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Natural resources: coal, copper, iron ore, phosphate, zinc, wildlife, fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other; there are no trees and the only bushes are
crowberry and cloudberry

Environment: great calving glaciers descend to the sea

Note: located 445 km north of Norway where the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea,
Greenland Sea, and Norwegian Sea meet

- People
Population: 3,942 (July 1990), growth rate NA% (1990); about one-third of
the population resides in the Norwegian areas (Longyearbyen and Svea on
Vestspitsbergen) and two-thirds in the Soviet areas (Barentsburg and Pyramiden
on Vestspitsbergen); about 9 persons live at the Polish research station

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Ethnic divisions: 64% Russian, 35% Norwegian, 1% other (1981)

Language: Russian, Norwegian

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway administered by the Ministry of Industry, Oslo,
through a governor (sysselmann) residing in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen; by treaty
(9 February 1920) sovereignty was given to Norway

Capital: Longyearbyen

Leaders:
Chief of State--King OLAV V (since 21 September 1957);

Head of Government Governor Leif ELDRING (since NA)

Flag: the flag of Norway is used

- Economy
Overview: Coal mining is the major economic activity on Svalbard. By
treaty (9 February 1920), the nationals of the treaty powers have equal rights
to exploit mineral deposits, subject to Norwegian regulation. Although US, UK,
Dutch, and Swedish coal companies have mined in the past, the only companies
still mining are Norwegian and Soviet. Each company mines about half a million
tons of coal annually. The settlements on Svalbard are essentially company
towns. The Norwegian state-owned coal company employs nearly 60% of the
Norwegian population on the island, runs many of the local services, and
provides most of the local infrastructure. There is also some trapping of seal,
polar bear, fox, and walrus.

Electricity: 21,000 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
11,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Currency: Norwegian krone (plural--kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1--6.5405 (January
1990), 6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947 (1986),
8.5972 (1985)

- Communications
Ports: limited facilities--Ny-Alesund, Advent Bay

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 5 meteorological/radio stations;
stations--1 AM, 1 (2 relays) FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces
Note: demilitarized by treaty (9 February 1920)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Swaziland
- Geography
Total area: 17,360 km2; land area: 17,200 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 535 km total; Mozambique 105 km, South Africa 430 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate

Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains

Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, tin, hydroelelectric
power, forests, and small gold and diamond deposits

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 67% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion

Note: landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa

- People
Population: 778,525 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Swazi(s); adjective--Swazi

Ethnic divisions: 97% African, 3% European

Religion: 60% Christian, 40% indigenous beliefs

Language: English and siSwati (official); government business conducted in
English

Literacy: 67.9%

Labor force: 195,000; over 60,000 engaged in subsistence agriculture;
about 92,000 wage earners (many only intermittently), with 36% agriculture and
forestry, 20% community and social services, 14% manufacturing, 9% construction,
21% other; 24,000-29,000 employed in South Africa (1987)

Organized labor: about 10% of wage earners

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Swaziland

Type: monarchy; independent member of Commonwealth

Capital: Mbabane (administrative); Lobamba (legislative)

Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini,
Shiselweni

Independence: 6 September 1968 (from UK)

Constitution: none; constitution of 6 September 1968 was suspended on
12 April 1973; a new constitution was promulgated 13 October 1978, but has not
been formally presented to the people

Legal system: based on South African Roman-Dutch law in statutory courts,
Swazi traditional law and custom in traditional courts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Somhlolo (Independence) Day, 6 September (1968)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Libandla) is advisory
and consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or
House of Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Obed MFANYANA (since 12 July
1989)

Political parties: none; banned by the Constitution promulgated on
13 October 1978

Suffrage: none

Elections: no direct elections

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African Customs
Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Absalom Vusani MAMBA;
Chancery at 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-6683;
US--Ambassador (vacant), Deputy Chief of Mission Armajane KARAER;
Embassy at Central Bank Building, Warner Street, Mbabane (mailing address
is P. O. Box 199, Mbabane); telephone 22281 through 22285

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in yellow; centered in the red band is a large black and
white shield covering two spears and a staff decorated with feather tassels,
all placed horizontally

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, which occupies
much of the labor force and contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing, which
includes a number of agroprocessing factories, accounts for another 25% of GDP.
Mining has declined in importance in recent years; high-grade iron ore deposits
were depleted in 1978, and health concerns cut world demand for asbestos.
Exports of sugar and forestry products are the main earners of hard currency.
Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland
is heavily dependent on South Africa, from which it receives 90% of its imports
and to which it sends about one-third of its exports.

GNP: $539 million, per capita $750; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $255 million; expenditures $253 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA million (FY91 est.)

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--sugar, asbestos, wood pulp, citrus, canned fruit,
soft drink concentrates;
partners--South Africa, UK, US

Imports: $386 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--motor vehicles,
machinery, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products, foodstuffs;
partners--South Africa, US, UK

External debt: $275 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 24% (1986)

Electricity: 50,000 kW capacity; 130 million kWh produced,
170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (coal and asbestos), wood pulp, sugar

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and over 60% of labor force;
mostly subsistence agriculture; cash crops--sugarcane, citrus fruit,
cotton, pineapples; other crops and livestock--corn, sorghum, peanuts,
cattle, goats, sheep; not self-sufficient in grain

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $132 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $468 million

Currency: lilangeni (plural--emalangeni); 1 lilangeni (E) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: emalangeni (E) per US$1--2.5555 (January 1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985);
note--the Swazi emalangeni is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 297 km plus 71 km disused, 1.067-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 2,853 km total; 510 km paved, 1,230 km crushed stone, gravel, or
stabilized soil, and 1,113 km improved earth

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 23 total, 22 usable; 1 with permanent-surfaced runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines
and low-capacity radio relay links; 15,400 telephones; stations--6 AM, 6 FM,
10 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force, Royal Swaziland Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 166,537; 96,239 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Sweden
- Geography
Total area: 449,960 km2; land area: 411,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: 2,193 km total; Finland 536 km, Norway 1,657 km

Coastline: 3,218 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool,
partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north

Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west

Natural resources: zinc, iron ore, lead, copper, silver, timber,
uranium, hydropower potential

Land use: 7% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures;
64% forest and woodland; 27% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: water pollution; acid rain

Note: strategic location along Danish Straits linking
Baltic and North Seas

- People
Population: 8,526,452 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Swede(s); adjective--Swedish

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous white population; small Lappish minority;
about 12% foreign born or first-generation immigrants (Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes,
Norwegians, Greeks, Turks)

Religion: 93.5% Evangelical Lutheran, 1.0% Roman Catholic, 5.5% other

Language: Swedish, small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking minorities; immigrants
speak native languages

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 4,531,000 (1988); 32.8% private services, 30.0%
government services, 22.0% mining and manufacturing, 5.9% construction,
5.0% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 0.9% electricity, gas, and
waterworks (1986)

Organized labor: 90% of labor force (1985 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Sweden

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Stockholm

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (lan, singular and plural);
Alvsborgs Lan, Blekinge Lan, Gavleborgs Lan,
Goteborgs och Bohus Lan, Gotlands Lan, Hallands Lan, Jamtlands Lan,
Jonkopings Lan, Kalmar Lan, Kopparbergs Lan, Kristianstads Lan,
Kronobergs Lan, Malmohus Lan, Norrbottens Lan, Orebro Lan,
Ostergotlands Lan, Skaraborgs Lan, Sodermanlands Lan,
Stockholms Lan, Uppsala Lan, Varmlands Lan, Vasterbottens Lan,
Vasternorrlands Lan, Vastmanlands Lan

Independence: 6 June 1809, constitutional monarchy established

Constitution: 1 January 1975

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Day of the Swedish Flag, 6 June

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Riksdag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hogsta Domstolen)

Leaders:
Chief of State--King CARL XVI Gustaf (since 19 September 1973);
Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the
King (born 14 July 1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Ingvar CARLSSON (since 12 March 1986);
Deputy Prime Minister Kjell-Olof FELDT (since NA March 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Moderate (conservative), Carl
Bildt; Center, Olof Johansson; Liberal People's Party, Bengt Westerberg; Social
Democratic, Ingvar Carlsson; Left Party-Communist (VPK), Lars Werner; Swedish
Communist Party (SKP), Rune Pettersson; Communist Workers' Party, Rolf
Hagel; Green Party, no formal leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament--last held 18 September 1988 (next to be held
September 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(349 total) Social Democratic 156, Moderate (conservative) 66,
Liberals 44, Center 42, Communists 21, Greens 20

Communists: VPK and SKP; VPK, the major Communist party, is reported to
have roughly 17,800 members; in the 1988 election, the VPK attracted 5.8%
of the vote

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development
Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, INTELSAT, IPU,
ISO, ITU, IWC--International, Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat
Council, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Anders THUNBORG; Chancery at
Suite 1200, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 944-5600; there are Swedish Consulates General in Chicago,
Los Angeles, Minneapolis, and New York;
US--Ambassador Charles E. REDMAN; Embassy at Strandvagen 101,
S-115 27 Stockholm; telephone p46o (8) 7835300

Flag: blue with a yellow cross that extends to the edges of the flag; the
vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the
Dannebrog (Danish flag)

- Economy
Overview: Aided by a long period of peace and neutrality during
World War I through World War II, Sweden has achieved an enviable
standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and
extensive welfare benefits. It has essentially full employment,
a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external
communications, and a skilled and intelligent labor force. Timber,
hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy
that is heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms
account for about 90% of industrial output, of which the engineering
sector accounts for 50% of output and exports. As the 1990s open,
however, Sweden faces serious economic problems: long waits for
adequate housing, the decay of the work ethic, and a loss of
competitive edge in international markets.

GDP: $132.7 billion, per capita $15,700; real growth rate 2.1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.7% (September 1989)

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1989)

Budget: revenues $58.0 billion; expenditures $57.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Exports: $52.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--machinery, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp
and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals, petroleum and
petroleum products; partners--EC 52.1%, (FRG 12.1%, UK 11.2%,
Denmark 6.8%), US 9.8%, Norway 9.3%

Imports: $48.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities--machinery, petroleum and petroleum products,
chemicals, motor vehicles, foodstuffs, iron and steel, clothing;
partners--EC 55.8% (FRG 21.2%, UK 8.6%, Denmark 6.6%),
US 7.5%, Norway 6.0%

External debt: $17.9 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.3% (1989)

Electricity: 39,716,000 kW capacity; 200,315 million kWh produced,
23,840 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and
telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods,
motor vehicles

Agriculture: animal husbandry predominates, with milk and dairy products
accounting for 37% of farm income; main crops--grains, sugar beets, potatoes;
100% self-sufficient in grains and potatoes, 85% self-sufficient in sugar beets

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $7.9 billion

Currency: Swedish krona (plural--kronor);
1 Swedish krona (SKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SKr) per US$1--6.1798 (January 1990),
6.4469 (1989), 6.1272 (1988), 6.3404 (1987), 7.1236 (1986), 8.6039 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 12,000 km total; Swedish State Railways (SJ)--10,819 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 6,955 km electrified and 1,152 km double
track; 182 km 0.891-meter gauge; 117 km rail ferry service; privately
owned railways--511 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (332 km electrified);
371 km 0.891-meter gauge (all electrified)

Highways: 97,400 km (51,899 km paved, 20,659 km gravel, 24,842 km
unimproved earth)

Inland waterways: 2,052 km navigable for small steamers and barges

Pipelines: 84 km natural gas

Ports: Gavle, Goteborg, Halmstad, Helsingborg, Kalmar, Malmo,
Stockholm; numerous secondary and minor ports

Merchant marine: 173 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,856,217
GRT/2,215,659 DWT; includes 9 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 3 container, 42
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 2 railcar carrier, 27 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 25 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5
combination ore/oil, 6 specialized tanker, 12 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 65 major transports

Airports: 259 total, 256 usable; 138 with permanent-surface
runways; none with runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
91 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international
facilities; 8,200,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, 56 (320 relays) FM,
110 (925 relays) TV; 5 submarine coaxial cables; communication satellite
earth stations operating in the INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT
systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Swedish Army, Royal Swedish Air Force, Royal Swedish Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,133,101; 1,865,526 fit for military
service; 56,632 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: $4.5 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Switzerland
- Geography
Total area: 41,290 km2; land area: 39,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,852 km total; Austria 164 km, France 573 km,
Italy 740 km, Liechtenstein 41 km, FRG 334 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: temperate, but varies with altitude; cold, cloudy, rainy/snowy
winters; cool to warm, cloudy, humid summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains (Alps in south, Jura in northwest) with a
central plateau of rolling hills, plains, and large lakes

Natural resources: hydropower potential, timber, salt

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures;
26% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: dominated by Alps

Note: landlocked; crossroads of northern and southern Europe

- People
Population: 6,742,461 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 83 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Swiss (sing. & pl.); adjective--Swiss

Ethnic divisions: total population--65% German, 18% French, 10% Italian,
1% Romansch, 6% other; Swiss nationals--74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian,
1% Romansch, 1% other

Religion: 49% Roman Catholic, 48% Protestant, 0.3% Jewish

Language: total population--65% German, 18% French, 12% Italian, 1%
Romansch, 4% other; Swiss nationals--74% German, 20% French, 4% Italian, 1%
Romansch, 1% other

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 3,220,000; 841,000 foreign workers, mostly Italian;
42% services, 39% industry and crafts, 11% government, 7% agriculture and
forestry, 1% other (1988)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Swiss Confederation

Type: federal republic

Capital: Bern

Administrative divisions: 26 cantons (cantons, singular--canton in French;
cantoni, singular--cantone in Italian; kantone, singular--kanton in German);
Aargau, Ausser-Rhoden, Basel-Landschaft, Basel-Stadt, Bern, Fribourg, Geneve,
Glarus, Graubunden, Inner-Rhoden, Jura, Luzern, Neuchatel, Nidwalden,
Obwalden, Sankt Gallen, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri,
Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zurich

Independence: 1 August 1291

Constitution: 29 May 1874

Legal system: civil law system influenced by customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts, except with respect to federal decrees of general
obligatory character; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Anniversary of the Founding of the Swiss Confederation,
1 August (1291)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Federal Council
(German--Bundesrat, French--Conseil Federal)

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (German--Bundesversammlung,
French--Assemblee Federale) consists of an upper council or Council of
States (German--Standerat, French--Conseil des Etats) and and a lower council
or National Council (German--Nationalrat, French--Conseil National)

Judicial branch: Federal Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Arnold KOLLER
(1990 calendar year; presidency rotates annually); Vice President Flavio
COTTI (term runs concurrently with that of president)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (SPS), Helmut
Hubacher, chairman; Radical Democratic Party (FDP), Bruno Hunziker, president;
Christian Democratic People's Party (CVP), Eva Segmuller-Weber, president;
Swiss People's Party (SVP), Hans Uhlmann, president; Workers' Party (PdA),
Armand Magnin, secretary general; National Action Party (NA), Hans Zwicky,
chairman; Independents' Party (LdU), Dr. Franz Jaeger, president; Republican
Movement (Rep), Dr. James Schworzenboch, Franz Baumgartner, leaders; Liberal
Party (LPS), Gilbert Coutau, president; Evangelical People's Party (EVP), Max
Dunki, president; Progressive Organizations of Switzerland (POCH),
Georg Degen, secretary; Federation of Ecology Parties (GP), Laurent
Rebeaud, president; Autonomous Socialist Party (PSA), Werner Carobbio,
secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
Council of State--last held throughout 1987 (next to be
held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(46 total) CVP 19, FDP 14, SPS 5, SVP 4, others 4;

National Council--last held 18 October 1987 (next to be
held October 1991);
results--FDP 22.9%, CVP 20.0%, SPS 18.4%, SVP 11.0%, GP 4.8%, others
22.9%;
seats--(200 total) FDP 51, CVP 42, SPS 41, SVP 25, GP 9, others 32

Communists: 4,500 members (est.)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, ILO, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, OECD, UNESCO,
UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO; permanent observer status at
the UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edouard BRUNNER; Chancery at
2900 Cathedral Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 745-7900;
there are Swiss Consulates General in Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
New York, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Joseph B. GUILDENHORN; Embassy at
Jubilaeumstrasse 93, 3005 Bern; telephone p41o (31) 437011;
there is a Branch Office of the Embassy in Geneva and a
Consulate General in Zurich

Flag: red square with a bold, equilateral white cross in the center that
does not extend to the edges of the flag

- Economy
Overview: Switzerland's economic success is matched in few, if any,
other nations. Per capita output, general living standards, education
and science, health care, and diet are unsurpassed in Europe. Inflation
remains low because of sound government policy and harmonious
labor-management relations. Unemployment is negligible, a marked
contrast to the larger economies of Western Europe. This economic
stability helps promote the important banking and tourist sectors. Since
World War II, Switzerland's economy has adjusted smoothly to the great
changes in output and trade patterns in Europe and presumably can adjust
to the challenges of the 1990s, in particular, the further economic
integration of Western Europe and the amazingly rapid changes in East
European political/economic prospects.

GDP: $119.5 billion, per capita $17,800; real growth rate 3.0%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $17.0 billion; expenditures $16.8 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Exports: $51.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--machinery and
equipment, precision instruments, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
and clothing;
partners--Europe 64% (EC 56%, other 8%), US 9%, Japan 4%

Imports: $57.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--agricultural
products, machinery and transportation equipment, chemicals, textiles,
construction materials;
partners--Europe 79% (EC 72%, other 7%), US 5%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 7.0% (1988)

Electricity: 17,710,000 kW capacity; 59,070 million kWh produced,
8,930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery, chemicals, watches, textiles, precision instruments

Agriculture: dairy farming predominates; less than 50% self-sufficient;
food shortages--fish, refined sugar, fats and oils (other than butter), grains,
eggs, fruits, vegetables, meat

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $2.5 billion

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural--francs, franken, or
franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen, or
centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1--1.5150
(January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986),
2.4571 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 5,174 km total; 2,971 km are government owned
and 2,203 km are nongovernment owned; the government network consists
of 2,897 km 1.435-meter standard gauge and 74 km 1.000-meter narrow
gauge track; 1,432 km double track, 99% electrified; the nongovernment
network consists of 710 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1,418 km
1.000-meter gauge, and 75 km 0.790-meter gauge track, 100% electrified

Highways: 62,145 km total (all paved), of which 18,620 km are canton and
1,057 km are national highways (740 km autobahn); 42,468 km are communal roads

Pipelines: 314 km crude oil; 1,506 km natural gas

Inland waterways: 65 km; Rhine (Basel to Rheinfelden, Schaffhausen
to Bodensee); 12 navigable lakes

Ports: Basel (river port)

Merchant marine: 20 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 215,851
GRT/365,131 DWT; includes 4 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 chemical tanker,
3 specialized liquid cargo, 8 bulk

Civil air: 89 major transport aircraft

Airports: 72 total, 70 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic, international, and broadcast
services; 5,808,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, 36 (400 relays) FM,
145 (1,250 relays) TV; communications satellite earth stations operating
in the INTELSAT (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,800,211; 1,550,662 fit for military
service; 44,154 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.2 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Syria
- Geography
Total area: 185,180 km2; land area: 184,050 km2 (including 1,295 km2
of Israeli-occupied territory)

Comparative area: slightly larger than North Dakota

Land boundaries: 2,253 km total; Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km,
Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 6 nm beyond territorial sea limit;

Territorial sea: 35 nm

Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line; Golan Heights
is Israeli occupied; Hatay question with Turkey; periodic disputes with Iraq
over Euphrates water rights; ongoing dispute over water development plans by
Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq,
Syria, Turkey, and the USSR

Climate: mostly desert; hot, dry, sunny summers (June to August) and mild,
rainy winters (December to February) along coast

Terrain: primarily semiarid and desert plateau; narrow coastal plain;
mountains in west

Natural resources: crude oil, phosphates, chrome and manganese ores,
asphalt, iron ore, rock salt, marble, gypsum

Land use: 28% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: there are 35 Jewish settlements in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights

- People
Population: 12,483,440 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990);
in addition, there are 13,500 Druze and 10,500 Jewish settlers in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 38 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Syrian(s); adjective--Syrian

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% Arab; 9.7% Kurds, Armenians, and other

Religion: 74% Sunni Muslim; 16% Alawite, Druze, and other Muslim sects;
10% Christian (various sects); tiny Jewish communities in Damascus,
Al Qamishli, and Aleppo

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Armenian, Aramaic,
Circassian; French widely understood

Literacy: 49%

Labor force: 2,400,000; 36% miscellaneous and government services,
32% agriculture, 32% industry and construction); majority unskilled;
shortage of skilled labor (1984)

Organized labor: 5% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Syrian Arab Republic

Type: republic; under leftwing military regime since March 1963

Capital: Damascus

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Hasakah, Al Ladhiqiyah, Al Qunaytirah,
Ar Raqqah, As Suwayda, Dara, Dayr az Zawr, Dimashq, Halab,
Hamah, Hims, Idlib, Madinat Dimashq, Tartus

Independence: 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration); formerly United Arab Republic

Constitution: 13 March 1973

Legal system: based on Islamic law and civil law system; special religious
courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 17 April (1946)

Executive branch: president, three vice presidents, prime minister,
three deputy prime ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Council (Majlis ash Shaab)

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court, High Judicial
Council, Court of Cassation, State Security Courts

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Lt. Gen. Hafiz al-ASSAD (since 22 February
1971); Vice Presidents Abd al-Halim KHADDAM, Dr. Rifat al-ASSAD, and
Muhammad Zuhayr MASHARIQA (since 11 March 1984);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mahmud ZUBI (since 1 November 1987);
Deputy Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mustafa TALAS (since 11 March 1984)

Political parties and leaders: ruling party is the Arab Socialist
Resurrectionist (Bath) Party; the Progressive National Front is dominated by
Bathists but includes independents and members of the Syrian Arab Socialist
Party (ASP), Arab Socialist Union (ASU), Socialist Unionist Movement, and Syrian
Communist Party (SCP)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 10-11 February 1985 (next to be held February
1992);
results--President Hafiz al-Assad was reelected without opposition;

People's Council--last held 10-11 February 1986 (next to be
held 22 May 1990);
results--Bath 66%, ASU 5%, SCP 5%, Socialist Unionist Movement 4%,
ASP 2%, independents 18%;
seats--(195 total) Bath 129, Communist 9, ASU 9, Socialiist Unionist
Movement 8, ASP 5, independents 35; the People's Council will have
250 seats total in the 22 May 1990 election

Communists: mostly sympathizers, numbering about 5,000

Other political or pressure groups: non-Bath parties have little
effective political influence; Communist party ineffective; greatest threat to
Assad regime lies in factionalism in the military; conservative religious
leaders; Muslim Brotherhood

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOOC, IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Walid Mu'allim;
Chancery at 2215 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
232-6313;
US--Ambassador Edward P. DJEREJIAN; Embassy at Abu Rumaneh,
Al Mansur Street No.2, Damascus (mailing address is P. O. Box 29, Damascus);
telephone p963o (11) 333052 or 332557, 330416, 332814, 332315

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with two
small green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Iraq which has three
stars (in a horizontal line centered in the white band)--all green and
five-pointed; also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle
centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: Syria's rigidly structured Bathist economy is turning out
roughly the same amount of goods in 1989 as in 1983, when the population
was 20% smaller. Economic difficulties are attributable, in part, to severe
drought in several recent years, costly but unsuccessful attempts to match
Israel's military strength, a falloff in Arab aid, and insufficient foreign
exchange earnings to buy needed inputs for industry and agriculture. Socialist
policy, embodied in a thicket of bureaucratic regulations, in many instances
has driven away or pushed underground the mercantile and entrepreneurial spirit
for which Syrian businessmen have long been famous. Two bright spots: a sizable
number of villagers have benefited from land redistribution, electrification,
and other rural development programs; and a recent find of light crude oil
has enabled Syria to cut back its substantial imports of light crude. A
long-term concern is the additional drain of upstream Euphrates water by
Turkey when its vast dam and irrigation projects are completed toward the end
of the 1990s.

GDP: $18.5 billion, per capita $1,540; real growth rate - 2%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $3.2 billion, including capital
expenditures of $1.92 billion (1989)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--petroleum,
textiles, fruits and vegetables, phosphates;
partners--Italy, Romania, USSR, US, Iran, France

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--petroleum,
machinery, base metals, foodstuffs and beverages;
partners--Iran, FRG, USSR, France, GDR, Libya, US

External debt: $5.3 billion in hard currency (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 2,867,000 kW capacity; 6,000 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, tobacco,
phosphate rock mining, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 27% of GDP and one-third of labor force; all
major crops (wheat, barley, cotton, lentils, chickpeas) grown on rainfed land
causing wide swings in yields; animal products--beef, lamb, eggs, poultry,
milk; not self-sufficient in grain or livestock products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $538 million; Western
(non-US) ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.0 billion; OPEC
bilateral aid (1979-89), $12.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$3.3 billion

Currency: Syrian pound (plural--pounds);
1 Syrian pound (LS) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Syrian pounds (LS) per US$1--11.2250 (fixed rate since
1987), 3.9250 (fixed rate 1976-87)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 2,241 km total; 1,930 km standard gauge, 311 km
1.050-meter narrow gauge; note--the Tartus-Latakia line is nearly
complete

Highways: 27,000 km total; 21,000 km paved, 3,000 km gravel or crushed
stone, 3,000 km improved earth

Inland waterways: 672 km; of little economic importance

Pipelines: 1,304 km crude oil; 515 km refined products

Ports: Tartus, Latakia, Baniyas

Merchant marine: 19 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 53,938 GRT/72,220
DWT; includes 16 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 bulk

Civil air: 35 major transport aircraft

Airports: 97 total, 94 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 21 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system currently undergoing significant
improvement; 512,600 telephones; stations--9 AM, 1 FM, 40 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station, with 1 Intersputnik station
under construction; 1 submarine cable; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq,
Jordan, Turkey, and Lebanon (inactive)

- Defense Forces
Branches: Syrian Arab Army, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Arab Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,712,360; 1,520,798 fit for military
service; 144,791 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Tanzania
- Geography
Total area: 945,090 km2; land area: 886,040 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 3,402 km total; Burundi 451 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi
475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km

Coastline: 1,424 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary dispute with Malawi in Lake Nyasa;
Tanzania-Zaire-Zambia tripoint in Lake Tanganyika may no longer be
indefinite since it is reported that the indefinite section of the
Zaire-Zambia boundary has been settled

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands

Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south

Natural resources: hydropower potential, tin, phosphates,
iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel

Land use: 5% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures;
47% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: lack of water and tsetse fly limit agriculture; recent
droughts affected marginal agriculture; Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa

- People
Population: 25,970,843 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 16 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 49 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Tanzanian(s); adjective--Tanzanian

Ethnic divisions: mainland--99% native African consisting of well over 100
tribes; 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: mainland--33% Christian, 33% Muslim, 33% indigenous beliefs;
Zanzibar--almost all Muslim

Language: Swahili and English (official); English primary language of
commerce, administration, and higher education; Swahili widely understood and
generally used for communication between ethnic groups; first language of most
people is one of the local languages; primary education is generally in
Swahili

Literacy: 79%

Labor force: 732,200 wage earners; 90% agriculture, 10% industry and
commerce (1986 est.)

Organized labor: 15% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: United Republic of Tanzania

Type: republic

Capital: Dar es Salaam; some government offices have been transferred
to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital in the 1990s

Administrative divisions: 25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma,
Iringa, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza,
Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora,
Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West,
Ziwa Magharibi

Independence: Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from
UN trusteeship under British administration); Zanzibar became independent
19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964
to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United
Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964

Constitution: 15 March 1984 (Zanzibar has its own Constitution but remains
subject to provisions of the union Constitution)

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Union Day, 26 April (1964)

Executive branch: president, first vice president and prime minister of
the union, second vice president and president of Zanzibar, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Bunge)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Ali Hassan MWINYI (since 5 November 1985);

Head of Government--First Vice President and Prime Minister Joseph Sinde
WARIOBA (since 6 November 1985)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Chama Cha Mapinduzi
(CCM or Revolutionary Party), Julius Nyerere, party chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held
October 1990);
results--Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held
October 1990);
results--CCM is the only party;
seats--(244 total, 168 elected) CCM 168

Communists: no Communist party; a few Communist sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU,
NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Charles Musama
NYIRABU; Chancery at 2139 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 939-6125;
US--Ambassador Edmond DE JARNETTE; Embassy at 36 Laibon Road (off
Bagamoyo Road), Dar es Salaam (mailing address is P. O. Box 9123,
Dar es Salaam); telephone p255o (51) 37501 through 37504

Flag: divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower
hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower
triangle is blue

- Economy
Overview: Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The
economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for about 40% of
GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 90% of the work force. Industry
accounts for about 10% of GDP and is mainly limited to processing agricultural
products and light consumer goods. The economic recovery program announced in
mid-1986 has generated notable increases in agricultural production and
financial support for the program by bilateral donors. The World Bank and
the International Monetary Fund have increased the availability of
imports and provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated
economic infrastructure.

GDP: $5.92 billion, per capita $235; real growth rate 4.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 29% (1989)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $568 million; expenditures $835 million,
including capital expenditures of $230 million (FY89)

Exports: $394 million (f.o.b., FY89); commodities--coffee, cotton,
sisal, cashew nuts, meat, tobacco, tea, diamonds, coconut products, pyrethrum,
cloves (Zanzibar);
partners--FRG, UK, US, Netherlands, Japan

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., FY89); commodities--manufactured
goods, machinery and transportation equipment, cotton piece goods, crude oil,
foodstuffs;
partners--FRG, UK, US, Iran, Japan, Italy

External debt: $4.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 401,000 kW capacity; 895 million kWh produced,
35 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes,
sisal twine), diamond mine, oil refinery, shoes, cement, textiles,
wood products, fertilizer

Agriculture: accounts for over 40% of GDP; topography and climatic
conditions limit cultivated crops to only 5% of land area; cash
crops--coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from
chrysanthemums), cashews, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar); food crops--corn,
wheat, cassava, bananas, fruits, and vegetables; small numbers of cattle,
sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food grain production

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $387 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $8.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $44 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$607 million

Currency: Tanzanian shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Tanzanian shilling (TSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TSh) per US$1--192.901 (January
1990), 143.377 (1989), 99.292 (1988), 64.260 (1987), 32.698 (1986), 17.472
(1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 3,555 km total; 960 km 1.067-meter gauge; 2,595 km 1.000-meter
gauge, 6.4 km double track, 962 km Tazara Railroad 1.067-meter gauge; 115 km
1.000-meter gauge planned by end of decade

Highways: total 81,900 km, 3,600 km paved; 5,600 km gravel or crushed
stone; remainder improved and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 982 km crude oil

Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Lake Nyasa

Ports: Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga, and Zanzibar are ocean ports; Mwanza
on Lake Victoria and Kigoma on Lake Tanganyika are inland ports

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 29,174 GRT/39,186
DWT; includes 2 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 103 total, 92 usable; 13 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
44 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open wire, radio relay, and
troposcatter; 103,800 telephones; stations--12 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Tanzanian People's Defense Force includes Army, Navy, and Air
Force; paramilitary Police Field Force Unit; Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,351,192; 3,087,501 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (1985)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Thailand
- Geography
Total area: 514,000 km2; land area: 511,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming

Land boundaries: 4,863 km total; Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km,
Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km

Coastline: 3,219 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary dispute with Laos

Climate: tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon
(mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to
mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid

Terrain: central plain; eastern plateau (Khorat); mountains elsewhere

Natural resources: tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber,
lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite

Land use: 34% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
30% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution; land subsidence in Bangkok area

Note: controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and
Singapore

- People
Population: 55,115,683 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 34 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Thai (sing. and pl.); adjective--Thai

Ethnic divisions: 75% Thai, 14% Chinese, 11% other

Religion: 95.5% Buddhist, 4% Muslim, 0.5% other

Language: Thai; English is the secondary language of the elite; ethnic and
regional dialects

Literacy: 82%

Labor force: 26,000,000; 73% agriculture, 11% industry and commerce,
10% services, 6% government (1984)

Organized labor: 300,000 union members (1986)

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Thailand

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Bangkok

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces (changwat, singular and plural);
Ang Thong, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai,
Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi,
Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon, Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri,
Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat,
Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao,
Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae,
Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et,
Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun,
Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak,
Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala,
Yasothon

Independence: 1238 (traditional founding date); never colonized

Constitution: 22 December 1978

Legal system: based on civil law system, with influences of common law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 5 December (1927)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, three deputy prime ministers,
Council of Ministers (cabinet), Privy Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Ratha Satha) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Woothi Satha) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Satha Poothan)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarn Dika)

Leaders:
Chief of State--King BHUMIBOL ADULYADEJ (since 9 June 1946);
Heir Apparent Crown Prince VAJIRALONGKORN (born 28 July 1952);

Head of Government Prime Minister Maj. Gen. CHATCHAI CHUNHAWAN
(since 9 August 1988); Deputy Prime Minister CHUAN LIKPHAI

Political parties and leaders: Democrat Party (DP), Social Action
Party (SAP), Thai Nation Party (TNP), People's Party (Ratsadon),
People's Party (Prachachon), Thai Citizens Party (TCP),
United Democracy Party, Solidarity Party, Thai People's Party,
Mass Party, Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held 24 July 1988 (next to be held
within 90 days of July 1992);
results--TNP 27%, SAP 15%, DP 13%, TCP 9%, others 36%;
seats--(357 total) TNP 96, Solidarity 62, SAP 54, DP 48, TCP 31,
People's Party (Ratsadon) 21, People's Party (Prachachon) 17,
Force of Truth Party (Phalang Dharma) 14, United Democracy Party 5,
Mass Party 5, others 4

Communists: illegal Communist party has 500 to 1,000 members (est.);
armed Communist insurgents throughout Thailand total 300 to 500 (est.)

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, ASPAC, Association of Tin Producing
Countries, CCC, Colombo Plan, GATT, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INRO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador VITTHYA VEJJAJIVA; Embassy at
2300 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-7200;
there are Thai Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York;
US--Ambassador Daniel O'DONAHUE; Embassy at 95 Wireless Road, Bangkok
(mailing address is APO San Francisco 96346); telephone p66o (2) 252-5040; there
is a US Consulate General in Chiang Mai and Consulates in Songkhla and Udorn

Flag: five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width),
white, and red

- Economy
Overview: Thailand, one of the more advanced developing countries
in Asia, enjoyed its second straight exceptionally prosperous year in
1989. Real output again rose about 11%. The increasingly sophisticated
manufacturing sector benefited from export-oriented investment, and
agriculture grew by 4.0% because of improved weather. The trade deficit
of $5.2 billion was more than offset by earnings from tourism
($3.9 billion), remittances, and net capital inflows. The government has
followed a fairly sound fiscal and monetary policy, aided by increased
tax receipts from the fast-moving economy. In 1989 the government
approved new projects--roads, ports, electric power,
communications--needed to refurbish the now overtaxed infrastructure.
Although growth in 1990-91 must necessarily fall below the 1988-89 pace,
Thailand's immediate economic outlook is good, assuming the continuation
of prudent government policies in the context of a
private-sector-oriented development strategy.

GNP: $64.5 billion, per capita $1,160; real growth rate 10.8% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $12.1 billion; expenditures $9.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (FY89)

Exports: $19.9 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--textiles
12%, fishery products 12%, rice 8%, tapioca 8%, jewelry 6%,
manufactured gas, corn, tin;
partners--US 18%, Japan 14%, Singapore 9%, Netherlands, Malaysia,
Hong Kong, China (1988)

Imports: $25.1 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--machinery and
parts 23%, petroleum products 13%, chemicals 11%, iron and steel, electrical
appliances;
partners--Japan 26%, US 14%, Singapore 7%, FRG, Malaysia, UK (1987)

External debt: $18.5 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.5% (1989)

Electricity: 7,100,000 kW capacity; 28,000 million kWh produced,
500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism is the largest source of foreign exchange; textiles
and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, other light
manufacturing, such as jewelry; electric appliances and components, integrated
circuits, furniture, plastics; world's second-largest tungsten producer and
third-largest tin producer

Agriculture: accounts for 16% of GNP and 73% of labor force; leading
producer and exporter of rice and cassava (tapioca); other crops--rubber, corn,
sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans; except for wheat, self-sufficient in food; fish
catch of 2.2 million tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: a minor producer, major illicit trafficker of heroin,
particularly from Burma and Laos, and cannabis for the international drug
market; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and
shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has
been affected by eradication efforts, but unusually good weather
boosted output in 1989

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $828 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $7.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $19 million

Currency: baht (plural--baht); 1 baht (B) = 100 satang

Exchange rates: baht (B) per US$1--25.726 (January 1990), 25.699 (1989),
25.294 (1988), 25.723 (1987), 26.299 (1986), 27.159 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Railroads: 3,940 km 1.000-meter gauge, 99 km double track

Highways: 44,534 km total; 28,016 km paved, 5,132 km earth surface,
11,386 km under development

Inland waterways: 3,999 km principal waterways; 3,701 km with navigable
depths of 0.9 m or more throughout the year; numerous minor waterways navigable
by shallow-draft native craft

Pipelines: natural gas, 350 km; refined products, 67 km

Ports: Bangkok, Pattani, Phuket, Sattahip, Si Racha

Merchant marine: 122 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 483,688
GRT/730,750 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 70 cargo, 8 container,
27 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 8 liquefied gas, 1 chemical
tanker, 3 bulk, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 41 (plus 2 leased) major transport aircraft

Airports: 127 total, 103 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 26 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service to general public adequate; bulk of service to
government activities provided by multichannel cable and radio relay network;
739,500 telephones (1987); stations--over 200 AM, 100 FM, and 11 TV in
government-controlled networks; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT; domestic satellite system being developed

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy (includes Royal Thai Marine
Corps), Royal Thai Air Force; paramilitary forces include Border Patrol Police,
Thahan Phran (irregular soldiers), Village Defense Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 15,617,486; 9,543,119 fit for military
service; 610,410 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GNP, or $1.9 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Togo
- Geography
Total area: 56,790 km2; land area: 54,390 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: 1,647 km total; Benin 644 km, Burkina 126 km,
Ghana 877 km

Coastline: 56 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north

Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern
plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes

Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble

Land use: 25% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 42% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north
during winter; recent droughts affecting agriculture; deforestation

- People
Population: 3,674,355 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 50 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 112 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Togolese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Togolese

Ethnic divisions: 37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and
Kabye; under 1% European and Syrian-Lebanese

Religion: about 70% indigenous beliefs, 20% Christian, 10% Muslim

Language: French, both official and language of commerce; major African
languages are Ewe and Mina in the south and Dagomba and Kabye in the north

Literacy: 40.7%

Labor force: NA; 78% agriculture, 22% industry; about 88,600 wage earners,
evenly divided between public and private sectors; 50% of population of working
age (1985)

Organized labor: one national union, the National Federation of Togolese
Workers

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Togo

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime

Capital: Lome

Administrative divisions: 21 circumscriptions (circonscriptions,
singular--circonscription); Amlame (Amou), Aneho (Lacs),
Atakpame (Ogou), Badou (Wawa), Bafilo (Assoli), Bassar (Bassari),
Dapaong (Tone), Kante (Keran), Klouto (Kloto), Kpagouda (Binah),
Lama-Kara (Kozah), Lome (Golfe), Mango (Oti), Niamtougou (Doufelgou),
Notse (Haho), Sotouboua, Tabligbo (Yoto), Tchamba, Tchaoudjo,
Tsevie (Zio), Vogan (Vo); note--the 21 units may now be called
prefectures (prefectures, singular--prefecture) and reported name
changes for individual units are included in parenthesis

Independence: 27 April 1960 (from UN trusteeship under French
administration, formerly French Togo)

Constitution: 30 December 1979, effective 13 January 1980

Legal system: French-based court system

National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 13 January (1967)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal (Cour d'Appel), Supreme Court
(Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Gnassingbe
EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Rally of the Togolese
People (RPT), President Eyadema

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
President--last held 21 December 1986 (next to be held December 1993);
results--Gen. Eyadema was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 4 March 1990 (next to be held March 1995);
results--RPT is the only party;
seats--(77 total) RPT 77

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO (observer), EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, ENTENTE, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ellom-Kodjo SCHUPPIUS; Chancery at
2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-4212
or 4213;
US--Ambassador Rush W. TAYLOR, Jr.; Embassy at Rue Pelletier Caventou and
Rue Vauban, Lome (mailing address is B. P. 852, Lome);
telephone p228o 21-29-91 through 94 and 21-36-09

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating
with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper
hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: Togo is one of the least developed countries in the world with a
per capita GDP of about $400. The economy is heavily dependent on subsistence
agriculture, which accounts for about 35% of GDP and provides employment for 80%
of the labor force. Primary agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee, and cotton,
which together account for about 30% of total export earnings. Togo is
self-sufficient in basic foodstuffs when harvests are normal. In the industrial
sector phosphate mining is by far the most important activity, with phosphate
exports accounting for about 40% of total foreign exchange earnings.

GDP: $1.35 billion, per capita $405; real growth rate 4.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2.0% (1987)

Budget: revenues $354 million; expenditures $399 million,
including capital expenditures of $102 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $344 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--phosphates,
cocoa, coffee, cotton, manufactures, palm kernels;
partners--EC 70%, Africa 9%, US 2%, other 19% (1985)

Imports: $369 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--food, fuels,
durable consumer goods, other intermediate goods, capital goods;
partners--EC 69%, Africa 10%, Japan 7%, US 4%, other 10% (1985)

External debt: $1.3 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 117,000 kW capacity; 155 million kWh produced,
45 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement,
handicrafts, textiles, beverages

Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, cocoa, cotton; food crops--yams,
cassava, corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum, fish

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $121 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.6 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $35 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$46 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 515 km 1.000-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 6,462 km total; 1,762 km paved; 4,700 km unimproved roads

Inland waterways: none

Ports: Lome, Kpeme (phosphate port)

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 41,809 GRT/72,289
DWT; includes 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 9 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system based on network of open-wire lines
supplemented by radio relay routes; 12,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM,
3 (2 relays) TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
1 SYMPHONIE

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 767,949; 403,546 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Tokelau
(territory of New Zealand)
- Geography
Total area: 10 km2; land area: 10 km2

Comparative area: about 17 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 101 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds (April to November)

Terrain: coral atolls enclosing large lagoons

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: lies in Pacific typhoon belt

Note: located 3,750 km southwest of Honolulu in the South Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand

- People
Population: 1,700 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Tokelauan(s); adjective--Tokelauan

Ethnic divisions: all Polynesian, with cultural ties to Western Samoa

Religion: 70% Congregational Christian Church, 30% Roman Catholic; on
Atafu, all Congregational Christian Church of Samoa; on Nukunonu, all Roman
Catholic; on Fakaofo, both denominations, with the Congregational Christian
Church predominant

Language: Tokelauan (a Polynesian language) and English

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of New Zealand

Capital: none, each atoll has its own administrative center

Administrative divisions: none (territory of New Zealand)

Independence: none (territory of New Zealand)

Constitution: administered under the Tokelau Islands Act of 1948,
as amended in 1970

Legal system: British and local statutes

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty over New Zealand), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: administrator (appointed by the Minister of Foreign
Affairs in New Zealand), official secretary

Legislative branch: Council of Elders (Taupulega) on each atoll

Judicial branch: High Court in Niue, Supreme Court in New Zealand

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Administrator Neil WALTER; Official Secretary
M. NORRISH, Office of Tokelau Affairs

Suffrage: NA

Elections: NA

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of New Zealand)

Flag: the flag of New Zealand is used

- Economy
Overview: Tokelau's small size, isolation, and lack of resources
greatly restrain economic development and confine agriculture to the
subsistence level. The people must rely on aid from New Zealand to maintain
public services, annual aid being substantially greater than GDP.
The principal sources of revenue come from sales of copra, postage stamps,
souvenir coins, and handicrafts. Money is also remitted to families from
relatives in New Zealand.

GDP: $1.4 million, per capita $800; real growth rate NA% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $430,830; expenditures $2.8 million, including
capital expenditures of $37,300 (FY87)

Exports: $98,000 (f.o.b., 1983); commodities--stamps, copra,
handicrafts; partners--NZ

Imports: $323,400 (c.i.f., 1983); commodities--foodstuffs,
building materials, fuel; partners--NZ

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 200 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced,
175 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small-scale enterprises for copra production, wood work,
plaited craft goods; stamps, coins; fishing

Agriculture: coconuts, copra; basic subsistence crops--breadfruit,
papaya, bananas; pigs, poultry, goats

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $21 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6581 (January 1990),
1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: none; lagoon landings by amphibious aircraft from Western Samoa

Telecommunications: telephone service between islands and to Western Samoa

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Tonga
- Geography
Total area: 748 km2; land area: 718 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 419 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no specific limits;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to
May), cool season (May to December)

Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral
formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base

Natural resources: fish, fertile soil

Land use: 25% arable land; 55% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 2% other

Environment: archipelago of 170 islands (36 inhabited); subject to
cyclones (October to April); deforestation

Note: located about 2,250 km north-northwest of New Zealand, about
two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

- People
Population: 101,313 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Tongan(s); adjective--Tongan

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian; about 300 Europeans

Religion: Christian; Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents

Language: Tongan, English

Literacy: 90-95%; compulsory education for children ages 6 to 14

Labor force: NA; 70% agriculture; 600 engaged in mining

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