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Legal system: a complex amalgam of custom and statute, largely criminal
law; rudimentary civil code in effect since 1 January 1987; new legal codes
in effect since 1 January 1980; continuing efforts are being made to improve
civil, administrative, criminal, and commercial law

National holiday: National Day, 1 October (1949)

Executive branch: president, vice president, premier, three vice premiers,
State Council, Central Military Commission (de facto)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Congress (Quanguo
Renmin Daibiao Dahui)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government (de facto)--DENG
Xiaoping (since mid-1977);

Chief of State--President YANG Shangkun (since 8 April 1988);
Vice President WANG Zhen (since 8 April 1988);

Head of Government--Premier LI Peng (Acting Premier since
24 November 1987, Premier since 9 April 1988);
Vice Premier YAO Yilin (since 2 July 1979);
Vice Premier TIAN Jiyun (since 20 June 1983);
Vice Premier WU Xueqian (since 12 April 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Chinese Communist Party
(CCP), Jiang Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 8 April 1988 (next to be held March 1993);
Yang Shangkun was elected by the Seventh National People's Congress;

National People's Congress--last held NA March 1988 (next to
be held March 1993); results--CCP is the only party;
seats--(2,970 total) CCP 2,970 (indirectly elected)

Communists: about 45,000,000 party members (1986)

Other political or pressure groups: such meaningful opposition as exists
consists of loose coalitions, usually within the party and government
organization, that vary by issue

Member of: ADB, CCC, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ZHU Qizhen; Chancery at
2300 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-2500 through 2502; there are Chinese Consulates General
in Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador James R. LILLEY; Embassy at Xiu Shui Bei Jie 3,
Beijing (mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96655); telephone p86o (1)
532-3831;
there are US Consulates General in Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, and Shenyang

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star and four smaller yellow
five-pointed stars (arranged in a vertical arc toward the middle of the flag)
in the upper hoist-side corner

- Economy
Overview: Beginning in late 1978 the Chinese leadership has been
trying to move the economy from the sluggish Soviet-style centrally planned
economy to a more productive and flexible economy with market elements--but
still within the framework of monolithic Communist control. To this
end the authorities have switched to a system of household responsibility
in agriculture in place of the old collectivization, increased the authority
of local officials and plant managers in industry, permitted a wide
variety of small-scale enterprise in services and light manufacturing,
and opened the foreign economic sector to increased trade and joint
ventures. The most gratifying result has been a strong spurt in production,
particularly in agriculture in the early 1980s. Otherwise, the leadership has
often experienced in its hybrid system the worst results of socialism
(bureaucracy, lassitude, corruption) and of capitalism (windfall gains
and stepped-up inflation). Beijing thus has periodically backtracked,
retightening central controls at intervals and thereby undermining the
credibility of the reform process. Open inflation and excess demand continue to
plague the economy, and political repression, following the crackdown at
Tiananmen in mid-1989, has curtailed tourism, foreign aid, and new investment
by foreign firms. Popular resistance and changes in central policy have weakened
China's population control program, which is essential to the nation's long-term
economic viability.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 19.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.0% in urban areas (1989)

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $52.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--manufactured goods, agricultural products, oilseeds, grain
(rice and corn), oil, minerals;
partners--Hong Kong, US, Japan, USSR, Singapore, FRG (1989)

Imports: $59.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--grain (mostly wheat), chemical fertilizer, steel,
industrial raw materials, machinery, equipment;
partners--Hong Kong, Japan, US, FRG, USSR (1989)

External debt: $51 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.0% (1989)

Electricity: 110,000,000 kW capacity; 560,000 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: iron, steel, coal, machine building, armaments,
textiles, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 26% of GNP; among the world's largest producers
of rice, potatoes, sorghum, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, and pork; commercial
crops include cotton, other fibers, and oilseeds; produces variety of livestock
products; basically self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 8 million metric tons
in 1986

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $220.7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$11.1 billion

Currency: yuan (plural--yuan); 1 yuan (Y) = 10 jiao

Exchange rates: yuan (Y) per US$1--4.7221 (January 1990),
3.7651 (1989), 3.7221 (1988), 3.7221 (1987), 3.4528 (1986), 2.9367 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: total about 54,000 km common carrier lines; 53,400 km
1.435-meter standard gauge; 600 km 1.000-meter gauge;
all single track except 11,200 km double track on standard-gauge lines;
6,500 km electrified; 10,000 km industrial lines
(gauges range from 0.762 to 1.067 meters)

Highways: about 980,000 km all types roads; 162,000 km paved
roads, 617,200 km gravel/improved earth roads, 200,800 km unimproved
natural earth roads and tracks

Inland waterways: 138,600 km; about 109,800 km navigable

Pipelines: crude, 6,500 km; refined products, 1,100 km; natural gas,
6,200 km

Ports: Dalian, Guangzhou, Huangpu, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai,
Xingang, Zhanjiang, Ningbo

Merchant marine: 1,373 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,303,685 GRT/
20,092,833 DWT; includes 25 passenger, 41 short-sea passenger, 17
passenger-cargo, 7 cargo/training, 766 cargo, 10 refrigerated cargo,
65 container, 17 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction barge carriers,
173 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 9 chemical tanker, 237 bulk,
2 vehicle carrier, 1 liquefied gas; note--China beneficially owns an additional
175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling approximately 5,380,415 DWT that operate
under the registry of Panama, UK, Hong Kong, Liberia, and Malta

Airports: 330 total, 330 usable; 260 with permanent-surface runways;
fewer than 10 with runways over 3,500 m; 90 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 200 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic and international services are
increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed internal
system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and most townships;
11,000,000 telephones (December 1989); stations--274 AM, unknown FM,
202 (2,050 relays) TV; more than 215 million radio receivers; 75 million
TVs; satellite earth stations--4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, and 55 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Chinese People's Liberation Army (CPLA), CPLA Navy (including
Marines), CPLA Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 330,353,665; 184,515,412 fit for military
service; 11,594,366 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $5.28 billion (1988)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Christmas Island
(territory of Australia)
- Geography
Total area: 135 km2; land area: 135 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 138.9 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds

Terrain: steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau

Natural resources: phosphate

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: almost completely surrounded by a reef

Note: located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean

- People
Population: 2,278 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Christmas Islander(s), adjective--Christmas Island

Ethnic divisions: 61% Chinese, 25% Malay, 11% European, 3% other; no
indigenous population

Religion: NA

Language: English

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA; all workers are employees of the Phosphate Mining
Company of Christmas Island, Ltd.

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of Christmas Island

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: The Settlement

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Constitution: Christmas Island Act of 1958

Legal system: under the authority of the governor general of Australia

National holiday: NA

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, Advisory Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator A. D. TAYLOR (since NA)

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

- Economy
Overview: Phosphate mining is the only significant economic
activity, but in November 1987 the Australian Government announced that
the mine would be closed because of labor unrest. Plans are under way to build a
casino and hotel to develop tourism.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $NA; commodities--phosphate; partners--Australia, NZ

Imports: $NA; commodities--NA; partners--NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 11,000 kW capacity; 38 million kWh produced,
16,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate extraction (near depletion)

Agriculture: NA

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Ports: Flying Fish Cove

Airports: 1 usable with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 4,000 radios (1982)

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Clipperton Island
(French possession)
- Geography
Total area: undetermined

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 11.1 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: coral atoll

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other (coral)

Environment: reef about 8 km in circumference

Note: located 1,120 km southwest of Mexico in the North Pacific Ocean

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by High Commissioner of the
Republic Jean MONTPEZAT, resident in French Polynesia

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(territory of Australia)
- Geography
Total area: 14 km2; land area: 14 km2; main islands are West Island and
Home Island

Comparative area: about 24 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 42.6 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: pleasant, modified by the southeast trade winds for about nine
months of the year; moderate rainfall

Terrain: flat, low-lying coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: two coral atolls thickly covered with coconut palms and
other vegetation

Note: located 1,070 km southwest of Sumatra (Indonesia) in the
Indian Ocean about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka

- People
Population: 670 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Cocos Islander(s); adjective--Cocos Islander(s)

Ethnic divisions: mostly Europeans on West Island and Cocos Malays
on Home Island

Religion: NA

Language: English

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: West Island

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Constitution: Cocos (Keeling) Islands Act of 1955

Legal system: based upon the laws of Australia and local laws

National holiday: NA

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, chairman of the Islands Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Islands Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders: Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator D. LAWRIE (since NA 1989);
Chairman of the Islands Council Parson Bin YAPAT (since NA)

Suffrage: NA

Elections: NA

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

- Economy
Overview: Grown throughout the islands, coconuts are the sole cash
crop. Copra and fresh coconuts are the major export earners. Small local
gardens and fishing contribute to the food supply, but additional food and most
other necessities must be imported from Australia.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment: NA

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $NA;
commodities--copra;
partners--Australia

Imports: $NA;
commodities--foodstuffs;
partners--Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh per
capita

Industries: copra products

Agriculture: gardens provide vegetables, bananas, pawpaws, coconuts

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Ports: none; lagoon anchorage only

Airports: 1 airfield with permanent-surface runway, 2,440-3,659 m;
airport on West Island is a link in service between Australia and South Africa

Telecommunications: 250 radios (1985); linked by telephone,
telex, and facsimile communications via satellite with Australia;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Colombia
- Geography
Total area: 1,138,910 km2; land area: 1,038,700 km2; includes Isla
de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: 7,408 km total; Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km,
Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900, Venezuela 2,050 km

Coastline: 3,208 km total (1,448 km North Pacific Ocean;
1,760 Caribbean Sea)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specified;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the
Gulf of Venezuela; territorial dispute with Nicaragua over Archipelago
de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

Terrain: mixture of flat coastal lowlands, plains in east, central
highlands, some high mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel,
gold, copper, emeralds

Land use: 4% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 29% meadows and pastures;
49% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions;
deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; periodic droughts

Note: only South American country with coastlines on both
North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

- People
Population: 33,076,188 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Colombian(s); adjective--Colombian

Ethnic divisions: 58% mestizo, 20% white, 14% mulatto, 4% black, 3%
mixed black-Indian, 1% Indian

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 88% (1987 est.), Indians about 40%

Labor force: 11,000,000 (1986); 53% services, 26% agriculture,
21% industry (1981)

Organized labor: 1,400,000 members (1987), about 12% of labor
force; the Communist-backed Unitary Workers Central or CUT is the largest
labor organization, with about 725,000 members (including all affiliate unions)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Colombia

Type: republic; executive branch dominates government structure

Capital: Bogota

Administrative divisions: 23 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento), 5 commissariats* (comisarias,
singular--comisaria), and 4 intendancies** (intendencias,
singular--intendencia); Amazonas*, Antioquia, Arauca**, Atlantico, Bolivar,
Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare**, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba,
Cundinamarca, Guainia*, Guaviare*, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta,
Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo**, Quindio, Risaralda,
San Andres y Providencia**, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca,
Vaupes*, Vichada*; note--there may be a new special district (distrito
especial) named Bogota

Independence: 20 July 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: 4 August 1886, with amendments codified in 1946 and 1968

Legal system: based on Spanish law; judicial review of legislative acts
in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 20 July (1810)

Executive branch: president, presidential designate, cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Representatives
(Camara de Representantes)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Virgilio BARCO Vargas
(since 7 August 1986; term ends August 1990); Presidential Designate
Victor MOSQUERA Chaux (since 13 October 1986); President-elect Cesar
GAVIRIA Trujillo (since 27 May 1990, takes office 7 August 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Party--Cesar Gaviria
Trujillo, Virgilio Barco Vargas, Alfonso Lopez Michelson, Julio Cesar
Turbay;
Conservative Party--Misael Pastrana Borrero, Alvaro Gomez Hurtado;
Patriotic Union (UP), is a legal political party formed by
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and Colombian
Communist Party (PCC), Bernardo Jaramillo Ossa; 19th of April Movement
(M-19), Rodrigo Lloreda

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 27 May 1990 (next to be held May 1994);
results--Cesar Gaviria Trujillo (Liberal) 47%, Alvaro Gomez Hurtado
(Conservative) 24%, Antonio Novarro Wolff (Conservative) 13%, Rodrigo
Lloreda (M-19) 12%;

Senate--last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(114 total) Liberal 68, Conservative 45, UP 1;

House of Representatives last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held
March 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(199 total) Liberal 107, Conservative 82, UP 10

Communists: 18,000 members (est.), including Communist Party Youth
Organization (JUCO)

Other political or pressure groups: Colombian Communist Party (PCC),
Gilberto Vieira White; Communist Party/Marxist-Leninist (PCC/ML), Chinese-line
Communist Party; Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC);
National Liberation Army (ELN); People's Liberation Army (EPL)

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD,
IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Victor MOSQUERA; Chancery at
2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-8338; there are
Colombian Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Consulates in Atlanta, Boston,
Detroit, Ft. Lauderdale, Los Angeles, San Diego, and Tampa;
US--Ambassador Thomas E. McNAMARA; Embassy at Calle 38, No.8-61,
Bogota (mailing address is APO Miami 34038); telephone p57o (1) 285-1300 or
1688; there is a US Consulate in Barranquilla

Flag: three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red;
similar to the flag of Ecuador which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of
arms superimposed in the center

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity has slowed gradually since 1986, but
growth rates remain high by Latin American standards. Conservative
economic policies have encouraged investment and kept inflation
and unemployment under 30% and 10%, respectively. The rapid development
of oil, coal, and other nontraditional industries over the past four
years has helped to offset the decline in coffee prices--Colombia's major
export. The collapse of the International Coffee Agreement in the summer
of 1989, a troublesome rural insurgency, and drug-related violence
dampen prospects for future growth.

GDP: $35.4 billion, per capita $1,110; real growth rate 3.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 27% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $4.39 billion; current expenditures $3.93
billion, capital expenditures $l.03 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $5.76 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--coffee 30%, petroleum 24%, coal, bananas, fresh cut flowers;
partners--US 36%, EC 21%, Japan 5%, Netherlands 4%, Sweden 3%

Imports: $5.02 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities--industrial equipment, transportation equipment, foodstuffs,
chemicals, paper products;
partners--US 34%, EC 16%, Brazil 4%, Venezuela 3%, Japan 3%

External debt: $17.5 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.0% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 9,250,000 kW capacity; 35,364 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear,
beverages, chemicals, metal products, cement; mining--gold, coal, emeralds,
iron, nickel, silver, salt

Agriculture: accounts for 22% of GDP; crops make up two-thirds and
livestock one-third of agricultural output; climate and soils permit a wide
variety of crops, such as coffee, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans,
oilseeds, vegetables; forest products and shrimp farming are becoming more
important

Illicit drugs: major illicit producer of cannabis and coca for the
international drug trade; key supplier of marijuana and cocaine to
the US and other international drug markets; drug production and
trafficking accounts for an estimated 4% of GDP and 28% of foreign
exchange earnings

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $399 million

Currency: Colombian peso (plural--pesos);
1 Colombian peso (Col$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Colombian pesos (Col$) per US$1--439.68 (January 1990),
382.57 (1989), 299.17 (1988), 242.61 (1987), 194.26 (1986), 142.31 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,563 km, all 0.914-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 75,450 km total; 9,350 km paved, 66,100 km earth and gravel
surfaces

Inland waterways: 14,300 km, navigable by river boats

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,585 km; refined products, 1,350 km; natural gas,
830 km; natural gas liquids, 125 km

Ports: Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Covenas, San Andres,
Santa Marta, Tumaco

Merchant marine: 34 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,854 GRT/487,438
DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 chemical tanker, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 9 bulk

Civil air: 106 major transport aircraft

Airports: 673 total, 622 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 124 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: nationwide radio relay system; 1,890,000 telephones;
stations--413 AM, no FM, 33 TV, 28 shortwave 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations with 2 antennas and 11 domestic satellite stations


- Defense Forces
Branches: armed forces include Police (Policia Nacional) and
military--Army (Ejercito Nacional), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Colombia),
Navy (Armada Nacional)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 8,768,072; 5,953,729 fit for military
service; 354,742 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.9% of GDP, or $700 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Comoros
- Geography
Total area: 2,170 km2; land area: 2,170 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 12 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 340 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims French-administered Mayotte

Climate: tropical marine; rainy season (November to May)

Terrain: volcanic islands, interiors vary from steep mountains
to low hills

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 35% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
16% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: soil degradation and erosion; deforestation;
cyclones possible during rainy season

Note: important location at northern end of Mozambique Channel

- People
Population: 460,188 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Comoran(s); adjective--Comoran

Ethnic divisions: Antalote, Cafre, Makoa, Oimatsaha, Sakalava

Religion: 86% Sunni Muslim, 14% Roman Catholic

Language: Shaafi Islam (a Swahili dialect), Malagasy, French

Literacy: 15%

Labor force: 140,000 (1982); 80% agriculture, 3% government; 51% of
population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros

Type: independent republic

Capital: Moroni

Administrative divisions: 3 islands; Anjouan, Grande Comore,
Moheli; note--there may also be 4 municipalities named Domoni, Fomboni,
Moroni, and Mutsamudu

Independence: 6 July 1975 (from France)

Constitution: 1 October 1978, amended October 1982 and January 1985

Legal system: French and Muslim law in a new consolidated code

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1975)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal Assembly (Assemblee Federale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Said
Mohamed DJOHAR (since 11 March 1990)

Political parties: Comoran Union for Progress (Udzima), Said
Mohamed Djohar, president; National Union for Democracy (UNDC),
Mohamed Taki

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 11 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996);
results--Said Mohamed Djohar (Udzima) 55%; Mohamed Taki Abdulkarim
(UNDC) 45%;

Federal Assembly--last held 22 March 1987 (next to be held March
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(42 total) Udzima 42

Member of: ACP, AfDB, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Amini Ali MOUMIN; Chancery
(temporary) at the Comoran Permanent Mission to the UN, 336 East 45th Street,
2nd Floor, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 972-8010;
US--Ambassador Howard K. WALKER, resides in Antananarivo (Madagascar);
Embassy at address NA, Moroni (mailing address B. P. 1318, Moroni);
telephone 73-12-03

Flag: green with a white crescent placed diagonally (closed side of the
crescent points to the upper hoist-side corner of the flag); there are four
white five-pointed stars placed in a line between the points of the crescent;
the crescent, stars, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam; the four
stars represent the four main islands of the archipelago--Mwali, Njazidja,
Nzwani, and Mayotte (which is a territorial collectivity of France, but claimed
by the Comoros)

- Economy
Overview: One of the world's poorest countries, Comoros is made up of
several islands that have poor transportation links, a young and rapidly
increasing population, and few natural resources. The low educational level
of the labor force contributes to a low level of economic activity, high
unemployment, and a heavy dependence on foreign technical assistance.
Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is the leading sector of the
economy. It contributes about 40% to GDP, employs 80% of the labor
force, and provides most of the exports. The country is not self-sufficient in
food production, and rice, the main staple, accounts for 90% of imports.
During the period 1982-86 the industrial sector grew at an annual average rate
of 5.3%, but its contribution to GDP was less than 4% in 1986. Despite major
investment in the tourist industry, which accounts for about 25% of GDP, growth
has stagnated since 1983.

GDP: $207 million, per capita $475; real growth rate 0.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.3% (1986)

Unemployment rate: over 16% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $75.2 million; expenditures $77.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $4.8 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $12 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--vanilla, cloves, perfume oil, copra;
partners--US 53%, France 41%, Africa 4%, FRG 2%

Imports: $52 million (c.i.f., 1987);
commodities--rice and other foodstuffs, cement, petroleum products,
consumer goods;
partners--Europe 62% (France 22%, other 40%), Africa 5%, Pakistan,
China

External debt: $238 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.4% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
55 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: perfume distillation

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; most of population works in
subsistence agriculture and fishing; plantations produce cash crops for
export--vanilla, cloves, perfume essences, and copra; principal food
crops--coconuts, bananas, cassava; world's leading producer of essence of
ylang-ylang (for perfumes) and second-largest producer of vanilla; large net
food importer

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $9 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $371 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $22 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$18 million

Currency: Comoran franc (plural--francs); 1 Comoran franc (CF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Comoran francs (CF) per US$1--287.99 (January 1990),
319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985);
note--linked to the French franc at 50 to 1 French franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 750 km total; about 210 km bituminous, remainder crushed
stone or gravel

Ports: Mutsamudu, Moroni

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: sparse system of radio relay and high-frequency radio
communication stations for interisland and external communications to Madagascar
and Reunion; over 1,800 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Presidential Guard, Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 97,504; 58,274 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 3% of GDP (1981)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Congo
- Geography
Total area: 342,000 km2; land area: 341,500 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Montana

Land boundaries: 5,504 km total; Angola 201 km, Cameroon 523 km,
Central African Republic 467 km, Gabon 1,903 km, Zaire 2,410 km

Coastline: 169 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: long section with Zaire along the Congo River is indefinite
(no division of the river or its islands has been made)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (March to June); dry season (June
to October); constantly high temperatures and humidity; particularly enervating
climate astride the Equator

Terrain: coastal plain, southern basin, central plateau, northern basin

Natural resources: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium,
copper, phosphates, natural gas

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 29% meadows and
pastures; 62% forest and woodland; 7% other

Environment: deforestation; about 70% of the population lives in
Brazzaville, Pointe Noire, or along the railroad between them

- People
Population: 2,242,274 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Congolese (sing., pl.); adjective--Congolese or Congo

Ethnic divisions: about 15 ethnic groups divided into some 75 tribes,
almost all Bantu; most important ethnic groups are Kongo (48%) in the south,
Sangha (20%) and M'Bochi (12%) in the north, Teke (17%) in the center; about
8,500 Europeans, mostly French

Religion: 50% Christian, 48% animist, 2% Muslim

Language: French (official); many African languages with Lingala and
Kikongo most widely used

Literacy: 62.9%

Labor force: 79,100 wage earners; 75% agriculture, 25% commerce, industry,
and government; 51% of population of working age; 40% of population economically
active (1985)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force (1979 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: People's Republic of the Congo

Type: people's republic

Capital: Brazzaville

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regions, singular--region);
Bouenza, Cuvette, Kouilou, Lekoumou, Likouala, Niari, Plateaux, Pool, Sangha;
note--there may be a new capital district of Brazzaville

Independence: 15 August 1960 (from France; formerly Congo/Brazzaville)

Constitution: 8 July 1979

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

National holiday: National Day, 15 August (1960)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's National Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Populaire)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Denis
SASSOU-NGUESSO (since 8 February 1979);
Prime Minister Alphonse POATY-SOUCHLATY (since 6 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Congolese Labor Party
(PCT), President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 26-31 July 1989 (next to be held July 1993);
results--President Sassou-Nguesso unanimously reelected leader of the
PCT by the Party Congress, which automatically makes him president;

People's National Assembly--last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held 1993); results--PCT is the only party;
seats--(153 total) single list of candidates nominated by the PCT

Communists: unknown number of Communists and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: Union of Congolese Socialist Youth
(UJSC), Congolese Trade Union Congress (CSC), Revolutionary Union of Congolese
Women (URFC), General Union of Congolese Pupils and Students (UGEEC)

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Conference of East and Central African
States, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, UDEAC,
UEAC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Benjamin BOUNKOULOU; Chancery at
4891 Colorado Avenue NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-5500;
US--Ambassador-designate James Daniel PHILLIPS; Embassy at Avenue
Amilcar Cabral, Brazzaville (mailing address is B. P. 1015, Brazzaville,
or Box C, APO New York 09662-0006); telephone 83-20-70 or 83-26-24

Flag: red with the national emblem in the upper hoist-side corner; the
emblem includes a yellow five-pointed star above a crossed hoe and hammer (like
the hammer and sickle design) in yellow, flanked by two curved green palm
branches; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: Oil has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the
economy, providing about two-thirds of government revenues and
exports. In the early 1980s rapidly rising oil revenues enabled Congo
to finance large-scale development projects with growth averaging 5%
annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. The world decline in
oil prices, however, has forced the government to launch an austerity
program to cope with declining receipts and mounting foreign debts.

GDP: $2.2 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $382 million; expenditures $575 million,
including capital expenditures of $118 million (1988)

Exports: $912 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--crude petroleum 72%, lumber, plywood, coffee, cocoa,
sugar, diamonds;
partners--US, France, other EC

Imports: $494.4 million (c.i.f., 1987);
commodities--foodstuffs, consumer goods, intermediate manufactures,
capital equipment;
partners--France, Italy, other EC, US, FRG, Spain, Japan, Brazil

External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 5.9% (1987)

Electricity: 133,000 kW capacity; 300 million kWh produced,
130 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil, cement, sawmills, brewery, sugar mill, palm
oil, soap, cigarettes

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); cassava accounts for 90% of food output; other crops--rice,
corn, peanuts, vegetables; cash crops include coffee and cocoa; forest
products important export earner; imports over 90% of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $56 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.1 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $15 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$338 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 797 km, 1.067-meter gauge, single track (includes 285 km
that are privately owned)

Highways: 12,000 km total; 560 km bituminous surface treated; 850 km
gravel, laterite; 5,350 km improved earth; 5,240 km unimproved roads

Inland waterways: the Congo and Ubangi (Oubangui) Rivers provide 1,120 km
of commercially navigable water transport; the rest are used for local traffic
only

Pipelines: crude oil 25 km

Ports: Pointe-Noire (ocean port), Brazzaville (river port)

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 51 total, 46 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: services adequate for government use; primary network
is composed of radio relay routes and coaxial cables; key centers are
Brazzaville, Pointe-Noire, and Loubomo; 18,100 telephones; stations--3 AM, 1 FM,
4 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean satellite station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary National People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 492,419; 250,478 fit for military
service; 23,622 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Cook Islands
(free association with New Zealand)
- Geography
Total area: 240 km2; land area: 240 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or edge of continental margin;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: low coral atolls in north; volcanic, hilly islands in south

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 4% arable land; 22% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 74% other

Environment: subject to typhoons from November to March

Note: located 4,500 km south of Hawaii in the South Pacific Ocean

- People
Population: 18,187 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Cook Islander(s); adjective--Cook Islander

Ethnic divisions: 81.3% Polynesian (full blood), 7.7% Polynesian and
European, 7.7% Polynesian and other, 2.4% European, 0.9% other

Religion: Christian, majority of populace members of Cook Islands
Christian Church

Language: English

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 5,810; agriculture 29%, government 27%, services 25%,
industry 15%, and other 4% (1981)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: self-governing in free association with New Zealand; Cook Islands
fully responsible for internal affairs; New Zealand retains responsibility for
external affairs, in consultation with the Cook Islands

Capital: Avarua

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: became self-governing in free association with New Zealand
on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by
unilateral action

Constitution: 4 August 1965

National holiday: NA

Executive branch: British monarch, representative of the UK,
representative of New Zealand, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note--the unicameral
House of Arikis (chiefs) advises on traditional matters, but has no
legislative powers

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Representative of the UK Sir Tangaroa TANGAROA (since NA);
Representative of New Zealand Adrian SINCOCK (since NA);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Geoffrey HENRY
(since NA February 1989); Deputy Prime Minister Inatio AKARURU (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: Cook Islands Party, Geoffrey Henry;
Democratic Tumu Party, Vincent Ingram; Democratic Party, Dr. Vincent Pupuke
Robati; Cook Islands Labor Party, Rena Jonassen; Cook Islands People's Party,
Sadaraka Sadaraka

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
Parliament--last held 19 January 1989 (next to be held by
January 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(24 total) Cook Islands Party 12, Democratic
Tumu Party 2, opposition coalition (including Democratic Party) 9,
independent 1

Member of: ADB, ESCAP (associate member), IDA, IFC, IMF, SPEC,
SPF

Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing in free association
with New Zealand)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant
and a large circle of 15 white five-pointed stars (one for every island)
centered in the outer half of the flag

- Economy
Overview: Agriculture provides the economic base. The major export
earners are fruit, copra, and clothing. Manufacturing activities are limited to
a fruit-processing plant and several clothing factories. Economic development
is hindered by the isolation of the islands from foreign markets and a lack of
natural resources and good transportation links. A large trade deficit is
annually made up for by remittances from emigrants and from foreign aid. Current
economic development plans call for exploiting the tourism potential and
expanding the fishing industry.

GDP: $40.0 million, per capita $2,200 (1988 est.); real growth rate
5.3% (1986-88 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $33.8 million; expenditures $34.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990 est.)

Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--copra, fresh and canned fruit, clothing;
partners--NZ 80%, Japan

Imports: $38.7 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--foodstuffs, textiles, fuels, timber;
partners--NZ 49%, Japan, Australia, US

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 4,800 kW capacity; 15 million kWh produced,
830 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fruit processing, tourism

Agriculture: export crops--copra, citrus fruits, pineapples,
tomatoes, bananas; subsistence crops--yams, taro

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-89), $128 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars); 1 New Zealand
dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6581 (January
1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 187 km total (1980); 35 km paved, 35 km gravel, 84 km improved
earth, 33 km unimproved earth

Ports: Avatiu

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 7 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, no TV; 10,000 radio receivers;
2,052 telephones; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Coral Sea Islands
(territory of Australia)
- Geography
Total area: undetermined; includes numerous small islands and reefs
scattered over a sea area of about 1 million km2, with Willis Islets the
most important

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3,095 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sand and coral reefs and islands (or cays)

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other, mostly grass or scrub cover; Lihou Reef
Reserve and Coringa-Herald Reserve were declared National Nature Reserves
on 3 August 1982

Environment: subject to occasional tropical cyclones; no permanent
fresh water; important nesting area for birds and turtles

Note: the islands are located just off the northeast coast of
Australia in the Coral Sea

- People
Population: 3 meteorologists

- Government
Long-form name: Coral Sea Islands Territory

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Minister for
Arts, Sport, the Environment, Tourism, and Territories Graham
Richardson

Flag: the flag of Australia is used

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorages only

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; visited regularly by
the Royal Australian Navy; Australia has control over the activities of visitors
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Costa Rica
- Geography
Total area: 51,100 km2; land area: 50,660 km2; includes Isla del
Coco

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 639 km total; Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km

Coastline: 1,290 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to
November)

Terrain: coastal plains separated by rugged mountains

Natural resources: hydropower potential

Land use: 6% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 45% meadows and pastures;
34% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic
coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season; active volcanoes;
deforestation; soil erosion

- People
Population: 3,032,795 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Costa Rican(s); adjective--Costa Rican

Ethnic divisions: 96% white (including mestizo), 2% black,
1% Indian, 1% Chinese

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish (official), English spoken around Puerto Limon

Literacy: 93%

Labor force: 868,300; industry and commerce 35.1%, government and
services 33%, agriculture 27%, other 4.9% (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 15.1% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Costa Rica

Type: democratic republic

Capital: San Jose

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia);
Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 9 November 1949

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Rafael Angel
CALDERON Fournier (since 8 May 1990); First Vice President German SERRANO
Pinto (since 8 May 1990); Second Vice President Arnoldo LOPEZ Echandi
(since 8 May 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Party (PLN),
Carlos Manuel Castillo; Social Christian Unity Party (PUSC), Rafael Angel
Calderon Fournier; Marxist Popular Vanguard Party (PVP), Humberto Vargas
Carbonell; New Republic Movement (MNR), Sergio Erick Ardon;
Progressive Party (PP), Javier Solis; People's Party of Costa Rica
(PPC), Lenin Chacon Vargas; Radical Democratic Party (PRD), Juan Jose
Echeverria Brealey

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held February
1994);
results--Rafael Calderon Fournier 51%, Carlos Manuel Castillo 47%;

Legislative Assembly--last held 4 February 1990 (next to be held
February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(57 total) PUSC 29, PLN 25, PVP/PPC 1, regional parties 2

Communists: 7,500 members and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CCTD; Liberation Party affiliate), Confederated Union of
Workers (CUT; Communist Party affiliate), Authentic Confederation of
Democratic Workers (CATD; Communist Party affiliate), Chamber of Coffee
Growers, National Association for Economic Development (ANFE), Free Costa Rica
Movement (MCRL; rightwing militants), National Association of Educators (ANDE)

Member of: CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council,
OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Danilo JIMENEZ; Chancery at
Suite 211, 1825 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-2945 through 2947; there are Costa Rican Consulates General
at Albuquerque, Boston, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Tampa, and
Consulates in Austin, Buffalo, Honolulu, and Raleigh;
US--Ambassador (vacant); Embassy at Pavas Road, San Jose
(mailing address is APO Miami 34020); telephone p506o 33-11-55

Flag: five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width),
white, and blue with the coat of arms in a white disk on the hoist side of the
red band

- Economy
Overview: In 1988 the economy grew at a 3.8% rate, a drop from the
5.1% of the previous year. Gains in agricultural production
(on the strength of good coffee and banana crops) and in construction,
were partially offset by declines in the rates of growth for the industry
and commerce sectors. In 1988 consumer prices rose by nearly 21%
followed by a 10% rise in 1989. Unemployment is officially reported at
about 6%, but much underemployment remains. External debt, on a
per capita basis, is among the world's highest.

GDP: $4.7 billion, per capita $1,630; real growth rate 3.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 5.5% (March 1989)

Budget: revenues $719 million; expenditures $808 million, including
capital expenditures of $103 million (1988)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--coffee, bananas, textiles, sugar;
partners--US 75%, FRG, Guatemala, Netherlands, UK, Japan

Imports: $1.4 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--petroleum, machinery, consumer durables, chemicals,
fertilizer, foodstuffs;
partners--US 35%, Japan, Guatemala, FRG

External debt: $4.5 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.1% (1988)

Electricity: 909,000 kW capacity; 2,928 million kWh produced,
990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles and clothing, construction
materials, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 20-25% of GDP and 70% of exports; cash
commodities--coffee, beef, bananas, sugar; other food crops include corn, rice,
beans, potatotes; normally self-sufficient in food except for grain; depletion
of forest resources resulting in lower timber output

Illicit drugs: illicit production of cannabis on small scattered
plots; transshipment country for cocaine from South America

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.3 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $706 million;
Communist countries (1971-88), $27 million

Currency: Costa Rican colon (plural--colones);
1 Costa Rican colon (C) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: Costa Rican colones (C) per US$1--84.689 (January 1990),
81.504 (1989), 75.805 (1988), 62.776 (1987), 55.986 (1986), 50.453 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 950 km total, all 1.067-meter gauge; 260 km electrified

Highways: 15,400 km total; 7,030 km paved, 7,010 km gravel, 1,360 km
unimproved earth

Inland waterways: about 730 km, seasonally navigable

Pipelines: refined products, 176 km

Ports: Puerto Limon, Caldera, Golfito, Moin, Puntarenas

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 4,279 GRT/6,602 DWT

Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

Airports: 193 total, 177 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: very good domestic telephone service; 292,000
telephones; connection into Central American Microwave System; stations--71 AM,
no FM, 18 TV, 13 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Civil Guard, Rural Assistance Guard; note--Constitution
prohibits armed forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 785,429; 530,986 fit for military
service; 31,899 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.6% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Cuba
- Geography
Total area: 110,860 km2; land area: 110,860 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundary: 29.1 km with US Naval Base at Guantanamo;
note--Guantanamo is leased and as such remains part of Cuba

Coastline: 3,735 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: US Naval Base at Guantanamo is leased to US and only mutual
agreement or US abandonment of the area can terminate the lease

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; dry season (November to
April); rainy season (May to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling plains with rugged hills and mountains
in the southeast

Natural resources: cobalt, nickel, iron ore, copper, manganese, salt,
timber, silica

Land use: 23% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 23% meadows and pastures;
17% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 10% irrigated

Environment: averages one hurricane every other year

Note: largest country in Caribbean; 145 km south of Florida

- People
Population: 10,620,099 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Cuban(s); adjective--Cuban

Ethnic divisions: 51% mulatto, 37% white, 11% black, 1% Chinese

Religion: at least 85% nominally Roman Catholic before Castro assumed
power

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 98.5%

Labor force: 3,400,000 in state sector; 30% services and
government, 22% industry, 20% agriculture, 11% commerce,
10% construction, 7% transportation and communications (1988);
economically active population 4,500,000 (1987)

Organized labor: Workers Central Union of Cuba (CTC), only labor
federation approved by government; 2,910,000 members; the CTC is an
umbrella organization composed of 17 member unions

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Cuba

Type: Communist state

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia)
and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila,
Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin,
Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio,
Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered
by the US from 1898 to 1902)

Constitution: 24 February 1976

Legal system: based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of
Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 January (1959)

Executive branch: president of the Council of State, first vice
president of the Council of State, Council of State, president of the
Council of Ministers, first vice president of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of the People's
Power (Asamblea Nacional del Poder Popular)

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President of the Council of
State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel CASTRO Ruz
(became Prime Minister in January 1959 and President since 2 December
1976);
First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President
of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul CASTRO Ruz (since 2 December
1976)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Cuban Communist Party
(PCC), Fidel Castro Ruz, first secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 16

Elections:
National Assembly of the People's Power--last held NA December
1986 (next to be held December 1991);
results--PCC is the only party;
seats--(510 total) PCC 510 (indirectly elected)

Communists: about 600,000 full and candidate members

Member of: CEMA, ECLA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB (nonparticipant), IAEA,
IBEC, ICAO, IFAD, ICO, IHO, ILO, IMO, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International
Wheat Council, NAM, OAS (nonparticipant), PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UNIDO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Czechoslovakia--Cuban Interests Section; Counselor Jose Antonio Arbesu
FRAGA; 2630 and 2639 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202)
797-8518 or 8519, 8520, 8609, 8610; US--protecting power in Cuba is
Switzerland--US Interests Section; Principal Officer John J. TAYLOR;
Calzada entre L y M, Vedado Seccion, Havana; telephone 320551 or 320543

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating
with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white
five-pointed star in the center

- Economy
Overview: The Soviet-style economy, centrally planned and largely
state owned, is highly dependent on the agricultural sector and foreign
trade. Sugar provides about 75% of export revenues and is mostly exported
to the USSR and other CEMA countries. The economy has stagnated since
1985 under a program that has deemphasized material incentives in the
workplace, abolished farmers' informal produce markets, and raised prices
of government-supplied goods and services. Castro has complained that
the ongoing CEMA reform process has interfered with the regular flow of
goods to Cuba. Recently the government has been trying to increase
trade with Latin America and China. Cuba has had difficulty servicing
its foreign debt since 1982. The government currently is encouraging
foreign investment in tourist facilities. Other investment priorities
include sugar, basic foods, and nickel. The annual $4 billion Soviet
subsidy, a main prop to Cuba's threadbare economy, may be cut in view
of the USSR's mounting economic problems.

GNP: $20.9 billion, per capita $2,000; real growth rate - 1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment: 6% overall, 10% for women (1989)

Budget: revenues $11.7 billion; expenditures $13.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $5.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--sugar, nickel, shellfish, citrus, tobacco, coffee;
partners--USSR 67%, GDR 6%, China 4% (1988)

Imports: $7.6 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--capital goods, industrial raw materials, food, petroleum;
partners--USSR 71%, other Communist countries 15% (1988)

External debt: $6.8 billion (convertible currency, July 1989)

Industrial production: 3% (1988)

Electricity: 3,991,000 kW capacity; 14,972 million kWh produced,
1,425 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar milling, petroleum refining, food and tobacco
processing, textiles, chemicals, paper and wood products, metals
(particularly nickel), cement, fertilizers, consumer goods, agricultural
machinery

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP (including fishing and forestry); key
commercial crops--sugarcane, tobacco, and citrus fruits; other products--coffee,
rice, potatoes, meat, beans; world's largest sugar exporter; not self-sufficient
in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $657.5 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $13.5 billion

Currency: Cuban peso (plural--pesos); 1 Cuban peso (Cu$) = 100
centavos

Exchange rates: Cuban pesos (Cu$) per US$1--1.0000 (linked to the
US dollar)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 14,925 km total; Cuban National Railways operates 5,295 km of
1.435-meter gauge track; 199 km electrified; 9,630 km of sugar plantation
lines of 0.914-1.435-meter gauge

Highways: about 21,000 km total; 9,000 km paved, 12,000 km gravel and
earth surfaced

Inland waterways: 240 km

Ports: Cienfuegos, Havana, Mariel, Matanzas, Santiago de Cuba;
7 secondary, 35 minor

Merchant marine: 91 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
701,418 GRT/1,014,014 DWT; includes 62 cargo, 7 refrigerated cargo, 3
cargo/training, 10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1
chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 6 bulk; note--Cuba beneficially owns
an additional 34 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 475,864 DWT under
the registry of Panama, Cyprus, and Malta

Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

Airports: 197 total, 168 usable; 72 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--150 AM, 5 FM, 58 TV; 1,530,000 TV sets;
2,140,000 radio receivers; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Revolutionary Armed Forces (Ground Forces, Revolutionary Navy,
Air and Air Defense Force), Ministry of Interior Special Troops, Border Guard
Troops, Territorial Militia Troops, Youth Labor Army

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 6,027,131; of the 3,024,385 males
15-49, 1,897,175 are fit for military service; of the 3,002,746 females 15-49,
1,879,471 are fit for military service; 96,319 males and 92,765 females reach
military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: about 6% of GNP, or $1.2-$1.4 billion
(1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Cyprus
- Geography
Total area: 9,250 km2; land area: 9,240 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

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