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Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Tonga

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Nukualofa

Administrative divisions: three island groups; Haapai, Tongatapu,
Vavau

Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK; formerly Friendly Islands)

Constitution: 4 November 1875, revised 1 January 1967

Legal system: based on English law

National holiday: Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--King Taufa'ahau TUPOU IV (since 16 December 1965);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Prince Fatafehi TU'IPELEHAKE (since
16 December 1965)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: all literate, tax-paying males and all literate females
over 21

Elections:
Legislative Assembly--last held 14-15 February 1990
(next to be held NA February 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(29 total, 9 elected) 6 proreform, 3 traditionalist

Communists: none known

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, FAO, ESCAP, GATT (de facto),
IFAD, ITU, SPF, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Siosaia a'Ulupekotofa
TUITA resides in London;
US--the US has no offices in Tonga; the Ambassador to Fiji is accredited
to Tonga and makes periodic visits

Flag: red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper
hoist-side corner

- Economy
Overview: The economy's base is agriculture, which employs about
70% of the labor force and contributes 50% to GDP. Coconuts, bananas, and
vanilla beans are the main crops and make up two-thirds of exports. The
country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand.
The manufacturing sector accounts for only 10% of GDP. Tourism is the primary
source of hard currency earnings, but the island remains dependent on
sizable external aid and remittances to sustain its trade deficit.

GDP: $86 million, per capita $850; real growth rate 3.6%
(FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (FY87)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $54.8 million; expenditures $56.2 million, including
capital expenditures of $16.9 million (FY88 est.)

Exports: $9.1 million (f.o.b., FY88 est.);
commodities--coconut oil, desiccated coconut, copra, bananas, taro,
vanilla beans, fruits, vegetables, fish;
partners--NZ 54%, Australia 30%, US 8%, Fiji 5% (FY87)

Imports: $60.1 million (c.i.f., FY88 est.); commodities--food
products, beverages and tobacco, fuels, machinery and transport equipment,
chemicals, building materials;
partners--NZ 39%, Australia 25%, Japan 9%, US 6%, EC 5% (FY87)

External debt: $31.8 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 15% (FY86)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced,
80 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, fishing

Agriculture: dominated by coconut, copra, and banana production;
vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $15 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $220 million

Currency: pa'anga (plural--pa'anga); 1 pa'anga (T$) = 100 seniti

Exchange rates: pa'anga (T$) per US$1--1.23 (FY89 est.), 1.37 (FY88),
1.51 (FY87), 1.43 (FY86), 1.30 (FY85)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 198 km sealed road (Tongatapu); 74 km (Vavau); 94 km unsealed
roads usable only in dry weather

Ports: Nukualofa, Neiafu, Pangai

Merchant marine: 6 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 37,249 GRT/50,116
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,529 telephones; 66,000 radio receivers; no TV sets;
stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Land Force, Maritime Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Trinidad and Tobago
- Geography
Total area: 5,130 km2; land area: 5,130 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Delaware

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 362 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Venezuela in the Gulf of Paria

Climate: tropical; rainy season (June to December)

Terrain: mostly plains with some hills and low mountains

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, asphalt

Land use: 14% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 2% meadows and
pastures; 44% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: outside usual path of hurricanes and other tropical storms

Note: located 11 km from Venezuela

- People
Population: 1,344,639 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s); adjective--Trinidadian,
Tobagonian

Ethnic divisions: 43% black, 40% East Indian, 14% mixed, 1% white, 1%
Chinese, 1% other

Religion: 36.2% Roman Catholic, 23.0% Hindu, 13.1% Protestant, 6.0%
Muslim, 21.7% unknown

Language: English (official), Hindi, French, Spanish

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 463,900; 18.1% construction and utilities;
14.8% manufacturing, mining, and quarrying; 10.9% agriculture;
56.2% other (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 22% of labor force (1988)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port-of-Spain

Administrative divisions: 8 counties, 3 municipalities*, and 1 ward**;
Arima*, Caroni, Mayaro, Nariva, Port-of-Spain*, Saint Andrew, Saint David,
Saint George, Saint Patrick, San Fernando*, Tobago**, Victoria

Independence: 31 August 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1976

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 August (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Noor Mohammed HASSANALI (since 18 March 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Arthur Napoleon Raymond ROBINSON (since
18 December 1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Alliance for Reconstruction (NAR),
A. N. R. Robinson; People's National Movement (PNM), Patrick Manning;
United National Congress, Basdeo Panday; Movement for Social
Transformation (MOTION), David Abdullah

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held 15 December 1986 (next to be
held by December 1991);
results--NAR 66%, PNM 32%, others 2%;
seats--(36 total) NAR 33, PNM 3

Communists: Communist Party of Trinidad and Tobago; Trinidad and
Tobago Peace Council, James Millette

Other political pressure groups: National Joint Action Committee (NJAC),
radical antigovernment black-identity organization; Trinidad and Tobago Peace
Council, leftist organization affiliated with the World Peace Council; Trinidad
and Tobago Chamber of Industry and Commerce; Trinidad and Tobago Labor Congress,
moderate labor federation; Council of Progressive Trade Unions, radical labor
federation

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT,
IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development
Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, IWC--International
Wheat Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Angus Albert KHAN; Chancery
at 1708 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone
(202) 467-6490; Trinidad and Tobago has a Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Charles A. GARGANO; Embassy at 15 Queen's Park West,
Port-of-Spain (mailing address is P. O. Box 752, Port-of-Spain);
telephone p809o 622-6372 or 6376, 6176

Flag: red with a white-edged black diagonal band from the upper hoist side

- Economy
Overview: Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum-based economy has been in
decline since 1982. During the first half of the 1980s, the petroleum sector
accounted for nearly 80% of export earnings, 40% of government revenues,
and almost 25% of GDP. In recent years, however, the economy has suffered
because of the sharp fall in the price of oil. The government, in response to
the revenue loss, pursued a series of austerity measures that pushed the
unemployment rate to 22% in 1988. Agriculture employs only about 11% of
the labor force and produces less than 3% of GDP. Since this sector is small, it
has been unable to absorb the large numbers of the unemployed. The
government currently seeks to diversify its export base.

GDP: $3.75 billion, per capita $3,070; real growth rate - 2.0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.4 billion; expenditures $2.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $430 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1987); commodities--includes
reexports--petroleum and petroleum products 70%, fertilizer, chemicals
15%, steel products, sugar, cocoa, coffee, citrus (1987);
partners--US 61%, EC 15%, CARICOM 9%, Latin America 7%, Canada 3%
(1986)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., 1987); commodities--raw materials
41%, capital goods 30%, consumer goods 29% (1986);
partners--US 42%, EC 21%, Japan 10%, Canada 6%, Latin America 6%,
CARICOM 4% (1986)

External debt: $2.02 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.2%, excluding oil refining (1986)

Electricity: 1,176,000 kW capacity; 3,350 million kWh produced,
2,700 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, tourism, food processing, cement,
beverage, cotton textiles

Agriculture: accounts for about 3% of GDP and 4% of labor force;
highly subsidized sector; major crops--cocoa and sugarcane; sugarcane
acreage is being shifted into rice, citrus, coffee, vegetables;
must import large share of food needs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $370 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $437 million

Currency: Trinidad and Tobago dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Trinidad and Tobago dollar (TT$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Trinidad and Tobago dollars (TT$) per US$1--4.2500
(January 1990), 4.2500 (1989), 3.8438 (1988), 3.6000 (1987), 3.6000 (1986),
2.4500 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: minimal agricultural system near San Fernando

Highways: 8,000 km total; 4,000 km paved, 1,000 km improved earth, 3,000
km unimproved earth

Pipelines: 1,032 km crude oil; 19 km refined products; 904 km natural gas

Ports: Port-of-Spain, Point Lisas, Pointe-a-Pierre

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 5 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international service via tropospheric
scatter links to Barbados and Guyana; good local service; 109,000 telephones;
stations--2 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Trinidad and Tobago Defense Force, Trinidad and Tobago Police
Service

Military manpower: males 15-49, 343,292; 248,674 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $59 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Tromelin Island
(French possession)
- Geography
Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3.7 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar, Mauritius, and Seychelles

Climate: tropical

Terrain: sandy

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other--scattered bushes

Environment: wildlife sanctuary

Note: located 350 km east of Madagascar and 600 km north of Reunion in
the Indian Ocean; climatologically important location for forecasting cyclones

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic
Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Airports: 1 with runway less than 1,220 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: important meteorological station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Tunisia
- Geography
Total area: 163,610 km2; land area: 155,360 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: 1,424 km total; Algeria 965 km, Libya 459 km

Coastline: 1,148 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with Libya

Climate: temperate in north with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry
summers; desert in south

Terrain: mountains in north; hot, dry central plain; semiarid south
merges into the Sahara

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, iron ore, lead, zinc,
salt

Land use: 20% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 19% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 47% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean; only
144 km from Italy across the Strait of Sicily; borders Libya on east

- People
Population: 8,095,492 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Tunisian(s); adjective--Tunisian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% European, less than 1% Jewish

Religion: 98% Muslim, 1% Christian, less than 1% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); Arabic and French (commerce)

Literacy: 62% (est.)

Labor force: 2,250,000; 32% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: about 360,000 members claimed, roughly 20% of labor
force; General Union of Tunisian Workers (UGTT), quasi-independent of
Constitutional Democratic Party

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Tunisia; note--may be changed to Tunisian
Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Tunis

Administrative divisions: 23 governorates (wilayat,
singular--wilayah); Al Kaf, Al Mahdiyah, Al Munastir, Al Qasrayn,
Al Qayrawan, Aryanah, Bajah, Banzart, Bin Arus, Jundubah,
Madanin, Nabul, Qabis, Qafsah, Qibili, Safaqis,
Sidi Bu Zayd, Silyanah, Susah, Tatawin, Tawzar, Tunis,
Zaghwan

Independence: 20 March 1956 (from France)

Constitution: 1 June 1959

Legal system: based on French civil law system and Islamic law; some
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court in joint session

National holiday: National Day, 20 March (1956)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation (Cour de Cassation)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Gen. Zine el Abidine BEN ALI
(since 7 November 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Hamed KAROUI (since 26 September
1989)

Political parties and leaders: Constitutional Democratic Rally Party
(RCD), President Ben Ali (official ruling party); Movement of Democratic
Socialists (MDS), Ahmed Mestiri; five other political parties are legal,
including the Communist Party

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
President--last held 2 April 1989 (next to be held April 1994);
results--Gen. Zine el Abidine Ben Aliwas reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 2 April 1989
(next to be held April 1994);
results--RCD 80.7%, independents/Islamists 13.7%, MDS 3.2%, others 2.4%
seats--(141 total) RCD 141

Communists: a small number of nominal Communists, mostly students

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, AIOEC, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto),
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat
Council, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdelaziz HAMZAOUI; Chancery at
1515 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20005; telephone (202) 862-1850;
US--Ambassador Robert H. PELLETREAU, Jr.; Embassy at
144 Avenue de la Liberte, 1002 Tunis-Belvedere; telephone p216o (1) 782-566

Flag: red with a white disk in the center bearing a red crescent nearly
encircling a red five-pointed star; the crescent and star are traditional
symbols of Islam

- Economy
Overview: The economy depends primarily on petroleum, phosphates, and
tourism for continued growth. Two successive drought-induced crop
failures have strained the government's budget and increased
unemployment. The current account fell from a $23 million surplus in
1988 to a $390 million deficit in 1989. Despite its foreign payments
problems, Tunis appears committed to its IMF-supported structural
adjustment program. Nonetheless, the government may have to slow its
implementation to head off labor unrest. The increasing foreign
debt--$7.6 billion at yearend 1989--is also a key problem. Tunis
probably will seek debt relief in 1990.

GDP: $8.7 billion, per capita $1,105; real growth rate 3.1% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Budget: revenues $2.9 billion; expenditures $3.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.8 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--hydrocarbons, agricultural products, phosphates and
chemicals; partners--EC 73%, Middle East 9%, US 1%, Turkey, USSR

Imports: $4.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--industrial
goods and equipment 57%, hydrocarbons 13%, food 12%, consumer goods;
partners--EC 68%, US 7%, Canada, Japan, USSR, China, Saudi Arabia,
Algeria

External debt: $7.6 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1988)

Electricity: 1,493,000 kW capacity; 4,210 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, mining (particularly phosphate and iron ore),
textiles, footwear, food, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GDP and one-third of labor force; output
subject to severe fluctuations because of frequent droughts; export
crops--olives, dates, oranges, almonds; other products--grain, sugar
beets, wine grapes, poultry, beef, dairy; not self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 99,200 metric tons (1986)

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $694 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $684 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$410 million

Currency: Tunisian dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Tunisian dinar (TD) = 1,000 millimes

Exchange rates: Tunisian dinars (TD) per US$1--0.9055 (January 1990),
0.9493 (1989), 0.8578 (1988), 0.8287 (1987), 0.7940 (1986), 0.8345 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 2,154 km total; 465 km 1.435-meter standard gauge;
1,689 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 17,700 km total; 9,100 km bituminous; 8,600 km improved and
unimproved earth

Pipelines: 797 km crude oil; 86 km refined products; 742 km natural gas

Ports: Bizerte, Gabes, Sfax, Sousse, Tunis, La Goulette, Zarzis

Merchant marine: 21 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 160,172 GRT/218,970
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 chemical tanker,
1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 28 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is above the African average; facilities
consist of open-wire lines, multiconductor cable, and radio relay; key centers
are Safaqis, Susah, Bizerte, and Tunis; 233,000 telephones;
stations--18 AM, 4 FM, 14 TV; 4 submarine cables; satellite earth stations--1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT with back-up control station; coaxial
cable to Algeria; radio relay to Algeria, Libya, and Italy

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,997,197; 1,149,141 fit for military
service; 88,368 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.7% of GDP, or $235 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Turkey
- Geography
Total area: 780,580 km2; land area: 770,760 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,715 km total; Bulgaria 240 km, Greece 206 km,
Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km, USSR 617 km

Coastline: 7,200 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: in Black Sea only--to the maritime
boundary agreed upon with the USSR;

Territorial sea: 6 nm (12 nm in Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea)

Disputes: complex maritime and air (but not territorial) disputes with
Greece in Aegean Sea; Cyprus question; Hatay question with Syria; ongoing
dispute with downstream riparians (Syria and Iraq) over water development plans
for the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq,
Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters;
harsher in interior

Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau
(Anatolia)

Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate,
sulphur, iron ore

Land use: 30% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 12% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe earthquakes, especially along major
river valleys in west; air pollution; desertification

Note: strategic location controlling the Turkish straits (Bosporus,
Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Turkey and
Norway only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

- People
Population: 56,704,327 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 74 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Turk(s); adjective--Turkish

Ethnic divisions: 85% Turkish, 12% Kurd, 3% other

Religion: 98% Muslim (mostly Sunni), 2% other (mostly Christian and
Jewish)

Language: Turkish (official), Kurdish, Arabic

Literacy: 70%

Labor force: 18,800,000; 56% agriculture, 30% services, 14% industry;
about 1,000,000 Turks work abroad (1987)

Organized labor: 10-15% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Turkey

Type: republican parliamentary democracy

Capital: Ankara

Administrative divisions: 67 provinces (iller, singular--il); Adana,
Adiyaman, Afyon, Agri, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir,
Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum,
Denizli, Diyarbakir, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir,
Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel, Isparta,
Istanbul, Izmir, Kahraman Maras, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kirklareli,
Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus,
Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Siirt, Sinop, Sivas,
Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon, Tunceli, Urfa, Usak, Van, Yozgat,
Zonguldak; note--there may be four new provinces named Aksaray, Bayburt,
Karaman, and Kirikkale

Independence: 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)

Constitution: 7 November 1982

Legal system: derived from various continental legal systems; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Declaration of the Republic,
29 October (1923)

Executive branch: president, Presidential Council, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand National Assembly (Buyuk Millet
Meclisi)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Turgut OZAL (since 9 November 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Yildirim AKBULUT (since 9 November
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Ali BOZER (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Motherland Party (ANAP), Yildirim
Akbulut; Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), Erdal Inonu; Correct Way
Party (CWP), Suleyman Demirel; Democratic Left Party (DLP), Bulent
Ecevit; Prosperity Party (RP), Necmettin Erbakan; National Work Party (MCP),
Alpaslan Turkes; Reform Democratic Party (IDP), Aykut Edibali

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
Grand National Assembly--last held 29 November 1987
(next to be held November 1992);
results--ANAP 36%, SHP 25%, CWP 19%, others 20%;
seats--(450 total) ANAP 283, SHP 81, CWP 56, independents 26, vacant 4

Communists: strength and support negligible

Member of: ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, EC (associate member),
ECOSOC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank,
IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU,
NATO, OECD, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nuzhet KANDEMIR; Chancery at
1606 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-3200;
there are Turkish Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
and New York;
US--Ambassador Morton ABRAMOWITZ; Embassy at 110 Ataturk Boulevard,
Ankara (mailing address is APO New York 09254--0001);
telephone p90o (4) 126 54 70; there are US Consulates General in
Istanbul and Izmir, and a Consulate in Adana

Flag: red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward
the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered on the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The economic reforms that Turkey launched in 1980 continue
to bring an impressive stream of benefits. The economy has grown steadily since
the early 1980s, with real growth in per capita GDP increasing more than 6%
annually. Agriculture remains the most important economic sector,
employing about 60% of the labor force, accounting for almost 20% of GDP, and
contributing about 25% to exports. Impressive growth in recent years has not
solved all of the economic problems facing Turkey. Inflation and interest rates
remain high, and a large budget deficit will continue to provide difficulties
for a country undergoing a substantial transformation from a centrally
controlled to a free market economy. The government has launched a
multimillion-dollar development program in the southeastern region, which
includes the building of a dozen dams on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers to
generate electric power and irrigate large tracts of farmland. The planned
tapping of huge quantities of Euphrates water has raised serious concern in the
downstream riparian nations of Syria and Iraq.

GDP: $75 billion, per capita $1,350; real growth rate 1.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 68.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.8% (1988)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $14.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.08 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $11.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--industrial
products 70%, crops and livestock products 25%;
partners--FRG 18.4%, Iraq 8.5%, Italy 8.2%, US 6.5%, UK 4.9%,
Iran 4.7%

Imports: $14.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--crude oil,
machinery, transport equipment, metals, pharmaceuticals, dyes, plastics,
rubber, mineral fuels, fertilizers, chemicals; partners--FRG 14.3%,
US 10.6%, Iraq 10.0%, Italy 7.0%, France 5.8%, UK 5.2%

External debt: $36.3 billion (November 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.4% (1988)

Electricity: 14,064,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
720 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, mining (coal, chromite,
copper, boron minerals), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and employs majority of population;
products--tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulses, citrus fruit,
variety of animal products; self-sufficient in food most years

Illicit drugs: one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate
products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy
cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $2.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $665 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$4.5 billion

Currency: Turkish lira (plural--liras); 1 Turkish lira (TL) = 100 kurus

Exchange rates: Turkish liras (TL) per US$1--2,314.7 (November 1989),
1,422.3 (1988), 857.2 (1987), 674.5 (1986), 522.0 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 8,401 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 479 km electrified

Highways: 49,615 km total; 26,915 km bituminous; 16,500 km gravel or
crushed stone; 4,000 km improved earth; 2,200 km unimproved earth (1985)

Inland waterways: about 1,200 km

Pipelines: 1,738 km crude oil; 2,321 km refined products;
708 km natural gas

Ports: Iskenderun, Istanbul, Mersin, Izmir

Merchant marine: 327 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,972,465
GRT/5,087,620 DWT; includes 6 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 193 cargo, 1 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
3 refrigerated cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 35 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 15 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 4 combination ore/oil,
1 specialized tanker, 55 bulk, 4 combination bulk, 1 specialized liquid cargo

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft (1985)

Airports: 119 total, 112 usable; 69 with permanent-surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 28 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair domestic and international systems; trunk radio
relay network; 3,100,000 telephones; stations--15 AM; 45 (60 repeaters) FM;
61 (476 repeaters) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating in the
INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems; 1 submarine telephone cable

- Defense Forces
Branches: Land Forces, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie, Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,413,944; 8,813,430 fit for military
service; 597,547 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.9% of GDP, or $2.9 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Turks and Caicos Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 430 km2; land area: 430 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 389 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and
relatively dry

Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps

Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 98% other

Environment: 30 islands (eight inhabited); subject to frequent hurricanes

Note: located 190 km north of the Dominican Republic in the North
Atlantic Ocean

- People
Population: 9,761 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: no noun or adjectival forms

Ethnic divisions: majority of African descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Methodist, Church of God,
Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 99% (est.)

Labor force: NA; majority engaged in fishing and tourist industries;
some subsistence agriculture

Organized labor: St. George's Industrial Trade Union

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: introduced 30 August 1976, suspended in 1986, and a
Constitutional Commission is currently reviewing its contents

Legal system: based on laws of England and Wales with a small number
adopted from Jamaica and The Bahamas

National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1953), represented
by Governor Michael J. BRADLEY (since 1987);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Oswald O. SKIPPINGS (since 3 March
1988)

Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement (PDM),
Oswald Skippings; Progressive National Party (PNP), Dan Malcolm and
Norman Saunders; National Democratic Alliance (NDA), Ariel Missick

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Council--last held on 3 March 1988
(next to be held NA);
results--PDM 60%, PNP 30%, others 10%;
seats--(20 total, 13 elected) PDM 11, PNP 2

Communists: none

Diplomatic representation: as a dependent territory of the UK, the
interests of the Turks and Caicos Islands are represented in the US by
the UK;
US--none

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the colonial shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield
is yellow and contains a conch shell, lobster, and cactus

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and offshore
banking. Subsistence farming--corn and beans--exists only on the Caicos
Islands, so that most foods, as well as nonfood products, must be
imported.

GDP: $44.9 million, per capita $5,000; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989)

Budget: revenues $12.4 million; expenditures $15.8 million,
including capital expenditures of $2.6 million (FY87)

Exports: $2.9 million (f.o.b., FY84); commodities--lobster, dried
and fresh conch, conch shells; partners--US, UK

Imports: $26.3 million (c.i.f., FY84); commodities--foodstuffs,
drink, tobacco, clothing; partners--US, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,050 kW capacity; 11 million kWh produced,
1,160 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, offshore financial services

Agriculture: subsistence farming prevails, based on corn and beans;
fishing more important than farming; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $92.8 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 121 km, including 24 km tarmac

Ports: Grand Turk, Salt Cay, Providenciales, Cockburn Harbour

Civil air: Air Turks and Caicos (passenger service) and Turks Air Ltd.
(cargo service)

Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair cable and radio services; 1,446 telephones;
stations--3 AM, no FM, several TV; 2 submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Tuvalu
- Geography
Total area: 26 km2; land area: 26 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 24 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by easterly trade winds (March to
November); westerly gales and heavy rain (November to March)

Terrain: very low-lying and narrow coral atolls

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: severe tropical storms are rare

Note: located 3,000 km east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

- People
Population: 9,136 (July 1990), growth rate 2.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 30 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Tuvaluans(s); adjective--Tuvaluan

Ethnic divisions: 96% Polynesian

Religion: Christian, predominantly Protestant

Language: Tuvaluan, English

Literacy: less than 50%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: democracy

Capital: Funafuti

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1 October 1978 (from UK; formerly Ellice Islands)

Constitution: 1 October 1978

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Tupua LEUPENA (since 1 March 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Bikenibeu PAENIU (since 16 October
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Alesana SELUKA (since October 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament--last held 28 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(12 total)

Member of: ACP, ESCAP (associate member), GATT (de facto), SPF, SPC, UPU

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); US--none

Flag: light blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant;
the outer half of the flag represents a map of the country with nine yellow
five-pointed stars symbolizing the nine islands

- Economy
Overview: Tuvalu consists of a scattered group of nine coral atolls with
poor-quality soil. The country has a small economy, no known mineral resources,
and few exports. Subsistence farming and fishing are the primary economic
activities. The islands are too small and too remote for development of a
tourist industry. Government revenues largely come from the sale of stamps and
coins and worker remittances. Substantial income is received annually
from an international trust fund established in 1987 by Australia, New
Zealand, and the UK and supported also by Japan and South Korea.

GNP: $4.6 million, per capita $530; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.9% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.59 million; expenditures $3.6 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1983 est.)

Exports: $1.0 million (f.o.b., 1983 est.); commodities--copra;
partners--Fiji, Australia, NZ

Imports: $2.8 million (c.i.f., 1983 est.); commodities--food,
animals, mineral fuels, machinery, manufactured goods; partners--Fiji,
Australia, NZ

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA

Electricity: 2,600 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, tourism, copra

Agriculture: coconuts, copra

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million

Currency: Tuvaluan dollar and Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Tuvaluan dollar ($T) or 1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tuvaluan dollars ($T) or Australian dollars ($A) per
US$1--1.2784 (January 1990), 1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987),
1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications
Highways: 8 km gravel

Ports: Funafuti, Nukufetau

Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,043
GRT/450 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 300 radiotelephones;
4,000 radio receivers; 108 telephones

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Uganda
- Geography
Total area: 236,040 km2; land area: 199,710 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,698 km total; Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan
435 km, Tanzania 396 km, Zaire 765 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December
to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast

Terrain: mostly plateau with rim of mountains

Natural resources: copper, cobalt, limestone, salt

Land use: 23% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 25% meadows and pastures;
30% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: straddles Equator; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 17,960,262 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ugandan(s); adjective--Ugandan

Ethnic divisions: 99% African, 1% European, Asian, Arab

Religion: 33% Roman Catholic, 33% Protestant, 16% Muslim, rest indigenous
beliefs

Language: English (official); Luganda and Swahili widely used; other Bantu
and Nilotic languages

Literacy: 57.3%

Labor force: 4,500,000 (est.); 94% subsistence activities, 6% wage earners
(est.); 50% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: 125,000 union members

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Uganda

Type: republic

Capital: Kampala

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Busoga, Central, Eastern,
Karamoja, Nile, North Buganda, Northern, South Buganda, Southern, Western

Independence: 9 October 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 8 September 1967, suspended following coup of 27 July 1985;
in process of constitutional revision

Legal system: government plans to restore system based on English common
law and customary law and reinstitute a normal judicial system; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 October (1962)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Resistance Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since
29 January 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Samson Babi Mululu KISEKKA (since
30 January 1986); First Deputy Prime Minister Eriya KATEGAYA (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: only party--National Resistance
Movement (NRM); note--the Uganda Patriotic Movement (UPM), Ugandan
People's Congress (UPC), Democratic Party (DP), and Conservative Party
(CP) are all proscribed from conducting public political activities

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Resistance Council--last held 11-28 February 1989
(next to be held after January 1995);
results--NRM is the only party;
seats--(278 total, 210 indirectly elected) NRM 210

Other political parties or pressure groups: Uganda People's Democratic
Movement (UPDM), Uganda People's Front (UPF), Uganda Freedom Movement (UFM),
Holy Spirit Movement (HSM)

Communists: possibly a few sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Stephen Kapimpina KATENTA-APULI;
5909 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 726-7100 through
7102; US--Ambassador John A. BURROUGHS, Jr.; Embassy at British High
Commission Building, Obote Avenue, Kampala (mailing address is P. O. Box
7007, Kampala); telephone p256o (41) 259791

Flag: six equal horizonal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black,
yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts
a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the staff side

- Economy
Overview: Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile
soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and
cobalt. For most of the past 15 years the economy has been devastated by
political instability, mismanagement, and civil war, keeping Uganda poor
with a per capita income of about $300. (GDP remains below the levels
of the early 1970s, as does industrial production.) Agriculture is the
most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work
force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounted for 97% of export
revenues in 1988. Since 1986 the government has acted to rehabilitate and
stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer
prices on export crops, increasing petroleum prices, and
improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at
dampening inflation, which was running at over 300% in 1987, and boosting
production and export earnings.

GDP: $4.9 billion, per capita $300 (1988); real growth rate 6.1% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 72% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $365 million; expenditures $545 million,
including capital expenditures of $165 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $272 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--coffee 97%,
cotton, tea; partners--US 25%, UK 18%, France 11%, Spain 10%

Imports: $626 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--petroleum
products, machinery, cotton piece goods, metals, transportation equipment, food;
partners--Kenya 25%, UK 14%, Italy 13%

External debt: $1.4 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 25.1% (1988)

Electricity: 173,000 kW capacity; 312 million kWh produced,
18 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement

Agriculture: accounts for 57% of GDP and 83% of labor force; cash
crops--coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco; food crops--cassava, potatoes, corn,
millet, pulses; livestock products--beef, goat meat, milk, poultry;
self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (1970-88), $123 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $60 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$140 million

Currency: Ugandan shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Ugandan shilling (USh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Ugandan shillings (USh) per US$1--370 (December 1989),
223.09 (1989), 106.14 (1988), 42.84 (1987), 14.00 (1986), 6.72 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 1,300 km, 1.000-meter-gauge single track

Highways: 26,200 km total; 1,970 km paved; 5,849 km crushed stone, gravel,
and laterite; remainder earth roads and tracks

Inland waterways: Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George,
Lake Edward; Victoria Nile, Albert Nile; principal inland water ports are at
Jinja and Port Bell, both on Lake Victoria

Merchant marine: 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,697 GRT

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 39 total, 30 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with radio relay and radio communications
stations; 61,600 telephones; stations--10 AM, no FM, 9 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: National Resistance Army (NRA)

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 3,836,921; about 2,084,813 fit for
military service

Defense expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (1985)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: United Arab Emirates
- Geography
Total area: 83,600 km2; land area: 83,600 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: 1,016 km total; Oman 410 km, Saudi Arabia 586 km,
Qatar 20 km

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: defined by bilateral boundaries or equidistant
line

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: boundary with Qatar is in dispute; no defined boundary with
Saudi Arabia; no defined boundary with most of Oman, but Administrative Line
in far north; claims three islands in the Persian Gulf occupied by Iran
(Jazireh-ye Abu Musa or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg
or Greater Tunb, and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb)

Climate: desert; cooler in eastern mountains

Terrain: flat, barren coastal plain merging into rolling sand
dunes of vast desert wasteland; mountains in east

Natural resources: crude oil and natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 2% meadows and
pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 98% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: frequent dust and sand storms; lack of natural
freshwater resources being overcome by desalination plants; desertification

Note: strategic location along southern approaches to
Strait of Hormuz, a vital transit point for world crude oil

- People
Population: 2,253,624 (July 1990), growth rate 6.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 33 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Emirian(s), adjective--Emirian

Ethnic divisions: 19% Emirian, 23% other Arab, 50% South Asian
(fluctuating), 8% other expatriates (includes Westerners and East Asians); less
than 20% of the population are UAE citizens (1982)

Religion: 96% Muslim (16% Shia); 4% Christian, Hindu, and other

Language: Arabic (official); Farsi and English widely spoken in major
cities; Hindi, Urdu

Literacy: 68%

Labor force: 580,000 (1986 est.); 85% industry and commerce,
5% agriculture, 5% services, 5% government; 80% of labor force is foreign

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

- Government
Long-form name: United Arab Emirates (no short-form name); abbreviated UAE

Type: federation with specified powers delegated to the UAE central
government and other powers reserved to member shaykhdoms

Capital: Abu Dhabi

Administrative divisions: 7 emirates (imarat, singular--imarah);
Abu Zaby, Ajman, Al Fujayrah, Ash Shariqah, Dubayy,
Ras al Khaymah, Umm al Qaywayn

Independence: 2 December 1971 (from UK; formerly Trucial States)

Constitution: 2 December 1971 (provisional)

Legal system: secular codes are being introduced by the UAE Government and
in several member shaykhdoms; Islamic law remains influential

National holiday: National Day, 2 December (1971)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Supreme Council of Rulers,
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Federal National Council

Judicial branch: Union Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Shaykh Zayid bin Sultan Al NUHAYYAN of Abu Dhabi
(since 2 December 1971); Vice President Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM
of Dubayy (since 2 December 1971;

Head of Government--Prime Minister Shaykh Rashid bin Said Al MAKTUM
of Dubayy (Prime Minister since 30 April 1979); Deputy Prime Minister Maktum bin
Rashid al MAKTUM (since 2 December 1971)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: NA

Other political or pressure groups: a few small clandestine
groups are active

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdullah bin Zayed
AL-NAHAYYAN; Chancery at Suite 740, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-6500;
US--Ambassador Edward S. WALKER, Jr.; Embassy at Al-Sudan Street,
Abu Dhabi (mailing address is P. O. Box 4009, Abu Dhabi); telephone p971o (2)
336691; there is a US Consulate General in Dubai

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and black with a
thicker vertical red band on the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The UAE has an open economy with one of the world's higher
levels of income per capita. This wealth is based on oil and gas, and the
fortunes of the economy fluctuate with the prices of those commodities. Since
1973, when petroleum prices shot up, the UAE has undergone a profound
transformation from an impoverished region of small desert principalities to a
modern state with a high standard of living. At present levels of production,
crude oil reserves should last for over 100 years.

GNP: $23.3 billion, per capita $11,680; real growth rate - 2.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5-6% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NEGL (1988)

Budget: revenues $3.5 billion; expenditures $4.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $10.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--crude oil
75%, natural gas, reexports, dried fish, dates; partners--US, EC, Japan

Imports: $8.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--food,
consumer and capital goods; partners--EC, Japan, US

External debt: $11.0 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 9.3% (1986)

Electricity: 5,590,000 kW capacity; 15,000 million kWh produced,
7,090 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, fishing, petrochemicals, construction
materials, some boat building, handicrafts, pearling

Agriculture: accounts for 1% of GNP and 5% of labor force; cash
crop--dates; food products--vegetables, watermelons, poultry, eggs, dairy,
fish; only 25% self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor--pledged $9.1 billion in bilateral aid to less developed
countries (1979-89)

Currency: Emirian dirham (plural--dirhams);
1 Emirian dirham (Dh) = 100 fils

Exchange rates: Emirian dirhams (Dh) per US$1--3.6710 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 2,000 km total; 1,800 km bituminous, 200 km gravel and graded
earth

Pipelines: 830 km crude oil; 870 km natural gas, including natural gas
liquids

Ports: Al Fujayrah, Khawr Fakkan, Mina Jabal Ali,
Mina Khalid, Mina Rashid, Mina Saqr,
Mina Zayid

Merchant marine: 47 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 728,332
GRT/1,181,566 DWT; includes 14 cargo, 7 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
20 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 34 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with
runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay and coaxial cable; key
centers are Abu Dhabi and Dubayy; 386,600 telephones; stations--8 AM, 3 FM,
12 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; submarine cables to Qatar, Bahrain, India, and Pakistan;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Central Military Command, Federal
Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 904,690; 498,082 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: $1.59 billion (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: United Kingdom
- Geography
Total area: 244,820 km2; land area: 241,590 km2; includes Rockall
and Shetland Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundary: Ireland 360 km

Coastline: 12,429 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation or in
accordance with agreed upon boundaries;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with Ireland; Northern Ireland question
with Ireland; Gibraltar question with Spain; Argentina claims Falkland
Islands (Islas Malvinas); Argentina claims South Georgia and the
South Sandwich Islands; Mauritius claims island of Diego Garcia in
British Indian Ocean Territory; Hong Kong is scheduled to become a
Special Administrative Region of China in 1997; Rockall continental shelf
dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and Ireland (Ireland and the UK have
signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area); territorial claim in
Antarctica (British Antarctic Territory)

Climate: temperate; moderated by prevailing southwest winds over
the North Atlantic Current; more than half of the days are overcast

Terrain: mostly rugged hills and low mountains; level to rolling plains
in east and southeast

Natural resources: coal, crude oil, natural gas, tin,
limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica

Land use: 29% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 48% meadows and
pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 14% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: pollution control measures improving air, water quality;
because of heavily indented coastline, no location is more than 125 km from
tidal waters

Note: lies near vital North Atlantic sea lanes; only 35 km from
France

- People
Population: 57,365,665 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Briton(s), British (collective pl.); adjective--British

Ethnic divisions: 81.5% English, 9.6% Scottish, 2.4% Irish, 1.9% Welsh,
1.8% Ulster, 2.8% West Indian, Indian, Pakistani, and other

Religion: 27.0 million Anglican, 5.3 million Roman Catholic, 2.0 million
Presbyterian, 760,000 Methodist, 410,000 Jewish

Language: English, Welsh (about 26% of population of Wales), Scottish form
of Gaelic (about 60,000 in Scotland)

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 28,120,000; 53.3% services, 23.6% manufacturing and
construction, 10.8% self-employed, 6.8% government, 1.0% agriculture (1988)

Organized labor: 37% of labor force (1987)

- Government
Long-form name: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland;
abbreviated UK

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: London

Administrative divisions: 47 counties, 7 metropolitan counties,
26 districts, 9 regions, and 3 islands areas

England--39 counties, 7 metropolitan counties*; Avon, Bedford, Berkshire,
Buckingham, Cambridge, Cheshire, Cleveland, Cornwall, Cumbria, Derby, Devon,
Dorset, Durham, East Sussex, Essex, Gloucester, Greater London*, Greater
Manchester*, Hampshire, Hereford and Worcester, Hertford, Humberside, Isle of
Wight, Kent, Lancashire, Leicester, Lincoln, Merseyside*, Norfolk, Northampton,
Northumberland, North Yorkshire, Nottingham, Oxford, Shropshire, Somerset, South
Yorkshire*, Stafford, Suffolk, Surrey, Tyne and Wear*, Warwick, West Midlands*,
West Sussex, West Yorkshire*, Wiltshire

Northern Ireland--26 districts; Antrim, Ards, Armagh, Ballymena,
Ballymoney, Banbridge, Belfast, Carrickfergus, Castlereagh, Coleraine,
Cookstown, Craigavon, Down, Dungannon, Fermanagh, Larne, Limavady, Lisburn,
Londonderry, Magherafelt, Moyle, Newry and Mourne, Newtownabbey, North Down,
Omagh, Strabane

Scotland--9 regions, 3 islands areas*; Borders, Central, Dumfries and
Galloway, Fife, Grampian, Highland, Lothian, Orkney*, Shetland*, Strathclyde,
Tayside, Western Isles*

Wales--8 counties; Clwyd, Dyfed, Gwent, Gwynedd, Mid Glamorgan, Powys,
South Glamorgan, West Glamorgan

Independence: 1 January 1801, United Kingdom established

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice

Dependent areas: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Indian Ocean Territory,
British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar,
Guernsey, Hong Kong (scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region
of China in 1997), Jersey, Isle of Man, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands,
St. Helena, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Turks and
Caicos Islands

Legal system: common law tradition with early Roman and modern continental
influences; no judicial review of Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
House of Lords and a lower house or House of Commons

Judicial branch: House of Lords

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);
Heir Apparent Prince CHARLES (son of the Queen, born 14 November 1948);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Margaret THATCHER (since 4 May 1979);
Deputy Prime Minister Geoffrey HOWE (since 24 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Conservative, Margaret Thatcher; Labour,
Neil Kinnock; Social Democratic, David Owen (disbanded 3 June 1990);
Social and Liberal Democratic Party, Jeremy (Paddy) Ashdown; Communist,
Nina Temple; Scottish National, Gordon Wilson; Plaid Cymru, Dafydd Thomas;
Ulster Unionist, James Molyneaux; Democratic Unionist, Ian Paisley; Social
Democratic and Labour, John Hume; Provisional Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams;
Alliance/Northern Ireland

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Commons--last held 11 June 1987 (next to be held
by June 1992);
results--Conservative 43%, Labour 32%, Social and Liberal Democratic
Party 23%, others 2%;
seats--(650 total) Conservative 376, Labour 228, Social and Liberal
Democratic Party 18, Ulster (Official) Unionist (Northern Ireland) 9,
Social Democratic Party 4, Scottish National Party 4, Plaid Cymru
(Welsh Nationalist) 3, Ulster Democratic Unionist (Northern Ireland) 3,
Social Democratic and Labour (Northern Ireland) 3,
Ulster Popular Unionist (Northern Ireland) 1,
Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) 1

Communists: 15,961

Other political or pressure groups: Trades Union Congress, Confederation
of British Industry, National Farmers' Union, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, Council of Europe, DAC, EC,
ESCAP, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU,
IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat
Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Sir Antony ACLAND; Chancery at
3100 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-1340;
there are British Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland,
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Dallas,
Miami, and Seattle;
US--Ambassador Henry E. CATTO; Embassy at 24/31 Grosvenor Square,
London, W.1A1AE, (mailing address is Box 40, FPO New York 09509);
telephone p44o (01) 499-9000; there are US Consulates General in Belfast
and Edinburgh

Flag: blue with the red cross of St. George (patron saint of England)
edged in white superimposed on the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (patron
saint of Ireland) which is superimposed on the diagonal white cross of
St. Andrew (patron saint of Scotland); known as the Union Flag or Union Jack;
the design and colors (especially the Blue Ensign) have been the basis for a
number of other flags including dependencies, Commonwealth countries, and others

- Economy
Overview: The UK is one of the world's great trading powers and
financial centers, and its economy ranks among the four largest in
Europe. The economy is essentially capitalistic with a generous admixture
of social welfare programs and government ownership. Over the last decade
the Thatcher government has halted the expansion of welfare measures and
has promoted extensive reprivatization of the government economic sector.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European
standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labor
force. Industry is a mixture of public and private enterprises, employing
about 24% of the work force and generating 22% of GDP. The UK is an
energy-rich nation with large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves;
primary energy production accounts for 12% of GDP, one of the highest
shares of any industrial nation. Following the recession of 1979-81, the
economy has enjoyed the longest period of continuous economic growth it
has had during the last 30 years. During the period 1982-89 real GDP grew
by about 25%, while the inflation rate of 14% was nearly halved. Between
1986 and 1989 unemployment fell from 11% to about 6%. As a major trading
nation, the UK will continue to be greatly affected by: world boom or
recession; swings in the international oil market; productivity trends in
domestic industry; and the terms on which the economic integration of
Europe proceeds.

GDP: $818.0 billion, per capita $14,300; real growth rate 2.3%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.8% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $348.7 billion; expenditures $327.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $42.0 billion (FY89)

Exports: $151.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--manufactured
goods, machinery, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, transport equipment;
partners--EC 50.4% (FRG 11.7%, France 10.2%, Netherlands 6.8%), US 13.0%,
Communist countries 2.3%

Imports: $189.2 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--manufactured
goods, machinery, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods;
partners--EC 52.5% (FRG 16.6%, France 8.8%, Netherlands 7.8%), US 10.2%,
Communist countries 2.1%

External debt: $15.7 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.9% (1989)

Electricity: 98,000,000 kW capacity; 361,990 million kWh produced,
6,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, metals, food
processing, paper and paper products, textiles, chemicals, clothing, other
consumer goods, motor vehicles, aircraft, shipbuilding, petroleum, coal

Agriculture: accounts for only 1.5% of GNP and 1% of labor force; highly
mechanized and efficient farms; wide variety of crops and livestock products
produced; about 60% self-sufficient in food and feed needs; fish catch of
665,000 metric tons (1987)

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $18.9 billion

Currency: British pound or pound sterling (plural--pounds);
1 British pound (L) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: British pounds (L) per US$1--0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989) 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: Great Britain--16,629 km total; British Railways (BR) operates
16,629 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (4,205 km electrified and 12,591 km
double or multiple track); several additional small standard-gauge and
narrow-gauge lines are privately owned and operated; Northern Ireland Railways
(NIR) operates 332 km 1.600-meter gauge, 190 km double track

Highways: UK, 362,982 km total; Great Britain, 339,483 km paved
(including 2,573 km limited-access divided highway); Northern Ireland,
23,499 km (22,907 paved, 592 km gravel)

Inland waterways: 2,291 total; British Waterways Board, 606 km;
Port Authorities, 706 km; other, 979 km

Pipelines: 933 km crude oil, almost all insignificant; 2,993 km refined
products; 12,800 km natural gas

Ports: London, Liverpool, Felixstowe, Tees and Hartlepool,
Dover, Sullom Voe, Southampton

Merchant marine: 285 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
6,174,142GRT/9,024,090 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 22 short-sea
passenger, 44 cargo, 44 container, 21 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
9 refrigerated cargo, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier,
78 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
5 liquefied gas, 2 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 45 bulk,
1 combination bulk

Civil air: 618 major transport aircraft

Airports: 522 total, 379 usable; 245 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 37 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 132 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern, efficient domestic and international system;
30,200,000 telephones; excellent countrywide broadcast systems;
stations--223 AM, 165 (396 relays) FM, 205 (3,210 relays) TV; 38 coaxial

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