.2% Eastern Orthodox, 1.8% other

Language: 93.5% Finnish, 6.3% Swedish (both official); small Lapp- and
Russian-speaking minorities

Literacy: almost 100%

Labor force: 2,556,000; 33.1% services, 22.9% mining and manufacturing,
13.8% commerce, 10.3% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 7.2% construction,
7.1% transportation and communications (1989 est.)

Organized labor: 80% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Finland

Type: republic

Capital: Helsinki

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (laanit, singular--laani);
Ahvenanmaa, Hame, Keski-Suomi, Kuopio, Kymi, Lappi, Mikkeli, Oulu,
Pohjois-Karjala, Turku ja Pori, Uusimaa, Vaasa

Independence: 6 December 1917 (from Soviet Union)

Constitution: 17 July 1919

Legal system: civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court
may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 December (1917)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of State (Valtioneuvosto)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Mauno KOIVISTO (since 27 January 1982);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Harri HOLKERI (since 30 April 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister Pertti PAASIO (since NA January 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party, Pertti Paasio;
Center Party, Paavo Vayrynen; People's Democratic League (majority Communist
front), Reijo Kakela; National Coalition (Conservative) Party, Ilkka Suominen;
Liberal People's Party, Kyosti Lallukka; Swedish People's Party, Christoffer
Taxell; Rural Party, leader NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 31 January-1 February and 15 February
1988 (next to be held January 1994);
results--Mauno Koivisto 48%, Paavo Vayrynen 20%, Harri Holkeri 18%;

Parliament--last held 15-16 March 1987 (next to be held March
1991);
results--Social Democratic 24.3%, National Coalition (Conservative)
23.9%, Center-Liberal People's 18.6%, People's Democratic League 9.4%,
Rural 6.3%, Swedish People's 5.3%, Democratic Alternative 4.3%, Green
League 4.0%, Finnish Christian League 2.6%, Finnish Pensioners 1.2%,
Constitutional Rightist 0.1%;
seats--(200 total) Social Democratic 56, National Coalition
(Conservative) 53, Center-Liberal People's 40, People's Democratic
League 16, Swedish People's 13, Rural 9, Finnish Christian League 5;
Democratic Alternative 4, Green League 4

Communists: 28,000 registered members; an additional 45,000 persons
belong to People's Democratic League

Other political or pressure groups: Finnish Communist Party
(majority Communist faction), Jarmo Wahlstrom; Finnish Communist
Party-Unity (minority faction), Esko-Juhani Tennila; Democratic
Alternative (minority Communist front), Kristiina Halkola;
Finnish Christian League, Esko Almgren; Constitutional
Rightist Party; Finnish Pensioners Party; Green League, Heidi Hautala;
Communist Workers Party, Timo Lahdenmaki

Member of: ADB, CCC, CEMA (special cooperation agreement), DAC, EC
(free trade agreement), EFTA, ESA (associate), FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD,
IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC--International
Wheat Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jukka VALTASAARI; Chancery at
3216 New Mexico Avenue NW, Washington DC 20016; telephone (202) 363-2430;
there are Finnish Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York,
and Consulates in Chicago and Houston;
US--Ambassador John G. WEINMANN; Embassy at Itainen Puistotie
14ASF-00140, Helsinki (mailing address is APO New York 09664);
telephone p358o (0) 171931

Flag: white with a blue cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the
Dannebrog (Danish flag)

- Economy
Overview: Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free market
economy, with per capita output nearly three-fourths the US figure.
Its main economic force is the manufacturing sector--principally
the wood, metals, and engineering industries. Trade is important, with the
export of goods representing about 25% of GNP. Except for timber and
several minerals, Finland depends on imported raw materials, energy, and
some components of manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural
development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic commodities.
Economic prospects are generally bright, the main shadow being the
increasing pressures on wages and prices.

GDP: $74.4 billion, per capita $15,000; real growth rate 4.6% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $28.3 billion; expenditures $28.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1988 est.)

Exports: $22.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--timber, paper and pulp, ships, machinery, clothing and
footwear;
partners--EC 44.2% (UK 13.0%, FRG 10.8%), USSR 14.9%, Sweden 14.1%,
US 5.8%

Imports: $22.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals,
transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, fodder
grains;
partners--EC 43.5% (FRG 16.9%, UK 6.8%),
Sweden 13.3%, USSR 12.1%, US 6.3%

External debt: $5.3 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.3% (1989)

Electricity: 13,324,000 kW capacity; 49,330 million kWh produced, 9,940
kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metal manufacturing and shipbuilding, forestry and wood
processing (pulp, paper), copper refining, foodstuffs, textiles, clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GNP (including forestry); livestock
production, especially dairy cattle, predominates; forestry is an important
export earner and a secondary occupation for the rural population; main
crops--cereals, sugar beets, potatoes; 85% self-sufficient, but short of food
and fodder grains; annual fish catch about 160,000 metric tons

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $1.7 billion

Currency: markka (plural--markkaa); 1 markka (FMk) or
Finmark = 100 pennia

Exchange rates: markkaa (FMk) per US$1--4.0022 (January 1990),
4.2912 (1989), 4.1828 (1988), 4.3956 (1987), 5.0695 (1986), 6.1979 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 5,924 km total; Finnish State Railways (VR) operate a total of
5,863 km 1.524-meter gauge, of which 480 km are multiple track and 1,445 km
are electrified

Highways: about 103,000 km total, including 35,000 km paved (bituminous,
concrete, bituminous-treated surface) and 38,000 km unpaved (stabilized gravel,
gravel, earth); additional 30,000 km of private (state-subsidized) roads

Inland waterways: 6,675 km total (including Saimaa Canal); 3,700 km
suitable for steamers

Pipelines: natural gas, 580 km

Ports: Helsinki, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku; 6 secondary, numerous
minor ports

Merchant marine: 82 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 737,811
GRT/764,695 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 11 short-sea passenger, 18 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 24 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 12 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 7 bulk,
1 combination bulk

Civil air: 39 major transport

Airports: 160 total, 157 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 23 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good service from cable and radio relay network;
3,140,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, 42 (101 relays) FM, 79 (195 relays) TV;
2 submarine cables; satellite service via Swedish earth stations; satellite
earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 EUTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,312,941; 1,091,416 fit for military
service; 32,288 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.5% of GDP (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: France
- Geography
Total area: 547,030 km2; land area: 545,630 km2; includes Corsica and
the rest of metropolitan France, but excludes the overseas administrative
divisions

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: 2,892.4 km total; Andorra 60 km, Belgium 620 km,
FRG 451 km, Italy 488 km, Luxembourg 73 km, Monaco 4.4 km, Spain 623 km,
Switzerland 573 km

Coastline: 3,427 km (includes Corsica, 644 km)

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12-24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Canada (St. Pierre and Miquelon);
Madagascar claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius
claims Tromelin Island; Seychelles claims Tromelin Island; Suriname claims part
of French Guiana; territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land)

Climate: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters
and hot summers along the Mediterranean

Terrain: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west;
remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east

Natural resources: coal, iron ore, bauxite, fish, timber, zinc,
potash

Land use: 32% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 23% meadows and pastures;
27% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: most of large urban areas and industrial centers in
Rhone, Garonne, Seine, or Loire River basins; occasional warm tropical wind
known as mistral

Note: largest West European nation

- People
Population: 56,358,331 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective--French

Ethnic divisions: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African,
Indochinese, and Basque minorities

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant, 1% Jewish, 1% Muslim (North
African workers), 6% unaffiliated

Language: French (100% of population); rapidly declining regional
dialects (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 24,170,000; 61.5% services, 31.3% industry, 7.3% agriculture
(1987)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force (est.)

- Government
Long-form name: French Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Paris

Administrative divisions: metropolitan France--22 regions (regions,
singular--region); Alsace, Aquitaine, Auvergne, Basse-Normandie, Bourgogne,
Bretagne, Centre, Champagne-Ardenne, Corse, Franche-Comte, Haute-Normandie,
Ile-de-France, Languedoc-Roussillon, Limousin, Lorraine, Midi-Pyrenees,
Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire, Picardie, Poitou-Charentes,
Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Rhone-Alpes; note--the 22 regions are subdivided
into 96 departments; see separate entries for the overseas departments
(French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion) and the territorial
collectivities (Mayotte, St. Pierre and Miquelon)

Dependent areas: Bassas da India, Clipperton Island, Europa Island,
French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, New Caledonia, Tromelin Island, Wallis and Futuna

Independence: unified by Clovis in 486, First Republic proclaimed in 1792

Constitution: 28 September 1958, amended concerning election of
president in 1962

Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; review of
administrative but not legislative acts

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlement) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Michel ROCARD (since 10 March 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR, formerly UDR),
Jacques Chirac; Union for French Democracy (UDF, federation of PR, CDS, and
RAD), Valery Giscard d'Estaing; Republicans (PR), Francois Leotard;
Center for Social Democrats (CDS), Pierre Mehaignerie; Radical
(RAD), Yves Gallard; Socialist Party (PS), Pierre Mauroy; Left Radical
Movement (MRG), Yves Collin; Communist Party (PCF), Georges
Marchais; National Front (FN), Jean-Marie Le Pen

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Second Ballot Francois Mitterrand 54%, Jacques Chirac 46%;

Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held September
1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(321 total; 296 metropolitan France, 13 for overseas departments
and territories, and 12 for French nationals abroad) RPR 93,
UDF 143 (PR 53, CDS 65, RAD 25), PS 64, PCF 16, independents 2,
unknown 3;

National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to be held
June 1993);
results--Second Ballot PS-MRG 48.7%, RPR 23.1%, UDF 21%, PCF 3.4%,
other 3.8%;
seats--(577 total) PS 275, RPR 132, UDF 90, UDC 40, PCF 25, independents
15

Communists: 700,000 claimed but probably closer to 150,000; Communist
voters, 2.8 million in 1988 election

Other political or pressure groups: Communist-controlled labor union
(Confederation Generale du Travail) nearly 2.4 million members
(claimed); Socialist-leaning labor union (Confederation Francaise
Democratique du Travail or CFDT) about 800,000 members est.;
independent labor union (Force Ouvriere) about 1,000,000 members est.;
independent white-collar union (Confederation Generale des Cadres)
340,000 members (claimed); National Council of French Employers (Conseil
National du Patronat Francais--CNPF or Patronat)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EIB, EMS,
ESA, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling
Commission, NATO (signatory), OAS (observer), OECD, SPC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WEU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jacques ANDREANI; Chancery at
4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 944-6000; there are
French Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles,
New Orleans, Miami, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US--Ambassador Walter J. P. CURLEY; Embassy at 2 Avenue
Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08 (mailing address is APO New York 09777); telephone
p33o (1) 42-96-12-02 or 42-61-80-75; there are US Consulates General in
Bordeaux, Lyon, Marseille, and Strasbourg

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), white, and red;
known as the French Tricouleur (Tricolor); the design and colors have
been the basis for a number of other flags, including those of Belgium,
Chad, Ireland, Ivory Coast, and Luxembourg; the official flag for all
French dependent areas

- Economy
Overview: One of the world's most developed economies, France
has substantial agricultural resources and a highly diversified modern
industrial sector. Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern
technology, and subsidies have combined to make it the leading agricultural
producer in Western Europe. France is largely self-sufficient in agricultural
products and is a major exporter of wheat and dairy products. The industrial
sector generates about one-third of GDP and employs about one-third of the work
force. During the period 1982-86 economic growth was sluggish, averaging
only 1.4% annually. This trend was reversed by late 1987, however,
with a strong expansion of consumer demand, followed by a surge in
investment. The economy has had difficulty generating enough jobs for new
entrants into the labor force, resulting in a high unemployment rate,
but the upward trend in growth recently pushed the jobless rate below 10%.
The steadily advancing economic integration within the European
Community is a major force affecting the fortunes of the various economic
sectors.

GDP: $819.6 billion, per capita $14,600; real growth rate 3.4%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.7% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $197.0 billion; expenditures $213.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $183.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals,
foodstuffs, agricultural products, iron and steel products, textiles and
clothing;
partners--FRG 15.8%, Italy 12.2%, UK 9.8%, Belgium-Luxembourg 8.9%,
Netherlands 8.7%, US 6.7%, Spain 5.6%, Japan 1.8%, USSR 1.3% (1989 est.)

Imports: $194.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities--crude oil, machinery and equipment, agricultural
products, chemicals, iron and steel products;
partners--FRG 19.4%, Italy 11.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 9.2%, US 7.7%,
UK 7.2%, Netherlands 5.2%, Spain 4.4%, Japan 4.1%, USSR 2.1% (1989 est.)

External debt: $59.3 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 109,972,000 kW capacity; 403,570 million kWh produced,
7,210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: steel, machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy,
aircraft, electronics, mining, textiles, food processing, and tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); one
of the world's top five wheat producers; other principal products--beef, dairy
products, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; self-sufficient for most
temperate-zone foods; shortages include fats and oils and tropical produce, but
overall net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 850,000 metric tons ranks
among world's top 20 countries and is all used domestically

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $59.8 billion

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: French National Railways (SNCF) operates 34,568 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge; 11,674 km electrified, 15,132 km double or multiple track;
2,138 km of various gauges (1.000-meter to 1.440-meter), privately owned and
operated

Highways: 1,551,400 km total; 33,400 km national highway; 347,000 km
departmental highway; 421,000 km community roads; 750,000 km rural roads; 5,401
km of controlled-access divided autoroutes; about 803,000 km paved

Inland waterways: 14,932 km; 6,969 km heavily traveled

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,059 km; refined products, 4,487 km; natural gas,
24,746 km

Ports: maritime--Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Cherbourg, Dunkerque,
Fos-Sur-Mer, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes, Rouen, Sete, Toulon;
inland--42

Merchant marine: 153 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,671,645
GRT/5,950,785 DWT; includes 10 short-sea passenger, 19 cargo, 19 container, 1
multifunction large-load carrier, 30 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 37 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 4 specialized
tanker, 17 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note--France also maintains a
captive register for French-owned ships in the Kerguelen Islands (French
Southern and Antarctic Lands) and French Polynesia

Civil air: 355 major transport aircraft (1982)

Airports: 470 total, 460 usable; 204 with permanent-surface runways; 3
with runways over 3,659 m; 34 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 133 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed system provides satisfactory
telephone, telegraph, radio and TV broadcast services; 39,110,000 telephones;
stations--42 AM, 138 (777 relays) FM, 215 TV (8,900 relays); 25 submarine
coaxial cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT,
3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean, EUTELSAT, MARISAT, and domestic systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,285,904; 12,042,731 fit for military
service; 409,544 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP, or $31.1 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: French Guiana
(overseas department of France)
- Geography
Total area: 91,000 km2; land area: 89,150 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 1,183 km total; Brazil 673 km, Suriname 510 km

Coastline: 378 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Suriname claims area between Riviere Litani and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa)

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation

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