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Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Western Sahara
- Geography
Total area: 266,000 km2; land area: 266,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Colorado

Land boundaries: 2,046 km total; Algeria 42 km, Mauritania 1,561 km,
Morocco 443 km

Coastline: 1,110 km

Maritime claims: contingent upon resolution of sovereignty issue

Disputes: claimed and administered by Morocco, but sovereignty is
unresolved and guerrilla fighting continues in the area

Climate: hot, dry desert; rain is rare; cold offshore currents
produce fog and heavy dew

Terrain: mostly low, flat desert with large areas of rocky or
sandy surfaces rising to small mountains in south and northeast

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 81% other

Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind can occur during
winter and spring; widespread harmattan haze exists 60% of time, often severely
restricting visibility; sparse water and arable land

- People
Population: 191,707 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 23 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 177 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 39 years male, 41 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Saharan(s), Moroccan(s); adjective--Saharan, Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: Arab and Berber

Religion: Muslim

Language: Hassaniya Arabic, Moroccan Arabic

Literacy: 20% among Moroccans, 5% among Saharans (est.)

Labor force: 12,000; 50% animal husbandry and subsistence farming

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: legal status of territory and question of sovereignty unresolved;
territory contested by Morocco and Polisario Front (Popular Front for the
Liberation of the Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro); territory partitioned between
Morocco and Mauritania in April 1976, with Morocco acquiring northern
two-thirds; Mauritania, under pressure from Polisario guerrillas, abandoned all
claims to its portion in August 1979; Morocco moved to occupy that sector
shortly thereafter and has since asserted administrative control; the
Polisario's government in exile was seated as an OAU member in 1984; guerrilla
activities continue to the present

Capital: none

Administrative divisions: none (under de facto control of Morocco)

Leaders: none

Diplomatic representation: none

- Economy
Overview: Western Sahara, a territory poor in natural resources
and having little rainfall, has a per capita GDP of just a few hundred
dollars. Fishing and phosphate mining are the principal industries and
sources of income. Most of the food for the urban population must be
imported. All trade and other economic activities are controlled by the
Moroccan Government.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $8 million (f.o.b., 1982 est.);
commodities--phosphates 62%; partners--Morocco claims and
administers Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall
Moroccan accounts

Imports: $30 million (c.i.f., 1982 est.); commodities--fuel for
fishing fleet, foodstuffs; partners--Morocco claims and administers
Western Sahara, so trade partners are included in overall Moroccan accounts

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 60,000 kW capacity; 79 million kWh produced,
425 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate, fishing, handicrafts

Agriculture: practically none; some barley is grown in nondrought years;
fruit and vegetables are grown in the few oases; food imports are essential;
camels, sheep, and goats are kept by the nomadic natives; cash economy exists
largely for the garrison forces

Aid: NA

Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural--dirhams);
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1--8.093 (January 1990),
8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104 (1986), 10.062 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications
Highways: 6,100 km total; 1,350 km surfaced, 4,750 km improved and
unimproved earth roads and tracks

Ports: El Aaiun, Ad Dakhla

Airports: 16 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
6 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: sparse and limited system; tied into Morocco's system
by radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations linked to Rabat, Morocco; 2,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 2 TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Western Samoa
- Geography
Total area: 2,860 km2; land area: 2,850 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 403 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; rainy season (October to March), dry season
(May to October)

Terrain: narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rocky, rugged
mountains in interior

Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 19% arable land; 24% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 47% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: subject to occasional typhoons; active volcanism

Note: located 4,300 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

- People
Population: 186,031 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Western Samoan(s); adjective--Western Samoan

Ethnic divisions: Samoan; about 7% Euronesians (persons of European
and Polynesian blood), 0.4% Europeans

Religion: 99.7% Christian (about half of population associated with the
London Missionary Society; includes Congregational, Roman Catholic, Methodist,
Latter Day Saints, Seventh-Day Adventist)

Language: Samoan (Polynesian), English

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 37,000; 22,000 employed in agriculture (1983 est.)

Organized labor: Public Service Association (PSA)

- Government
Long-form name: Independent State of Western Samoa

Type: constitutional monarchy under native chief

Capital: Apia

Administrative divisions: 11 districts; Aana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua,
Faasaleleaga, Gagaemauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupaitea, Tuamasaga,
Vaa-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano

Independence: 1 January 1962 (from UN trusteeship administered
by New Zealand)

Constitution: 1 January 1962

Legal system: based on English common law and local customs; judicial
review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 1 June

Executive branch: monarch, Executive Council, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Fono)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--Susuga Malietoa TANUMAFILI II (Co-Chief of State
from 1 January 1962 until becoming sole Chief of State on 5 April 1963);

Head of Government--Prime Minister TOFILAU Eti Alesana (since 7 April
1988)

Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party (HRPP),
Tofilau Eti, chairman; Samoan National Development Party (SNDP), Tupua
Tamasese Efi, chairman

Suffrage: there are two electoral rolls--the matai (head of family)
roll and the individuals roll; about 12,000 persons are on the matai roll,
hold matai titles, and elect 45 members of the Legislative Assembly; about
1,600 persons are on the individuals roll, lack traditional matai ties, and
elect two members of the Legislative Assembly by universal adult suffrage
at the age of NA

Elections:
Legislative Assembly--last held 26 February 1988
(next to be held by February 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(47 total) HRPP 25, SNDP 22

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IMF, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Fili (Felix) Tuaopepe
WENDT; Chancery (temporary) at the Western Samoan Mission to the UN,
820 2nd Avenue, New York, NY 10017 (212) 599-6196;
US--the ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Western Samoa

Flag: red with a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side quadrant bearing
five white five-pointed stars representing the Southern Cross constellation

- Economy
Overview: Agriculture employs two-thirds of the labor force, contributes
50% to GDP, and is the source of 90% of exports. The bulk of export earnings
comes from the sale of coconut oil and copra. The economy depends
on emigrant remittances and foreign aid to support a level of imports about
five times export earnings. Tourism has become the most important
growth industry, and construction of the first international hotel is under way.

GDP: $112 million, per capita $615; real growth rate 0.2%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%; shortage of skilled labor

Budget: revenues $54 million; expenditures $54 million,
including capital expenditures of $28 million (1988)

Exports: $9.9 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--coconut oil
and cream 42%, taro 19%, cocoa 14%, copra, timber;
partners--NZ 30%, EC 24%, Australia 21%, American Samoa 7%,
US 9% (1987)

Imports: $51.8 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--intermediate
goods 58%, food 17%, capital goods 12%; partners--New Zealand 31%,
Australia 20%, Japan 15%, Fiji 15%, US 5%, EC 4% (1987)

External debt: $75 million (December 1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 4.0% (1987)

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: timber, tourism, food processing, fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, fruit (including bananas, taro, yams)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $16 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $261
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million

Currency: tala (plural--tala); 1 tala (WS$) = 100 sene

Exchange rates: tala (WS$) per US$1--2.2857 (January 1990), 2.2686
(1989), 2.0790 (1988), 2.1204 (1987), 2.2351 (1986), 2.2437 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 2,042 km total; 375 km sealed; remainder mostly gravel,
crushed stone, or earth

Ports: Apia

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 24,930 GRT/34,135
DWT; includes 2 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 7,500 telephones; 70,000 radio receivers;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT station

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: World
- Geography
Total area: 510,072,000 km2; 361,132,000 km2 (70.8%) is water and
148,940,000 km2 (29.2%) is land

Comparative area: land area about 16 times the size of the US

Land boundaries: 442,000 km

Coastline: 359,000 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: generally 24 nm, but varies from 4 nm to 24 nm;

Continental shelf: generally 200 nm, but some are 200 meters
in depth;

Exclusive fishing zone: most are 200 nm, but varies from
12 nm to 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm, only Madagascar claims 150 nm;

Territorial sea: generally 12 nm, but varies from 3 nm to 200 nm

Disputes: 13 international land boundary disputes--Argentina-Uruguay,
Bangladesh-India, Brazil-Paraguay, Brazil-Uruguay, Cambodia-Vietnam,
China-India, China-USSR, Ecuador-Peru, El Salvador-Honduras,
French Guiana-Suriname, Guyana-Suriname, Guyana-Venezuela, Qatar-UAE

Climate: two large areas of polar climates separated by two rather narrow
temperate zones from a wide equatorial band of tropical to subtropical climates

Terrain: highest elevation is Mt. Everest at 8,848 meters and lowest
elevation is the Dead Sea at 392 meters below sea level; greatest ocean depth
is the Marianas Trench at 10,924 meters

Natural resources: the oceans represent the last major frontier for the
discovery and development of natural resources

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 24% meadows and
pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 34% other; includes 1.6% irrigated

Environment: large areas subject to severe weather (tropical cyclones),
natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions),
industrial disasters, pollution (air, water, acid rain, toxic substances),
loss of vegetation (overgrazing, deforestation, desertification), loss of
wildlife resources, soil degradation, soil depletion, erosion

- People
Population: 5,316,644,000 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 70 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 64 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Literacy: 77% men; 66% women (1980)

Labor force: 1,939,000,000 (1984)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Administrative divisions: 248 nations, dependent areas, and other
entities

Legal system: varies among each of the entities; 162 are parties to the
United Nations International Court of Justice (ICJ) or World Court

Diplomatic representation: there are 159 members of the UN

- Economy
Overview: In 1989 the World economy grew at an estimated 3.0%,
somewhat lower than the estimated 3.4% for 1988. The technologically advanced
areas--North America, Japan, and Western Europe--together account for
65% of the gross world product (GWP) of $20.3 trillion; these developed
areas grew in the aggregate at 3.5%. In contrast, the Communist (Second
World) countries typically grew at between 0% and 2%, accounting for 23% of GWP.
Experience in the developing countries continued mixed, with the newly
industrializing countries generally maintaining their rapid growth, and many
others struggling with debt, inflation, and inadequate investment. The year
1989 ended with remarkable political upheavals in the Communist
countries, which presumably will dislocate economic production still further.
The addition of nearly 100 million people a year to an already overcrowded
globe will exacerbate the problems of pollution, desertification,
underemployment, and poverty throughout the 1990s.

GWP (gross world product): $20.3 trillion, per capita $3,870; real growth
rate 3.0% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5%, developed countries; 100%,
developing countries with wide variations (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Exports: $2,694 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--NA;
partners--in value, about 70% of exports from industrial countries

Imports: $2,750 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--NA;
partners--in value, about 75% of imports by the industrial countries

External debt: $1,008 billion for less developed countries (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,838,680,000 kW capacity; 11,222,029 million kWh produced,
2,140 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: chemicals, energy, machinery, electronics, metals, mining,
textiles, food processing

Agriculture: cereals (wheat, maize, rice), sugar, livestock products,
tropical crops, fruit, vegetables, fish

Aid: NA

- Communications
Ports: Mina al Ahmadi (Kuwait), Chiba, Houston, Kawasaki, Kobe,
Marseille, New Orleans, New York, Rotterdam, Yokohama

- Defense Forces
Branches: ground, maritime, and air forces at all levels of
technology

Military manpower: 29.15 million persons in the defense forces
of the World (1987)

Defense expenditures: 5.4% of GWP, or $1.1 trillion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Yemen Arab Republic
Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen
- Geography
Total area: 195,000 km2; land area: 195,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: 1,209 km total; Saudi Arabia 628 km, PDRY 581 km

Coastline: 523 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: sections of the boundary with PDRY are indefinite or
undefined; undefined section of boundary with Saudi Arabia

Climate: desert; hot and humid along coast; temperate in central
mountains; harsh desert in east

Terrain: narrow coastal plain (Tihama); western mountains; flat
dissected plain in center sloping into desert interior of Arabian Peninsula

Natural resources: crude oil, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal,
nickel, and copper; fertile soil

Land use: 14% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 36% meadows and
pastures; 8% forest and woodland; 42% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to sand and dust storms in summer;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: controls northern approaches to Bab el Mandeb linking Red Sea
and Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

- People
Population: 7,160,981 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 129 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Yemeni(s); adjective--Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro-Arab (mixed)

Religion: 100% Muslim (Sunni and Shia)

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 15% (est.)

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture and herding, 30% expatriate laborers
(est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Yemen Arab Republic; abbreviated YAR

Type: republic; military regime assumed power in June 1974

Capital: Sanaa

Administrative divisions: 11 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Bayda, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf,
Al Mahwit, Dhamar, Hajjah, Ibb, Marib, Sadah, Sana,
Taizz

Independence: November 1918 (from Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 28 December 1970, suspended 19 June 1974

Legal system: based on Turkish law, Islamic law, and local customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic, 26 September (1962)

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister,
four deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Consultative Assembly
(Majlis ash-Shura)

Judicial branch: State Security Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Col. Ali Abdallah SALIH (since 18 July
1978); Vice President (vacant);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Abd al-Aziz ABD AL-GHANI
(since 12 November 1983, previously prime minister from 1975-1980 and
co-Vice President from October 1980 to November 1983)

Political parties and leaders: no legal political parties; in 1983
President Salih started the General People's Congress, which is designed
to function as the country's sole political party

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Consultative Assembly--last held 5 July 1988 (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(159 total, 128 elected)

Communists: small number

Other political or pressure groups: conservative tribal groups,
Muslim Brotherhood, leftist factions--pro-Iraqi Bathists,
Nasirists, National Democratic Front (NDF) supported by the PDRY

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohsin A. al-AINI; Chancery at
Suite 840, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 965-4760 or 4761; there is a Yemeni Consulate General in
Detroit and a Consulate in San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Charles F. DUNBAR; Embassy at address NA, Sanaa (mailing
address is P. O. Box 1088, Sanaa); telephone p967o (2) 271950 through 271958

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a
large green five-pointed star centered in the white band; similar to the flags
of Iraq, which has three stars, and Syria, which has two stars--all green and
five-pointed in a horizontal line centered in the white band; also similar to
the flag of Egypt, which has a symbolic eagle centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: The low level of domestic industry and agriculture make North
Yemen dependent on imports for virtually all of its essential needs. Large trade
deficits are made up for by remittances from Yemenis working abroad and foreign
aid. Once self-sufficient in food production, the YAR is now a major importer.
Land once used for export crops--cotton, fruit, and vegetables--has been turned
over to growing qat, a mildly narcotic shrub chewed by Yemenis that has no
significant export market. Oil export revenues started flowing in late 1987
and boosted 1988 earnings by about $800 million.

GDP: $5.5 billion, per capita $820; real growth rate 19.7% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 13% (1986)

Budget: revenues $1.32 billion; expenditures $2.18 billion,
including capital expenditures of $588 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $853 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--crude oil,
cotton, coffee, hides, vegetables; partners--US 41%, PDRY 14%, Japan 12%

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--textiles and
other manufactured consumer goods, petroleum products, sugar, grain, flour,
other foodstuffs, and cement; partners--Italy 10%, Saudi Arabia 9%,
US 9.3%, Japan 9%, UK 8% (1985)

External debt: $3.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% in manufacturing (1988)

Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 500 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production, small-scale production of cotton
textiles and leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; fishing; small
aluminum products factory; cement

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP and 70% of labor force; farm
products--grain, fruits, vegetables, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee,
cotton, dairy, poultry, meat, goat meat; not self-sufficient in grain

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $354 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.9 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$248 million

Currency: Yemeni riyal (plural--riyals); 1 Yemeni riyal (YR) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni riyals (YR) per US$1--9.7600 (January 1990),
9.7600 (1989), 9.7717 (1988), 10.3417 (1987), 9.6392 (1986), 7.3633 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 4,500 km; 2,000 km bituminous, 500 km crushed stone and
gravel, 2,000 km earth, sand, and light gravel (est.)

Pipelines: crude oil, 424 km

Ports: Al Hudaydah, Al Mukha, Salif, Ras al Katib

Merchant marine: 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker
(1,000 GRT or over) totaling 192,679 GRT/40,640 DWT

Civil air: 7 major transport aircraft

Airports: 19 total, 14 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system poor but improving; new radio relay and cable
networks; 50,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, no FM, 17 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
tropospheric scatter to PDRY; radio relay to PDRY, Saudi Arabia, and Djibouti

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,289,217; 734,403 fit for military
service; 79,609 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $358 million (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Yemen, People's Democratic Republic of
Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen
- Geography
Total area: 332,970 km2; land area: 332,970 km2; includes Perim, Socotra

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 1,699 km total; Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 830 km,
YAR 581 km

Coastline: 1,383 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: sections of boundary with YAR indefinite or undefined;
Administrative Line with Oman; no defined boundary with Saudi Arabia

Climate: desert; extraordinarily hot and dry

Terrain: mostly upland desert plains; narrow, flat, sandy coastal
plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains

Natural resources: fish, oil, minerals (gold, copper, lead)

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and pastures;
7% forest and woodland; 65% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: scarcity of natural freshwater resources; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification

Note: controls southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb linking
Red Sea to Gulf of Aden, one of world's most active shipping lanes

- People
Population: 2,585,484 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Yemeni(s); adjective--Yemeni

Ethnic divisions: almost all Arabs; a few Indians, Somalis, and Europeans

Religion: Sunni Muslim, some Christian and Hindu

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 25%

Labor force: 477,000; 45.2% agriculture, 21.2% services,
13.4% construction, 10.6% industry, 9.6% commerce and other (1983)

Organized labor: 348,200; the General Confederation of Workers of the
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen has 35,000 members

- Government
Long-form name: People's Democratic Republic of Yemen; abbreviated PDRY

Type: republic

Capital: Aden

Administrative divisions: 6 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Abyan, Adan, Al Mahrah, Hadramawt, Lahij,
Shabwah

Independence: 30 November 1967 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 October 1978

Legal system: based on Islamic law (for personal matters) and English
common law (for commercial matters)

National holiday: National Day, 14 October

Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers,
Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Council

Judicial branch: Federal High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Haydar Abu Bakr al-ATTAS
(since 8 February 1986);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister)
Dr. Yasin Said NUMAN (since 8 February 1986); Deputy Prime Minister
Salih Abu Bakr bin HUSAYNUN (since 8 February 1986); Deputy Prime Minister
Salih Munassir al-SIYAYLI (since 8 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Yemeni Socialist Party
(YSP) is a coalition of National Front, Bath, and Communist Parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Supreme People's Council--last held 28-30 October 1986
(next to be held NA);
results--YSP is the only party;
seats--(111 total) YSP or YSP approved 111

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none; the UK acts as the protecting
power for the US in the PDRY

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a
light blue, isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a red
five-pointed star

- Economy
Overview: The PDRY is one of the poorest Arab countries, with a
per capita GNP of about $500. A shortage of natural resources, a widely
dispersed population, and an arid climate make economic development
difficult. The economy has grown at an average annual rate of only 2-3%
since the mid-1970s. The economy is organized along socialist lines,
dominated by the public sector. Economic growth has been constrained by a
lack of incentives, partly stemming from centralized control over production
decisions, investment allocation, and import choices.

GNP: $1.2 billion, per capita $495; real growth rate 5.2% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $429 million; expenditures $976 million, including
capital expenditures of $402 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $82.2 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--cotton,
hides, skins, dried and salted fish; partners--Japan, YAR, Singapore

Imports: $598.0 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--grain,
consumer goods, crude oil, machinery, chemicals; partners--USSR,
Australia, UK

External debt: $2.25 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 600 million kWh produced,
240 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum refinery (operates on imported crude oil); fish

Agriculture: accounts for 13% of GNP and 45% of labor force;
products--grain, qat (mildly narcotic shrub), coffee, fish, livestock;
fish and honey major exports; most food imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $4.5 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $241 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $279 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.2 billion

Currency: Yemeni dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Yemeni dinar (YD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Yemeni dinars (YD) per US$1--0.3454 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 11,000 km; 2,000 km bituminous, 9,000 km natural
surface (est.)

Pipelines: refined products, 32 km

Ports: Aden, Al Khalf, Nishtun

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
4,309 GRT/6,568 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 42 total, 29 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small system of open-wire, radio relay, multiconductor
cable, and radio communications stations; 15,000 telephones (est.);
stations--1 AM, no FM, 5 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,
1 Intersputnik, 1 ARABSAT; radio relay and tropospheric scatter to YAR

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, People's Militia, People's Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 544,190; 307,005 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Yugoslavia
- Geography
Total area: 255,800 km2; land area: 255,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Wyoming

Land boundaries: 2,961 km total; Albania 486 km, Austria 311 km,
Bulgaria 539 km, Greece 246 km, Hungary 631 km, Italy 202 km, Romania
546 km

Coastline: 3,935 km (including 2,414 km offshore islands)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Kosovo question with Albania; Macedonia question with Bulgaria
and Greece

Climate: temperate; hot, relatively dry summers with mild, rainy
winters along coast; warm summer with cold winters inland

Terrain: mostly mountains with large areas of karst topography;
plain in north

Natural resources: coal, copper, bauxite, timber, iron ore, antimony,
chromium, lead, zinc, asbestos, mercury, crude oil, natural gas, nickel,
uranium

Land use: 28% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures;
36% forest and woodland; 8% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to frequent and destructive earthquakes

Note: controls the most important land routes from
central and western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish straits

- People
Population: 23,841,608 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Yugoslav(s); adjective--Yugoslav

Ethnic divisions: 36.3% Serb, 19.7% Croat, 8.9% Muslim, 7.8% Slovene, 7.7%
Albanian, 5.9% Macedonian, 5.4% Yugoslav, 2.5% Montenegrin, 1.9% Hungarian, 3.9%
other (1981 census)

Religion: 50% Eastern Orthodox, 30% Roman Catholic, 9% Muslim,
1% Protestant, 10% other

Language: Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, Macedonian (all official);
Albanian, Hungarian

Literacy: 90.5%

Labor force: 9,600,000; 22% agriculture, 27% mining and manufacturing;
about 5% of labor force are guest workers in Western Europe (1986)

Organized labor: 6,200,000 members in the Confederation of Trade Unions of
Yugoslavia (SSJ)

- Government
Long-form name: Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia;
abbreviated SFRY

Type: Communist state, federal republic in form

Capital: Belgrade

Administrative divisions: 6 socialist republics (socijalisticke
republike, singular--socijalisticka republika); Bosna I Hercegovina,
Crna Gora, Hrvatska, Makedonija, Slovenija, Srbija; note--there are two
autonomous provinces (autonomne pokajine, singular--autonomna pokajina)
named Kosovo and Vojvodina within Srbija

Independence: 1 December 1918; independent monarchy established
from the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro, parts of the Turkish Empire,
and the Austro-Hungarian Empire; SFRY proclaimed 29 November 1945

Constitution: 21 February 1974

Legal system: mixture of civil law system and Communist legal theory;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Proclamation of the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, 29 November (1945)

Executive branch: president of the Collective State Presidency,
vice president of the Collective State Presidency, Collective State Presidency,
president of the Federal Executive Council, two vice presidents of the Federal
Executive Council, Federal Executive Council

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Savezna Skupstina)
consists of an upper chamber or Chamber of Republics and Provinces
and a lower chamber or Federal Chamber

Judicial branch: Federal Court (Savezna Sud), Constitutional Court

Leaders:
Chief of State President of the Collective State Presidency
Borisav JOVIC (from Srbija; one-year term expires 15 May 1991);
Vice President of the Collective State Presidency--Stipe SUVAR (from
Hrvatska; one-year term expires 15 May 1991); note--the offices of
president and vice president rotate annually among members of the
Collective State Presidency with the current vice president assuming the
presidency and a new vice president selected from area which has gone the
longest without filling the position (the current sequence is
Srbija, Hrvatska, Crna Gora, Vojvodina, Kosovo, Makedonija, Bosna i
Hercegovina, and Slovenija);

Head of Government President of the Federal Executive Council
Ante MARKOVIC (since 16 March 1989); Vice President of the Federal
Executive Council Aleksandar MITROVIC (since 16 March 1989);
Vice President of the Federal Executive Council Zivko PREGL
(since 16 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: there are about 90 political
parties operating country-wide including the League of Communists
of Yugoslavia (LCY)

Suffrage: at age 16 if employed, universal at age 18

Elections: direct national elections probably will be held in
late 1990

Communists: 2,079,013 party members (1988)

Other political or pressure groups: Socialist Alliance of Working People
of Yugoslavia (SAWPY), the major mass front organization; Confederation of
Trade Unions of Yugoslavia (CTUY), League of Socialist Youth of Yugoslavia,
Federation of Veterans' Associations of Yugoslavia (SUBNOR)

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, CEMA (observer but participates in certain
commissions), FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OECD (participant in some activities),
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dzevad MUJEZINOVIC; Chancery at
2410 California Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-6566;
there are Yugoslav Consulates General in Chicago, Cleveland, New York,
Pittsburgh, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Warren ZIMMERMAN; Embassy at Kneza Milosa 50, Belgrade;
telephone p38o (11) 645-655; there is a US Consulate General in Zagreb

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and red with a
large red five-pointed star edged in yellow superimposed in the center over all
three bands

- Economy
Overview: Tito's reform programs 20 years ago changed the Stalinist
command economy to a decentralized semimarket system but a system that
the rigid, ethnically divided political structure ultimately could not
accommodate. A prominent feature of the reforms was the establishment
of workers' self-management councils in all large plants, which were to
select managers, stimulate production, and divide the proceeds. The
general result of these reforms has been rampant wage-price inflation,
substantial rundown of capital plant, consumer shortages, and a still
larger income gap between the poorer southern regions and the relatively
affluent northern provinces of Hrvatska and Slovenija. In 1988-89 the
beleaguered central government has been reforming the reforms, trying
to create an open market economy with still considerable state
ownership of major industrial plants. These reforms have been moving
forward with the advice and support of the International Monetary Fund
through a series of tough negotiations. Self-management supposedly is
to be replaced by the discipline of the market and by fiscal austerity,
ultimately leading to a stable dinar. However, strikes in major plants,
hyperinflation, and interregional political jousting have held back
progress. According to US economic advisers, only a highly unlikely
combination of genuine privatization, massive Western economic
investment and aid, and political moderation can salvage this economy.

GNP: $129.5 billion, per capita $5,464; real growth rate - 1.0%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2,700% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989)

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $6.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

Exports: $13.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--raw materials
and semimanufactures 50%, consumer goods 31%, capital goods and equipment 19%;
partners--EC 30%, CEMA 45%, less developed countries 14%, US 5%, other 6%

Imports: $13.8 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--raw materials
and semimanufactures 79%, capital goods and equipment 15%, consumer goods 6%;
partners--EC 30%, CEMA 45%, less developed countries 14%, US 5%, other 6%

External debt: $17.0 billion, medium and long term (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 21,000,000 kW capacity; 87,100 million kWh produced,
3,650 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metallurgy, machinery and equipment, petroleum, chemicals,
textiles, wood processing, food processing, pulp and paper, motor vehicles,
building materials

Agriculture: diversified, with many small private holdings and large
combines; main crops--corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, sunflowers;
occasionally a net exporter of corn, tobacco, foodstuffs, live animals

Aid: donor--about $3.5 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less
developed countries (1966-88)

Currency: Yugoslav dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Yugoslav dinar (YD) = 100 paras; note--on 1 January 1990, Yugoslavia
began issuing a new currency with 1 new dinar equal to 10,000 YD

Exchange rates: Yugoslav dinars (YD) per US$1--118,568
(January 1990), 28,764 (1989), 2,523 (1988), 737 (1987), 379 (1986),
270 (1985); note--as of February 1990 the new dinar is linked to the
FRG deutsche mark at the rate of 7 new dinars per 1 deustche mark

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 9,270 km total; (all 1.435-meter standard gauge)
including 926 km double track, 3,771 km electrified (1987)

Highways: 120,747 km total; 71,315 km asphalt, concrete, stone block;
34,299 km macadam, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone; 15,133 km earth
(1987)

Inland waterways: 2,600 km (1982)

Pipelines: 1,373 km crude oil; 2,900 km natural gas; 150 km refined
products

Ports: Rijeka, Split, Koper, Bar, Ploce; inland port is Belgrade

Merchant marine: 270 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,608,705
GRT/5,809,219 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 131 cargo,
3 refrigerated cargo, 16 container, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction
large-load carrier, 9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 chemical
tanker, 3 combination ore/oil, 73 bulk, 8 combination bulk; note--Yugoslavia
owns 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 229,614 GRT/353,224 DWT under the
registry of Liberia, Panama, and Cyprus

Civil air: NA major transport aircraft

Airports: 184 total, 184 usable; 54 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3.659 m; 22 with runways 2,440 to 3,659 m;
20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--199 AM, 87 FM, 50 TV; 4,107,846 TV sets;
4,700,000 radio receivers; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Yugoslav People's Army--Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air and
Air Defense Forces, Frontier Guard, Territorial Defense Force, Civil Defense

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,135,628; 4,970,420 fit for military
service; 188,028 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 14.8 trillion dinars, 4.6% of national income (1989
est.); note--conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the
official administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Zaire
- Geography
Total area: 2,345,410 km2; land area: 2,267,600 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one-quarter the size of US

Land boundaries: 10,271 km total; Angola 2,511 km, Burundi 233 km,
Central African Republic 1,577 km, Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, Sudan 628 km,
Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km

Coastline: 37 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer
be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled; long section with Congo along the Congo
River is indefinite (no division of the river or its islands has been made)

Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and
drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of
Equator--wet season April to October, dry season December to February; south of
Equator--wet season November to March, dry season April to October

Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east

Natural resources: cobalt, copper, cadmium, crude oil, industrial and gem
diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, germanium, uranium, radium,
bauxite, iron ore, coal, hydropower potential

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 4% meadows and pastures;
78% forest and woodland; 15% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: dense tropical rainforest in central river basin and eastern
highlands; periodic droughts in south

Note: straddles Equator; very narrow strip of land is only outlet to
South Atlantic Ocean

- People
Population: 36,589,468 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 103 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Zairian(s); adjective--Zairian

Ethnic divisions: over 200 African ethnic groups, the majority are Bantu;
four largest tribes--Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande
(Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population

Religion: 50% Roman Catholic, 20% Protestant, 10% Kimbanguist, 10% Muslim,
10% other syncretic sects and traditional beliefs

Language: French (official), Lingala, Swahili, Kingwana, Kikongo, Tshiluba

Literacy: 55% males, 37% females

Labor force: 15,000,000; 75% agriculture, 13% industry, 12% services;
13% wage earners (1981); 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: National Union of Workers of Zaire (UNTZA) is the only
trade union

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Zaire

Type: republic with a strong presidential system

Capital: Kinshasa

Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular--region)
and 1 town* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Zaire, Equateur, Haut-Zaire,
Kasai-Occidental, Kasai-Oriental, Kinshasa*, Kivu, Shaba; note--there
may now be 10 regions with the elimination of Kivu and addition of
Maniema, Nord-Kivu, and Sud-Kivu

Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium; formerly Belgian Congo,
then Congo/Leopoldville, then Congo/Kinshasa)

Constitution: 24 June 1967, amended August 1974, revised 15 February 1978

Legal system: based on Belgian civil law system and tribal law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Regime (Second Republic),
24 November (1965)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Legislative Council
(Conseil Legislatif National)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Marshal MOBUTU Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu wa
Za Banga (since 24 November 1965);

Head of Government--Prime Minister LUNDA Bululu (since 25 April
1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Popular Movement of the
Revolution (MPR)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 29 July 1984 (next to be held July 1991);
results--President Mobutu was reelected without opposition;

National Legislative Council--last held 6 September 1987
(next to be held September 1992);
results--MPR is the only party;
seats--(210 total) MPR 210

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CIPEC, EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant),
Charge d'Affaires MUKENDI Tambo a Kabila;
Chancery at 1800 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009;
telephone (202) 234-7690 or 7691;
US--Ambassador William C. HARROP; Embassy at 310 Avenue des Aviateurs,
Kinshasa (mailing address is APO New York 09662); telephone 243o (12) 25881
through 25886; there is a US Consulate General in Lubumbashi

Flag: light green with a yellow disk in the center bearing a black arm
holding a red flaming torch; the flames of the torch are blowing away from the
hoist side; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: In 1988, in spite of large mineral resources and one of the most
developed and diversified economies in Sub-Saharan Africa, Zaire had
a GDP per capita of $195, one of the lowest on the continent. Agriculture,
a key sector of the economy, employs 75% of the population but generates
under 30% of GDP. The main impetus for economic development has been the
extractive industries. Mining and mineral processing account for about
one-third of GDP and two-thirds of total export earnings. During the period
1983-88 the economy experienced slow growth, high inflation, a rising foreign
debt, and a drop in foreign exchange earnings. Recent increases in foreign
prices for copper--a key export earner--and other minerals offer some hope of
reversing the economic decline. Zaire is the world's largest producer of
diamonds.

GDP: $6.5 billion, per capita $195; real growth rate 2.8% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 82% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $856 million; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $655 million (1988)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--copper 37%,
coffee 24%, diamonds 12%, cobalt, crude oil; partners--US, Belgium,
France, FRG, Italy, UK, Japan

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--consumer goods,
foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels;
partners--US, Belgium, France, FRG, Italy, Japan, UK

External debt: $8.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 2,574,000 kW capacity; 5,550 million kWh produced,
160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, mineral processing, consumer products (including
textiles, footwear, and cigarettes), processed foods and beverages, cement,
diamonds

Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, palm oil, rubber, quinine; food
crops--cassava, bananas, root crops, corn

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis, mostly for domestic
consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $998 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$263 million

Currency: zaire (plural--zaire); 1 zaire (Z) = 100 makuta

Exchange rates: zaire (Z) per US$1--465.000 (January 1989),
381.445 (1989), 187.070 (1988), 112.403 (1987), 59.625 (1986), 49.873 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 5,254 km total; 3,968 km 1.067-meter gauge (851 km
electrified); 125 km 1.000-meter gauge; 136 km 0.615-meter gauge; 1,025 km
0.600-meter gauge

Highways: 146,500 km total; 2,550 km bituminous, 46,450 km gravel and
improved earth; remainder unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 15,000 km including the Congo, its tributaries, and
unconnected lakes

Pipelines: refined products 390 km

Ports: Matadi, Boma, Banana

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,802 GRT/60,496
DWT; includes 1 passenger cargo, 3 cargo

Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft

Airports: 312 total, 258 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
71 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: barely adequate wire and radio relay service;
31,200 telephones; stations--10 AM, 4 FM, 18 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 14 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Gendarmerie, Logistics Corps,
Special Presidential Division

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,970,619; 4,057,561 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: $67 million (1988)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Zambia
- Geography
Total area: 752,610 km2; land area: 740,720 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 5,664 km total; Angola 1,110 km, Malawi 837 km,
Mozambique 419 km, Namibia 233 km, Tanzania 338 km, Zaire 1,930 km,
Zimbabwe 797 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe is in
disagreement; Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer
be indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold,
silver, uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 47% meadows and pastures;
27% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 8,112,782 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 55 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Zambian(s); adjective--Zambian

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% African, 1.1% European, 0.2% other

Religion: 50-75% Christian, 1% Muslim and Hindu, remainder indigenous
beliefs

Language: English (official); about 70 indigenous languages

Literacy: 75.7%

Labor force: 2,455,000; 85% agriculture; 6% mining, manufacturing, and
construction; 9% transport and services

Organized labor: about 238,000 wage earners are unionized

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Zambia

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lusaka

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern,
Luapula, Lusaka, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western

Independence: 24 October 1964 (from UK; formerly Northern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 25 August 1973

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in an ad hoc constitutional council; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Kenneth David KAUNDA (since 24 October
1964);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Gen. Malimba MASHEKE (since 15 March
1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party--United National
Independence Party (UNIP), Kenneth Kaunda

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 26 October 1988
(next to be held October 1993);
results--President Kenneth Kaunda was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 26 October 1988
(next to be held October 1993);
results--UNIP is the only party;
seats--(136 total, 125 elected) UNIP 125

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU,
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Paul J. F. LUSAKA; Chancery
at 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-9717
through 9721;
US--Ambassador Jeffrey DAVIDOW; Embassy at corner of Independence Avenue
and United Nations Avenue, Lusaka (mailing address is P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka);
telephone 2601o 214911

Flag: green with a panel of three vertical bands of red (hoist side),
black, and orange below a soaring orange eagle, on the outer edge of the flag

- Economy
Overview: Despite temporary growth in 1988, the economy has been in
decline for more than a decade with falling imports and growing foreign
debt. Economic difficulties stem from a sustained drop in copper production
and ineffective economic policies. In 1988 real GDP stood only slightly
higher than that of 10 years before, while an annual population growth of
more than 3% has brought a decline in per capita GDP of 25% during the same
period. A high inflation rate has also added to Zambia's economic woes in
recent years.

GDP: $4.0 billion, per capita $530; real growth rate 6.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 55.7% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $570 million; expenditures $939 million,
including capital expenditures of $36 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1,184 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--copper, zinc,
cobalt, lead, tobacco; partners--EC, Japan, South Africa, US

Imports: $687 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--machinery,
transportation equipment, foodstuffs, fuels, manufactures; partners--EC,
Japan, South Africa, US

External debt: $6.9 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA% (1986)

Electricity: 1,900,000 kW capacity; 8,245 million kWh produced,
1,050 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copper mining and processing, transport, construction,
foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, and fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 85% of labor force;
crops--corn (food staple), sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower, tobacco,
cotton, sugarcane, cassava; cattle, goats, beef, eggs produced;
marginally self-sufficient in corn

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $466 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.2 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$533 million

Currency: Zambian kwacha (plural--kwacha);
1 Zambian kwacha (ZK) = 100 ngwee

Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZK) per US$1--21.7865 (January 1990),
12.9032 (1989), 8.2237 (1988), 8.8889 (1987), 7.3046 (1986), 2.7137 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,266 km, all 1.067-meter gauge; 13 km double track

Highways: 36,370 km total; 6,500 km paved, 7,000 km crushed stone, gravel,
or stabilized soil; 22,870 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 2,250 km, including Zambezi and Luapula Rivers,
Lake Tanganyika

Pipelines: 1,724 km crude oil

Ports: Mpulungu (lake port)

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 121 total, 106 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 22 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are among the best in Sub-Saharan Africa;
high-capacity radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; 71,700
telephones; stations--11 AM, 3 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, Police, Paramilitary

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,683,758; 883,283 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Zimbabwe
- Geography
Total area: 390,580 km2; land area: 386,670 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Montana

Land boundaries: 3,066 km total; Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km,
South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: quadripoint with Botswana, Namibia, and Zambia is in
disagreement

Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld);
mountains in east

Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper,
iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin

Land use: 7% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 12% meadows and pastures;
62% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare;
deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 10,392,161 (July 1990), growth rate 3.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Zimbabwean(s); adjective--Zimbabwean

Ethnic divisions: 98% African (71% Shona, 16% Ndebele, 11% other);
1% white, 1% mixed and Asian

Religion: 50% syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs), 25%
Christian, 24% indigenous beliefs, a few Muslim

Language: English (official); Shona and Ndebele

Literacy: 74%

Labor force: 3,100,000; 74% agriculture, 16% transport and services,
10% mining, manufacturing, construction (1987)

Organized labor: 17% of wage and salary earners have union membership

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Zimbabwe

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Harare

Administrative divisions: 8 provinces; Manicaland, Mashonaland Central,
Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South,
Midlands, Victoria (commonly called Masvingo)

Independence: 18 April 1980 (from UK; formerly Southern Rhodesia)

Constitution: 21 December 1979

Legal system: mixture of Roman-Dutch and English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Executive President Robert
Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Simon Vengai
MUZENDA (since 31 December 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Zimbabwe African National
Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), Robert Mugabe; Zimbabwe African National
Union-Sithole (ZANU-S), Ndabaningi Sithole; Zimbabwe Unity Movement
(ZUM), Edgar Tekere

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held March 1995);
results--President Robert Mugabe 78.3%; Edgar Tekere 21.7%;

Parliament--last held 28-30 March 1990 (next to be held
March 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(150 total, 120 elected) ZANU 116, ZUM 2, ZANU-S 1, to be
determined 1

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Counselor (Political Affairs), Head of
Chancery, Ambassador Stanislaus Garikai CHIGWEDERE; Chancery at
2852 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-7100;
US--Ambassador-designate Steven RHODES; Embassy at 172 Rhodes
Avenue, Harare (mailing address is P. O. Box 3340, Harare);
telephone 263o (14) 794-521

Flag: seven equal horizontal bands of green, yellow, red, black, red,
yellow, and green with a white equilateral triangle edged in black based on the
hoist side; a yellow Zimbabwe bird is superimposed on a red five-pointed star in
the center of the triangle

- Economy
Overview: Agriculture employs a majority of the labor force and supplies
almost 40% of exports. The agro-based manufacturing sector produces a variety
of goods and contributes about 25% to GDP. Mining accounts for only 5% of both
GDP and employment, but supplies of minerals and metals account for about 40%
of exports. Wide year-to-year fluctuations in agricultural production
over the past six years resulted in not only an uneven growth rate, but
one that did not equal the 3% annual increase in population.

GDP: $4.6 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate 5.3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: at least 20% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.4 billion; expenditures $3.0 billion, including
capital expenditures of $290 million (FY90)

Exports: $1.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--agricultural 34%
(tobacco 21%, other 13%), manufactures 19%, gold 11%, ferrochrome 11%,
cotton 6%; partners--Europe 55% (EC 41%, Netherlands 6%, other 8%),
Africa 22% (South Africa 12%, other 10%), US 6%

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--machinery and
transportation equipment 37%, other manufactures 22%, chemicals 16%, fuels 15%;
partners--EC 31%, Africa 29% (South Africa 21%, other 8%), US 8%, Japan 4%

External debt: $2.96 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 2,036,000 kW capacity; 5,460 million kWh produced,
540 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, steel, clothing and footwear, chemicals,
foodstuffs, fertilizer, beverage, transportation equipment, wood products

Agriculture: accounts for about 15% of GDP and employs over 70% of
population; 40% of land area divided into 6,000 large commercial farms and
42% in communal lands; crops--corn (food staple), cotton, tobacco, wheat,
coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; livestock--cattle, sheep, goats, pigs;
self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $359 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $36 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$134 million

Currency: Zimbabwean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Zimbabwean dollar (Z$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (Z$) per US$1--2.2873 (January 1990),
2.1133 (1989), 1.8018 (1988), 1.6611 (1987), 1.6650 (1986), 1.6119 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 2,745 km 1.067-meter gauge; 42 km double track; 355 km
electrified

Highways: 85,237 km total; 15,800 km paved, 39,090 km crushed stone,
gravel, stabilized soil: 23,097 km improved earth; 7,250 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Kariba is a potential line of communication

Pipelines: 8 km, refined products

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

Airports: 506 total, 420 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 37 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now
suffers from poor maintenance; consists of radio relay links, open-wire lines,
and radio communications stations; 247,000 telephones; stations--8 AM, 18 FM,
8 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Zimbabwe National Army, Air Force of Zimbabwe, Police Support
Unit, People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,173,448; 1,342,920 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: $446.7 million (FY89 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Taiwan
- Geography
Total area: 35,980 km2; land area: 32,260 km2; includes the Pescadores,
Matsu, and Quemoy

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: involved in complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam; Paracel Islands occupied by China, but
claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; Japanese-administered Senkaku-shoto
(Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: tropical; marine; rainy season during southwest monsoon
(June to August); cloudiness is persistent and extensive all year

Terrain: eastern two-thirds mostly rugged mountains; flat to gently
rolling plains in west

Natural resources: small deposits of coal, natural gas, limestone,
marble, and asbestos

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 5% meadows and pastures;
55% forest and woodland; 15% other; 14% irrigated

Environment: subject to earthquakes and typhoons

- People
Population: 20,546,664 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Chinese (sing., pl.); adjective--Chinese

Ethnic divisions: 84% Taiwanese, 14% mainland Chinese, 2% aborigine

Religion: 93% mixture of Buddhist, Confucian, and Taoist; 4.5% Christian;
2.5% other

Language: Mandarin Chinese (official); Taiwanese and Hakka dialects also
used

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 7,880,000; 41% industry and commerce, 32% services,
20% agriculture, 7% civil administration (1986)

Organized labor: 1,300,000 or about 18.4% (government controlled) (1983)

- Administration
Long-form name: none

Type: one-party presidential regime; opposition political parties
legalized in March, 1989

Capital: Taipei

Administrative divisions: 16 counties (hsien, singular and plural),
5 municipalities* (shih, singular and plural), 2 special municipalities**
(chuan-shih, singular and plural); Chang-hua, Chia-i, Chia-i*, Chi-lung*,
Hsin-chu, Hsin-chu*, Hua-lien, I-lan, Kao-hsiung, Kao-hsiung**, Miao-li,
Nan-t'ou, P'eng-hu, P'ing-tung, T'ai-chung, T'ai-chung*, T'ai-nan, T'ai-nan*,
T'ai-pei, T'ai-pei**, T'ai-tung, T'ao-yuan, Yun-lin; note--the Wade-Giles
system is used for romanization

Constitution: 25 December 1947

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: National Day (Anniversary of the Revolution),
10 October (1911)

Executive branch: president, vice president, premier of the Executive
Yuan, vice premier of the Executive Yuan, Executive Yuan

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Yuan

Judicial branch: Judicial Yuan

Leaders:
Chief of State--President LI Teng-hui (since 13 January 1988);
Vice President LI Yuan-tzu (will take office 20 May 1990);

Head of Government--Premier (President of the Executive Yuan)
HAO Po-ts'un (since 2 May 1990); Vice Premier (Vice President of the
Executive Yuan) SHIH Ch'i-yang (since NA July 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Kuomintang (Nationalist Party),
LI Teng-hui, chairman; Democratic Socialist Party and Young China
Party controlled by Kuomintang; Democratic Progressive Party (DPP);
Labor Party; 27 other minor parties

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
President--last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held March 1996);
results--President Li Teng-hui was elected by the National Assembly;

Vice President--last held 21 March 1990
(next to be held March 1996);
results--Li Yuan-tzu was elected by the National Assembly;

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