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Type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Manama

Administrative divisions: 11 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular--baladiyah); Al Hadd, Al Manamah, Al Mintaqah
al Gharbiyah, Al Mintaqah al Wusta,
Al Mintaqah ash Shamaliyah, Al Muharraq,
Ar Rifa wa al Mintaqah al Janubiyah, Jidd Hafs,
Madinat Isa, Mintaqat Juzur Hawar, Sitrah

Independence: 15 August 1971 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 May 1973, effective 6 December 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law

National holiday: National Day, 16 December

Executive branch: amir, crown prince and heir apparent, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly was dissolved
26 August 1975 and legislative powers were assumed by the Cabinet

Judicial branch: High Civil Appeals Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Amir Isa bin Salman Al KHALIFA (since
2 November 1961); Heir Apparent Hamad bin Isa Al KHALIFA (son of Amir;
born 28 January 1950);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Khalifa bin Salman Al KHALIFA,
(since 19 January 1970)

Political parties and pressure groups: political parties prohibited;
several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist groups are active

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: negligible

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ghazi Muhammad AL-QUSAYBI;
Chancery at 3502 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 342-0741 or 342-0742; there is a Bahraini Consulate General in
New York; US--Ambassador Dr. Charles W. HOSTLER; Embassy at Shaikh
Isa Road, Manama (mailing address is P. O. 26431, Manama, or FPO New York
09526); telephone p973o 714151 through 714153

Flag: red with a white serrated band (eight white points) on the
hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The oil price decline in recent years has had an adverse
impact on the economy. Petroleum production and processing account for about
85% of export receipts, 60% of government revenues, and 20% of GDP. In 1986
soft oil-market conditions led to a 5% drop in GDP, in sharp contrast
wit the 5% average annual growth rate during the early 1980s. The
slowdown in economic activity, however, has helped to check the
inflation of the 1970s. The government's past economic diversification
efforts have moderated the severity of the downturn but failed to
offset oil and gas revenue losses.

GDP: $3.5 billion, per capita $7,550 (1987); real growth rate 0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (1988)

Unemployment: 8-10% (1989)

Budget: revenues $1,136 million; expenditures $1,210 million,
including capital expenditures of $294 million (1987)

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--petroleum 80%, aluminum 7%, other 13%; partners--US,
UAE, Japan, Singapore, Saudi Arabia

Imports: $2.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--nonoil 59%,
crude oil 41%; partners--UK, Saudi Arabia, US, Japan

External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 3.1% (1987)

Electricity: 1,652,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced,
12,800 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum processing and refining, aluminum smelting,
offshore banking, ship repairing

Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for less than 2% of GDP;
not self-sufficient in food production; heavily subsidized sector produces
fruit, vegetables, poultry, dairy products, shrimp, and fish; fish catch 9,000
metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $24 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$28 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.8 billion

Currency: Bahraini dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Bahraini dinar
(BD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Bahraini dinars (BD) per US$1--0.3760 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 200 km bituminous surfaced, including 25 km
bridge-causeway to Saudi Arabia opened in November 1986; NA km
natural surface tracks

Ports: Mina Salman, Mina al Manamah, Sitrah

Merchant marine: 1 cargo and 1 bulk (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 28,621
GRT/44,137 DWT

Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined products, 16 km; natural gas, 32 km

Civil air: 24 major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international telecommunications; adequate
domestic services; 98,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; satellite
earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
tropospheric scatter and microwave to Qatar, UAE, Saudi Arabia; submarine cable
to Qatar and UAE

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army (Defense Force), Navy, Air Force, Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 183,580; 102,334 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $194 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Baker Island
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 1.4 km2; land area: 1.4 km2

Comparative area: about 2.3 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4.8 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: low, nearly level coral island surrounded by a narrow
fringing reef

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until 1891)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: treeless, sparse and scattered vegetation consisting of
grasses, prostrate vines, and low growing shrubs; lacks fresh water;
primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging habitat for seabirds,
shorebirds, and marine wildlife

Note: remote location 2,575 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, just north of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

- People
Population: uninhabited

Note: American civilians evacuated in 1942 after Japanese air and naval
attacks during World War II; occupied by US military during World War II, but
abandoned after the war; public entry is by special-use permit only and
generally restricted to scientists and educators; a cemetery and cemetery ruins
located near the middle of the west coast

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge system

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only, one boat landing area along the
the middle of the west coast

Airports: 1 abandoned World War II runway of 1,665 m

Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually by the
US Coast Guard
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bangladesh
- Geography
Total area: 144,000 km2; land area: 133,910 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Wisconsin

Land boundaries: 4,246 km total; Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km

Coastline: 580 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: up to outer limits of continental margin;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: a portion of the boundary with India is in dispute;
water sharing problems with upstream riparian India over the Ganges

Climate: tropical; cool, dry winter (October to March); hot, humid summer
(March to June); cool, rainy monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast

Natural resources: natural gas, uranium, arable land, timber

Land use: 67% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures;
16% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 14% irrigated

Environment: vulnerable to droughts; much of country routinely flooded
during summer monsoon season; overpopulation; deforestation

Note: almost completely surrounded by India

- People
Population: 118,433,062 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 136 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 53 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bangladeshi(s); adjective--Bangladesh

Ethnic divisions: 98% Bengali; 250,000 Biharis, and less than 1 million
tribals

Religion: 83% Muslim, about 16% Hindu, less than 1% Buddhist, Christian,
and other

Language: Bangla (official), English widely used

Literacy: 29% (39% men, 18% women)

Labor force: 35,100,000; 74% agriculture, 15% services, 11% industry and
commerce; extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, and Kuwait
(FY86)

Organized labor: 3% of labor force belongs to 2,614 registered unions
(1986 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: People's Republic of Bangladesh

Type: republic

Capital: Dhaka

Administrative divisions: 64 districts (zillagulo,
singular--zilla); Bagerhat, Bandarban, Barisal, Bhola, Bogra,
Borguna, Brahmanbaria, Chandpur, Chapai Nawabganj,
Chattagram, Chuadanga, Comilla, Cox's Bazar, Dhaka,
Dinajpur, Faridpur, Feni, Gaibandha, Gazipur, Gopalganj,
Habiganj, Jaipurhat, Jamalpur, Jessore, Jhalakati, Jhenaidah,
Khagrachari, Khulna, Kishorganj, Kurigram, Kushtia, Laksmipur,
Lalmonirhat, Madaripur, Magura, Manikganj, Meherpur,
Moulavibazar, Munshiganj, Mymensingh, Naogaon, Narail,
Narayanganj, Narsingdi, Nator, Netrakona, Nilphamari,
Noakhali, Pabna, Panchagar, Parbattya Chattagram,
Patuakhali, Pirojpur, Rajbari, Rajshahi, Rangpur,
Satkhira, Shariyatpur, Sherpur, Sirajganj, Sunamganj, Sylhet,
Tangail, Thakurgaon

Independence: 16 December 1971 (from Pakistan; formerly East Pakistan)

Constitution: 4 November 1972, effective 16 December 1972, suspended
following coup of 24 March 1982, restored 10 November 1986

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Jatiya Sangsad)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD
(since 11 December 1983, elected 15 October 1986); Vice President
Moudad AHMED (since 12 August 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Qazi Zafar AHMED (since 12
August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Jatiyo Party, Hussain Mohammad
Ershad; Bangladesh Nationalist Party, Begum Ziaur Rahman; Awami League, Sheikh
Hasina Wazed; United People's Party, Kazi Zafar Ahmed; Democratic League,
Khondakar Mushtaque Ahmed; Muslim League, Khan A. Sabur; Jatiyo Samajtantrik
Dal (National Socialist Party), M. A. Jalil; Bangladesh Communist Party
(pro-Soviet), Saifuddin Ahmed Manik; Jamaat-E-Islami, Ali Khan

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 15 October 1986 (next to be held October
1991);
results--President Hussain Mohammad Ershad received 83.5% of vote;

Parliament--last held 3 March 1988 (next to be held March
1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(330 total, 300 elected and 30 seats reserved for women)
Jatiyo Party won 256 out of 300 seats

Communists: 5,000 members (1987 est.)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador A. H. S. Ataul KARIM; Chancery
at 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 342-8372
through 8376; there is a Bangladesh Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador-designate William B. MILAM; Embassy at Diplomatic
Enclave, Madani Avenue, Baridhara Model Town, Dhaka (mailing address
is G. P. O. Box 323, Ramna, Dhaka); telephone p88o (2) 608170

Flag: green with a large red disk slightly to the hoist side of center;
green is the traditional color of Islam

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on the output of a narrow range of
agricultural products, such as jute, which is the main cash crop and major
source of export earnings. Bangladesh is hampered by a relative lack of natural
resources, a rapid population growth of 2.8% a year and a limited
infrastructure, and it is highly vulnerable to natural disasters.
Despite these constraints, real GDP averaged about 3.8% annually
during 1985-88. One of the poorest nations in the world, alleviation
of poverty remains the cornerstone of the government's development
strategy. The agricultural sector contributes over 50% to GDP and
75% to exports, and employs over 74% of the labor force. Industry
accounts for about 10% of GDP.

GDP: $20.6 billion, per capita $180; real growth rate 2.1% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8-10% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 30% (FY88 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.8 billion; expenditures $3.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (FY89)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., FY89 est.);
commodities--jute, tea, leather, shrimp, manufacturing;
partners--US 25%, Western Europe 22%, Middle East 9%, Japan 8%,
Eastern Europe 7%

Imports: $3.1 billion (c.i.f., FY89 est.);
commodities--food, petroleum and other energy, nonfood consumer goods,
semiprocessed goods, and capital equipment;
partners--Western Europe 18%, Japan 14%, Middle East 9%, US 8%

External debt: $10.4 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.4% (FY89 est.)

Electricity: 1,700,000 kW capacity; 4,900 million kWh produced, 40 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: jute manufacturing, food processing, cotton textiles,
petroleum, urea fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for about 50% of GDP and 74% of both employment
and exports; imports 10% of food grain requirements; world's largest
exporter of jute; commercial products--jute, rice, wheat, tea, sugarcane,
potatoes, beef, milk, poultry; shortages include wheat, vegetable oils
and cotton; fish catch 778,000 metric tons in 1986

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $3.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $9.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $652 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$1.5 billion

Currency: taka (plural--taka); 1 taka (Tk) = 100 paise

Exchange rates: taka (Tk) per US$1--32.270 (January 1990), 32.270 (1989),
31.733 (1988), 30.950 (1987), 30.407 (1986), 27.995 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 2,892 km total (1986); 1,914 km 1.000 meter gauge, 978 km
1.676 meter broad gauge

Highways: 7,240 km total (1985); 3,840 km paved, 3,400 km unpaved

Inland waterways: 5,150-8,046 km navigable waterways (includes
2,575-3,058 km main cargo routes)

Ports: Chittagong, Chalna

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 331,568 GRT/493,935
DWT; includes 38 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
3 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 3 bulk

Pipelines: 650 km natural gas

Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

Airports: 16 total, 13 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 7 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate international radio communications and
landline service; fair domestic wire and microwave service; fair broadcast
service; 182,000 telephones; stations--9 AM, 6 FM, 11 TV; 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT satellite earth stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force; paramilitary forces--Bangladesh Rifles,
Bangladesh Ansars, Armed Police Reserve, Coastal Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 28,110,802; 16,686,644 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 1.5% of GDP, or $309 million (FY90 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Barbados
- Geography
Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 97 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to October)

Terrain: relatively flat; rises gently to central highland region

Natural resources: crude oil, fishing, natural gas

Land use: 77% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 14% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially June to October)

Note: easternmost Caribbean island

- People
Population: 262,688 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Barbadian(s); adjective--Barbadian

Ethnic divisions: 80% African, 16% mixed, 4% European

Religion: 70% Anglican, 9% Methodist, 4% Roman Catholic, 17% other,
including Moravian

Language: English

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 112,300; 37% services and government; 22% commerce,
22% manufacturing and construction; 9% transportation, storage, communications,
and financial institutions; 8% agriculture; 2% utilities (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 32% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Bridgetown

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Christ Church, Saint Andrew,
Saint George, Saint James, Saint John, Saint Joseph, Saint Lucy, Saint Michael,
Saint Peter, Saint Philip, Saint Thomas; note--there may a new city of
Bridgetown

Independence: 30 November 1966 (from UK)

Constitution: 30 November 1966

Legal system: English common law; no judicial review of legislative acts

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 November (1966)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Judicature

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Hugh SPRINGER (since 24 February
1984);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Lloyd Erskine SANDIFORD (since
2 June 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Erskine
Sandiford; Barbados Labor Party (BLP), Henry Forde; National Democratic
Party (NDP), Richie Haynes

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 28 May 1986 (next to be held by May 1991);
results--DLP 59.4%, BLP 40.6%; seats--(27 total) DLP 24, BLP 3; note--a
split in the DLP in February 1989 resulted in the formation of the NDP,
changing the status of seats to DLP 20, NDP 4, BLP 3

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Industrial and General Workers Union,
Bobby Clarke; People's Progressive Movement, Eric Sealy; Workers' Party of
Barbados, Dr. George Belle

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir William DOUGLAS; Chancery at
2144 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-9200 through
9202; there is a Barbadian Consulate General in New York and a Consulate
in Los Angeles;
US--Ambassador-nominee G. Philip HUGHES; Embassy at Canadian
Imperial Bank of Commerce Building, Broad Street, Bridgetown (mailing
address is P. O. Box 302, Bridgetown or FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809)
436-4950 through 4957

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and blue
with the head of a black trident centered on the gold band; the trident head
represents independence and a break with the past (the colonial coat of arms
contained a complete trident)

- Economy
Overview: A per capita income of $5,250 gives Barbados
the highest standard of living of all the small island states of the
eastern Caribbean. Historically, the economy was based on the cultivation
of sugarcane and related activities. In recent years, however, the economy
has diversified into manufacturing and tourism. The tourist industry
is now a major employer of the labor force and a primary source of
foreign exchange. A high unemployment rate of about 19% in 1988 remains
one of the most serious economic problems facing the country.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $5,250 (1988 est.); real growth rate
3.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.7% (1988)

Unemployment: 18.6% (1988)

Budget: revenues $476 million; expenditures $543 million,
including capital expenditures of $94 million (FY86)

Exports: $173 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--sugar and molasses, electrical components, clothing, rum,
machinery and transport equipment;
partners: US 30%, CARICOM, UK, Puerto Rico, Canada

Imports: $582 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--foodstuffs, consumer durables, raw materials, crude oil;
partners--US 34%, CARICOM, Japan, UK, Canada

External debt: $635 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 5.4% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 132,000 kW capacity; 460 million kWh produced, 1,780
kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, sugar, light manufacturing, component assembly
for export

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; major cash crop is sugarcane;
other crops--vegetables and cotton; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $14 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $144 million

Currency: Barbadian dollars (plural--dollars); 1 Barbadian dollar
(Bds$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Barbadian dollars (Bds$) per US$1--2.0113 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 1,570 km total; 1,475 km paved, 95 km gravel and earth

Ports: Bridgetown

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,200
GRT/7,338 DWT

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: islandwide automatic telephone system with 89,000
telephones; tropospheric scatter link to Trinidad and St. Lucia; stations--3 AM,
2 FM, 2 (1 is pay) TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Barbados Defense Force, Royal Barbados Police Force,
Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 67,677; 47,566 fit for military service,
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 0.6% of GDP (1986)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bassas da India
(French possession)
- Geography
Total area: undetermined

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 35.2 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: a volcanic rock 2.4 m high

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other (rock)

Environment: surrounded by reefs; subject to periodic cyclones

Note: navigational hazard since it is usually under water during
high tide; located in southern Mozambique Channel about halfway between Africa
and Madagascar

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic
Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Belgium
- Geography
Total area: 30,510 km2; land area: 30,230 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: 1,385 km total; France 620 km, Luxembourg
148 km, Netherlands 450 km, FRG 167 km

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: equidistant line with neighbors (extends
about 68 km from coast);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters, cool summers; rainy, humid, cloudy

Terrain: flat coastal plains in northwest, central rolling hills, rugged
mountains of Ardennes Forest in southeast

Natural resources: coal, natural gas

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures;
21% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution

Note: majority of West European capitals within 1,000 km of Brussels;
crossroads of Western Europe; Brussels is the seat of the EC

- People
Population: 9,909,285 (July 1990), growth rate 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Belgian(s); adjective--Belgian

Ethnic divisions: 55% Fleming, 33% Walloon, 12% mixed or other

Religion: 75% Roman Catholic; remainder Protestant or other

Language: 56% Flemish (Dutch), 32% French, 1% German; 11% legally
bilingual; divided along ethnic lines

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 4,000,000; 58% services, 37% industry, 5% agriculture (1987)

Organized labor: 70% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Belgium

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Brussels

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (French--provinces,
singular--province; Flemish--provincien, singular--provincie); Antwerpen,
Brabant, Hainaut, Liege, Limburg, Luxembourg, Namur, Oost-Vlaanderen,
West-Vlaanderen

Independence: 4 October 1830 (from the Netherlands)

Constitution: 7 February 1831, last revised 8-9 August 1980; the
government is in the process of revising the Constitution, with the aim of
federalizing the Belgian state

Legal system: civil law system influenced by English constitutional
theory; judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: National Day, 21 July (ascension of King Leopold
to the throne in 1831)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, five deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper chamber or
Senate (Flemish--Senaat, French--Senat) and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Representatives (Flemish--Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers, French--Chambre
des Representants)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Flemish--Hof van Cassatie,
French--Cour de Cassation)

Leaders:
Chief of State--King BAUDOUIN I (since 17 July 1951);
Heir Apparent Prince ALBERT of Liege (brother of the King; born 6
June 1934);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Wilfried MARTENS,
(since April 1979, with a 10-month interruption in 1981)

Political parties and leaders: Flemish Social Christian (CVP), Herman
van Rompuy, president; Walloon Social Christian (PSC), Gerard Deprez,
president; Flemish Socialist (SP), Frank Vandenbroucke, president; Walloon
Socialist (PS), Guy Spitaels, president; Flemish Liberal (PVV),
Guy Verhofstadt, president; Walloon Liberal (PRL), Antoine Duquesne,
president; Francophone Democratic Front (FDF), Georges Clerfayt, president;
Volksunie (VU), Jaak Gabriels, president; Communist Party (PCB),
Louis van Geyt, president; Vlaams Blok (VB), Karel Dillen;
other minor parties

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
Senate--last held 13 December 1987 (next to be held December
1991);
results--CVP 19.2%, PS 15.7%, SP 14.7%, PVV 11.3%, PRL 9.3%,
VU 8.1%, PSC 7.8%, ECOLO-AGALEV 7.7%, VB 2.0%, VDF 1.3%,
other 1.96%;
seats--(106 total) CVP 22, PS 20, SP 17, PRL 12, PVV 11, PSC 9, VU 8,
ECOLO-AGALEV 5, VB 1, FDF 1;

Chamber of Representatives--last held 13 December 1987
(next to be held December 1991);
results--CVP 19.45%, PS 15.66%, SP 14.88%, PVV 11.55%, PRL 9.41%,
PSC 8.01%, VU 8.05%, ECOLO-AGALEV 7.05%, VB 1.90%, FDF 1.16%, other
2.88%;
seats--(212 total) CVP 43, PS 40, SP 32, PVV 25, PRL 23,
PSC 19, VU 16, ECOLO-AGALEV 9, FDF 3, VB 2

Communists: under 5,000 members (December 1985 est.)

Other political or pressure groups: Christian and Socialist Trade Unions;
Federation of Belgian Industries; numerous other associations representing
bankers, manufacturers, middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical
professions; various organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders
and Wallonia; various peace groups such as the Flemish Action Committee Against
Nuclear Weapons and Pax Christi

Member of: ADB, Benelux, BLEU, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECE,
ECOSOC, EIB, EMS, ESA, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Herman DEHENNIN; Chancery at
3330 Garfield Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6900;
there are Belgian Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
and New York;
US--Ambassador Maynard W. GLITMAN; Embassy at 27 Boulevard du Regent,
B-1000 Brussels (mailing address is APO New York 09667);
telephone p32o (2) 513-3830; there is a US Consulate General in Antwerp

Flag: three equal vertical bands of black (hoist side), yellow, and red;
the design was based on the flag of France

- Economy
Overview: This small private-enterprise economy has capitalized
on its central geographic location, highly developed transport
network, and diversified industrial and commercial base. Industry is
concentrated mainly in the populous Flemish area in the north, although
the government is encouraging reinvestment in the southern region
of Walloon. With few natural resources Belgium must import essential raw
materials, making its economy closely dependent on the state of world
markets. In 1988 over 70% of trade was with other EC countries. During the
period 1986-88 the economy profited from falling oil prices and a lower
dollar, which helped to improve the terms of trade. Real GDP grew
by an average of 3.5% in 1986-89, up from 1.5% in 1985. However, a
large budget deficit and 10% unemployment cast a shadow on the
economy.

GDP: $136.0 billion, per capita $13,700; real growth rate 4.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.7% est. (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $45.0 billion; expenditures $55.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

Exports: $100.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union; commodities--iron and steel, transportation equipment,
tractors, diamonds, petroleum products;
partners--EC 74%, US 5%, Communist countries 2% (1988)

Imports: $100.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989) Belgium-Luxembourg Economic
Union; commodities--fuels, grains, chemicals, foodstuffs;
partners--EC 72%, US 5%, oil-exporting less developed countries 4%,
Communist countries 3% (1988)

External debt: $27.5 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.4% (1988)

Electricity: 17,325,000 kW capacity; 62,780 million kWh produced,
6,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: engineering and metal products, processed food and beverages,
chemicals, basic metals, textiles, glass, petroleum, coal

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GDP; emphasis on livestock
production--beef, veal, pork, milk; major crops are sugar beets, fresh
vegetables, fruits, grain, and tobacco; net importer of farm products

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $4.3 billion

Currency: Belgian franc (plural--francs); 1 Belgian franc (BF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Belgian francs (BF) per US$1--35.468 (January 1990),
39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672 (1986), 59.378 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: Belgian National Railways (SNCB) operates 3,667 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, government owned; 2,563 km double track; 1,978 km
electrified; 191 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned and operated

Highways: 103,396 km total; 1,317 km limited access, divided autoroute;
11,717 km national highway; 1,362 km provincial road; about 38,000 km
paved and 51,000 km unpaved rural roads

Inland waterways: 2,043 km (1,528 km in regular commercial use)

Ports: Antwerp, Brugge, Gent, Oostende, Zeebrugge, 1 secondary, and
1 minor maritime; 11 inland

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,854,898
GRT/3,071,637 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 6
roll-on/roll-off, 6 container, 7 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 3 combination ore/oil, 9 chemical tanker, 13
bulk, 6 combination bulk

Pipelines: refined products 1,167 km; crude 161 km; natural gas 3,300 km

Civil air: 47 major transport aircraft

Airports: 42 total, 42 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international telephone and
telegraph facilities; 4,560,000 telephones; stations--8 AM, 19 FM (41 relays),
25 TV (10 relays); 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations operating
in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and EUTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,512,681; 2,114,701 fit for military
service; 66,758 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.7% of GDP, or $3.7 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Belize
- Geography
Total area: 22,960 km2; land area: 22,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Massachusetts

Land boundaries: 516 km total; Guatemala 266 km, Mexico 250 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: claimed by Guatemala, but boundary negotiations are
under way

Climate: tropical; very hot and humid; rainy season (May to February)

Terrain: flat, swampy coastal plain; low mountains in south

Natural resources: arable land potential, timber, fish

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures;
44% forest and woodland; 52% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: frequent devastating hurricanes (September to December)
and coastal flooding (especially in south); deforestation

Note: national capital moved 80 km inland from Belize City to
Belmopan because of hurricanes; only country in Central America without a
coastline on the North Pacific Ocean

- People
Population: 219,737 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 35 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Belizean(s); adjective--Belizean

Ethnic divisions: 39.7% Creole, 33.1% Mestizo, 9.5% Maya, 7.6%
Garifuna, 2.1% East Indian, 8.0% other

Religion: 60% Roman Catholic; 40% Protestant (Anglican, Seventh-Day
Adventist, Methodist, Baptist, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mennonite)

Language: English (official), Spanish, Maya, Garifuna (Carib)

Literacy: 93% (est.)

Labor force: 51,500; 30.0% agriculture, 16.0% services, 15.4% government,
11.2% commerce, 10.3% manufacturing; shortage of skilled labor and all types of
technical personnel (1985)

Organized labor: 30% of labor force; 11 unions currently active

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary

Capital: Belmopan

Administrative divisions: 6 districts; Belize, Cayo, Corozal,
Orange Walk, Stann Creek, Toledo

Independence: 21 September 1981 (from UK; formerly British Honduras)

Constitution: 21 September 1981

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Independence Day, 21 September

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Governor General Dame Elmira Minita GORDON (since 21 September 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister George Cadle PRICE (since 4
September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: People's United Party (PUP),
George Price, Florencio Marin, Said Musa; United Democratic Party (UDP),
Manuel Esquivel, Curl Thompson, Dean Barrow; Belize Popular Party
(BPP), Louis Sylvestre

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly--last held 4 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA; seats--(28 total)
PUP 15 seats, UDP 13 seats; note--in January 1990 one
member expelled from UDP joined PUP, making the seat count
16 PUP, UDP 12

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Society for the Promotion
of Education and Research (SPEAR) headed by former PUP minister;
United Workers Front

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CDB, Commonwealth, FAO, GATT, IBRD, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, G-77, ISO, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edward A. LAING; Chancery at
Suite 2J, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 363-4505;
US--Ambassador Robert G. RICH, Jr.; Embassy at Gabourel Lane and Hutson
Street, Belize City (mailing address is P. O. Box 286, Belize City); telephone
p501o 77161 through 77163

Flag: blue with a narrow red stripe along the top and the bottom edges;
centered is a large white disk bearing the coat of arms; the coat of arms
features a shield flanked by two workers with a mahogany tree at the top and the
related motto SUB UMBRA FLOREO (I Flourish in the Shade) on a scroll at
the bottom, all encircled by a green garland

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based primarily on agriculture and
merchandising. Agriculture accounts for more than 30% of GDP and provides 75%
of export earnings, while sugar, the chief crop, accounts for almost 40% of
hard currency earnings. The US, Belize's main trading partner, is assisting in
efforts to reduce dependency on sugar with an agricultural diversification
program. In 1987 the drop in income from sugar sales to the US because of quota
reductions was almost totally offset by higher world prices for sugar.

GDP: $225.6 million, per capita $1,285; real growth rate 6% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $94.6 million; expenditures $74.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $33.9 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $120 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--sugar, clothing, seafood, molasses, citrus, wood and
wood products;
partners--US 47%, UK, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada (1987)

Imports: $176 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--machinery and transportation equipment, food, manufactured
goods, fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals;
partners--US 55%, UK, Netherlands Antilles, Mexico (1987)

External debt: $140 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1988)

Electricity: 34,000 kW capacity; 88 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar refining, clothing, timber and forest products,
furniture, rum, soap, beverages, cigarettes, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fish and forestry);
commercial crops include sugarcane, bananas, coca, citrus fruits; expanding
output of lumber and cultured shrimp; net importer of basic foods

Illicit drugs: an illicit producer of cannabis for the
international drug trade; eradication program cut marijuana
production from 200 metric tons in 1987 to 66 metric tons in 1989;
transshipment point for cocaine

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $94 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $194 million

Currency: Belizean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Belizean dollar
(Bz$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Belizean dollars (Bz$) per US$1--2.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 2,575 km total; 340 km paved, 1,190 km gravel, 735 km improved
earth, and 310 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 825 km river network used by shallow-draft craft;
seasonally navigable

Ports: Belize City, Belize City Southwest

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 38 total, 30 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 8,650 telephones; above-average system based on
radio relay; stations--6 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave; 1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: British Forces Belize, Belize Defense Force, Coast
Guard, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 50,988; 30,502 fit for military service;
2,500 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.0% of GDP, or $4.6 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Benin
- Geography
Total area: 112,620 km2; land area: 110,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: 1,989 km total; Burkina 306 km, Niger 266 km,
Nigeria 773 km, Togo 644 km

Coastline: 121 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plain; some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: small offshore oil deposits, limestone,
marble, timber

Land use: 12% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures;
35% forest and woodland; 45% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dusty harmattan wind may affect north in winter;
deforestation; desertification

Note: recent droughts have severely affected marginal
agriculture in north; no natural harbors

- People
Population: 4,673,964 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 121 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 52 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Beninese (sing., pl.); adjective--Beninese

Ethnic divisions: 99% African (42 ethnic groups, most important being
Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba); 5,500 Europeans

Religion: 70% indigenous beliefs, 15% Muslim, 15% Christian

Language: French (official); Fon and Yoruba most common vernaculars in
south; at least six major tribal languages in north

Literacy: 25.9%

Labor force: 1,900,000 (1987); 60% agriculture, 38% transport, commerce,
and public services, less than 2% industry; 49% of population of working age
(1985)

Organized labor: about 75% of wage earners

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Benin

Type: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989; democratic reforms
adopted February 1990; transition to multiparty system by 1991 planned

Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto)

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces; Atakora, Atlantique, Borgou, Mono,
Oueme, Zou

Independence: 1 August 1960 (from France; formerly Dahomey)

Constitution: 23 May 1977 (nullified 1 March 1990); new
constitution to be drafted by April 1990

Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 30 November (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Revolutionary Assembly
(Assemblee Nationale Revolutionnaire) dissolved 1 March 1990
and replaced by a 24-member interim High Council of the Republic
during the transition period

Judicial branch: Central People's Court (Cour Central Populaire)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Mathieu KEREKOU
(since 27 October 1972)

Political parties and leaders: only party--People's Revolutionary
Party of Benin (PRPB), President Mathieu Kerekou, chairman of the
Central Committee

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held July 1989 (next to be held July 1994);
results--President Mathieu Kerekou was reelected by the
National Revolutionary Assembly;

National Revolutionary Assembly--dissolved 1 March 1990 and
replaced by a 24-member interim High Council of the Republic with
legislative elections for new institutions planned for February 1991

Communists: dropped Marxism-Leninism December 1989

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, Niger
River Commission, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Theophile NATA; Chancery at
2737 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-6656;
US--Ambassador Harriet ISOM; Embassy at Rue Caporal Anani Bernard,
Cotonou (mailing address is B. P. 2012, Cotonou); telephone p229o 30-06-50

Flag: green with a red five-pointed star in the upper hoist-side corner

- Economy
Overview: Benin is one of the least developed countries in the world
because of limited natural resources and a poorly developed infrastructure.
Agriculture accounts for almost 45% of GDP, employs about 60% of
the labor force, and generates a major share of foreign exchange earnings.
The industrial sector contributes only about 15% to GDP and employs
2% of the work force. Persistently low prices in recent years have
limited hard currency earnings from Benin's major exports of agricultural
products and crude oil.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $335; real growth rate 1.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.3% (1988)

Unemployment: NA

Budget: revenues $168 million; expenditures $317 million, including
capital expenditures of $97 million (1989)

Exports: $226 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--crude oil, cotton, palm products, cocoa;
partners--FRG 36%, France 16%, Spain 14%, Italy 8%, UK 7%

Imports: $413 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--foodstuffs, beverages, tobacco, petroleum products,
intermediate goods, capital goods, light consumer goods;
partners--France 34%, Netherlands 10%, Japan 7%, Italy 6%, US 5%

External debt: $1.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 0.7% (1988)

Electricity: 28,000 kW capacity; 24 million kWh produced,
5 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: palm oil and palm kernel oil processing, textiles, beverages,
petroleum

Agriculture: small farms produce 90% of agricultural output;
production is dominated by food crops--corn, sorghum, cassava, beans,
and rice; cash crops include cotton, palm oil, and peanuts; poultry
and livestock output has not kept up with consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $41 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$101 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 578 km, all 1.000-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 5,050 km total; 920 km paved, 2,600 laterite, 1,530 km
improved earth

Inland waterways: navigable along small sections, important
only locally

Ports: Cotonou

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) of 2,999 GRT/4,407 DWT

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, submarine cable, and radio
relay; 16,200 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
satellite earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 2,015,206; of the 950,921 males 15-49,
486,620 are fit for military service; of the 1,064,285 females 15-49, 537,049
are fit for military service; about 55,550 males and 53,663 females reach
military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.7% of GDP, or $28.9 million (1988 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bermuda
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 50 km2; land area: 50 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 103 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical; mild, humid; gales, strong winds common in winter

Terrain: low hills separated by fertile depressions

Natural resources: limestone, pleasant climate fostering tourism

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
20% forest and woodland; 80% other

Environment: ample rainfall, but no rivers or freshwater lakes;
consists of about 360 small coral islands

Note: 1,050 km east of North Carolina; some reclaimed land
leased by US Government

- People
Population: 58,337 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bermudian(s); adjective--Bermudian

Ethnic divisions: 61% black, 39% white and other

Religion: 37% Anglican, 14% Roman Catholic, 10% African Methodist
Episcopal (Zion), 6% Methodist, 5% Seventh-Day Adventist, 28% other

Language: English

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 32,000; 25% clerical, 22% services, 21% laborers,
13% professional and technical, 10% administrative and managerial, 7% sales,
2% agriculture and fishing (1984)

Organized labor: 8,573 members (1985); largest union is Bermuda Industrial
Union

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Hamilton

Administrative divisions: 9 parishes and 2 municipalities*; Devonshire,
Hamilton, Hamilton*, Paget, Pembroke, Saint George*, Saint George's, Sandys,
Smiths, Southampton, Warwick

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 8 June 1968

Legal system: English law

National holiday: Bermuda Day, 22 May

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, deputy governor, premier,
deputy premier, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor Sir Desmond LANGLEY (since NA October 1988);

Head of Government--Premier John William David SWAN (since NA January
1982)

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), John W. D.
Swan; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Frederick Wade; National Liberal
Party (NLP), Gilbert Darrell

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 9 February 1989 (next to be
held by February 1994); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(40 total) UBP 23, PLP 15, NLP 1, other 1

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU),
headed by Ottiwell Simmons

Member of: INTERPOL, WHO

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK,
Bermuda's interests in the US are represented by the UK; US--Consul
General James M. MEDAS; Consulate General at Vallis Building,
Par-la-Ville Road (off Front Street West), Hamilton (mailing address is
P. O. Box 325, Hamilton, or FPO New York 09560); telephone (809) 295-1342

Flag: red with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and the
Bermudian coat of arms (white and blue shield with a red lion holding a scrolled
shield showing the sinking of the ship Sea Venture off Bermuda in 1609) centered
on the outer half of the flag

- Economy
Overview: Bermuda enjoys one of the highest per capita incomes in the
world, having successfully exploited its location by providing luxury tourist
facilities and financial services. The tourist industry attracts more than
90% of its business from North America. The industrial sector is
small, and agriculture is severely limited by a lack of suitable land. About
80% of food needs are imported.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $23,000; real growth rate 2.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1988)

Unemployment: 2.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $280 million; expenditures $279 million, including
capital expenditures of $34 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $23 million (f.o.b.,1985);
commodities--semitropical produce, light manufactures;
partners--US 25%, Italy 25%, UK 14%, Canada 5%, other 31%

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1985);
commodities--fuel, foodstuffs, machinery;
partners--US 58%, Netherlands Antilles 9%, UK 8%, Canada 6%, Japan
5%, other 14%

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 134,000 kW capacity; 446 million kWh produced,
7,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, finance, structural concrete products,
paints, pharmaceuticals, ship repairing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 1% of GDP; most basic foods must
be imported; produces bananas, vegetables, citrus fruits, flowers, dairy
products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $34 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $267 million

Currency: Bermudian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bermudian dollar
(Bd$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bermudian dollar (Bd$) per US$1--1.0000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 210 km public roads, all paved (about 400 km of private roads)

Ports: Freeport, Hamilton, St. George

Merchant marine: 93 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,163,947
GRT/7,744,319 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 4 refrigerated
cargo, 5 container, 10 roll-on/roll-off, 27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 1 combination ore/oil, 10 liquefied
gas, 20 bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: modern with fully automatic telephone system; 46,290
telephones; stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 3 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bhutan
- Geography
Total area: 47,000 km2; land area: 47,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Indiana

Land boundaries: 1,075 km total; China 470 km, India 605 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: varies; tropical in southern plains; cool winters and hot
summers in central valleys; severe winters and cool summers in Himalayas

Terrain: mostly mountainous with some fertile valleys and savanna

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures;
70% forest and woodland; 23% other

Environment: violent storms coming down from the Himalayas were the source
of the country name which translates as Land of the Thunder Dragon

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India;
controls several key Himalayan mountain passes

- People
Population: 1,565,969 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 137 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 48 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bhutanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Bhutanese

Ethnic divisions: 60% Bhote, 25% ethnic Nepalese, 15% indigenous or
migrant tribes

Religion: 75% Lamaistic Buddhism, 25% Indian- and Nepalese-influenced
Hinduism

Language: Bhotes speak various Tibetan dialects--most widely spoken
dialect is Dzongkha (official); Nepalese speak various Nepalese dialects

Literacy: 5%

Labor force: NA; 95% agriculture, 1% industry and commerce; massive lack
of skilled labor (1983)

Organized labor: not permitted

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Bhutan

Type: monarchy; special treaty relationship with India

Capital: Thimphu

Administrative divisions: 3 regions and 1 division*; Central Bhutan,
Eastern Bhutan, Southern Bhutan*, Western Bhutan; note--there may now be 18
districts (dzong, singular and plural) named Bumthang, Chhukha, Chirang,
Daga, Geylegphug, Ha, Lhuntshi, Mongar, Paro, Pemagatsel, Punakha, Samchi,
Samdrup Jongkhar, Shemgang, Tashigang, Thimphu, Tongsa, Wangdiphodrang

Independence: 8 August 1949 (from India)

Constitution: no written constitution or bill of rights

Legal system: based on Indian law and English common law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (Ugyen Wangchuck became first hereditary
king), 17 December (1907)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Royal Advisory Council,
Royal Advisory Council (Lodoi Tsokde), chairman of the Council of Ministers,
Council of Ministers (Lhengye Shungtsog)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Tshogdu)

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--King Jigme Singye WANGCHUCK (since
24 July 1972)

Political parties: no legal parties

Suffrage: each family has one vote in village-level elections

Elections: no national elections

Communists: no overt Communist presence

Other political or pressure groups: Buddhist clergy, Indian merchant
community, ethnic Nepalese organizations

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA, IFAD, IMF, NAM,
SAARC, UNESCO, UPU, UN, WHO

Diplomatic representation: no formal diplomatic relations, although
informal contact is maintained between the Bhutanese and US Embassies in
New Delhi (India); the Bhutanese mission to the UN in New York has consular
jurisdiction in the US

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper
triangle is orange and the lower triangle is red; centered along the dividing
line is a large black and white dragon facing away from the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on agriculture and forestry, which
provide the main livelihood for 90% of the population and account for about
50% of GDP. One of the world's least developed countries, rugged mountains
dominate and make the building of roads and other infrastructure difficult
and expensive. Bhutan's hydropower potential and its attraction for tourists
are its most important natural resources.

GDP: $273 million, per capita $199; real growth rate 6.3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989 est.)

Unemployment: NA

Budget: revenues $99 million; expenditures $128 million, including
capital expenditures of $65 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $70.9 million (f.o.b., FY89);
commodities--cardamon, gypsum, timber, handicrafts, cement, fruit;
partners--India 93%

Imports: $138.3 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.);
commodities--fuel and lubricants, grain, machinery and parts,
vehicles, fabrics;
partners--India 67%

External debt: $70.1 million (FY89 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 12.4% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 353,000 kW capacity; 2,000 million kWh produced, 1,300 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: cement, chemical products, mining, distilling, food
processing, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; based on subsistence farming and
animal husbandry; self-sufficient in food except for foodgrains; other
production--rice, corn, root crops, citrus fruit, dairy, and eggs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $85.8 million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $11 million

Currency: ngultrum (plural--ngultrum); 1 ngultrum (Nu) = 100
chetrum; note--Indian currency is also legal tender

Exchange rates: ngultrum (Nu) per US$1--16.965 (January 1990),
16.226 (1989), 13.917 (1988), 12.962 (1987), 12.611 (1986), 12.369 (1985);
note--the Bhutanese ngultrum is at par with the Indian rupee

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 1,304 km total; 418 km surfaced, 515 km improved, 371 km
unimproved earth

Civil air: 1 jet, 2 prop

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: inadequate; 1,890 telephones (1985); 15,000 radio
receivers (1987 est.); 85 TV sets (1985); stations--20 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Bhutan Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 389,142; 208,231 fit for military
service; 17,203 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bolivia
- Geography
Total area: 1,098,580 km2; land area: 1,084,390 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

Land boundaries: 6,743 km total; Argentina 832 km, Brazil 3,400
km, Chile 861 km, Paraguay 750 km, Peru 900 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: has wanted a sovereign corridor to the South Pacific Ocean since
the Atacama area was lost to Chile in 1884; dispute with Chile over Rio Lauca
water rights

Climate: varies with altitude; humid and tropical to cold and semiarid

Terrain: high plateau, hills, lowland plains

Natural resources: tin, natural gas, crude oil, zinc, tungsten,
antimony, silver, iron ore, lead, gold, timber

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 25% meadows and
pastures; 52% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: cold, thin air of high plateau is obstacle to
efficient fuel combustion; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: landlocked; shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's
highest navigable lake, with Peru

- People
Population: 6,706,854 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bolivian(s); adjective Bolivian

Ethnic divisions: 30% Quechua, 25% Aymara, 25-30% mixed, 5-15% European

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic; active Protestant minority, especially
Evangelical Methodist

Language: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara (all official)

Literacy: 63%

Labor force: 1,700,000; 50% agriculture, 26% services and utilities,
10% manufacturing, 4% mining, 10% other (1983)

Organized labor: 150,000-200,000, concentrated in mining, industry,
construction, and transportation; mostly organized under Bolivian Workers'
Central (COB) labor federation

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Bolivia

Type: republic

Capital: La Paz (seat of government); Sucre (legal capital and seat of
judiciary)

Administrative divisions: 9 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, El Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando,
Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija

Independence: 6 August 1825 (from Spain)

Constitution: 2 February 1967

Legal system: based on Spanish law and Code Napoleon; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 August (1825)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Jaime
PAZ Zamora (since 6 August 1989); Vice President Luis OSSIO Sanjines
(since 6 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Movement of the Revolutionary
Left (MIR), Jaime Paz Zamora; Nationalist Democratic Action (ADN),
Hugo Banzer Suarez; Nationalist Revolutionary Movement (MNR), Gonzalo
Sanchez de Lozada; United Left (IU), coalition of leftist parties which
includes Free Bolivia Movement (MBL), led by Antonio Aranibar,
Patriotic National Convergency Axis (EJE-P) led by Walter Delgadillo,
and Bolivian Communist Party (PCB) led by Humberto Ramirez; Conscience of
the Fatherland (CONDEPA), Carlos Palenque Aviles; Revolutionary
Vanguard-9th of April (VR-9), Carlos Serrate Reich

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 (married) or 21 (single)

Elections:
President--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results--Gonzalo Sanchez de Lozada (MNR) 23%, Hugo Banzer Suarez
(ADN) 22%, Jaime Paz Zamora (MIR) 19%; no candidate received a
majority of the popular vote; Jaime Paz Zamora (MIR) formed a
coalition with Hugo Banzer (ADN); with ADN support Paz Zamora
won the congressional runoff election on 4 August and was inaugurated
on 6 August;

Senate--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats (27 total) MNR 9, ADN 8, MIR 8, CONDEPA 2;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 7 May 1989 (next to be held May
1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats (130 total) MNR 40, ADN 38, MIR 30, IU 10, CONDEPA 9,
VR-9 3

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO,
SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jorge CRESPO; Chancery at
3014 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4410
through 4412; there are Bolivian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Robert GELBARD; Embassy at Banco Popular del Peru Building,
corner of Calles Mercado y Colon, La Paz (mailing address is P. O. Box 425,
La Paz, or APO Miami 34032); telephone p591o (2) 350251 or 350120

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), yellow, and green with
the coat of arms centered on the yellow band; similar to the flag of Ghana,
which has a large black five-pointed star centered in the yellow band

- Economy
Overview: The Bolivian economy steadily deteriorated between
1980 and 1985 as La Paz financed growing budget deficits by expanding
the money supply and inflation spiraled--peaking at 11,700%. An austere
orthodox economic program adopted by newly elected President Paz
Estenssoro in 1985, however, succeeded in reducing inflation to between
10% and 20% annually during 1987 and 1989, eventually restarting
economic growth. President Paz Zamora has pledged to retain the economic
policies of the previous government in order to keep inflation down
and continue the growth begun under his predecessor. Nevertheless,
Bolivia continues to be one of the poorest countries in Latin
America, and it remains vulnerable to price fluctuations for
its limited exports--mainly minerals and natural gas. Moreover,
for many farmers, who constitute half of the country's
work force, the main cash crop is coca, which is sold for cocaine
processing.

GNP: $4.6 billion, per capita $660; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 20.7% (1988)

Budget: revenues $2,867 million; expenditures $2,867 million,
including capital expenditures of $663 million (1987)

Exports: $634 million (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--metals 45%, natural gas 32%, coffee, soybeans,
sugar, cotton, timber, and illicit drugs;
partners--US 23%, Argentina

Imports: $786 million (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--food, petroleum, consumer goods, capital goods;

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