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submarine cables; communication satellite earth stations operating in
INTELSAT (7 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and EUTELSAT
systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Navy (includes Royal Marines), Army, Royal Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,462,993; 12,180,580 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 4.3% of GDP, or $35 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: United States
- Geography
Total area: 9,372,610 km2; land area: 9,166,600 km2; includes only
the 50 states and District of Colombia

Comparative area: about four-tenths the size of USSR; about one-third
the size of Africa; about one-half the size of South America (or slightly
larger than Brazil); slightly smaller than China; about two and one-half times
the size of Western Europe

Land boundaries: 12,248.1 km total; Canada 8,893 km (including 2,477 km
with Alaska), Mexico 3,326 km, Cuba (US naval base at Guantanamo) 29.1 km

Coastline: 19,924 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: not specified;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary disputes with Canada; US Naval Base at
Guantanamo is leased from Cuba and only mutual agreement or US
abandonment of the area can terminate the lease; Haiti claims Navassa
Island; has made no territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the
right to do so) and does not recognize the claims of any other nation

Climate: mostly temperate, but varies from tropical (Hawaii) to arctic
(Alaska); arid to semiarid in west with occasional warm, dry chinook wind

Terrain: vast central plain, mountains in west, hills and low mountains
in east; rugged mountains and broad river valleys in Alaska; rugged, volcanic
topography in Hawaii

Natural resources: coal, copper, lead, molybdenum, phosphates, uranium,
bauxite, gold, iron, mercury, nickel, potash, silver, tungsten, zinc,
crude oil, natural gas, timber

Land use: 20% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 26% meadows and
pastures; 29% forest and woodland; 25% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air and water quality;
acid rain; agricultural fertilizer and pesticide pollution; management of
sparse natural water resources in west; desertification; tsunamis, volcanoes,
and earthquake activity around Pacific Basin; continuous permafrost in
northern Alaska is a major impediment to development

Note: world's fourth-largest country (after USSR, Canada, and China)

- People
Population: 250,410,000 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--American(s); adjective--American

Ethnic divisions: 85% white, 12% black, 3% other (1985)

Religion: Protestant 61% (Baptist 21%, Methodist 12%, Lutheran 8%,
Presbyterian 4%, Episcopalian 3%, other Protestant 13%), Roman Catholic 25%,
Jewish 2%, other 5%; none 7%

Language: predominantly English; sizable Spanish-speaking minority

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 125,557,000 (includes armed forces and unemployed);
civilian labor force 123,869,000 (1989)

Organized labor: 16,960,000 members; 16.4% of labor force (1989)

- Government
Long-form name: United States of America; abbreviated US or USA

Type: federal republic; strong democratic tradition

Capital: Washington, DC

Administrative divisions: 50 states and 1 district*; Alabama, Alaska,
Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware,
District of Columbia*, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana,
Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire,
New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Oregon, Pennyslvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee,
Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Independence: 4 July 1776 (from England)

Constitution: 17 September 1787, effective 4 June 1789

Dependent areas: American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island;
Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Islands, Navassa Island,
Palmyra Atoll, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Wake Island. Since 18 July 1947, the
US has administered the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, but recently
entered into a new political relationship with three of the four political
units. The Northern Mariana Islands is a Commonwealth associated with the US
(effective 3 November 1986). Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association with
the US that was approved by the US Congress but to date the Compact process has
not been completed in Palau, which continues to be administered by the US as the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. The Federated States of Micronesia
signed a Compact of Free Association with the US (effective 3 November 1986).
The Republic of the Marshall Islands signed a Compact of Free Association with
the US (effective 21 October 1986).

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 July (1776)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President George BUSH
(since 20 January 1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since
20 January 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Republican Party, Lee Atwater,
national committee chairman and Jeanie Austin, co-chairman;
Democratic Party, Ronald H. Brown, national committee chairman;
several other groups or parties of minor political significance

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 3 November 1992);
results--George Bush (Republican Party) 53.37%,
Michael Dukakis (Democratic Party) 45.67%, others 0.96%;

Senate--last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 6 November 1990);
results--Democratic Party 52.1%, Republican Party 46.2%, others 1.7%;
seats--(100 total) Democratic Party 55, Republican Party 45;

House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 6 November 1990);
results--Democratic Party 53.2%, Republican Party 45.3%, others 1.5%;
seats--(435 total) Democratic Party 259, Republican Party 174, vacant 2

Communists: Communist Party (claimed 15,000-20,000 members), Gus Hall,
general secretary; Socialist Workers Party (claimed 1,800 members), Jack Barnes,
national secretary

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, FAO, ESCAP, GATT,
IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICEM, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American
Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission,
IWC--International Wheat Council, NATO, OAS, OECD, PAHO, SPC, UN, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: US Representative to the UN,
Ambassador Thomas R. PICKERING; Mission at 799 United Nations Plaza,
New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 415-4444

Flag: thirteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom)
alternating with white; there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side
corner bearing 50 small white five-pointed stars arranged in nine offset
horizontal rows of six stars (top and bottom) alternating with rows of five
stars; the 50 stars represent the 50 states, the 13 stripes represent the 13
original colonies; known as Old Glory; the design and colors have been the basis
for a number of other flags including Chile, Liberia, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico

- Economy
Overview: The US has the most powerful and diversified economy in
the world, with a per capita GNP of over $21,000, the largest among the
major industrial nations. In 1989 the economy entered its eighth
successive year of growth, the longest in peacetime history. The
expansion has featured continued moderation in wage and consumer price
increases, an unemployment rate of 5.2%, (the lowest in 10 years), and an
inflation rate of 4.8%. On the negative side, the US enters the 1990s
with massive budget and trade deficits, huge and rapidly rising medical
costs, and inadequate investment in industrial capacity and economic
infrastructure.

GNP: $5,233.3 billion, per capita $21,082; real growth rate 2.9%
(1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 5.2% (1989)

Budget: revenues $976 billion; expenditures $1,137 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY89 est.)

Exports: $322.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--capital goods,
automobiles, industrial supplies and raw materials, consumer goods,
agricultural products; partners--Canada 22.9%, Japan 11.8% (1988)

Imports: $440.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--crude and
partly refined petroleum, machinery, automobiles, consumer goods, industrial
raw materials, food and beverages; partners--Japan 19.6% , Canada 19.1%
(1988)

External debt: $532 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 776,550,000 kW capacity; 2,958,300 million kWh produced,
11,920 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: leading industrial power in the world, highly diversified;
petroleum, steel, motor vehicles, aerospace, telecommunications, chemicals,
electronics, food processing, consumer goods, fishing, lumber, mining

Agriculture: accounts for 2% of GNP and 2.8% of labor force;
favorable climate and soils support a wide variety of crops and livestock
production; world's second-largest producer and number-one exporter of
grain; surplus food producer; fish catch of 5.7 million metric tons
(1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for domestic
consumption with 1987 production estimated at 3,500 metric tons
or about 25% of the available marijuana; ongoing eradication program
aimed at small plots and greenhouses has not reduced production

Aid: donor--commitments, including Ex-Im (FY80-88), $90.5 billion

Currency: United States dollar (plural--dollars);
1 United States dollar (US$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$--0.6055 (January
1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986),
0.7714 (1985);

Canadian dollars (Can$) per US$--1.1885 (February 1990),
1.2307 (1988), 1.3260 (1987), 1.3895 (1986);

French francs (F) per US$--5.695 (February 1990), 5.9569 (1988),
6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985);

Italian lire (Lit) per US$--1,244.8 (February 1990),
1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);

Japanese yen (Y) per US$--145.55 (February 1990), 128.15 (1988),
144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985);

FRG deutsche marks (DM) per US$--1.6775 (February 1990),
1.7562 (1988), 1.7974 (1987), 2.1715 (1986), 2.9440 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Railroads: 270,312 km

Highways: 6,365,590 km, including 88,641 km expressways

Inland waterways: 41,009 km of navigable inland channels, exclusive
of the Great Lakes (est.)

Pipelines: 275,800 km petroleum, 305,300 km natural gas (1985)

Ports: Anchorage, Baltimore, Beaumont, Boston, Charleston, Cleveland,
Duluth, Freeport, Galveston, Hampton Roads, Honolulu, Houston, Jacksonville,
Long Beach, Los Angeles, Milwaukee, Mobile, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia,
Portland (Oregon), Richmond (California), San Francisco, Savannah, Seattle,
Tampa, Wilmington

Merchant marine: 373 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling NA
GRT/NA DWT); includes 2 passenger-cargo, 37 cargo, 22 bulk,
165 tanker, 13 tanker tug-barge, 10 liquefied gas, 124
intermodal; in addition there are 248 government-owned vessels

Civil air: 3,297 commercial multiengine transport aircraft, including
2,989 jet, 231 turboprop, 77 piston (1985)

Airports: 15,422 in operation (1981)

Telecommunications: 182,558,000 telephones; stations--4,892 AM, 5,200 FM
(including 3,915 commercial and 1,285 public broadcasting), 7,296 TV (including
796 commercial, 300 public broadcasting, and 6,200 commercial cable);
495,000,000 radio receivers (1982); 150,000,000 TV sets (1982); satellite earth
stations--45 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 16 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Department of the Army, Department of the Navy (including Marine
Corps), Department of the Air Force

Military manpower: 2,247,000 total; 781,000 Army;
599,000 Air Force; 793,000 Navy (includes 200,000 Marine Corps) (1988)

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GNP, or $302.8 billion (1989)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Uruguay
- Geography
Total area: 176,220 km2; land area: 173,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Washington State

Land boundaries: 1,564 km total; Argentina 579 km, Brazil 985 km

Coastline: 660 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted
beyond 12 nm)

Disputes: short section of boundary with Argentina is in dispute; two
short sections of the boundary with Brazil are in dispute (Arroyo de la
Invernada area of the Rio Quarai and the islands at the confluence of the
Rio Quarai and the Uruguay)

Climate: warm temperate; freezing temperatures almost unknown

Terrain: mostly rolling plains and low hills; fertile coastal lowland

Natural resources: soil, hydropower potential, minor minerals

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 78% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to seasonally high winds, droughts, floods

- People
Population: 3,036,660 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Uruguayan(s); adjective--Uruguayan

Ethnic divisions: 88% white, 8% mestizo, 4% black

Religion: 66% Roman Catholic (less than half adult population attends
church regularly), 2% Protestant, 2% Jewish, 30% nonprofessing or other

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 25% government, 19% manufacturing,
11% agriculture, 12% commerce, 12% utilities, construction, transport, and
communications, 21% other services (1988 est.)

Organized labor: Interunion Workers' Assembly/National Workers'
Confederation (PIT/CNT) Labor Federation

- Government
Long-form name: Oriental Republic of Uruguay

Type: republic

Capital: Montevideo

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Artigas, Canelones, Cerro Largo, Colonia, Durazno,
Flores, Florida, Lavalleja, Maldonado, Montevideo, Paysandu, Rio Negro,
Rivera, Rocha, Salto, San Jose, Soriano, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres

Independence: 25 August 1828 (from Brazil)

Constitution: 27 November 1966, effective February 1967, suspended
27 June 1973, new constitution rejected by referendum 30 November 1980

Legal system: based on Spanish civil law system; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 August (1828)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camera del Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Luis Alberto
LACALLE (since 1 March 1990); Vice President Gonzalo AGUIRRE (since
1 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: National (Blanco) Party, Roberto
Rubio; Colorado Party; Broad Front Coalition, Liber Seregni includes
Communist Party led by Jaime Perez and National Liberation Movement
(MLN) or Tupamaros led by Eleuterio Fernandez Huidobro; New Space
Coalition consists of the Party of the Government of the People (PGP)
led by Hugo Batalla, Christian Democratic Party (PDC), and Civic Union
led by Humberto Ciganda

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results--Luis Lacalle (Blanco) 37%, Jorge Batlle (Colorado)
29%, Liber Seregni (Broad Front) 20%;

Senate--last held 26 November 1989 (next to be held November 1994);
results--Blanco 40%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 23% New Space 7%;
seats--(30 total) Blanco 12, Colorado 9, Broad Front 7, New Space 2;

Chamber of Deputies--last held NA November 1989 (next to be held
November 1994);
results--Blanco 39%, Colorado 30%, Broad Front 22%, New Space 8%, others 1%;
seats--(99 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 50,000

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Juan Podesta PINON; Chancery
at 1918 F Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 331-1313
through 1316; there are Uruguayan Consulates General in Los Angeles,
Miami, and New York, and a Consulate in New Orleans;
US--Ambassador Malcolm R. WILKEY; Embassy at Lauro Muller 1776, Montevideo
(mailing address is APO Miami 34035); telephone p598o (2) 40-90-51

Flag: nine equal horizontal stripes of white (top and bottom) alternating
with blue; there is a white square in the upper hoist-side corner with a yellow
sun bearing a human face known as the Sun of May and 16 rays alternately
triangular and wavy

- Economy
Overview: The economy is slowly recovering from the deep recession of
1981-84. In 1986 real GDP grew by 6.6% and in 1987 by 4.9%. The recovery
was led by growth in the agriculture and fishing sectors, agriculture
alone contributing 20% to GDP, employing about 11% of the labor force, and
generating a large proportion of export earnings. Raising livestock,
particularly cattle and sheep, is the major agricultural activity. In
1988, despite healthy exports and an improved current account, domestic
growth slowed because of government concentration on the external sector,
adverse weather conditions, and prolonged strikes. High inflation rates
of about 80%, a large domestic debt, and frequent strikes remain major economic
problems for the government.

GDP: $8.8 billion, per capita $2,950; real growth rate 1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9.0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.2 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (1988)

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--hides and
leather goods 17%, beef 10%, wool 9%, fish 7%, rice 4%;
partners--Brazil 17%, US 15%, FRG 10%, Argentina 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--fuels and
lubricants 15%, metals, machinery, transportation equipment, industrial
chemicals; partners--Brazil 24%, Argentina 14%, US 8%, FRG 8% (1987)

External debt: $6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 2.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 1,950,000 kW capacity; 4,330 million kWh produced,
1,450 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meat processing, wool and hides, sugar, textiles, footwear,
leather apparel, tires, cement, fishing, petroleum refining, wine

Agriculture: large areas devoted to extensive livestock grazing; wheat,
rice, corn, sorghum; self-sufficient in most basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $105 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $263 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $69 million

Currency: new Uruguayan peso (plural--pesos);
1 new Uruguayan peso (N$Ur) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: new Uruguayan pesos (N$Ur) per US$1--832.62
(January 1990), 605.62 (1989), 359.44 (1988), 226.67 (1987), 151.99 (1986),
101.43 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,000 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge and government owned

Highways: 49,900 km total; 6,700 km paved, 3,000 km gravel, 40,200 km
earth

Inland waterways: 1,600 km; used by coastal and shallow-draft river craft

Ports: Montevideo, Punta del Este

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 65,212 GRT/116,613
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 container

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 92 total, 87 usable; 16 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
17 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most modern facilities concentrated in Montevideo;
new nationwide radio relay network; 337,000 telephones; stations--99 AM, no FM,
26 TV, 9 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 711,700; 580,898 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1986)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Vanuatu
- Geography
Total area: 14,760 km2; land area: 14,760 km2; includes more
than 80 islands

Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundary: none

Coastline: 2,528 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by southeast trade winds

Terrain: mostly mountains of volcanic origin; narrow coastal plains

Natural resources: manganese, hardwood forests, fish

Land use: 1% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures; 1%
forest and woodland; 91% other

Environment: subject to tropical cyclones or typhoons (January to April);
volcanism causes minor earthquakes

Note: located 5,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Australia

- People
Population: 165,006 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 36 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Vanuatuan(s); adjective--Vanuatuan

Ethnic divisions: 94% indigenous Melanesian, 4% French, remainder
Vietnamese, Chinese, and various Pacific Islanders

Religion: most at least nominally Christian

Language: English and French (official); pidgin (known as Bislama or
Bichelama)

Literacy: 10-20% (est.)

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 7 registered trade unions--largest include Oil and Gas
Workers' Union, Vanuatu Airline Workers' Union

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Vanuatu

Type: republic

Capital: Port-Vila

Administrative divisions: 11 island councils; Ambrym, Aoba/Maewo,
Banks/Torres, Efate, Epi, Malakula, Paama, Pentecote, Santo/Malo,
Shepherd, Tafea

Independence: 30 July 1980 (from France and UK; formerly New Hebrides)

Constitution: 30 July 1980

Legal system: unified system being created from former dual French and
British systems

National holiday: Independence Day, 30 July (1980)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament; note--the National Council of
Chiefs advises on matters of custom and land

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Frederick TIMAKATA (since 30 January 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Father Walter Hadye LINI (since
30 July 1980); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Political parties and leaders: National Party (Vanua'aku Pati),
Walter Lini; Union of Moderate Parties, Maxine Carlot;
Melanesian Progressive Party, Barak Sope

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament--last held 30 November 1987 (next to be held NA);
byelections were held NA December 1988 to fill vacancies resulting from
the expulsion of opposition members for boycotting sessions;
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(46 total) National Party 26, Union of Moderate Parties 19,
independent 1

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC,
IMF, ITU, NAM, SPF, UN, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Vanuatu does not have a mission in
Washington;
US--the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to Vanuatu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green (bottom) with a
black isosceles triangle (based on the hoist side) all separated by a
black-edged yellow stripe in the shape of a horizontal Y (the two
points of the Y face the hoist side and enclose the triangle);
centered in the triangle is a boar's tusk encircling two crossed
namele leaves, all in yellow

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based primarily on subsistence farming that
provides a living for about 80% of the population. Fishing and tourism are the
other mainstays of the economy. Mineral deposits are negligible; the country has
no known petroleum deposits. A small light-industry sector caters to the local
market. Tax revenues come mainly from import duties.

GDP: $120 million, per capita $820; real growth rate 0.7% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $80.1 million; expenditures $86.6 million, including
capital expenditures of $27.1 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $16 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--copra 37%,
cocoa 11%, meat 9%, fish 8%, timber 4%; partners--Netherlands 34%, France
27%, Japan 17%, Belgium 4%, New Caledonia 3%, Singapore 2% (1987)

Imports: $58 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--machines and
vehicles 25%, food and beverages 23%, basic manufactures 18%, raw materials and
fuels 11%, chemicals 6%;
partners--Australia 36%, Japan 13%, NZ 10%, France 8%, Fiji 5% (1987)

External debt: $57 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 20 million kWh produced,
125 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and fish freezing, forestry processing, meat canning

Agriculture: export crops--copra, cocoa, coffee, and fish; subsistence
crops--copra, taro, yams, coconuts, fruits, and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $541 million

Currency: vatu (plural--vatu); 1 vatu (VT) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: vatu (VT) per US$1--107.17 (January 1990), 116.04 (1989),
104.43 (1988), 109.85 (1987), 106.08 (1986), 106.03 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: none

Highways: 1,027 km total; at least 240 km sealed or all-weather roads

Ports: Port-Vila, Luganville, Palikoulo, Santu

Merchant marine: 65 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 885,668
GRT/1,473,443 DWT; includes 26 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 5 container,
2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 21 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note--a flag
of convenience registry

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 33 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, no TV; 3,000 telephones;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: a paramilitary force is responsible for internal and external
security; no military forces

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Vatican City
- Geography
Total area: 0.438 km2; land area: 0.438 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 3.2 km with Italy

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to mid-May) with
hot, dry summers (May to September)

Terrain: low hill

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: urban

Note: landlocked; enclave of Rome, Italy; world's smallest state;
outside the Vatican City, 13 buildings in Rome and Castel Gandolfo
(the pope's summer residence) enjoy extraterritorial rights

- People
Population: 774 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italians but also many other nationalities

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian, Latin, and various other languages

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: about 1,500; Vatican City employees divided into three
categories--executives, office workers, and salaried employees

Organized labor: Association of Vatican Lay Workers, 1,800 members (1987)

- Government
Long-form name: State of the Vatican City; note--the Vatican City is the
physical seat of the Holy See which is the central government of the Roman
Catholic Church

Type: monarchical-sacerdotal state

Capital: Vatican City

Independence: 11 February 1929 (from Italy)

Constitution: Apostolic Constitution of 1967 (effective 1 March 1968)

National holiday: Installation Day of the Pope (John Paul II),
22 October (1978); note--Pope John Paul II was elected on 16 October 1978

Executive branch: pope

Legislative branch: unicameral Pontifical Commission

Judicial branch: none; normally handled by Italy

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Pope JOHN PAUL II (Karol
WOJTYLA; since 16 October 1978)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: limited to cardinals less than 80 years old

Elections:
Pope--last held 16 October 1978 (next to be held after the death of
the current pope);
results--Karol Wojtyla was elected for life by the College of Cardinals

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: none (exclusive of influence
exercised by church officers)

Member: IAEA, INTELSAT, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, UPU,
WIPO, WTO; permanent observer status at FAO, OAS, UN, and UNESCO

Diplomatic representation: Apostolic Pro-Nuncio Archbishop Pio LAGHI;
3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-7121;
US--Ambassador Thomas P. MELADY; Embassy at Villino Pacelli,
Via Aurelia 294, 00165 Rome (mailing address is APO New York 09794);
telephone p396o 639-0558

Flag: two vertical bands of yellow (hoist side) and white with the crossed
keys of St. Peter and the papal tiara centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: The economy is supported financially by contributions (known as
Peter's pence) from Roman Catholics throughout the world, the sale of postage
stamps, tourist mementos, fees for admission to museums, and the sale of
publications.

Budget: revenues $57 million; expenditures $113.7 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

Electricity: 5,000 kW standby capacity (1989); power supplied by Italy

Industries: printing and production of a small amount of mosaics and
staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities

Currency: Vatican lira (plural--lire);
1 Vatican lira (VLit) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Vatican lire (VLit) per US$1--1,262.5 (January 1990),
1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985);
note--the Vatican lira is at par with the Italian lira which circulates freely

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 850 m, 750 mm gauge (links with Italian network near the Rome
station of St. Peter's)

Highways: none; all city streets

Telecommunications: stations--3 AM, 4 FM, no TV; 2,000-line automatic
telephone exchange; no communications satellite systems

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Italy; Swiss Papal Guards are
posted at entrances to the Vatican City
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Venezuela
- Geography
Total area: 912,050 km2; land area: 882,050 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,993 km total; Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km,
Guyana 743 km

Coastline: 2,800 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 15 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Essequibo area of Guyana; maritime boundary disputes with
Colombia in the Gulf of Venezuela and with Trinidad and Tobago in the
Gulf of Paria

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

Terrain: Andes mountains and Maracaibo lowlands in northwest;
central plains (llanos); Guyana highlands in southeast

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other
minerals, hydropower, diamonds

Land use: 3% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and pastures;
39% forest and woodland; 37% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: subject to floods, rockslides, mudslides; periodic
droughts; increasing industrial pollution in Caracas and Maracaibo

Note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

- People
Population: 19,698,104 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 4 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Venezuelan(s); adjective--Venezuelan

Ethnic divisions: 67% mestizo, 21% white, 10% black, 2% Indian

Religion: 96% nominally Roman Catholic, 2% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); Indian dialects spoken by about 200,000
Amerindians in the remote interior

Literacy: 85.6%

Labor force: 5,800,000; 56% services, 28% industry, 16% agriculture (1985)

Organized labor: 32% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Venezuela

Type: republic

Capital: Caracas

Administrative divisions: 20 states (estados, singular--estado),
2 territories* (territorios, singular--territorio), 1 federal district**
(distrito federal), and 1 federal dependence*** (dependencia federal);
Amazonas*, Anzoategui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolivar, Carabobo, Cojedes,
Delta Amacuro*, Dependencias Federales***, Distrito Federal**, Falcon,
Guarico, Lara, Merida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre,
Tachira, Trujillo, Yaracuy, Zulia; note--the federal dependence consists of
11 federally controlled island groups with a total of 72 individual islands

Independence: 5 July 1811 (from Spain)

Constitution: 23 January 1961

Legal system: based on Napoleonic code; judicial review of legislative
acts in Cassation Court only; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 5 July (1811)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justica)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos Andres
PEREZ (since 2 February 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Social Christian Party (COPEI),
Eduardo Fernandez, secretary general; Democratic Action (AD),
Gonzalo Barrios, president, and Humberto Celli, secretary general;
Movement Toward Socialism (MAS), Teodoro Petkoff, president, and
Freddy Munoz, secretary general

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18, though poorly enforced

Elections:
President--last held 4 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993);
results--Carlos Andres Perez (AD) 53%,
Eduardo Fernandez (COPEI) 40%, others 7%;

Senate--last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(49 total) AD 23, COPEI 22, others 4;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 4 December 1988
(next to be held December 1993);
results--AD 43.7%, COPEI 31.4%, MAS 10.3%, others 14.6%;
seats--(201 total) AD 97, COPEI 67, MAS 18, others 19

Communists: 10,000 members (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: FEDECAMARAS, a conservative
business group; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers, the Democratic
Action-dominated labor organization

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, FAO, G-77, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, LAIA,
NAM, OAS, OPEC, PAHO, SELA, WFTU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Simon Alberto CONSALVI
Bottaro; Chancery at 2445 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 797-3800; there are Venezuelan Consulates General in
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York,
Philadelphia, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US--Ambassador-designate Eric JAVITS; Embassy at Avenida Francisco
de Miranda and Avenida Principal de la Floresta, Caracas (mailing address
is P. O. Box 62291, Caracas 1060-A, or APO Miami 34037);
telephone p58o (2) 284-6111 or 7111; there is a US Consulate in Maracaibo

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of yellow (top), blue, and red with the
coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band and an arc of seven white
five-pointed stars centered in the blue band

- Economy
Overview: Petroleum is the cornerstone of the economy and accounted
for 17% of GDP, 52% of central government revenues, and 81% of export
earnings in 1988. President Perez introduced an economic readjustment
program when he assumed office in February 1989. Lower tariffs and
price supports, a free market exchange rate, and market-linked interest
rates have thrown the economy into confusion, causing about an 8%
decline in GDP.

GDP: $52.0 billion, per capita $2,700; real growth rate - 8.1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 80.7% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $8.4 billion; expenditures $8.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $5.9 billion (1989)

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--petroleum
81%, bauxite and aluminum, iron ore, agricultural products, basic manufactures;
partners--US 50.3%, FRG 5.3%, Japan 4.1% (1988)

Imports: $10.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--foodstuffs,
chemicals, manufactures, machinery and transport equipment;
partners--US 44%, FRG 8.5%, Japan 6%, Italy 5%, Brazil 4.4% (1987)

External debt: $33.6 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.7%, excluding oil (1988)

Electricity: 19,110,000 kW capacity; 54,516 million kWh produced,
2,830 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, iron-ore mining, construction materials, food
processing, textiles, steel, aluminum, motor vehicle assembly

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 15% of labor force;
products--corn, sorghum, sugarcane, rice, bananas, vegetables, coffee, beef,
pork, milk, eggs, fish; not self-sufficient in food other than meat

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and coca for the
international drug trade on a small scale; however, large quantities
of cocaine and marijuana do transit the country

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-86), $488 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $10 million

Currency: bolivar (plural--bolivares);
1 bolivar (Bs) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: bolivares (Bs) per US$1--43.42 (January 1990),
34.6815 (1989), 14.5000 (fixed rate 1987-88), 8.0833 (1986),
7.5000 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 542 km total; 363 km 1.435-meter standard gauge all single
track, government owned; 179 km 1.435-meter gauge, privately owned

Highways: 77,785 km total; 22,780 km paved, 24,720 km gravel, 14,450 km
earth roads, and 15,835 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 7,100 km; Rio Orinoco and Lago de Maracaibo accept
oceangoing vessels

Pipelines: 6,370 km crude oil; 480 km refined products;
4,010 km natural gas

Ports: Amuay Bay, Bajo Grande, El Tablazo, La Guaira, Puerto Cabello,
Puerto Ordaz

Merchant marine: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 997,458
GRT/1,615,155 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 28 cargo,
2 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 11 bulk, 1 vehicle carrier,
1 combination bulk, 1 combination ore/oil

Civil air: 58 major transport aircraft

Airports: 306 total, 278 usable; 134 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
92 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern and expanding; 1,440,000 telephones;
stations--181 AM, no FM, 59 TV, 26 shortwave; 3 submarine coaxial cables;
satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Ground Forces (Army), Naval Forces (Navy, Marines, Coast Guard),
Air Forces, Armed Forces of Cooperation (National Guard)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,073,913; 3,680,176 fit for military
service; 211,269 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1% of GDP, or $570 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Vietnam
- Geography
Total area: 329,560 km2; land area: 325,360

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 3,818 km total; Cambodia 982 km, China 1,281 km,
Laos 1,555 km

Coastline: 3,444 km (excluding islands)

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: offshore islands and three sections of the boundary with
Cambodia are in dispute; maritime boundary with Cambodia not defined;
occupied Cambodia on 25 December 1978; sporadic border clashes with
China; involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with China,
Malaysia, Philippines, and Taiwan; maritime boundary dispute with China
in the Gulf of Tonkin; Paracel Islands occupied by China but claimed by
Vietnam and Taiwan

Climate: tropical in south; monsoonal in north with hot, rainy season
(mid-May to mid-September) and warm, dry season (mid-October to mid-March)

Terrain: low, flat delta in south and north; central highlands;
hilly, mountainous in far north and northwest

Natural resources: phosphates, coal, manganese, bauxite, chromate,
offshore oil deposits, forests

Land use: 22% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
40% forest and woodland; 35% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: occasional typhoons (May to January) with extensive
flooding

- People
Population: 66,170,889 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Vietnamese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Vietnamese

Ethnic divisions: 85-90% predominantly Vietnamese; 3% Chinese; ethnic
minorities include Muong, Thai, Meo, Khmer, Man, Cham; other mountain tribes

Religion: Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Roman Catholic, indigenous beliefs,
Islamic, Protestant

Language: Vietnamese (official), French, Chinese, English, Khmer, tribal
languages (Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian)

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 35,000,000 (1989 est.)

Organized labor: reportedly over 90% of wage and salary earners are
members of the Vietnam Federation of Trade Unions (VFTU)

- Government
Long-form name: Socialist Republic of Vietnam; abbreviated SRV

Type: Communist state

Capital: Hanoi

Administrative divisions: 37 provinces (tinh, singular and plural),
3 municipalities* (thanh pho, singular and plural); An Giang,
Bac Thai, Ben Tre, Binh Tri Thien, Cao Bang, Cuu Long, Dac Lac, Dong Nai,
Dong Thap, Gia Lai-Cong Tum, Ha Bac, Hai Hung, Hai Phong*, Ha Nam Ninh,
Ha Noi*, Ha Son Binh, Ha Tuyen, Hau Giang, Hoang Lien Son, Ho Chi Minh*,
Kien Giang, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lang Son, Long An, Minh Hai, Nghe Tinh,
Nghia Binh, Phu Khanh, Quang Nam-Da Nang, Quang Ninh, Song Be, Son La,
Tay Ninh, Thai Binh, Thanh Hoa, Thuan Hai, Tien Giang, Vinh Pu,
Vung Tau-Con Dao; note--diacritical marks are not included; the number
of provinces may have been changed with the elimination of
Binh Tri Thien, Nghia Binh, and Phu Khanh and the addition of Binh Dinh,
Khanh Hoa, Phu Yen, Quang Binh, Quang Ngai, Quang Tri, and Thua Thien

Independence: 2 September 1945 (from France)

Constitution: 18 December 1980

Legal system: based on Communist legal theory and French civil law system

National holiday: Independence Day, 2 September (1945)

Executive branch: chairman of the Council of State, Council of State,
chairman of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Quoc Hoi)

Judicial branch: Supreme People's Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Chairman of the Council of State Vo Chi CONG (since
18 June 1987);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Premier) Do MUOI
(since 22 June 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party-- Vietnam Communist Party
(VCP), Nguyen Van Linh

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly--last held 19 April 1987
(next to be held April 1992);
results--VCP is the only party;
seats--(496 total) VCP or VCP-approved 496

Communists: nearly 2 million

Member of: ADB, CEMA, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBEC,
IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, IRC, ITU, Mekong
Committee, NAM, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: red with a large yellow five-pointed star in the center

- Economy
Overview: This is a centrally planned, developing economy with
extensive government ownership and control of productive facilities.
The economy is primarily agricultural, employing about 65% of the labor
force and accounting for almost half of GNP. Rice is the staple crop;
substantial amounts of maize, sorghum, cassava, and sweet potatoes are
also grown. The government permits sale of surplus grain on the open
market. Most of the mineral resources are located in the north,
including coal, which is an important export item. Following the
end of the war in 1975, heavy handed government measures undermined
efforts at an efficient merger of the agricultural resources of the
south and the industrial resources of the north. The economy remains
heavily dependent on foreign aid and has received assistance from
Communist countries, Sweden, and UN agencies. Inflation, although down
from recent triple-digit levels, is still a major weakness, and per
capita output is among the world's lowest. Since early 1989 the
government has sponsored a broad reform program that seeks to turn more
economic activity over to the private sector.

GNP: $14.2 billion, per capita $215; real growth rate 8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $4.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $528 million (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--agricultural and
handicraft products, coal, minerals, ores; partners--USSR, Eastern Europe,
Japan, Singapore

Imports: $2.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--petroleum,
steel products, railroad equipment, chemicals, medicines, raw cotton,
fertilizer, grain; partners--USSR, Eastern Europe, Japan, Singapore

External debt: $16 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1989)

Electricity: 2,465,000 kW capacity; 6,730 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, textiles, machine building, mining,
cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for half of GNP; paddy rice, corn, potatoes make up
50% of farm output; commercial crops (rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas)
and animal products other 50%; not self-sufficient in food staple rice; fish
catch of 900,000 metric tons (1988 est.)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-74), $3.1 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$2.7 billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $61 million; Communist
countries (1970-88), $10.9 million

Currency: new dong (plural--new dong); 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

Exchange rates: new dong (D) per US$1--4,000 (March 1990),
900 (1988), 225 (1987), 18 (1986), 12 (1985); note--1985-89 figures
are end of year

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,059 km total; 2,454 1.000-meter gauge, 151 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge, 230 km dual gauge (three rails), and 224 km not restored to
service

Highways: about 85,000 km total; 9,400 km bituminous, 48,700 km gravel or
improved earth, 26,900 km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 150 km, refined products

Inland waterways: about 17,702 km navigable; more than 5,149 km navigable
at all times by vessels up to 1.8 meter draft

Ports: Da Nang, Haiphong, Ho Chi Minh City

Merchant marine: 71 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 290,123 GRT/432,152
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 55 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 8 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 1 bulk; note--Vietnam owns 10 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over)
totaling 111,028 DWT under the registry of Panama and Malta

Civil air: controlled by military

Airports: 100 total, 100 usable; 50 with permanent-surface runways; 10
with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 35,000 telephones in Ho Chi Minh City (1984);
stations--16 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; 2,300,000 TV sets; 6,000,000 radio receivers;
at least 2 satellite earth stations, including 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,707,629; 10,030,563 fit for military
service; 787,444 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 19.4% of GNP (1986 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Virgin Islands
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 352 km2; land area: 349 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 188 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical, tempered by easterly tradewinds, relatively low
humidity, little seasonal temperature variation; rainy season May to November

Terrain: mostly hilly to rugged and mountainous with little level land

Natural resources: sun, sand, sea, surf

Land use: 15% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 26% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 47% other

Environment: rarely affected by hurricanes; subject to frequent severe
droughts, floods, earthquakes; lack of natural freshwater resources

Note: important location 1,770 km southeast of Miami and 65 km east of
Puerto Rico, along the Anegada Passage--a key shipping lane for the Panama
Canal; St. Thomas has one of the best natural, deepwater harbors in the
Caribbean

- People
Population: 99,200 (July 1990), growth rate - 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 20 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Virgin Islander(s); adjective--Virgin Islander

Ethnic divisions: 74% West Indian (45% born in the Virgin Islands and 29%
born elsewhere in the West Indies), 13% US mainland, 5% Puerto Rican, 8% other;
80% black, 15% white, 5% other; 14% of Hispanic origin

Religion: 42% Baptist, 34% Roman Catholic, 17% Episcopalian, 7% other

Language: English (official), but Spanish and Creole are widely spoken

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 45,000 (1987)

Organized labor: 90% of the government labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Virgin Islands of the United States

Type: organized, unincorporated territory of the US administered by
the Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Capital: Charlotte Amalie

Administrative divisions: none (territory of the US)

Independence: none (territory of the US)

Constitution: Revised Organic Act of 22 July 1954 serves as the
constitution

Legal system: based on US

National holiday: Transfer Day (from Denmark to US), 31 March (1917)

Executive branch: US president, governor, lieutenant governor

Legislative branch: unicameral Senate

Judicial branch: US District Court handles civil matters over $50,000,
felonies (persons 15 years of age and over), and federal cases; Territorial
Court handles civil matters up to $50,000 small claims, juvenile, domestic,
misdemeanors, and traffic cases

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President George
BUSH (since 20 January 1989), represented by Governor Alexander FARRELLY
(since 5 January 1987); Lieutenant Governor Derek HODGE (since 5 January 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Marilyn Stapleton;
Independent Citizens' Movement (ICM), Virdin Brown; Republican Party,
Charlotte-Poole Davis

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens,
but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections:
Governor--last held NA 1986 (next to be held NA 1990);
results--Alexander Farrelly (Democratic Party) defeated
Adelbert Bryan (ICM);

Senate--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1988
(next to be held 6 November 1990);
results--the Virgin Islands elects one nonvoting representative

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: white with a modified US coat of arms in the center between the
large blue initials V and I; the coat of arms shows an eagle holding
an olive branch in one talon and three arrows in the other with a superimposed
shield of vertical red and white stripes below a blue panel

- Economy
Overview: Tourism is the primary economic activity, accounting for
more than 70% of GDP and 70% of employment. The manufacturing sector consists
of textile, electronics, pharmaceutical, and watch assembly plants.
The agricultural sector is small with most food imported. International
business and financial services are a small but growing component of the
economy. The world's largest petroleum refinery is at St. Croix.

GDP: $1.03 billion, per capita $9,030; real growth rate NA% (1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Budget: revenues $315 million; expenditures $322 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

Exports: $3.4 billion (f.o.b., 1985); commodities--refined
petroleum products; partners--US, Puerto Rico

Imports: $3.7 billion (c.i.f., 1985); commodities--crude oil,
foodstuffs, consumer goods, building materials; partners--US, Puerto Rico

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 12%

Electricity: 341,000 kW capacity; 507 million kWh produced,
4,650 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, government service, petroleum refining, watch
assembly, rum distilling, construction, pharmaceuticals, textiles, electronics

Agriculture: truck gardens, food crops (small scale), fruit, sorghum,
Senepol cattle

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $33.5 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Highways: 856 km total

Ports: St. Croix--Christiansted, Frederiksted; St. Thomas--Long Bay,
Crown Bay, Red Hook; St. John--Cruz Bay

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m; international airports on St. Thomas and St. Croix

Telecommunications: 44,280 telephones; stations--4 AM, 6 FM, 3 TV;
modern system using fiber optic cable, submarine cable, microwave radio, and
satellite facilities; 90,000 radio receivers; 56,000 television sets

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Wake Island
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 6.5 km2; land area: 6.5 km2

Comparative area: about 11 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 19.3 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by the Republic of the Marshall Islands

Climate: tropical

Terrain: atoll of three coral islands built up on an underwater volcano;
central lagoon is former crater, islands are part of the rim; average elevation
less than four meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to occasional typhoons

Note: strategic location 3,700 km west of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and the Northern Mariana
Islands; emergency landing location for transpacific flights

- People
Population: 195 (January 1990); no indigenous inhabitants;
temporary population consists of 11 US Air Force personnel,
27 US civilians, and 151 Thai contractors

Note: population peaked about 1970 with over 1,600 persons during
the Vietnam conflict

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Air Force
(under an agreement with the US Department of Interior) since 24 June 1972

Flag: the US flag is used

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to US
military personnel and contractors located on the island. All food and
manufactured goods must be imported.

- Communications
Ports: none; because of the reefs, there are only two offshore
anchorages for large ships

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,987 m

Telecommunications: underwater cables to Guam and through Midway
to Honolulu; AFRTS radio and television service provided by satellite;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

Note: formerly an important commercial aviation base, now used only
by US military and some commercial cargo planes

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Wallis and Futuna
(overseas territory of France)
- Geography
Total area: 274 km2; land area: 274 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 129 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, rainy season (November to April); cool,
dry season (May to October)

Terrain: volcanic origin; low hills

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 5% arable land; 20% permanent crops;
0% meadows and pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 75% other

Environment: both island groups have fringing reefs

Note: located 4,600 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean
about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

- People
Population: 14,910 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna
Islanders; adjective--Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Polynesian

Religion: largely Roman Catholic

Language: French, Wallisian (indigenous Polynesian language)

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of the Wallis and Futuna Islands

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Mata-Utu

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, high administrator; note--there are
three traditional kings with limited powers

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly
(Assemblee Territoriale)

Judicial branch: none; justice generally administered under French
law by the chief administrator, but the three traditional kings
administer customary law and there is a magistrate in Mata-Utu

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Chief Administrator Roger DUMEC
(since 15 July 1988)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR);
Union Populaire Locale (UPL); Union Pour la Democratie Francaise
(UDF)

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
Territorial Assembly--last held 15 March 1987
(next to be held March 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(20 total) RPR 7, UDF coalition 7, UPL 6;

French Senate--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) party of the representative is NA;

French National Assembly--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) RPR 1

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France, local
interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: The economy is limited to subsistence agriculture.
The majority of the labor force earns its livelihood from agriculture,
raising livestock, and fishing, with the rest employed by the government sector.
Exports are negligible. The Territory has to import food, fuel, and construction
materials, and is dependent on budgetary support from France to meet recurring
expenses. The economy also benefits from cash remittances from expatriate
workers.

GDP: $6.7 million, per capita $484; real growth rate NA% (est. 1985)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of
$NA

Exports: $NA; commodities--copra; partners--NA

Imports: $3.4 million (c.i.f., 1977); commodities--largely
foodstuffs and some equipment associated with development programs;
partners--France, Australia, New Zealand

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,200 kW capacity; 1 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, handicrafts, fishing, lumber

Agriculture: dominated by coconut production, with subsistence crops of
yams, taro, bananas

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $118 million

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF) per
US$1--104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987),
125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French
franc

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications
Highways: 100 km on Ile Uvea (Wallis Island), 16 km sealed;
20 km earth surface on Ile Futuna (Futuna Island)

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Mata-Utu, Leava

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 225 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: West Bank
Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with
Israel in control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Sinai, and the Golan
Heights. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and reaffirmed by President
Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final status of the West
Bank and the Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors, and a peace
treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the concerned
parties. Camp David further specifies that these negotiations will resolve the
respective boundaries. Pending the completion of this process, it is US policy
that the final status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip has yet to be
determined. In the view of the US, the term West Bank describes all of the
area west of the Jordan River under Jordanian administration before the 1967
Arab-Israeli war. However, with respect to negotiations envisaged in the
framework agreement, it is US policy that a distinction must be made between
Jerusalem and the rest of the West Bank because of the city's special status
and circumstances. Therefore, a negotiated solution for the final status of
Jerusalem could be different in character from that of the rest of the West
Bank.

- Geography
Total area: 5,860 km2; land area: 5,640 km2; includes West Bank,
East Jerusalem, Latrun Salient, Jerusalem No Man's Land, and the northwest
quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mt. Scopus

Comparative area: slightly larger than Delaware

Land boundaries: 404 km total; Israel 307 km, Jordan 97 km;

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: Israeli occupied with status to be determined

Climate: temperate, temperature and precipitation vary with altitude,
warm to hot summers, cool to mild winters

Terrain: mostly rugged dissected upland, some vegetation in west, but
barren in east

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 27% arable land, 0% permanent crops, 32% meadows and pastures,
1% forest and woodland, 40% other

Environment: highlands are main recharge area for Israel's coastal
aquifers

Note: landlocked; there are 173 Jewish settlements in the West Bank
and 14 Israeli-built Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

- People
Population: 1,058,122 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990);
in addition, there are 70,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank and
110,000 in East Jerusalem (1989 est.)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: NA

Ethnic divisions: 88% Palestinian Arab and other, 12% Jewish

Religion: 80% Muslim (predominantly Sunni), 12% Jewish, 8% Christian
and other

Language: Arabic, Israeli settlers speak Hebrew, English widely understood

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA; excluding Israeli Jewish settlers--29.8% small industry,
commerce, and business, 24.2% construction, 22.4% agriculture, 23.6% service
and other (1984)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Note: The West Bank is currently governed by Israeli military authorities
and Israeli civil administration. It is US policy that the final status of the
West Bank will be determined by negotiations among the concerned parties.
These negotiations will determine how the area is to be governed.

- Economy
Overview: Economic progress in the West Bank has been hampered by Israeli
military occupation and the effects of the Palestinian uprising. Industries
using advanced technology or requiring sizable financial resources have been
discouraged by a lack of financial resources and Israeli policy. Capital
investment has largely gone into residential housing, not into productive assets
that could compete with Israeli industry. A major share of GNP is derived from
remittances of workers employed in Israel and neighboring Gulf states. Israeli
reprisals against Palestinian unrest in the West Bank since 1987 have pushed
unemployment up and lowered living standards.

GNP: $1.0 billion, per capita $1,000; real growth rate - 15% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $47.4 million; expenditures $45.7 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY86)

Exports: $150 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--NA;
partners--Jordan, Israel

Imports: $410 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--NA;
partners--Jordan, Israel

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: power supplied by Israel

Industries: generally small family businesses that produce cement,
textiles, soap, olive-wood carvings, and mother-of-pearl souvenirs; the Israelis
have established some small-scale modern industries in the settlements and
industrial centers

Agriculture: olives, citrus and other fruits, vegetables, beef,
and dairy products

Aid: none

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels) and Jordanian dinar
(plural--dinars); 1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot and 1 Jordanian
dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--1.9450 (January
1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5992 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986), 1.1788
(1985); Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1--0.6557 (January 1990), 0.5704 (1989),
0.3715 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499 (1986), 0.3940 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: small indigenous road network, Israelis developing east-west
axial highways

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: open-wire telephone system currently being upgraded;
stations--no AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

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