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Coastline: 648 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: 1974 hostilities divided the island into two de facto
autonomous areas--a Greek area controlled by the Cypriot Government (60% of
the island's land area) and a Turkish-Cypriot area (35% of the island) that
are separated by a narrow UN buffer zone; in addition, there are two UK
sovereign base areas (about 5% of the island's land area)

Climate: temperate, Mediterranean with hot, dry summers and cool, wet
winters

Terrain: central plain with mountains to north and south

Natural resources: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum, timber, salt,
marble, clay earth pigment

Land use: 40% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 10% meadows and pastures;
18% forest and woodland; 25% other; includes 10% irrigated (most
irrigated lands are in the Turkish-Cypriot area of the island)

Environment: moderate earthquake activity; water resource problems
(no natural reservoir catchments, seasonal disparity in rainfall, and most
potable resources concentrated in the Turkish-Cypriot area)

- People
Population: 707,776 (July 1990), growth rate 1.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Cypriot(s); adjective--Cypriot

Ethnic divisions: 78% Greek; 18% Turkish; 4% other

Religion: 78% Greek Orthodox; 18% Muslim; 4% Maronite, Armenian,
Apostolic, and other

Language: Greek, Turkish, English

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: Greek area--251,406; 42% services, 33% industry,
22% agriculture; Turkish area--NA (1986)

Organized labor: 156,000 (1985 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Cyprus

Type: republic; a disaggregation of the two ethnic communities inhabiting
the island began after the outbreak of communal strife in 1963; this separation
was further solidified following the Turkish invasion of the island in July
1974, which gave the Turkish Cypriots de facto control in the north; Greek
Cypriots control the only internationally recognized government; on 15 November
1983 Turkish Cypriot President Rauf Denktash declared independence and the
formation of a Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which has been recognized
only by Turkey; both sides publicly call for the resolution of intercommunal
differences and creation of a new federal system of government

Capital: Nicosia

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Famagusta, Kyrenia,
Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia, Paphos

Independence: 16 August 1960 (from UK)

Constitution: 16 August 1960; negotiations to create the basis for a new
or revised constitution to govern the island and to better relations between
Greek and Turkish Cypriots have been held intermittently; in 1975 Turkish
Cypriots created their own Constitution and governing bodies within the Turkish
Federated State of Cyprus, which was renamed the Turkish Republic of Northern
Cyprus in 1983; a new Constitution for the Turkish area passed by referendum
in May 1985

Legal system: based on common law, with civil law modifications

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet); note--there
is a president, prime minister, and Council of Ministers (cabinet) in the
Turkish area

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (Vouli
Antiprosopon); note--there is a unicameral Assembly of the Republic
(Cumhuriyet Meclisi) in the Turkish area

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; note--there is also a Supreme Court
in the Turkish area

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President George VASSILIOU
(since February 1988); note--Rauf R. DENKTAS was proclaimed President of
the Turkish area on 13 February 1975

Political parties and leaders: Greek Cypriot--Progressive
Party of the Working People (AKEL; Communist Party), Dimitrios
Christotias, Democratic Rally (DESY), Glafkos Clerides; Democratic Party
(DEKO), Spyros Kyprianou; United Democratic Union of the Center (EDEK),
Vassos Lyssarides;

Turkish area--National Unity Party (NUP), Dervis Eroglu;
Communal Liberation Party (CLP), Ismail Bozkurt; Republican Turkish
Party (RTP), Ozker Ozgur; New Birth Party (NBP), Aytac Besheshler;
New Cyprus savey (NCP), Alpay Durduran

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 14 February and 21 February 1988 (next
to be held February 1993);
results--George Vassiliou 52%, Glafkos Clerides 48%;

House of Representatives--last held 8 December 1985 (next to
be held December 1990);
results--Democratic Rally 33.56%, Democratic Party 27.65%, AKEL 27.43%,
EDEK 11.07%;
seats--(56 total) Democratic Rally 19, Democratic Party 16,
AKEL (Communist) 15, EDEK 6;

Turkish Area: President--last held 9 June 1985 (next to be
held June 1990);
results--Rauf Denktash 70%;

Turkish Area: Legislative Assembly--last held 23 June 1985
(next to be held June 1990);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(50 total) National Unity Party (conservative)
24, Republican Turkish Party (Communist) 12, Communal Liberation Party
(center-right) 10, New Birth Party 4

Communists: about 12,000

Other political or pressure groups: United Democratic Youth Organization
(EDON; Communist controlled); Union of Cyprus Farmers (EKA; Communist
controlled); Cyprus Farmers Union (PEK; pro-West); Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation
(PEO; Communist controlled); Confederation of Cypriot Workers (SEK; pro-West);
Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions (Turk-Sen); Confederation of
Revolutionary Labor Unions (Dev-Is)

Member of: CCC, Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO; Turkish Federated State
of Cyprus--OIC (observer)

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael E. SHERIFIS;
Chancery at 2211 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-5772;
there is a Cypriot Consulate General in New York;
US--(vacant); Embassy at the corner of Therissos Street
and Dositheos Street, Nicosia (mailing address is FPO New York 09530);
telephone p357o (2) 465151

Flag: white with a copper-colored silhouette of the island (the name
Cyprus is derived from the Greek word for copper) above two green crossed olive
branches in the center of the flag; the branches symbolize the hope for peace
and reconciliation between the Greek and Turkish communities

- Economy
Overview: These data are for the area controlled by the Republic of
Cyprus (information on the northern Turkish-Cypriot area is sparse).
The economy is small, diversified, and prosperous. Industry contributes
about 28% to GDP and employs 35% of the labor force, while the service
sector contributes about 55% to GDP and employs 40% of the labor force.
Rapid growth in exports of agricultural and manufactured products
and in tourism have played important roles in the average 6% rise in GDP
in recent years. While this growth put considerable pressure on prices
and the balance of payments, the inflation rate has remained low
and the balance-of-payments deficit manageable.

GDP: $4.2 billion, per capita $6,100; real growth rate 6.9%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.8% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $178 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $767 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--citrus, potatoes, grapes, wine, cement, clothing and shoes;
partners--Middle East and North Africa 37%, UK 27%, other EC
11%, US 2%

Imports: $1.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--consumer goods 23%, petroleum and lubricants 12%, food and
feed grains, machinery;
partners--EC 60%, Middle East and North Africa 7%, US 4%

External debt: $2.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.5% (1988)

Electricity: 620,000 kW capacity; 1,770 million kWh produced,
2,530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (iron pyrites, gypsum, asbestos);
manufactured products--beverages, footwear, clothing, and cement--are
principally for local consumption

Agriculture: accounts for 8% of GDP and employs 22% of labor force; major
crops--potatoes, vegetables, barley, grapes, olives, and citrus fruits;
vegetables and fruit provide 25% of export revenues

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $272 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $223 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $62 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$24 million

Currency: Cypriot pound (plural--pounds) and in Turkish area, Turkish
lira (plural--liras); 1 Cypriot pound (LC) = 100 cents and 1 Turkish lira
(TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Cypriot pounds (LC) per US$1--0.4854 (January 1990),
0.4933 (1989), 0.4663 (1988), 0.4807 (1987), 0.5167 (1986), 0.6095 (1985);
in Turkish area, Turkish liras (TL) per US$1--2,314.7 (November 1989),
1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 10,780 km total; 5,170 km bituminous surface treated; 5,610 km
gravel, crushed stone, and earth

Ports: Famagusta, Kyrenia, Larnaca, Limassol, Paphos

Merchant marine: 1,100 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,093,340
GRT/32,148,550 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 12 short-sea passenger, 2
passenger-cargo, 434 cargo, 61 refrigerated cargo, 18 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
40 container, 94 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 specialized
cargo, 3 liquefied gas, 13 chemical tanker, 29 combination ore/oil,
341 bulk, 3 vehicle carrier, 48 combination bulk carrier;
note--a flag of convenience registry; Cuba owns at least 20 of these
ships and Yugoslavia owns 1

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 13 total, 13 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent in the area controlled by the Cypriot
Government (Greek area), moderately good in the Turkish-Cypriot administered
area; 210,000 telephones; stations--13 AM, 7 (7 repeaters) FM, 2 (40
repeaters) TV; tropospheric scatter circuits to Greece and Turkey; 3 submarine
coaxial cables; satellite earth stations--INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean
and 1 Indian Ocean, and EUTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Cyprus National Guard; Turkish area--Turkish Cypriot Security
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 180,946; 125,044 fit for military
service; 5,083 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2% of GDP, or $84 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Czechoslovakia
- Geography
Total area: 127,870 km2; land area: 125,460 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

Land boundaries: 3,446 km total; Austria 548 km, GDR 459 km,
Hungary 676 km, Poland 1,309 km, USSR 98 km, FRG 356 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary

Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters

Terrain: mixture of hills and mountains separated by plains and basins

Natural resources: coal, timber, lignite, uranium, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, zinc

Land use: 40% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 13% meadows and pastures;
37% forest and woodland; 9% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: infrequent earthquakes; acid rain; water pollution;
air pollution

Note: landlocked; strategically located astride some of oldest
and most significant land routes in Europe; Moravian Gate is a traditional
military corridor between the North European Plain and the Danube in central
Europe

- People
Population: 15,683,234 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Czechoslovak(s); adjective--Czechoslovak

Ethnic divisions: 64.3% Czech, 30.5% Slovak, 3.8% Hungarian, 0.4% German,
0.4% Polish, 0.3% Ukrainian, 0.1% Russian, 0.2% other (Jewish, Gypsy)

Religion: 50% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 2% Orthodox, 28% other

Language: Czech and Slovak (official), Hungarian

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 8,200,000 (1987); 36.9% industry, 12.3% agriculture,
50.8% construction, communications, and other (1982)

Organized labor: Revolutionary Trade Union Movement (ROH),
formerly regime-controlled; other industry-specific strike committees;
new independent trade unions forming

- Government
Long-form name: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic; abbreviated CSSR;
note--on 23 March 1990 the name was changed to Czechoslovak Federative
Republic; because of Slovak concerns about their status in the
Federation, the Federal Assembly approved the name Czech and Slovak
Federative Republic on 20 April 1990

Type: in transition from Communist state to republic

Capital: Prague

Administrative divisions: 2 socialist republics (socialisticke
republiky, singular--socialisticka republika); Ceska Socialisticka
Republika, Slovenska Socialisticka Republika

Independence: 18 October 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

Constitution: 11 July 1960; amended in 1968 and 1970; new
constitution under review (1 January 1990)

Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes, modified
by Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Holiday of the Republic (Anniversary
of the Liberation), 9 May (1945)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Federalni
Shromazdeni) consists of an upper house or House of Nations
(Snemovna Narodu) and a lower house or House of the People
(Snemovna Lidu)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State--President Vaclav HAVEL
(since 28 December 1989);

Head of Government--Premier Marian CALFA (since
10 December 1989); First Deputy Premier Valtr KOMAREK (since
7 December 1989); Jan CARNOGURSKY (since 7 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Civic Forum, since December 1989
leading political force, loose coalition of former oppositionists headed
by President Vaclav Havel; Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
(KSC), Ladislav Adamec, chairman (since 20 December 1989); KSC
toppled from power in November 1989 by massive antiregime
demonstrations, minority role in coalition government since 10
December 1989

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 22 May 1985 (next to be held 8 June 1990;
will be a free election);
results--Gustav Husak was reelected without opposition;

Federal Assembly--last held 23 and 24 May 1986 (next to
be held 8 June 1990; will be a free election);
results--KSC was the only party;
seats--(350 total) KSC 350

Communists: 1.71 million party members (April 1988) and falling

Other political groups: Czechoslovak Socialist Party, Czechoslovak
People's Party, Slovak Freedom Party, Slovak Revival Party, Christian
Democratic Party; more than 40 political groups are expected to field
candidates for the 8 June 1990 election

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, ICO, ILO, ILZSG,
IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rita KLIMOVA;
Chancery at 3900 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
363-6315 or 6316;
US--Ambassador Shirley Temple BLACK; Embassy at Trziste 15-12548,
Prague (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone p42o (2) 53 6641
through 6649

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red with a blue
isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: Czechoslovakia is highly industrialized and has a
well-educated and skilled labor force. Its industry, transport, energy
sources, banking, and most other means of production are state owned. The
country is deficient, however, in energy and many raw materials.
Moreover, its aging capital plant lags well behind West European
standards. Industry contributes over 50% to GNP and construction 10%.
About 95% of agricultural land is in collectives or state farms. The
centrally planned economy has been tightly linked in trade (80%) to
the USSR and Eastern Europe. Growth has been sluggish, averaging
less than 2% in the period 1982-89. GNP per capita ranks
next to the GDR as the highest in the Communist countries.
As in the rest of Eastern Europe, the sweeping political changes of
1989 have been disrupting normal channels of supply and compounding
the government's economic problems. Czechoslovakia is beginning
the difficult transition from a command to a market economy.

GNP: $123.2 billion, per capita $7,878; real growth rate 1.0%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 0.9% (1987)

Budget: revenues $22.4 billion; expenditures $21.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.7 billion (1986 state budget)

Exports: $24.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--machinery and equipment 58.5%;
industrial consumer goods 15.2%;
fuels, minerals, and metals 10.6%;
agricultural and forestry products 6.1%, other products 15.2%;
partners--USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US

Imports: $23.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--machinery and equipment 41.6%;
fuels, minerals, and metals 32.2%; agricultural and forestry
products 11.5%; industrial consumer goods 6.7%; other products 8.0%;
partners--USSR, GDR, Poland, Hungary, FRG, Yugoslavia, Austria,
Bulgaria, Romania, US

External debt: $7.4 billion, hard currency indebtedness (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1988)

Electricity: 22,955,000 kW capacity; 85,000 million kWh produced,
5,410 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: iron and steel, machinery and equipment, cement, sheet
glass, motor vehicles, armaments, chemicals, ceramics, wood, paper
products, footwear

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP (includes forestry); largely
self-sufficient in food production; diversified crop and livestock production,
including grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit, hogs, cattle, and poultry;
exporter of forest products

Aid: donor--$4.2 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1954-88)

Currency: koruna (plural--koruny); 1 koruna (Kc) = 100 haleru

Exchange rates: koruny (Kcs) per US$1--17.00 (March 1990),
10.00 (1989), 5.63 (1988), 5.43 (1987), 5.95 (1986), 6.79 (1985), 6.65 (1984)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 13,116 km total; 12,868 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 102 km
1.524-meter broad gauge, 146 km 0.750- and 0.760-meter narrow gauge; 2,854 km
double track; 3,530 km electrified; government owned (1986)

Highways: 73,805 km total; including 489 km superhighway (1986)

Inland waterways: 475 km (1986); the Elbe (Labe) is the principal river

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,448 km; refined products, 1,500 km; natural gas,
8,000 km

Ports: maritime outlets are in Poland (Gdynia, Gdansk, Szczecin),
Yugoslavia (Rijeka, Koper), FRG (Hamburg), GDR (Rostock); principal river ports
are Prague on the Vltava, Decin on the Elbe (Labe), Komarno on the
Danube, Bratislava on the Danube

Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 208,471 GRT/
308,072 DWT; includes 15 cargo, 6 bulk

Civil air: 40 major transport aircraft

Airports: 158 total, 158 usable; 40 with permanent-surface
runways; 19 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--58 AM, 16 FM, 45 TV; 14 Soviet TV relays;
4,360,000 TV sets; 4,208,538 radio receivers; at least 1 satellite earth
station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Czechoslovak People's Army, Frontier Guard, Air and Air Defense
Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,019,311; 3,076,735 fit for military
service; 137,733 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 28.4 billion koruny, 7% of total budget (1989);
note--conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Denmark
- Geography
Total area: 43,070 km2; land area: 42,370 km2; includes the island of
Bornholm in the Baltic Sea and the rest of metropolitan Denmark, but excludes
the Faroe Islands and Greenland

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Massachusetts

Land boundaries: 68 km with FRG

Coastline: 3,379 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 4 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Iceland, Ireland,
and the UK (Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the
Rockall area); Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims between
Greenland and Jan Mayen

Climate: temperate; humid and overcast; mild, windy winters and cool
summers

Terrain: low and flat to gently rolling plains

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish, salt, limestone

Land use: 61% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution

Note: controls Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas

- People
Population: 5,131,217 (July 1990), growth rate NEGL% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Dane(s); adjective--Danish

Ethnic divisions: Scandinavian, Eskimo, Faroese, German

Religion: 97% Evangelical Lutheran, 2% other Protestant and Roman
Catholic, 1% other

Language: Danish, Faroese, Greenlandic (an Eskimo dialect); small
German-speaking minority

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 2,760,000; 51% services, 34% industry, 8% government,
7% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1988)

Organized labor: 65% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Denmark

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Copenhagen

Administrative divisions: metropolitan Denmark--14 counties (amter,
singular--amt) and 1 city* (stad); Arhus, Bornholm, Frederiksborg, Fyn,
Kobenhavn, Nordjylland, Ribe, Ringkobing, Roskilde, Sonderjylland,
Staden Kobenhavn*, Storstrom, Vejle, Vestsjaelland, Viborg; note--see
separate entries for the Faroe Islands and Greenland which are part of the
Danish realm and self-governing administrative divisions

Independence: became a constitutional monarchy in 1849

Constitution: 5 June 1953

Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Birthday of the Queen, 16 April (1940)

Executive branch: monarch, heir apparent, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Folketing)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen MARGRETHE II (since January 1972);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince FREDERIK, elder son of the Queen (born 26 May 1968);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Poul SCHLUTER (since 10 September
1982)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic, Svend Auken;
Liberal, Uffe Ellemann-Jensen; Conservative, Poul Schluter; Radical Liberal,
Niels Helveg Petersen; Socialist People's, Gert Petersen; Communist, Ole
Sohn; Left Socialist, Elizabeth Brun Olesen; Center Democratic, Mimi
Stilling Jakobsen; Christian People's, Flemming Kofoed-Svendsen;
Justice, Poul Gerhard Kristiansen; Progress Party, Aage Brusgaard;
Socialist Workers Party, leader NA; Communist Workers' Party
(KAP); Common Course, Preben Moller Hansen; Green Party, Inger
Borlehmann

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
Parliament--last held 10 May 1988 (next to be held by May
1992);
results--Social Democrat 29.9%, Conservative 19.3%, Socialist
People's 13.0%, Liberal 11.8%, Radical Liberal 9.0%, Center
Democratic 5.6%, Christian People's 2.0%, Common Course 2.7%,
other 6.7%;
seats--(175 total; includes 2 from Greenland and 2 from the Faroe
Islands) Social Democratic 55, Conservative 35,
Socialist People's 24, Liberal 22, Progress 16,
Radical Liberal 10, Center Democratic 9, Christian People's 4

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB, Inter-American Development Bank,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC,
ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Peter Pedersen DYVIG;
Chancery at 3200 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 234-4300; there are Danish Consulates General at Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, and New York;
US--Ambassador Keith L. BROWN; Embassy at Dag Hammarskjolds Alle 24,
2100 Copenhagen O (mailing address is APO New York 09170);
telephone p45o (31) 42 31 44

Flag: red with a white cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side and that design element
of the Dannebrog (Danish flag) was subsequently adopted by the other
Nordic countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden

- Economy
Overview: This modern economy features high-tech
agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive
government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, and high
dependence on foreign trade. Growth in output, however, has been
sluggish in 1987-89, and unemployment in early 1989 stood at 9.6%
of the labor force. The government is trying to revitalize growth
in preparation for the economic integration of Europe in 1992.

GDP: $73.7 billion, per capita $14,300; real growth rate 1.4%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.25% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.6% (1989)

Budget: revenues $34 billion; expenditures $34 billion, including
capital expenditures of $19 billion (1988)

Exports: $27.7 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--meat and meat products, dairy products, transport equipment,
fish, chemicals, industrial machinery;
partners--US 6.0%, FRG, Norway, Sweden, UK, other EC, Japan

Imports: $26.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities--petroleum, machinery and equipment, chemicals, grain and
foodstuffs, textiles, paper;
partners--US 7.0%, FRG, Netherlands, Sweden, UK, other EC

External debt: $41.1 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1988)

Electricity: 11,215,000 kW capacity; 30,910 million kWh produced,
6,030 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, machinery and equipment, textiles and
clothing, chemical products, electronics, construction, furniture, and other
wood products

Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GNP and employs 1.8% of labor force
(includes fishing); farm products account for nearly 16% of export revenues;
principal products--meat, dairy, grain, potatoes, rape, sugar beets, fish;
self-sufficient in food production

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87) $4.8 billion

Currency: Danish krone (plural--kroner); 1 Danish krone
(DKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKr) per US$1--6.560 (January 1990),
7.310 (1989), 6.732 (1988), 6.840 (1987), 8.091 (1986), 10.596 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 2,675 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Danish State Railways
(DSB) operate 2,025 km (1,999 km rail line and 121 km rail ferry services);
188 km electrified, 730 km double tracked; 650 km of standard-gauge lines are
privately owned and operated

Highways: 66,482 km total; 64,551 km concrete, bitumen, or stone block;
1,931 km gravel, crushed stone, improved earth

Inland waterways: 417 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 110 km; refined products, 578 km; natural gas, 700
km

Ports: Alborg, Arhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia; numerous
secondary and minor ports

Merchant marine: 252 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,498,611
GRT/6,711,011 DWT; includes 12 short-sea passenger, 82 cargo, 15 refrigerated
cargo, 28 container, 36 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar carrier, 37 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 13 chemical tanker, 12 liquefied gas, 4
livestock carrier, 12 bulk; note--Denmark has created a captive register
called the Danish International Ship Register (DIS) as its own internal
register; DIS ships do not have to meet Danish manning regulations,
and they amount to a flag of convenience within the Danish register;
by the end of 1990, most Danish flag ships will belong to the DIS

Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

Airports: 130 total, 114 usable; 27 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent telephone, telegraph, and broadcast
services; 4,237,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 15 (39 repeaters) FM, 27
(25 repeaters) TV stations; 7 submarine coaxial cables; 1 satellite earth
station operating in INTELSAT, 4 Atlantic Ocean, EUTELSAT, and
domestic systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Danish Army, Royal Danish Navy, Royal Danish Air
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,368,013; 1,180,865 fit for
military service; 37,228 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP, or $1.5 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Djibouti
- Geography
Total area: 22,000 km2; land area: 21,980 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: 517 km total; Ethiopia 459 km, Somalia 58 km

Coastline: 314 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis

Climate: desert; torrid, dry

Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains

Natural resources: geothermal areas

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
NEGL% forest and woodland; 91% other

Environment: vast wasteland

Note: strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes
and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia

- People
Population: 337,386 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 46 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Djiboutian(s); adjective--Djiboutian

Ethnic divisions: 60% Somali (Issa); 35% Afar, 5% French, Arab,
Ethiopian, and Italian

Religion: 94% Muslim, 6% Christian

Language: French (official); Arabic, Somali, and Afar widely used

Literacy: 20%

Labor force: NA, but a small number of semiskilled laborers at the port
and 3,000 railway workers; 52% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 3,000 railway workers

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Djibouti

Type: republic

Capital: Djibouti

Administrative divisions: 5 districts (cercles, singular--cercle);
Ali Sahih, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjoura

Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France; formerly French Territory of
the Afars and Issas)

Constitution: partial constitution ratified January 1981 by the
Chamber of Deputies

Legal system: based on French civil law system, traditional practices,
and Islamic law

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des Deputes)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Hassan GOULED Aptidon (since 24 June 1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Barkat GOURAD Hamadou (since 30
September 1978)

Political parties and leaders: only party--People's Progress
Assembly (RPP), Hassan Gouled Aptidon

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
President--last held 24 April 1987 (next to be held April 1993);
results--President Hassan Gouled Aptidon was reelected without
opposition;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 24 April 1987 (next to be
held April 1992); results--RPP is the only party; seats--(65 total) RPP 65

Communists: NA

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU,
NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE; Chancery
(temporary) at the Djiboutian Permanent Mission to the UN; 866 United Nations
Plaza, Suite 4011, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 753-3163;
US--Ambassador Robert S. BARRETT IV; Embassy at Villa Plateau du
Serpent Boulevard, Marechal Joffre, Djibouti (mailing address is B. P. 185,
Djibouti); telephone p253o 35-38-49 or 35-39-95, 35-29-16, 35-29-17

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of light blue (top) and light green with
a white isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red five-pointed
star in the center

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on service activities connected with the
country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone. Djibouti
provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international
transshipment and refueling center. It has few natural resources and little
industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance
to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects.
An unemployment rate of over 50% continues to be a major problem.

GNP: $333 million, $1,070 per capita; real growth rate - 0.7% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: over 50% (1987)

Budget: revenues $117 million; expenditures $163 billion, including
capital expenditures of $52 million (1987 est.)

Exports: $128 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--hides and skins,
coffee (in transit); partners--Middle East 50%, Africa 43%, Western Europe
7%

Imports: $198 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--foods, beverages,
transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products; partners--EC 36%,
Africa 21%, Bahrain 14%, Asia 12%, US 2%

External debt: $250 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.6% (1986)

Electricity: 110,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
580 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: limited to a few small-scale enterprises, such as
dairy products and mineral-water bottling

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; scanty rainfall limits crop
production to mostly fruit and vegetables; half of population pastoral nomads
herding goats, sheep, and camels; imports bulk of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-88), $36 million;
Western (non-US) countries, including ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $962 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $149 million; Communist
countries (1970-88), $35 million

Currency: Djiboutian franc (plural--francs); 1 Djiboutian franc
(DF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DF) per US$1--177.721 (fixed rate since
1973)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: the Ethiopian-Djibouti railroad extends for 97 km through
Djibouti

Highways: 2,900 km total; 280 km bituminous surface, 2,620 km
improved or unimproved earth (1982)

Ports: Djibouti

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 12 total, 9 usable; none with runways over 3,659 m;
1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of urban facilities in Djibouti and radio
relay stations at outlying places; 7,300 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 ARABSAT; 1 submarine cable to Saudi
Arabia

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary National Security Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 88,132; 51,260 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $29.9 million, 23% of central government budget
(1986)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Dominica
- Geography
Total area: 750 km2; land area: 750 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 148 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds; heavy rainfall

Terrain: rugged mountains of volcanic origin

Natural resources: timber

Land use: 9% arable land; 13% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures;
41% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: flash floods a constant hazard; occasional hurricanes

Note: located 550 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

- People
Population: 84,854 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Dominican(s); adjective--Dominican

Ethnic divisions: mostly black; some Carib indians

Religion: 80% Roman Catholic; Anglican, Methodist

Language: English (official); French patois widely spoken

Literacy: 80% (est.)

Labor force: 25,000; 40% agriculture, 32% industry and commerce, 28%
services (1984)

Organized labor: 25% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Commonwealth of Dominica

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Roseau

Administrative divisions: 10 parishes; Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Luke, Saint Mark, Saint Patrick,
Saint Paul, Saint Peter

Independence: 3 November 1978 (from UK)

Constitution: 3 November 1978

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1978)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (includes 9 appointed
senators and 21 elected representatives)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Sir Clarence Augustus SEIGNORET (since
19 December 1983);

Head of Government--Prime Minister (Mary) Eugenia CHARLES (since 21
July 1980)

Political parties and leaders: Dominica Freedom Party (DFP),
(Mary) Eugenia Charles; Labor Party of Dominica (LPD, a leftist-dominated
coalition), Michael Douglas; United Workers Party (UWP), Edison James

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 20 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); the president is elected by the House of Assembly;

House of Assembly--last held 1 July 1985 (next to be held July
1990); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(21 total) DFP 17, LPD 4

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Dominica Liberation Movement (DLM), a
small leftist group

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, GATT (de facto), G-77, IBRD,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, OAS, OECS, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: there is no Chancery in the US;
US--no official presence since the Ambassador resides in Bridgetown
(Barbados), but travels frequently to Dominica

Flag: green with a centered cross of three equal bands--the vertical part
is yellow (hoist side), black, and white--the horizontal part is yellow (top),
black, and white; superimposed in the center of the cross is a red disk bearing
a sisserou parrot encircled by 10 green five-pointed stars edged in yellow; the
10 stars represent the 10 administrative divisions (parishes)

- Economy
Overview: The economy is dependent on agriculture and thus is highly
vulnerable to climatic conditions. Agriculture accounts for about 30%
of GDP and employs 40% of the labor force. Principal products include
bananas, coconuts, citrus, and root crops. In 1988 the economy achieved a
5.6% growth in real GDP on the strength of a boost in construction,
higher agricultural production, and growth of the small manufacturing
sector based on soap and garment industries. The tourist industry
remains undeveloped because of a rugged coastline and the lack of an
international-class airport.

GDP: $137 million, per capita $1,408; real growth rate 5.6% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.9% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 10% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $60 million; expenditures $52 million,
including capital expenditures of $18 million (FY88)

Exports: $46 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities--bananas,
coconuts, grapefruit, soap, galvanized sheets;
partners--UK 72%, Jamaica 10%, OECS 6%, US 3%, other 9%

Imports: $66.0 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities--food, oils and
fats, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, manufactured goods, machinery and
equipment;
partners--US 23%, UK 18%, CARICOM 15%, OECS 15%, Japan 5%,
Canada 3%, other 21%

External debt: $63.6 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.9% in manufacturing (1987)

Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 16 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing, tourism, soap and other
coconut-based products, cigars, pumice mining

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP; principal crops--bananas, citrus
fruit, coconuts, root crops; bananas provide the bulk of export earnings;
forestry and fisheries potential not exploited

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $109 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 750 km total; 370 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

Ports: Roseau, Portsmouth

Civil air: NA

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 4,600 telephones in fully automatic network; VHF and
UHF link to St. Lucia; new SHF links to Martinique and Guadeloupe;
stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 cable TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: Commonwealth of Dominica Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Dominican Republic
- Geography
Total area: 48,730 km2; land area: 48,380 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Hampshire

Land boundary 275 km with Haiti

Coastline: 1,288 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: outer edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Climate: tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation


Terrain: rugged highlands and mountains with fertile valleys
interspersed

Natural resources: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

Land use: 23% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 43% meadows and pastures;
13% forest and woodland; 14% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: subject to occasional hurricanes (July to October);
deforestation

Note: shares island of Hispaniola with Haiti (western one-third is
Haiti, eastern two-thirds is the Dominican Republic)

- People
Population: 7,240,793 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 62 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Dominican(s); adjective--Dominican

Ethnic divisions: 73% mixed, 16% white, 11% black

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 74%

Labor force: 2,300,000-2,600,000; 49% agriculture, 33% services,
18% industry (1986)

Organized labor: 12% of labor force (1989 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Dominican Republic (no short-form name)

Type: republic

Capital: Santo Domingo

Administrative divisions: 29 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia)
and 1 district* (distrito); Azua, Baoruco, Barahona, Dajabon,
Distrito Nacional*, Duarte, Elias Pina, El Seibo, Espaillat, Hato Mayor,
Independencia, La Altagracia, La Romana, La Vega, Maria Trinidad Sanchez,
Monsenor Nouel, Monte Cristi, Monte Plata, Pedernales, Peravia, Puerto Plata,
Salcedo, Samana, Sanchez Ramirez, San Cristobal, San Juan,
San Pedro De Macoris, Santiago, Santiago Rodriguez, Valverde

Independence: 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)

Constitution: 28 November 1966

Legal system: based on French civil codes

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 February (1844)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Joaquin BALAGUER
Ricardo (since 16 August 1986); Vice President Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso
(since 16 August 1986)

Political parties and leaders:

Major parties--Social Christian Reformist Party (PRSC),
Joaquin Balaguer Ricardo; Dominican Revolutionary
Party (PRD), which fractured in May 1989 with the understanding that
leading rivals Jacobo Majluta and Jose Francisco
Pena Gomez would run separately for president at the head of the
Independent Revolutionary Party (PRI) and the Social Democratic
Institutional Bloc (BIS), respectively, and try to reconstitute the
PRD after the election; Dominican Liberation Party (PLD), Juan Bosch
Gavino;

Minor parties--National Veterans and Civilian Party (PNVC),
Juan Rene Beauchanps Javier; The Structure (LE), Andres Van Der Horst;
Democratic Quisqueyan Party (PQD), Elias Wessin Chavez;
Constitutional Action Party (PAC), Luis Arzeno
Rodriguez; National Progressive Force (FNP), Marino Vinicio Castillo;
Popular Christian Party (PPC), Rogelio Delgado Bogaert; Dominican
Communist Party (PCD), Narciso Isa Conde; Anti-Imperialist Patriotic
Union (UPA), Ivan Rodriguez; in 1983 several leftist parties,
including the PCD, joined to form the Dominican Leftist Front (FID);
however, they still retain individual party structures

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 or if married; members of
the armed forces and police cannot vote

Elections:
President--last held 16 May 1986 (next to be held May 1990);
results--Joaquin Balaguer (PRSC) 41.8%, Jacobo Majluta (PRD) 39.7%,
Juan Bosch Gavino (PLD) 18.5%;

Senate--last held 16 May 1986 (next to be held May 1990);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(30 total) PRSC 21, PRD 7, PLD 2;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 16 May 1986 (next to be
held May 1990);
results--PRSC 40.6%, PRD 33.5%, PLD 18.3%, LE 5.3%, other 2.3%;
seats--(120 total) PRSC 56, PRD 48, PLD 16

Communists: an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 members in several legal and
illegal factions; effectiveness limited by ideological differences and
organizational inadequacies

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IOOC, IRC, ISO, ITU, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Carlos A. MORALES Troncoso
(serves concurrently as Vice President); Chancery at
1715 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-6280;
there are Dominican Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles,
Mayaguez (Puerto Rico), Miami, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, San Juan
(Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Charlotte Amalie (Virgin Islands), Detroit,
Houston, Jacksonville, Minneapolis, Mobile, Ponce (Puerto Rico), and
San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Paul D. TAYLOR; Embassy at the corner of
Calle Cesar Nicolas Penson and Calle Leopoldo Navarro, Santo Domingo
(mailing address is APO Miami 34041-0008); telephone p809o 541-2171

Flag: a centered white cross that extends to the edges, divides the flag
into four rectangles--the top ones are blue (hoist side) and red, the bottom
ones are red (hoist side) and blue; a small coat of arms is at the center of
the cross

- Economy
Overview: The economy is largely dependent on the agricultural sector,
which employs 50% of the labor force and provides about half of export revenues.
The principal commercial crop is sugarcane, followed by coffee, cocoa, and
tobacco. Industry is based on the processing of agricultural products, durable
consumer goods, minerals, and chemicals. Rapid growth of free trade zones has
established a significant expansion of manufacturing for export, especially
wearing apparel. Over the past decade tourism has also increased in importance
and is a significant earner of foreign exchange and a source of new jobs.
Unemployment is officially reported at about 25%, but underemployment may
be much higher.

GDP: $5.1 billion, per capita $790; real growth rate 0.5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 57.6% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1988)

Budget: revenues $413 million; expenditures $522 million,
including capital expenditures of $218 million (1988)

Exports: $711 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--sugar, coffee, cocoa, gold, ferronickel;
partners--US, including Puerto Rico, 74%

Imports: $1.8 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--foodstuffs, petroleum, cotton and fabrics, chemicals and
pharmaceuticals;
partners--US, including Puerto Rico, 37% (1985)

External debt: $3.6 billion (1989) est.

Industrial production: growth rate 30% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 1,376,000 kW capacity; 4,000 million kWh produced,
560 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, sugar processing, ferronickel and gold mining,
textiles, cement, tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and employs 49% of labor
force; sugarcane most important commercial crop, followed by coffee,
cotton, and cocoa; food crops--rice, beans, potatoes, corn, bananas;
animal output--cattle, hogs, dairy products, meat, eggs; not
self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $529 million

Currency: Dominican peso (plural--pesos); 1 Dominican peso
(RD$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Dominican pesos per US$1--6.3400 (January 1990),
6.3400 (1989), 6.1125 (1988), 3.8448 (1987), 2.9043 (1986), 3.1126 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,655 km total in numerous segments; 4 different gauges
from 0.558 m to 1.435 m

Highways: 12,000 km total; 5,800 km paved, 5,600 km gravel and improved
earth, 600 km unimproved

Pipelines: crude oil, 96 km; refined products, 8 km

Ports: Santo Domingo, Haina, San Pedro de Macoris, Puerto Plata

Merchant marine: 4 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,335
GRT/40,297 DWT

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 44 total, 30 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: relatively efficient domestic system based on
islandwide radio relay network; 190,000 telephones; stations--120 AM, no
FM, 18 TV, 6 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,912,101; 1,210,172 fit for military
service; 80,290 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.2% of GDP, or $61 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Ecuador
- Geography
Total area: 283,560 km2; land area: 276,840 km2; includes
Galapagos Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Nevada

Land boundaries: 2,010 km total; Colombia 590 km, Peru 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,237 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Peru are in dispute

Climate: tropical along coast becoming cooler inland

Terrain: coastal plain (Costa), inter-Andean central highlands (Sierra),
and flat to rolling eastern jungle (Oriente)

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, timber

Land use: 6% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 17% meadows and pastures;
51% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
activity; deforestation; desertification; soil erosion; periodic droughts

Note: Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world

- People
Population: 10,506,668 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ecuadorian(s); adjective--Ecuadorian

Ethnic divisions: 55% mestizo (mixed Indian and Spanish), 25% Indian, 10%
Spanish, 10% black

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish (official); Indian languages, especially Quechua

Literacy: 85% (1981)

Labor force: 2,800,000; 35% agriculture, 21% manufacturing,
16% commerce, 28% services and other activities (1982)

Organized labor: less than 15% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Ecuador

Type: republic

Capital: Quito

Administrative divisions: 21 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia);
Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas,
Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago,
Napo, Pastaza, Pichincha, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe

Independence: 24 May 1822 (from Spain; Battle of Pichincha)

Constitution: 10 August 1979

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 August (1809, independence
of Quito)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Representatives
(Camara de Representantes)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Rodrigo BORJA Cevallos
(since 10 August 1988); Vice President Luis PARODI Valverde (since
10 August 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Right to center
parties--Social Christian Party (PSC), Camilio Ponce, president;
Conservative Party (PC), Jose Teran Varea, director;
Radical Liberal Party (PLR), Blasco Penaherrera, director;

Centrist parties--Concentration of Popular Forces (CFP), Averroes
Bucaram Saxida, director; Radical Alfarist Front (FRA), Cecilia
Calderon de Castro, leader; People, Change, and Democracy (PCD), Aquiles
Rigail Santistevan, director; Revolutionary Nationalist Party (PNR),
Carlos Julio Arosemena Monroy, leader;

Center-left parties--Democratic Left (ID), President Rodrigo Borja,
leader; Roldosist Party of Ecuador (PRE), Abdala Bucaram, director;
Popular Democracy (DP), Vladimiro Alvarez, leader;
Christian Democratic (CD), Julio Cesar Trujillo;
Democratic Party (PD), Francisco Huerta Montalvo, leader;

Far-left parties--Broad Leftist Front (FADI), Rene Mauge
Mosquera, director; Socialist Party (PSE), Victor Granda Aguilar,
secretary general; Democratic Popular Movement (MPD), Jaime Hurtado
Gonzalez, leader; Ecuadorian National Liberation (LN), Alfredo Castillo;
Popular Revolutionary Action Party (APRE), Lt. Gen. Frank Vargas
Pazzos, leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18; compulsory for literate persons ages 18-65,
optional for other eligible voters

Elections:
President--first round held 31 January 1988 and second round on
8 May 1988 (next first round to be held January 1992 and second round
May 1992);
results--Rodrigo Borja Cevallos (ID) 54%, Abdala Bucaram Ortiz
(PRE) 46%;

Chamber of Representatives--last held 31 January 1988
(next to be held June 1990);
results--ID 42%, PSC 11%, PRE 11%, DP 9%, others 27%;
seats--(71 total) ID 30, PRE 8, PSC 8, DP 7, CFP 6, PSE 4,
FADI 2, MPD 2, FRA 2, PCE 1, PLR 1; note--with the addition of the
new province of Sucumbios there will be 72 seats in the August 1990
election

Communists: Communist Party of Ecuador (PCE, pro-Moscow), Rene
Mauge Mosquera, secretary general, 5,000 members; Communist Party of
Ecuador/Marxist Leninist (PCMLE, Maoist), 3,000 members; Socialist
Party of Ecuador (PSE, pro-Cuba), 5,000 members (est.); National
Liberation Party (PLN, Communist), 5,000 members (est.)

Member of: Andean Pact, ECOSOC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO,
UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jaime MONCAYO; Chancery at
2535 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-7200;
there are Ecuadorian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco, and a Consulate in San Diego;
US--Ambassador-designate Paul C. LAMBERT; Embassy at Avenida Patria
120, on the corner of Avenida 12 de Octubre, Quito (mailing address is P. O.
Box 538, Quito, or APO Miami 34039); telephone p593o (2) 562-890; there is a US
Consulate General in Guayaquil

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red
with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; similar to the
flag of Colombia which is shorter and does not bear a coat of arms

- Economy
Overview: Ecuador continues to recover from a 1986 drop in international
oil prices and a major earthquake in 1987 that interrupted oil exports
for six months and forced Ecuador to suspend foreign debt payments.
In 1988-89 oil exports recovered--accounting for nearly half of
Ecuador's total export revenues--and Quito resumed full interest
payments on its official debt, and partial payments on its commercial
debt. The Borja administration has pursued austere economic
policies that have helped reduce inflation and restore international
reserves. Ecuador was granted an IMF standby agreement worth $135
million in 1989, and Quito will seek to reschedule its foreign
commercial debt in 1990.

GDP: $9.8 billion, per capita $935; real growth rate 0.5% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 54% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 14.3% (1988)

Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $601 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--petroleum 47%,
coffee, bananas, cocoa products, shrimp, fish products; partners--US 58%,
Latin America, Caribbean, EC countries

Imports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--transport
equipment, vehicles, machinery, chemical, petroleum; partners--US 28%,
Latin America, Caribbean, EC, Japan

External debt: $10.9 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.7% (1988)

Electricity: 1,953,000 kW capacity; 5,725 million kWh produced,
560 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles, chemicals, fishing,
timber, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 18% of GDP and 35% of labor force (including
fishing and forestry); leading producer and exporter of bananas and balsawood;
other exports--coffee, cocoa, fish, shrimp; crop production--rice, potatoes,
manioc, plantains, sugarcane; livestock sector--cattle, sheep, hogs, beef,
pork, dairy products; net importer of foodgrain, dairy products, and sugar

Illicit drugs: relatively small producer of coca following the
successful eradication campaign of 1985-87; significant transit country,
however, for derivatives of coca originating in Colombia, Bolivia, and
Peru

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $457 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.4 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $64 million

Currency: sucre (plural--sucres); 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: sucres (S/) per US$1--526.35 (1989), 301.61 (1988),
170.46 (1987), 122.78 (1986), 69.56 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 965 km total; all 1.067-meter-gauge single track

Highways: 28,000 km total; 3,600 km paved, 17,400 km gravel and improved
earth, 7,000 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,500 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; refined products, 1,358 km

Ports: Guayaquil, Manta, Puerto Bolivar, Esmeraldas

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 340,446
GRT/492,670 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 7 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo,
2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 16 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 bulk

Civil air: 44 major transport aircraft

Airports: 179 total, 178 usable; 43 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities generally adequate; 318,000
telephones; stations--272 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 39 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Ecuadorean Army (Ejercito Ecuatoriano), Ecuadorean Air Force
(Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana), Ecuadorean Navy (Armada Ecuatoriana)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,635,543; 1,786,068 fit for military
service; 114,976 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 1% of GDP, or $100 million (1988 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Egypt
- Geography
Total area: 1,001,450 km2; land area: 995,450 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,689 km total; Gaza Strip 11, Israel 255 km,
Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km

Coastline: 2,450 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: undefined;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Administrative Boundary and international boundary with Sudan

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates,
manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc

Land use: 3% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
NEGL% forest and woodland; 95% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: Nile is only perennial water source; increasing soil
salinization below Aswan High Dam; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin
occurs in spring; water pollution; desertification

Note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa
and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link
between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean; size and juxtaposition to Israel
establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics

- People
Population: 54,705,746 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 90 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 61 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Egyptian(s); adjective--Egyptian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Eastern Hamitic stock; 10% Greek, Italian,
Syro-Lebanese

Religion: (official estimate) 94% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 6% Coptic
Christian and other

Language: Arabic (official); English and French widely understood by
educated classes

Literacy: 45%

Labor force: 15,000,000 (1989 est.); 36% government,
public sector enterprises, and armed forces; 34% agriculture;
20% privately owned service and manufacturing enterprises (1984);
shortage of skilled labor; 2,500,000 Egyptians work abroad, mostly
in Iraq and the Gulf Arab states (1988 est.)

Organized labor: 2,500,000 (est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Arab Republic of Egypt

Type: republic

Capital: Cairo

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar,
Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah,
Al Ismailiyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya,
Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah,
As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Said, Dumyat,
Janub Sina, Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina,
Shamal Sina, Suhaj

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK); formerly United Arab Republic

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic
codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees
validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Majlis al-Shaab);
note--there is an Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura) that functions in a
consultative role

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (was made acting
President on 6 October 1981 upon the assassination of President Sadat and
sworn in as President on 14 October 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Atef Mohammed Najib SEDKY
(since 12 November 1986)

Political parties and leaders: formation of political parties must be
approved by government; National Democratic Party (NDP), President
Mohammed Hosni Mubarak, leader, is the dominant party; legal opposition
parties are Socialist Liberal Party (SLP), Kamal Murad; Socialist Labor
Party, Ibrahim Shukri; National Progressive Unionist Grouping, Khalid
Muhyi-al-Din; Umma Party, Ahmad al-Sabahi; and New Wafd Party (NWP),
Fuad Siraj al-Din

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 5 October 1987 (next to be held October
1993); results--President Hosni Mubarek was reelected;

People's Assembly--last held 6 April 1987 (next to be held
April 1992); results--NDP 69.3%, Socialist Labor Party Coalition 17%,
NWP 10.9%;
seats--(458 total, 448 elected)--NDP 346, Socialist Labor Party
Coalition 60,
Labor-Liberal-Muslim Brotherhood Alliance 60 (37 belong to the
Muslim Brotherhood), NWP 36, independents 7;

Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)--last held October 1986
(next to be held October 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(210 total, 140 elected)

Communists: about 500 party members

Other political or pressure groups: Islamic groups are illegal, but the
largest one, the Muslim Brotherhood, is tolerated by the government and
recently gained a sizable presence in the new People's Assembly; trade
unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

Member of: ACC, AfDB, Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ITU,
IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WPC, WSG, WTO; Egypt was suspended from Arab League and
OAPEC in April 1979 and readmitted in May 1989

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador El Sayed Abdel Raouf EL REEDY;
Chancery at 2310 Decatur Place NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 232-5400; there are Egyptian Consulates General in Chicago,
Houston, New York, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Frank G. WISNER; Embassy at 5 Sharia Latin America,
Garden City, Cairo (mailing address is FPO New York 09527);
telephone p20o p2o 355-7371; there is a US Consulate General in Alexandria

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the
national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side
above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white
band; similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star, Syria which has two
stars, and Iraq which has three stars--all green and five-pointed in a
horizontal line centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: Egypt has one of the largest public sectors of all
the Third World economies, most industrial plants being owned by the
government. Overregulation holds back technical modernization and
foreign investment. Even so, the economy grew rapidly during the late
1970s and early 1980s, but in 1986 the collapse of world oil prices
and an increasingly heavy burden of debt servicing led Egypt to begin
negotiations with the IMF for balance-of-payments support. As part of
the 1987 agreement with the IMF, the government agreed to institute
a reform program to reduce inflation, promote economic growth, and
improve its external position. The reforms have been slow in coming,
however, and the economy has been largely stagnant for the past
three years. With 1 million people being added every eight months
to Egypt's population, urban growth exerts enormous pressure on
the 5% of the total land area available for agriculture.

GDP: $38.3 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate 1.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 25% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $7 billion; expenditures $11.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $4 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $2.55 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--raw cotton,
crude and refined petroleum, cotton yarn, textiles; partners--US,
EC, Japan, Eastern Europe

Imports: $10.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--foods,
machinery and equipment, fertilizers, wood products, durable consumer goods,
capital goods; partners--US, EC, Japan, Eastern Europe

External debt: $45 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2-4% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 11,273,000 kW capacity; 42,500 million kWh produced,
780 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals,
petroleum, construction, cement, metals

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GNP and employs more than one-third of
labor force; dependent on irrigation water from the Nile; world's
fifth-largest cotton exporter; other crops produced include rice,
corn, wheat, beans, fruit, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food;
livestock--cattle, water buffalo, sheep, and goats; annual fish catch
about 140,000 metric tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $14.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.4 billion

Currency: Egyptian pound (plural--pounds); 1 Egyptian pound
(LE) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (LE) per US$1--2.5790 (January 1990),
2.5171 (1989), 2.2128 (1988), 1.5015 (1987), 1.3503 (1986), 1.3010 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 5,110 km total; 4,763 km 1,435-meter standard gauge, 347 km
0.750-meter gauge; 951 km double track; 25 km electrified

Highways: 51,925 km total; 17,900 km paved, 2,500 km gravel, 13,500
km improved earth, 18,025 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 3,500 km (including the Nile, Lake Nasser,
Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in the delta);
Suez Canal, 193.5 km long (including approaches), used by oceangoing
vessels drawing up to 16.1 meters of water

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,171 km; refined products, 596 km; natural gas, 460
km

Ports: Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Bur Safajah, Damietta

Merchant marine: 142 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,141,799
GRT/1,754,181 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 7 short-sea passenger,
2 passenger-cargo, 88 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
14 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 15 bulk

Civil air: 43 major transport aircraft

Airports: 97 total, 87 usable; 67 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 46 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 21 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system is large but still inadequate for needs;
principal centers are Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, and
Tanta; intercity connections by coaxial cable and microwave; extensive
upgrading in progress; 600,000 telephones (est.); stations--25 AM, 5 FM, 47 TV;
satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, 1 INMARSAT; 4 submarine coaxial cables; tropospheric scatter
to Sudan; radio relay to Libya (may not be operational); new radio
relay to Jordan

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command

Military manpower: males 15-49, 13,271,942; 8,642,075 fit for military
service; 547,084 reach military age (20) annually

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