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partners--US 15%

External debt: $5.7 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (1987)

Electricity: 817,000 kW capacity; 1,728 million kWh produced, 260 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: mining, smelting, petroleum, food and beverage, tobacco,
handicrafts, clothing; illicit drug industry reportedly produces the largest
revenues

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP (including forestry and
fisheries); principal commodities--coffee, coca, cotton, corn, sugarcane, rice,
potatoes, timber; self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: world's second-largest producer of coca
(after Peru) with an estimated 54,000 hectares under cultivation;
government considers all but 12,000 hectares illicit and subject to
eradication; intermediate coca products and cocaine exported to or
through Colombia and Brazil to the US and other international drug
markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $909 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$1.4 billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $340 million

Currency: boliviano (plural--bolivianos); 1 boliviano ($B) = 100
centavos

Exchange rates: bolivianos ($B) per US$1--2.6917 (1989), 2.3502
(1988), 2.0549 (1987), 1.9220 (1986), 0.4400 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,675 km total; 3,643 km 1.000-meter gauge and 32 km
0.760-meter gauge, all government owned, single track

Highways: 38,836 km total; 1,300 km paved, 6,700 km gravel, 30,836 km
improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 10,000 km of commercially navigable waterways

Pipelines: crude oil 1,800 km; refined products 580 km; natural gas
1,495 km

Ports: none; maritime outlets are Arica and Antofagasta in Chile and
Matarani in Peru

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 14,051
GRT/22,155 DWT; note--1 is owned by the Bolivian Navy

Civil air: 56 major transport aircraft

Airports: 636 total, 551 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 110 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: radio relay system being expanded; improved
international services; 144,300 telephones; stations--129 AM, no FM, 43 TV,
68 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Bolivian Army, Bolivian Navy, Bolivian Air Force (literally,
the Army of the Nation, the Navy of the Nation, the Air Force of the Nation)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,629,154; 1,060,187 fit for military
service; 70,528 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 3% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Botswana
- Geography
Total area: 600,370 km2; land area: 585,370 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 4,013 km total; Namibia 1,360 km, South Africa 1,840 km,
Zimbabwe 813 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Namibia is indefinite;
quadripoint with Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement

Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers

Terrain: predominately flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert
in southwest

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash,
coal, iron ore, silver, natural gas

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 75% meadows and pastures;
2% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: rains in early 1988 broke six years of drought that had
severely affected the important cattle industry; overgrazing; desertification

Note: landlocked; very long boundary with South Africa

- People
Population: 1,224,527 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 64 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun and adjective--Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Ethnic divisions: 95% Batswana; about 4% Kalanga, Basarwa, and Kgalagadi;
about 1% white

Religion: 50% indigenous beliefs, 50% Christian

Language: English (official), Setswana

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 400,000; 163,000 formal sector employees, most others
are engaged in cattle raising and subsistence agriculture (1988 est.);
19,000 are employed in various mines in South Africa (1988)

Organized labor: 19 trade unions

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Botswana

Type: parliamentary republic

Capital: Gaborone

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Central, Chobe, Ghanzi,
Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Ngamiland, North-East, South-East, Southern;
note--in addition, there may now be 4 town councils named Francistown,
Gaborone, Lobaste, Selebi-Pikwe

Independence: 30 September 1966 (from UK; formerly Bechuanaland)

Constitution: March 1965, effective 30 September 1966

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and local customary law;
judicial review limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Botswana Day, 30 September (1966)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
House of Chiefs and a lower house or National Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Quett K. J. MASIRE (since
13 July 1980); Vice President Peter S. MMUSI (since 3 January 1983)

Political parties and leaders: Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), Quett
Masire; Botswana National Front (BNF), Kenneth Koma; Botswana People's Party
(BPP), Knight Maripe; Botswana Independence Party (BIP), Motsamai Mpho;
Botswana Progressive Union (BPU), Daniel Kwele

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held 7 October 1989 (next to be held October
1994);
results--President Quett K. J. Masire was reelected by the National
Assembly;

National Assembly--last held 7 October 1989 (next to be
held October 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(34 total, 30 elected) BDP 31, BNF 3

Communists: no known Communist organization; Koma of BNF has long history
of Communist contacts

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African
Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Botsweletse Kingsley
SEBELE; Chancery at Suite 404, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-4990 or 4991;
US--Ambassador-designate David PASSAGE; Deputy Chief of Mission
Johnnie CARSON; Embassy at Botswana Road, Gaborone
(mailing address is P. O. Box 90, Gaborone); telephone p267o 353982
through 353984

Flag: light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe
in the center

- Economy
Overview: The economy has historically been based on cattle raising and
crops. Agriculture today provides a livelihood for over 80% of the
population, but produces only about 50% of food needs and contributes
a small 5% to GDP. The driving force behind the rapid economic growth of
the 1970s and 1980s has been the mining industry. This sector, mostly on the
strength of diamonds, has gone from generating 25% of GDP in 1980 to over 50%
in 1988. No other sector has experienced such growth, especially not
that of the agricultural sector, which is plagued by erratic rainfall and poor
soils. The unemployment rate remains a problem at 25%. A scarce resource base
limits diversification into labor-intensive industries.

GDP: $1.87 billion, per capita $1,600; real growth rate 8.4%
(FY88)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.45% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1987)

Budget: revenues $1,235 million; expenditures $1,080 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--diamonds 88%, copper and nickel 5%, meat 4%, cattle, animal
products;
partners--Switzerland, US, UK, other EC-associated members of
Southern African Customs Union

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--foodstuffs, vehicles, textiles, petroleum products;
partners--Switzerland, US, UK, other EC-associated members of Southern
African Customs Union

External debt: $700 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 16.8% (FY86)

Electricity: 217,000 kW capacity; 630 million kWh produced,
510 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: livestock processing; mining of diamonds, copper,
nickel, coal, salt, soda ash, potash; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; subsistence
farming predominates; cattle raising supports 50% of the population;
must import large share of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $242 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $43 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$24 million

Currency: pula (plural--pula); 1 pula (P) = 100 thebe

Exchange rates: pula (P) per US$1--1.8734 (January 1990), 2.0125 (1989),
1.8159 (1988), 1.6779 (1987), 1.8678 (1986), 1.8882 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 712 km 1.0 67-meter gauge

Highways: 11,514 km total; 1,600 km paved; 1,700 km crushed stone or
gravel, 5,177 km improved earth, 3,037 km unimproved earth

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 99 total, 87 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 23 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the small system is a combination of open-wire lines,
radio relay links, and a few radiocommunication stations; 17,900 telephones;
stations--2 AM, 3 FM, no TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Wing, Botswana Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 249,480; 131,304 fit for military
service; 14,363 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.2% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bouvet Island
(territory of Norway)
- Geography
Total area: 58 km2; land area: 58 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 29.6 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Climate: antarctic

Terrain: volcanic; maximum elevation about 800 meters;
coast is mostly inacessible

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: covered by glacial ice

Note: located in the South Atlantic Ocean 2,575 km
south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: automatic meteorological station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Brazil
- Geography
Total area: 8,511,965 km2; land area: 8,456,510 km2; includes
Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade,
Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: 14,691 km total; Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km,
Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km,
Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

Coastline: 7,491 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Paraguay (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute; two short
sections of boundary with Uruguay are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of
the Rio Quarai and the Uruguay); claims a Zone of Interest in Antarctica

Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills,
mountains, and narrow coastal belt

Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, bauxite, nickel, uranium,
phosphates, tin, hydropower, gold, platinum, crude oil, timber

Land use: 7% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 6% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurrent droughts in northeast; floods and frost in south;
deforestation in Amazon basin; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro
and Sao Paulo

Note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries
with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

- People
Population: 152,505,077 (July 1990), growth rate 1.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 69 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Brazilian(s); adjective--Brazilian

Ethnic divisions: Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, black,
Amerindian; 55% white, 38% mixed, 6% black, 1% other

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic (nominal)

Language: Portuguese (official), Spanish, English, French

Literacy: 76%

Labor force: 57,000,000 (1989 est.); 42% services, 31% agriculture,
27% industry

Organized labor: 13,000,000 dues paying members (1989 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Federative Republic of Brazil

Type: federal republic

Capital: Brasilia

Administrative divisions: 24 states (estados, singular--estado),
2 territories* (territorios, singular--territorio), and 1 federal district**
(distrito federal); Acre, Alagoas, Amapa*, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara,
Distrito Federal**, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato
Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana,
Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul,
Rondonia, Roraima*, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins;
note--the territories of Amapa and Roraima will become states
on 15 March 1991

Independence: 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 5 October 1988

Legal system: based on Latin codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 September (1822)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congresso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara dos Deputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Federal Tribunal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Fernando
Affonso COLLOR de Mello (since 15 March 1990); Vice President
Itamar FRANCO (since 15 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National Reconstruction Party (PRN),
Daniel Tourinho, president; Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB),
Ulysses Guimaraes, president; Liberal Front Party (PFL), Hugo
Napoleao, president; Workers' Party (PT), Luis Ignacio (Lula) da
Silva, president; Brazilian Labor Party (PTB), Luiz Gonzaga de Paiva
Muniz, president; Democratic Labor Party (PDT), Doutel de Andrade,
president; Democratic Social Party (PDS), Jarbas Passarinho, president;
Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Mario Covas, president;
Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), Salomao Malina, secretary general;
Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB), Joao Amazonas, president

Suffrage: voluntary at age 16; compulsory between ages 18 and 70;
voluntary at age 70

Elections:
President--last held 15 November 1989, with runoff on 17
December 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results--Fernando Collor de Mello 53%, Luis Inacio da Silva 47%;
first free, direct presidential election since 1960;

Senate--last held 15 November 1986 (next to be held 3 October
1990); results--PMDB 60%, PFL 21%, PDS 8%, PDT 3%, others 8%;
seats--(66 total) PMDB 43, PFL 15, PDS 6, PDT 2, others 6; note--as of
1990 Senate has 75 seats;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 15 November 1986 (next to
be held 3 October 1990);
results--PMDB 53%, PFL 23%, PDS 7%, PDT 5%, other 12%;
seats--(495 total) PMDB 258, PFL 114, PDS 33, PDT 24, others 58;
note--as of 1990 Chamber of Deputies has 570 seats

Communists: about 30,000

Other political or pressure groups: left wing of the Catholic Church
and labor unions allied to leftist Worker's Party are critical of government's
social and economic policies

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, OAS, PAHO,
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcilio Marques MOREIRA; Chancery
at 3006 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-2700;
there are Brazilian Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami,
New Orleans, and New York, and Consulates in Dallas, Houston, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Richard MELTON; Embassy at Avenida das Nocoes,
Lote 3, Brasilia, Distrito Federal (mailing address is APO Miami 34030);
telephone p55o (6) 321-7272; there are US Consulates General in Rio de Janeiro
and Sao Paulo, and Consulates in Porto Alegre and Recife

Flag: green with a large yellow diamond in the center bearing a blue
celestial globe with 23 white five-pointed stars (one for each state) arranged
in the same pattern as the night sky over Brazil; the globe has a white
equatorial band with the motto ORDEM E PROGRESSO (Order and Progress)

- Economy
Overview: The economy, a mixture of private enterprises of all
sizes and extensive government intervention, experienced enormous
difficulties in the late 1980s, notably declining real growth, runaway
inflation, foreign debt obligations of more than $100 billion, and
uncertain economic policy. Government intervention includes trade and
investment restrictions, wage/price controls, interest and exchange rate
controls, and extensive tariff barriers. Ownership of major industrial
facilities is divided among private interests, the government, and
multinational companies. Ownership in agriculture likewise is varied,
with the government intervening in the politically sensitive
issues involving large landowners and the masses of poor peasants.
In consultation with the IMF, the Brazilian Government has initiated
several programs over the last few years to ameliorate the stagnation
and foreign debt problems. None of these has given more than temporary
relief. The strategy of the new Collor government is to increase
the pace of privatization, encourage foreign trade and investment,
and establish a more realistic exchange rate. One long-run strength
is the existence of vast natural resources.

GDP: $377 billion, per capita $2,500; real growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,765% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2.5% (December 1989)

Budget: revenues $27.8 billion; expenditures $40.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $8.8 billion (1986)

Exports: $34.2 billion (1989 est.);
commodities--coffee, metallurgical products, chemical products,
foodstuffs, iron ore, automobiles and parts;
partners--US 28%, EC 26%, Latin America 11%, Japan 6% (1987)

Imports: $18.0 billion (1989 est.);
commodities--crude oil, capital goods, chemical products, foodstuffs,
coal;
partners--Middle East and Africa 24%, EC 22%, US 21%, Latin
America 12%, Japan 6% (1987)

External debt: $109 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.2% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 52,865,000 kW capacity; 202,280 million kWh produced,
1,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles and other consumer goods, shoes, chemicals, cement,
lumber, iron ore, steel, motor vehicles and auto parts, metalworking, capital
goods, tin

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP; world's largest producer and
exporter of coffee and orange juice concentrate and second-largest exporter of
soybeans; other products--rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, beef; self-sufficient
in food, except for wheat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca, mostly for
domestic consumption; government has an active eradication program
to control cannabis and coca cultivation

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.5 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $9.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $284 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$1.3 billion

Currency: novo cruzado (plural--novos cruzados);
1 novo cruzado (NCr$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: novos cruzados (NCr$) per US$1--2.83392 (1989),
0.26238 (1988), 0.03923 (1987), 0.01366 (1986), 0.00620 (1985); note--
25 tourist/parallel rate (December 1989)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 29,694 km total; 25,268 km 1.000-meter gauge, 4,339 km
1.600-meter gauge, 74 km mixed 1.600-1.000-meter gauge,
13 km 0.760-meter gauge; 2,308 km electrified

Highways: 1,448,000 km total; 48,000 km paved, 1,400,000 km gravel or
earth

Inland waterways: 50,000 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,000 km; refined products, 3,804 km; natural gas,
1,095 km

Ports: Belem, Fortaleza, Ilheus, Manaus, Paranagua, Porto Alegre,
Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos

Merchant marine: 271 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,855,708
GRT/9,909,097 DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 68 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo,
12 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off, 56 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 14 combination ore/oil,
82 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 176 major transport aircraft

Airports: 3,774 total, 3,106 usable; 386 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,240-3,659 m; 503 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system; extensive radio relay facilities;
9.86 million telephones; stations--1,223 AM, no FM, 112 TV, 151 shortwave;
3 coaxial submarine cables 3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations with total
of 3 antennas; 64 domestic satellite stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Brazilian Army, Navy of Brazil, Brazilian Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 39,620,936; 26,752,307 fit for military
service; 1,617,378 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.6% of GDP, or $2.3 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: British Indian Ocean Territory
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 698 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: Diego Garcia is claimed by Mauritius

Climate: tropical marine; hot, humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: flat and low (up to 4 meters in elevation)

Natural resources: coconuts, fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: archipelago of 2,300 islands

Note: Diego Garcia, largest and southernmost island, occupies
strategic location in central Indian Ocean

- People
Population: no permanent civilian population; formerly about 3,000
islanders

Ethnic divisions: civilian inhabitants, known as the Ilois, evacuated to
Mauritius before construction of UK and US defense facilities

- Government
Long-form name: British Indian Ocean Territory (no short-form
name); abbreviated BIOT

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: none

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Commissioner R. EDIS (since NA 1988),
Administrator Robin CROMPTON (since NA 1988);
note--both officials reside in the UK

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory
of the UK)

Flag: the flag of the UK is used

- Economy
Overview: All economic activity is concentrated on the largest
island of Diego Garcia, where joint UK-US defense facilities are located.
Construction projects and various services needed to support the military
installations are done by military and contract employees from the UK and US.
There are no industrial or agricultural activities on the islands.

Electricity: provided by the US military

- Communications
Highways: short stretch of paved road between port and airfield on
Diego Garcia

Ports: Diego Garcia

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways over 3,659 m on Diego Garcia

Telecommunications: minimal facilities; stations (operated by the
US Navy)--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: British Virgin Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 150 km2; land area: 150 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Washington, DC

Coastline: 80 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical; humid; temperatures moderated by trade winds

Terrain: coral islands relatively flat; volcanic islands steep, hilly

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 20% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 33% meadows and pastures;
7% forest and woodland; 33% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms from July
to October

Note: strong ties to nearby US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico

- People
Population: 12,258 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--British Virgin Islander(s); adjective--British
Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: over 90% black, remainder of white and Asian origin

Religion: majority Methodist; others include Anglican, Church of God,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Baptist, and Roman Catholic

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 4,911 (1980)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Road Town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 1 June 1977

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Territory Day, 1 July

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Governor John Mark Ambrose HERDMAN (since NA 1986);

Head of Government--Chief Minister H. Lavity STOUTT (since NA 1986)

Political parties and leaders: United Party (UP), Conrad Maduro;
Virgin Islands Party (VIP), H. Lavity Stoutt; Independent
People's Movement (IPM), Cyril B. Romney

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Council--last held 30 September 1986 (next to be
held by September 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) UP 2, VIP 5, IPM 2

Communists: probably none

Member of: Commonwealth

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Virgin Islander coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms depicts a woman flanked on either side by a vertical
column of six oil lamps above a scroll bearing the Latin word
VIGILATE (Be Watchful)

- Economy
Overview: The economy is highly dependent on the tourist industry,
which generates about 21% of the national income. In 1985 the government
offered offshore registration to companies wishing to incorporate in
the islands, and, in consequence, incorporation fees generated about $2 million
in 1987. Livestock raising is the most significant agricultural activity. The
islands' crops, limited by poor soils, are unable to meet food requirements.

GDP: $106.7 million, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 2.5% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.7% (January 1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $26.2 million; expenditures $25.4 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $2.3 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities--rum, fresh fish,
gravel, sand, fruits, animals; partners--Virgin Islands (US),
Puerto Rico, US

Imports: $72.0 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities--building
materials, automobiles, foodstuffs, machinery; partners--Virgin Islands
(US), Puerto Rico, US

External debt: $4.5 million (1985)

Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1985)

Electricity: 13,500 kW capacity; 59 million kWh produced,
4,870 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, light industry, construction, rum, concrete block,
offshore financial center

Agriculture: livestock (including poultry), fish, fruit, vegetables

Aid: NA

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 106 km motorable roads (1983)

Ports: Road Town

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
less than 1,220 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; worldwide external telephone
service; submarine cable communication links to Bermuda; stations--1 AM,
no FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Brunei
- Geography
Total area: 5,770 km2; land area: 5,270 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundary: 381 km with Malaysia

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides
the country

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy

Terrain: flat coastal plain rises to mountains in east; hilly lowland
in west

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
79% forest and woodland; 18% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: typhoons, earthquakes, and severe flooding are rare

Note: close to vital sea lanes through South China Sea linking
Indian and Pacific Oceans; two parts physically separated by Malaysia; almost
an enclave of Malaysia

- People
Population: 372,108 (July 1990), growth rate 7.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 23 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 52 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bruneian(s); adjective--Bruneian

Ethnic divisions: 64% Malay, 20% Chinese, 16% other

Religion: 60% Muslim (official); 8% Christian; 32% Buddhist and
indigenous beliefs

Language: Malay (official), English, and Chinese

Literacy: 45%

Labor force: 89,000 (includes members of the Army); 33% of labor
force is foreign (1988); 50.4% production of oil, natural gas, and
construction; 47.6% trade, services, and other; 2.0% agriculture,
forestry, and fishing (1984)

Organized labor: 2% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Negara Brunei Darussalam

Type: constitutional sultanate

Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan

Administrative divisions: 4 districts (daerah-daerah, singular--daerah);
Belait, Brunei and Muara, Temburong, Tutong

Independence: 1 January 1984 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 September 1959 (some provisions suspended
under a State of Emergency since December 1962, others since
independence on 1 January 1984)

Legal system: based on Islamic law

National holiday: National Day, 23 February (1984)

Executive branch: sultan, prime minister, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council
(Majlis Masyuarat Megeri)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Sultan and Prime Minister Sir Muda
HASSANAL BOLKIAH Muizzaddin Waddaulah (since 5 October 1967)

Political parties and leaders: Brunei National United Party
(inactive), Anak Hasanuddin, chairman; Brunei National Democratic Party
(the first legal political party and now banned) Abdul Latif
bin Abdul Hamid, chairman

Suffrage: none

Elections:
Legislative Council--last held in March 1962; in 1970
the Council was changed to an appointive body by decree of the sultan
and no elections are planned

Communists: probably none

Member of: ASEAN, ESCAP (associate member), IMO, INTERPOL, OIC, UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dato Paduka Haji MOHAMED SUNI
bin Haji Idris; Chancery at 2600 Virginia Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-0159; US--Ambassador Christopher H. PHILLIPS;
Embassy at Teck Guan Plaza (corner of Jalan McArthur), Bandar Seri
Begawan (mailing address is P. O. Box 2991, Bandar Seri Begawan);
telephone p673o (2) 29670

Flag: yellow with two diagonal bands of white (top, almost double width)
and black starting from the upper hoist side; the national emblem in red is
superimposed at the center; the emblem includes a swallow-tailed flag on top of
a winged column within an upturned crescent above a scroll and flanked by two
upraised hands

- Economy
Overview: The economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic
entrepreneurship, government regulation and welfare measures, and
village tradition. It is almost totally supported by exports of
crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the petroleum sector
accounting for more than 70% of GDP. Per capita GDP of $9,600
is among the highest in the Third World, and substantial income from
overseas investment supplements domestic production. The government
provides for all medical services and subsidizes food and housing.

GDP: $3.3 billion, per capita $9,600; real growth rate
2.5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment: 2.5%, shortage of skilled labor (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion (1987); expenditures $1.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $2.07 billion (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--crude oil, liquefied natural gas, petroleum products;
partners--Japan 55% (1986)

Imports: $800 million (c.i.f., 1987);
commodities--machinery and transport equipment, manufactured
goods; food, beverages, tobacco; consumer goods;
partners--Singapore 31%, US 20%, Japan 6% (1986)

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 890 million kWh produced,
2,580 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, liquefied natural gas, construction

Agriculture: imports about 80% of its food needs; principal crops
and livestock include rice, cassava, bananas, buffaloes, and pigs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $20.6 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $143.7 million

Currency: Bruneian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bruneian dollar
(B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bruneian dollars (B$) per US$1--1.8895 (January 1990),
1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985);
note--the Bruneian dollar is at par with the Singapore dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 13 km 0.610-meter narrow-gauge private line

Highways: 1,090 km total; 370 km paved (bituminous treated) and another
52 km under construction, 720 km gravel or unimproved

Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters

Ports: Kuala Belait, Muara

Merchant marine: 7 liquefied gas carriers (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
348,476 GRT/340,635 DWT

Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 418 km;
natural gas, 920 km

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft (3 Boeing 757-200,
1 Boeing 737-200)

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runway over 3,659 m; 1 with runway 1,406 m

Telecommunications: service throughout country is adequate for present
needs; international service good to adjacent Malaysia; radiobroadcast coverage
good; 33,000 telephones (1987); stations--4 AM/FM, 1 TV; 74,000 radio receivers
(1987); satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific
Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Brunei Armed Forces, including air wing, navy, and ground
forces; British Gurkha Battalion; Royal Brunei Police; Gurkha Reserve Unit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 104,398; 60,242 fit for military service;
3,106 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $197.6 million, 17% of central government budget
(FY86)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bulgaria
- Geography
Total area: 110,910 km2; land area: 110,550 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,881 km total; Greece 494 km, Romania 608 km,
Turkey 240 km, Yugoslavia 539 km

Coastline: 354 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Macedonia question with Greece and Yugoslavia

Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and south

Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber,
arable land

Land use: 34% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures;
35% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: subject to earthquakes, landslides; deforestation;
air pollution

Note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key
land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

- People
Population: 8,933,544 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bulgarian(s); adjective--Bulgarian

Ethnic divisions: 85.3% Bulgarian, 8.5% Turk, 2.6% Gypsy, 2.5%
Macedonian, 0.3% Armenian, 0.2% Russian, 0.6% other

Religion: religious background of population is 85% Bulgarian
Orthodox, 13% Muslim, 0.8% Jewish, 0.7% Roman Catholic, 0.5%
Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other

Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic
breakdown

Literacy: 95% (est.)

Labor force: 4,300,000; 33% industry, 20% agriculture, 47% other (1987)

Organized labor: all workers are members of the Central Council of
Trade Unions (CCTU); Pod Krepa (Support), an independent trade union,
legally registered in January 1990

- Government
Long-form name: People's Republic of Bulgaria

Type: Communist state, but democratic elections planned for 1990

Capital: Sofia

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces (oblasti, singular--oblast)
and 1 city* (grad); Burgas, Grad Sofiya*, Khaskovo, Lovech, Mikhaylovgrad,
Plovdiv, Razgrad, Sofiya, Varna

Independence: 22 September 1908 (from Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 16 May 1971, effective 18 May 1971

Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the State Council; has accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Socialist Revolution in Bulgaria,
9 September (1944)

Executive branch: president, chairman of the Council of Ministers,
four deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Narodno Sobranyie)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Petur Toshev MLADENOV (chairman of
the State Council since 11 November 1989; became president
on 3 April 1990 when the State Council was abolished);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Andrey LUKANOV (since 3 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of the
Council of Ministers Chudomir Asenov ALEKSANDROV (since 8 February
1990); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers Belcho Antonov BELCHEV
(since 8 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Konstantin Dimitrov KOSEV (since 8 February 1990); Deputy Chairman of
the Council of Ministers Nora Krachunova ANANIEVA (since 8 February 1990)

Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Communist Party (BKP),
Aleksandur Lilov, chairman; Bulgarian National Agrarian
Union (BZNS), Angel Angelov Dimitrov, secretary of Permanent Board;
Bulgarian Social Democratic Party, Petur Dentlieu; Green Party;
Christian Democrats; Radical Democratic Party; others forming

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
Chairman of the State Council--last held 17 June 1986
(next to be held 10 and 17 June 1990);
results--Todor Zhivkov reelected but was replaced by
Petur Toshev Mladenov on 11 November 1989;

National Assembly--last held 8 June 1986 (next to be held
10 and 17 June 1990); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(400 total) BKP 276, BZNS 99, others 25

Communists: 932,055 party members (April 1986)

Other political or pressure groups: Union of Democratic Forces
(umbrella organization for opposition groups); Ecoglenost, Podkrepa
Independent Trade Union, Fatherland Front, Communist Youth Union, Central
Council of Trade Unions, National Committee for Defense of
Peace, Union of Fighters Against Fascism and Capitalism, Committee
of Bulgarian Women, All-National Committee for Bulgarian-Soviet
Friendship; Union of Democratic Forces, a coalition of about a
dozen dissident groups; numerous regional and national interest
groups with various agendas

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, ICAO, ILO, ILZSG, IMO,
IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Velichko Filipov VELICHKOV;
Chancery at 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-7969;
US--Ambassador Sol POLANSKY; Embassy at 1 Alexander Stamboliski Boulevard,
Sofia (mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone p359o (2) 88-48-01
through 05

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red with the
national emblem on the hoist side of the white stripe; the emblem contains a
rampant lion within a wreath of wheat ears below a red five-pointed star and
above a ribbon bearing the dates 681 (first Bulgarian state established) and
1944 (liberation from Nazi control)

- Economy
Overview: Growth in the sluggish Bulgarian economy fell to the
2% annual level in the 1980s, and by 1989 Sofia's foreign debt had
skyrocketed to $10 billion--giving a debt service ratio of more
than 40% of hard currency earnings. The post-Zhivkov regime
faces major problems of renovating an aging industrial plant,
keeping abreast of rapidly unfolding technological developments,
investing in additional energy capacity (the portion of electric
power from nuclear energy reached 37% in 1988), and motivating workers,
in part by giving them a share in the earnings of their enterprises.
A major decree of January 1989 summarized and extended
the government's economic restructuring efforts, which include a partial
decentralization of controls over production decisions and foreign trade.
The new regime promises more extensive reforms and eventually a market
economy. But the ruling group cannot (so far) bring itself to give
up ultimate control over economic affairs exercised through the vertical
Party/ministerial command structure. Reforms have not
led to improved economic performance, in particular the provision of more
and better consumer goods. A further blow to the economy was the exodus
of 310,000 ethnic Turks in mid-1989, which caused temporary shortages
of skilled labor in glassware, aluminum, and other industrial plants
and in tobacco fields.

GNP: $51.2 billion, per capita $5,710; real growth rate - 0.1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $28 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA billion (1988)

Exports: $20.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--machinery and equipment 60.5%; agricultural products 14.7%;
manufactured consumer goods 10.6%; fuels, minerals, raw materials, and metals
8.5%; other 5.7%;
partners--Socialist countries 82.5% (USSR 61%, GDR 5.5%, Czechoslovakia
4.9%); developed countries 6.8% (FRG 1.2%, Greece 1.0%); less developed
countries 10.7% (Libya 3.5%, Iraq 2.9%)

Imports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--fuels, minerals, and raw materials 45.2%; machinery and
equipment 39.8%; manufactured consumer goods 4.6%; agricultural products 3.8%;
other 6.6%;
partners--Socialist countries 80.5% (USSR 57.5%, GDR 5.7%), developed
countries 15.1% (FRG 4.8%, Austria 1.6%); less developed countries 4.4%
(Libya 1.0%, Brazil 0.9%)

External debt: $10 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1988)

Electricity: 11,500,000 kW capacity; 45,000 million kWh produced,
5,000 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, machine and metal building,
electronics, chemicals

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP; climate and soil conditions support
livestock raising and the growing of various grain crops, oilseeds, vegetables,
fruits and tobacco; more than one-third of the arable land devoted to grain;
world's fourth-largest tobacco exporter; surplus food producer

Aid: donor--$1.6 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed
countries (1956-88)

Currency: lev (plural--leva); 1 lev (Lv) = 100 stotinki

Exchange rates: leva (Lv) per US$1--0.84 (1989), 0.82 (1988),
0.90 (1987), 0.95 (1986), 1.03 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 4,294 km total, all government owned (1986); 4,049 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 245 km narrow gauge; 908 km double track; 2,342 km
electrified

Highways: 37,397 km total; 33,352 km hard surface (including 228 km
superhighways); 4,045 km earth roads (1986)

Inland waterways: 470 km (1986)

Pipelines: crude, 193 km; refined product, 418 km; natural gas, 1,400 km
(1986)

Ports: Burgas, Varna, Varna West; river ports are Ruse, Vidin, and Lom
on the Danube

Merchant marine: 108 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 1,240,204
GRT/1,872,723 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 32 cargo, 2 container,
1 passenger-cargo training, 5 roll-on/roll-off, 16 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 railcar carriers, 48 bulk

Civil air: 65 major transport aircraft

Airports: 380 total, 380 usable; about 120 with permanent-surface
runways; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--15 AM, 16 FM, 13 TV; 1 Soviet TV relay;
2,100,000 TV sets; 2,100,000 radio receivers; at least 1 satellite earth
station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Bulgarian People's Army, Bulgarian Navy, Air and Air
Defense Forces, Frontier Troops

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,177,404; 1,823,111 fit for military
service; 66,744 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.6051 billion leva (1989);
note--conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Burkina
- Geography
Total area: 274,200 km2; land area: 273,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Colorado

Land boundaries: 3,192 km total; Benin 306 km, Ghana 548 km,
Ivory Coast 584 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the
ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including the
tripoint with Niger

Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and
southeast

Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits
of gold, antimony, copper, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphates, zinc,
silver

Land use: 10% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 37% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 27% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting
marginal agricultural activities, population distribution, economy;
overgrazing; deforestation

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 9,077,828 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 121 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Burkinabe; adjective--Burkinabe

Ethnic divisions: more than 50 tribes; principal tribe is Mossi (about
2.5 million); other important groups are Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande,
and Fulani

Religion: 65% indigenous beliefs, about 25% Muslim, 10% Christian (mainly
Roman Catholic)

Language: French (official); tribal languages belong to Sudanic family,
spoken by 90% of the population

Literacy: 13.2%

Labor force: 3,300,000 residents; 30,000 are wage earners;
82% agriculture, 13% industry, 5% commerce, services, and government; 20% of
male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal
employment (1984); 44% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: four principal trade union groups represent less than 1%
of population

- Government
Long-form name: Burkina Faso

Type: military; established by coup on 4 August 1983

Capital: Ouagadougou

Administrative divisions: 30 provinces; Bam, Bazega, Bougouriba,
Boulgou, Boulkiemde, Ganzourgou, Gnagna, Gourma, Houet, Kadiogo,
Kenedougou, Komoe, Kossi, Kouritenga, Mouhoun, Namentenga, Naouri,
Oubritenga, Oudalan, Passore, Poni, Sanguie, Sanmatenga, Seno, Sissili,
Soum, Sourou, Tapoa, Yatenga, Zoundweogo

Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France; formerly Upper Volta)

Constitution: none; constitution of 27 November 1977 was abolished
following coup of 25 November 1980

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 4 August (1983)

Executive branch: chairman of the Popular Front, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
was dissolved on 25 November 1980

Judicial branch: Appeals Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the
Popular Front Captain Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

Political parties and leaders: all political parties banned following
November 1980 coup

Suffrage: none

Elections: the National Assembly was dissolved 25 November 1980 and
no elections are scheduled

Communists: small Communist party front group; some sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: committees for the defense of the
revolution, watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both
organizations and communities

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, EIB (associate), Entente, FAO,
GATT, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OCAM, OIC,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul Desire KABORE;
Chancery at 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-5577 or 6895;
US--Ambassador David H. SHINN; Embassy at Avenue Raoul Follerau,
Ouagadougou (mailing address is B. P. 35, Ouagadougou);
telephone p226o 30-67-23 through 25

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a yellow
five-pointed star in the center; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: One of the poorest countries in the world, Burkina
has a high population density, few natural resources, and relatively infertile
soil. Economic development is hindered by a poor communications network within
a landlocked country. Agriculture provides about 40% of GDP and is
entirely of a subsistence nature. Industry, dominated by unprofitable
government-controlled corporations, accounted for 13% of GDP in 1985.

GDP: $1.43 billion, per capita $170; real growth rate 7.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $422 million; expenditures $516 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1987)

Exports: $249 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--oilseeds, cotton, live animals, gold;
partners--EC 42% (France 30%, other 12%), Taiwan 17%,
Ivory Coast 15% (1985)

Imports: $591 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--grain, dairy products, petroleum, machinery;
partners--EC 37% (France 23%, other 14%), Africa 31%, US 15%
(1985)

External debt: $969 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.1% (1985)

Electricity: 121,000 kW capacity; 320 million kWh produced, 37 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing plants; brewery, cement, and brick
plants; a few other small consumer goods enterprises

Agriculture: cash crops--peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, cotton; food
crops--sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock; not self-sufficient in food
grains

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $271 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $94 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: CFA francs (CFAF) per US$1--284.55 (January 1990),
319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987), 346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 620 km total; 520 km Ouagadougou to Ivory Coast border and
100 km Ouagadougou to Kaya; all 1.00-meter gauge and single track

Highways: 16,500 km total; 1,300 km paved, 7,400 km improved, 7,800 km
unimproved (1985)

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 50 total, 43 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: all services only fair; radio relay, wire, and radio
communication stations in use; 13,900 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,775,143; 904,552 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 3.1% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Burma
- Geography
Total area: 678,500 km2; land area: 657,740 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,876 km total; Bangladesh 193 km, China 2,185 km,
India 1,463 km, Laos 235 km, Thailand 1,800 km

Coastline: 1,930 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest
monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures,
lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)

Terrain: central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands

Natural resources: crude oil, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper,
tungsten, lead, coal, some marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas

Land use: 15% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
49% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding
and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); deforestation

Note: strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes

- People
Population: 41,277,389 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Burmese; adjective--Burmese

Ethnic divisions: 68% Burman, 9% Shan, 7% Karen, 4% Rakhine, 3% Chinese,
2% Mon, 2% Indian, 5% other

Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist beliefs, Muslim, Christian, or
other

Language: Burmese; minority ethnic groups have their own languages

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 16,036,000; 65.2% agriculture, 14.3% industry, 10.1% trade,
6.3% government, 4.1% other (FY89 est.)

Organized labor: Workers' Asiayone (association), 1,800,000 members, and
Peasants' Asiayone, 7,600,000 members

- Government
Long-form name: Union of Burma; note--the local official name is
Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw which has been translated as Union of Myanma
or Union of Myanmar

Type: military government

Capital: Rangoon (sometimes translated as Yangon)

Administrative divisions: 7 divisions* (yin-mya, singular--yin) and
7 states (pyine-mya, singular--pyine); Chin State, Irrawaddy*, Kachin State,
Karan State, Kayah State, Magwe*, Mandalay*, Mon State, Pegu*, Rakhine State,
Rangoon*, Sagaing*, Shan State, Tenasserim*

Independence: 4 January 1948 (from UK)

Constitution: 3 January 1974 (suspended since 18 September 1988)

Legal system: martial law in effect throughout most of the
country; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January (1948)

Executive branch: chairman of the State Law and Order Restoration Council,
State Law and Order Restoration Council

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw)
was dissolved after the coup of 18 September 1988

Judicial branch: Council of People's Justices was abolished after the
coup of 18 September 1988

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Chairman of the State Law and Order
Restoration Council and Prime Minister Gen. SAW MAUNG (since 18
September 1988)

Political parties and leaders: National League for Democracy,
U Tin Oo and Aung San Suu Kyi; League for Democracy and Peace, U Nu;
National Unity Party (promilitary); over 100 other parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
People's Assembly--last held 6-20 October 1985, but dissolved after
the coup of 18 September 1988; next scheduled 27 May 1990);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(NA total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: several hundred, est., primarily as an insurgent group
on the northeast frontier

Other political or pressure groups: Kachin Independence Army; Karen
National Union, several Shan factions (all insurgent groups); Burmese
Communist Party (BCP)

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador U MYO AUNG; Chancery at
2300 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-9044 through 9046;
there is a Burmese Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Burton LEVIN; Embassy at 581 Merchant Street, Rangoon
(mailing address is G. P. O. Box 521, Rangoon or
Box B, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 82055 or 82181

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing,
all in white, 14 five-pointed stars encircling a cogwheel containing a stalk of
rice; the 14 stars represent the 14 administrative divisions

- Economy
Overview: Burma is one of the poorest countries in Asia, with a per
capita GDP of about $280. The government reports negligible growth
for FY88. The nation has been unable to achieve any significant
improvement in export earnings because of falling prices for many
of its major commodity exports. For rice, traditionally the most important
export, the drop in world prices has been accompanied by shrinking markets
and a smaller volume of sales. In 1985 teak replaced rice as the largest export
and continues to hold this position. The economy is heavily dependent on the
agricultural sector, which generates about 40% of GDP and provides employment
for more than 65% of the work force.

GDP: $11.0 billion, per capita $280; real growth rate 0.2%
(FY88 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 22.6% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 10.4% in urban areas (FY87)

Budget: revenues $4.9 billion; expenditures $5.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $311 million (f.o.b., FY88 est.)
commodities--teak, rice, oilseed, metals, rubber, gems;
partners--Southeast Asia, India, China, EC, Africa

Imports: $536 million (c.i.f., FY88 est.)
commodities--machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, food products;
partners--Japan, EC, CEMA, China, Southeast Asia

External debt: $5.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (FY88)

Electricity: 950,000 kW capacity; 2,900 million kWh produced, 70 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and
wood products; petroleum refining; mining of copper, tin, tungsten, iron;
construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fish and
forestry); self-sufficient in food; principal crops--paddy rice, corn,
oilseed, sugarcane, pulses; world's largest stand of hardwood trees;
rice and teak account for 55% of export revenues; 1985 fish catch of
644 million metric tons

Illicit drugs: world's largest illicit producer of opium poppy
and minor producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; opium
production is on the increase as growers respond to the collapse
of Rangoon's antinarcotic programs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $158 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.8 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $424 million

Currency: kyat (plural--kyats); 1 kyat (K) = 100 pyas

Exchange rates: kyats (K) per US$1--6.5188 (January 1990), 6.7049 (1989),
6.3945 (1988), 6.6535 (1987), 7.3304 (1986), 8.4749 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 3,991 km total, all government owned; 3,878 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 113 km narrow-gauge industrial lines; 362 km double track

Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth
or gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial
vessels

Pipelines: crude, 1,343 km; natural gas, 330 km

Ports: Rangoon, Moulmein, Bassein

Merchant marine: 45 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 595,814
GRT/955,924 DWT; includes 3 passenger-cargo, 15 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off,
1 vehicle carrier, 1 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 5 chemical, 16 bulk

Civil air: 17 major transport aircraft (including 3 helicopters)

Airports: 88 total, 81 usable; 29 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37
with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: meets minimum requirements for local and intercity
service; international service is good; radiobroadcast coverage is limited to
the most populous areas; 53,000 telephones (1986); stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV
(1985); 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 20,294,848; of the 10,135,886 males
15-49, 5,438,196 are fit for military service; of the 10,158,962 females 15-49,
5,437,518 are fit for military service; 434,200 males and 423,435 females
reach military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: $315.0 million, 21.0% of central government budget
(FY88)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Burundi
- Geography
Total area: 27,830 km2; land area: 25,650 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 974 km total; Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km,
Zaire 233 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: temperate; warm; occasional frost in uplands

Terrain: mostly rolling to hilly highland; some plains

Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxide, peat, cobalt,
copper, platinum (not yet exploited), vanadium

Land use: 43% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 35% meadows and pastures;
2% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: soil exhaustion; soil erosion; deforestation

Note: landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed

- People
Population: 5,645,997 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 111 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Burundian(s); adjective--Burundi

Ethnic divisions: Africans--85% Hutu (Bantu), 14% Tutsi (Hamitic), 1%
Twa (Pygmy); other Africans include about 70,000 refugees, mostly Rwandans and
Zairians; non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and 2,000 South Asians

Religion: about 67% Christian (62% Roman Catholic, 5% Protestant), 32%
indigenous beliefs, 1% Muslim

Language: Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika
and in the Bujumbura area)

Literacy: 33.8%

Labor force: 1,900,000 (1983 est.); 93.0% agriculture, 4.0% government,
1.5% industry and commerce, 1.5% services; 52% of population of working age
(1985)

Organized labor: sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB); by
charter, membership is extended to all Burundi workers (informally); figures
denoting active membership unobtainable

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Burundi

Type: republic

Capital: Bujumbura

Administrative divisions: 15 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura, Bururi,
Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya,
Muyinga, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

Constitution: 20 November 1981; suspended following the coup of
3 September 1987

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil codes and
customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National Salvation,
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)
was dissolved following the coup of 3 September 1987

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Pierre BUYOYA (since 9 September 1987);

Head of Government Prime Minister Adrien SIBOMANA (since 26
October 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party--National Party of
Unity and Progress (UPRONA), a Tutsi-led party, Libere Bararunyeretse,
coordinator of the National Permanent Secretariat

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
National Assembly--dissolved after the coup of 3 September
1987; no elections are planned

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, EAMA, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Julien KAVAKURE; Chancery at
Suite 212, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007;
telephone (202) 342-2574;
US--Ambassador Cynthia Shepherd PERRY; Embassy at Avenue du Zaire,
Bujumbura (mailing address is B. P. 1720, Bujumbura);
telephone 234-54 through 56

Flag: divided by a white diagonal cross into red panels (top and bottom)
and green panels (hoist side and outer side) with a white disk superimposed at
the center bearing three red six-pointed stars outlined in green arranged in a
triangular design (one star above, two stars below)

- Economy
Overview: A landlocked, resource-poor country in an early stage
of economic development, Burundi is predominately agricultural with only
a few basic industries. Its economic health is dependent on the coffee crop,
which accounts for an average 90% of foreign exchange earnings each year.
The ability to pay for imports therefore continues to rest largely on the
vagaries of the climate and the international coffee market.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $255; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.4% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $213 million; expenditures $292 million,
including capital expenditures of $131 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $128 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--coffee 88%, tea, hides and skins;
partners--EC 83%, US 5%, Asia 2%

Imports: $204 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--capital goods 31%, petroleum products 15%, foodstuffs,
consumer goods;
partners--EC 57%, Asia 23%, US 3%

External debt: $795 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: real growth rate 5.1% (1986)

Electricity: 51,000 kW capacity; 105 million kWh produced, 19 kWh per
capita (1989)

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