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Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Somali(s); adjective--Somali

Ethnic divisions: 85% Somali, rest mainly Bantu; 30,000 Arabs, 3,000
Europeans, 800 Asians

Religion: almost entirely Sunni Muslim

Language: Somali (official); Arabic, Italian, English

Literacy: 11.6% (government est.)

Labor force: 2,200,000; very few are skilled laborers; 70% pastoral nomad,
30% agriculture, government, trading, fishing, handicrafts, and other; 53% of
population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: General Federation of Somali Trade Unions is controlled
by the government

- Government
Long-form name: Somali Democratic Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Mogadishu

Administrative divisions: 16 regions (plural--NA, singular--gobolka);
Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe,
Jubbada Hoose, Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose,
Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed

Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland,
which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian
Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN
trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)

Constitution: 25 August 1979, presidential approval 23 September 1979

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 21 October (1969)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President and Commander in Chief of the Army
Maj. Gen. Mohamed SIAD Barre (since 21 October 1969);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Lt. Gen. Mohamed Ali SAMANTAR
(since 1 February 1987)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Somali Revolutionary
Socialist Party (SRSP), Maj. Gen. Mohamed Siad Barre, general secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 23 December 1986 (next to be held
December 1993);
results--President Siad was reelected without opposition;

People's Assembly--last held 31 December 1984 (next scheduled for
December 1989 was postponed);
results--SRSP is the only party;
seats--(177 total, 171 elected) SRSP 171

Communists: probably some Communist sympathizers in the government
hierarchy

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Arab League, EAMA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador ABDIKARIM Ali Omar; Chancery at
Suite 710, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 342-1575; there is a Somali Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador T. Frank CRIGLER; Embassy at Corso Primo Luglio, Mogadishu
(mailing address is P. O. Box 574, Mogadishu); telephone p252o (01) 20811

Flag: light blue with a large white five-pointed star in the center;
design based on the flag of the UN (Italian Somaliland was a UN trust territory)

- Economy
Overview: One of the world's least developed countries, Somalia
has few resources. In 1988 per capita GDP was $210. Agriculture is the
most important sector of the economy, with the livestock sector
accounting for about 40% of GDP and about 65% of export earnings. Nomads
and seminomads who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihoods
make up about 50% of the population. Crop production generates only 10%
of GDP and employs about 20% of the work force. The main export crop is
bananas; sugar, sorghum, and corn are grown for the domestic market. The
small industrial sector is based on the processing of agricultural
products and accounts for less than 10% of GDP. At the end of 1988
serious economic problems facing the nation were the external debt of
$2.8 billion and double-digit inflation.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $210; real growth rate - 1.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.7% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $273 million; expenditures $405 million, including
capital expenditures of $219 million (1987)

Exports: $58.0 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--livestock,
hides, skins, bananas, fish;
partners--US 0.5%, Saudi Arabia, Italy, FRG (1986)

Imports: $354.0 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--textiles,
petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials;
partners--US 13%, Italy, FRG, Kenya, UK, Saudi Arabia (1986)

External debt: $2.8 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 71,000 kW capacity; 65 million kWh produced,
8 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: a few small industries, including sugar refining,
textiles, petroleum refining

Agriculture: dominant sector, led by livestock raising (cattle, sheep,
goats); crops--bananas, sorghum, corn, mangoes, sugarcane; not self-sufficient
in food; fishing potential largely unexploited

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $618 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $1.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$336 million

Currency: Somali shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Somali shilling (So.Sh.) = 100 centesimi

Exchange rates: Somali shillings (So. Sh.) per US$1--643.92
(December 1989), 170.45 (1988), 105.18 (1987), 72.00 (1986), 39.49 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 15,215 km total; including 2,335 km bituminous surface, 2,880 km
gravel, and 10,000 km improved earth or stabilized soil (1983)

Pipelines: 15 km crude oil

Ports: Mogadishu, Berbera, Chisimayu

Merchant marine: 3 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,563
GRT/9,512 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 60 total, 45 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 20 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: minimal telephone and telegraph service; radio relay
and troposcatter system centered on Mogadishu connects a few towns; 6,000
telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station;
scheduled to receive an ARABSAT station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Somali National Army (including Navy, Air Force, and Air Defense
Force), National Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,878,939; 1,052,644 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: South Africa
- Geography
Total area: 1,221,040 km2; land area: 1,221,040 km2; includes
Walvis Bay, Marion Island, and Prince Edward Island

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,973 km total; Botswana 1,840 km, Lesotho 909 km,
Mozambique 491 km, Namibia 1,078 km, Swaziland 430 km, Zimbabwe 225 km

Coastline: 2,881 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: South Africa administered Namibia until independence was
achieved on 21 March 1990; possible future claim to Walvis Bay by Namibia

Climate: mostly semiarid; subtropical along coast; sunny days, cool nights

Terrain: vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal
plain

Natural resources: gold, chromium, antimony, coal, iron ore,
manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, uranium, gem diamonds, platinum,
copper, vanadium, salt, natural gas

Land use: 10% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 65% meadows and
pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: lack of important arterial rivers or lakes requires
extensive water conservation and control measures

Note: Walvis Bay is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia; completely
surrounds Lesotho; almost completely surrounds Swaziland

- People
Population: 39,549,941 (July 1990), growth rate 2.67%; includes the 10
so-called homelands, which are not recognized by the US

four independent homelands--Bophuthatswana 2,352,296, growth rate 2.80%;
Ciskei 1,025,873, growth rate 2.93%; Transkei 4,367,648, growth rate 4.19%;
Venda 665,197, growth rate 3.86%

six other homelands--Gazankulu 742,361, growth rate 3.99%; Kangwane 556,009,
growth rate 3.64%; KwaNdebele 348,655, growth rate 3.35%; KwaZulu 5,349,247,
growth rate 3.62%; Lebowa 2,704,641, growth rate 3.92%; Qwagwa 268,138, growth
rate 3.59%

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 52 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--South African(s); adjective--South African

Ethnic divisions: 73.8% black, 14.3% white, 9.1% Colored, 2.8% Indian

Religion: most whites and Coloreds and roughly 60% of blacks are
Christian; roughly 60% of Indians are Hindu, 20% Muslim

Language: Afrikaans, English (official); many vernacular languages,
including Zulu, Xhosa, North and South Sotho, Tswana

Literacy: almost all white population literate; government estimates 50%
of blacks literate

Labor force: 11,000,000 economically active; 34% services,
30% agriculture, 29% industry and commerce, 7% mining (1985)

Organized labor: about 17% of total labor force is unionized;
African unions represent 15% of black labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of South Africa; abbreviated RSA

Type: republic

Capital: administrative, Pretoria; legislative, Cape Town; judicial,
Bloemfontein

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Cape, Natal, Orange Free State,
Transvaal; there are 10 homelands not recognized by the US--4 independent
(Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Transkei, Venda) and 6 other (Gazankulu, Kangwane,
KwaNdebele, KwaZulu, Lebowa, Qwaqwa)

Independence: 31 May 1910 (from UK)

Constitution: 3 September 1984

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and English common law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Republic Day, 31 May (1910)

Executive branch: state president, cabinet, Executive Council (cabinet)
Ministers' Councils (from the three houses of Parliament)

Legislative branch: tricameral Parliament consists of the House of
Assembly (whites), House of Representatives (Coloreds), and House of Delegates
(Indians)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--State President
Frederik W. DE KLERK (since 13 September 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
white political parties and leaders--National Party (NP),
Frederik W. de Klerk (majority party); Conservative Party (CP),
Dr. Andries P. Treurnicht (official opposition party);
Herstigte National Party (HNP), Jaap Marais;
Democratic Party (DP), Zach De Beer, Wynand Malan, and Denis Worrall;

Colored political parties and leaders--Labor Party (LP), Allan
Hendrickse (majority party); Democratic Reform Party (DRP), Carter
Ebrahim; United Democratic Party (UDP), Jac Rabie; Freedom Party;

Indian political parties and leaders--Solidarity, J. N. Reddy
(majority party); National People's Party (NPP), Amichand Rajbansi;
Merit People's Party

Suffrage: universal at age 18, but voting rights are racially based

Elections:
House of Assembly (whites)--last held 6 September 1989 (next to
be held by September 1994);
results--NP 58%, CP 23%, DP 19%;
seats--(178 total, 166 elected) NP 103, CP 41, DP 34;

House of Representatives (Coloreds)--last held 6 September 1989
(next to be held by September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(85 total, 80 elected) LP 69, DRP 5, UDP 3, Freedom Party 1,
independents 2;

House of Delegates (Indians)--last held 6 September 1989
(next to be held by September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(45 total, 40 elected) Solidarity 16, NPP 9, Merit People's
Party 3, United Party 2, Democratic Party 2, People's Party 1,
National Federal Party 1, independents 6

Communists: small Communist party illegal since 1950; party in exile
maintains headquarters in London, Daniel Tloome (Chairman) and Joe Slovo
(General Secretary)

Other political groups:
insurgent groups in exile--African National Congress (ANC),
Oliver Tambo; Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC), Zephania Mothopeng;

internal antiapartheid groups--Pan-Africanist Movement (PAM),
Clarence Makwetu; United Democratic Front (UDF), Albertina Sisulu and
Archibald Gumede

Member of: CCC, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, IHO, ILZSG, IMF,
INTELSAT, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International
Wheat Council, Southern African Customs Union, UN, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WSG (membership rights in IAEA, ICAO, ITU, WHO, WIPO, and WMO suspended or
restricted)

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Piet G. J. KOORNHOF; Chancery at
3051 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-4400;
there are South African Consulates General in Beverly Hills (California),
Chicago, Houston, and New York;
US--Ambassador William L. SWING; Embassy at Thibault House,
225 Pretorius Street, Pretoria; telephone p27o (12) 28-4266; there are
US Consulates General in Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg

Flag: actually four flags in one--three miniature flags reproduced in the
center of the white band of the former flag of the Netherlands which has three
equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and blue; the miniature flags are
a vertically hanging flag of the old Orange Free State with a horizontal flag of
the UK adjoining on the hoist side and a horizontal flag of the old Transvaal
Republic adjoining on the other side

- Economy
Overview: Many of the white one-seventh of the South African
population enjoy incomes, material comforts, and health and educational
standards equal to those of Western Europe. In contrast, most of the
remaining population suffers from the poverty patterns of the Third
World, including unemployment, lack of job skills, and barriers to
movement into higher-paying fields. Inputs and outputs thus do not move
smoothly into the most productive employments, and the effectiveness
of the market is further lowered by international constraints on
dealings with South Africa. The main strength of the economy lies in
its rich mineral resources, which provide two-thirds of exports.
Average growth of 2% in output in recent years falls far short of the
level needed to cut into the high unemployment level.

GDP: $83.5 billion, per capita $2,380; real growth rate 3.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14.67% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 22% (1988); blacks 25-30%, up to 50% in
homelands (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $24.3 billion; expenditures $27.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA billion (FY91)

Exports: $21.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--gold 40%,
minerals and metals 23%, food 6%, chemicals 3%;
partners--FRG, Japan, UK, US, other EC, Hong Kong

Imports: $18.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--machinery
27%, chemicals 11%, vehicles and aircraft 11%, textiles, scientific
instruments, base metals;
partners--US, FRG, Japan, UK, France, Italy, Switzerland

External debt: $21.2 billion (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (1988)

Electricity: 34,941,000 kW capacity; 158,000 million kWh produced,
4,100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (world's largest producer of diamonds, gold, chrome),
automobile assembly, metalworking, machinery, textile, iron and steel, chemical,
fertilizer, foodstuffs

Agriculture: accounts for 6% of GDP and 30% of labor force; diversified
agriculture, with emphasis on livestock; products--cattle, poultry, sheep, wool,
milk, beef, corn, wheat; sugarcane, fruits, vegetables; self-sufficient in food

Aid: NA

Currency: rand (plural--rand); 1 rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: rand (R) per US$1--2.5555 (January 1990), 2.6166 (1989),
2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 20,638 km route distance total; 35,079 km of 1.067-meter gauge
trackage (counts double and multiple tracking as single track);
314 km of 610 mm gauge

Highways: 188,309 km total; 54,013 km paved, 134,296 km crushed stone,
gravel, or improved earth

Pipelines: 931 km crude oil; 1,748 km refined products; 322 km natural gas

Ports: Durban, Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, Richard's Bay, Saldanha,
Mosselbaai, Walvis Bay

Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 275,684 GRT/273,973
DWT; includes 7 container, 1 vehicle carrier, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker

Civil air: 81 major transport aircraft

Airports: 931 total, 793 usable; 124 with permanent-surface runways; 4
with runways over 3,659 m; 10 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 213 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: the system is the best developed, most modern, and has
the highest capacity in Africa; it consists of carrier-equipped open-wire lines,
coaxial cables, radio relay links, fiber optic cable, and radiocommunication
stations; key centers are Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port
Elizabeth, and Pretoria; 4,500,000 telephones; stations--14 AM, 286 FM, 67 TV;
1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Medical Services

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,544,357; 5,828,167 fit for military
service; 419,815 reach military age (18) annually; obligation for service in
Citizen Force or Commandos begins at 18; volunteers for service in permanent
force must be 17; national service obligation is two years; figures include
the so-called homelands not recognized by the US

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $4 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 4,066 km2; land area: 4,066 km2; includes Shag and
Clerke Rocks

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: undetermined

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: administered by the UK, claimed by Argentina

Climate: variable, with mostly westerly winds throughout the year,
interspersed with periods of calm; nearly all precipitation falls as snow

Terrain: most of the islands, rising steeply from the sea, are rugged and
mountainous; South Georgia is largely barren and has steep, glacier-covered
mountains; the South Sandwich Islands are of volcanic origin with some active
volcanoes

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other; largely covered by permanent ice and snow
with some sparse vegetation consisting of grass, moss, and lichen

Environment: reindeer, introduced early in this century, live on South
Georgia; weather conditions generally make it difficult to approach the South
Sandwich Islands; the South Sandwich Islands are subject to active volcanism

Note: the north coast of South Georgia has several large bays, which
provide good anchorage

- People
Population: no permanent population; there is a small military garrison on
South Georgia and the British Antarctic Survey has a biological station on Bird
Island; the South Sandwich islands are uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (no
short-form name)

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Grytviken Harbour on South Georgia is the chief town

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 3 October 1985

Legal system: English common law

National holiday: Liberation Day, 14 June (1982)

Executive branch: British monarch, commissioner

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Commissioner William Hugh FULLERTON (since 1988; resident at Stanley,
Falkland Islands)

- Economy
Overview: Some fishing takes place in adjacent waters. There is a
potential source of income from harvesting fin fish and krill. The islands
receive income from postage stamps produced in the UK.

Budget: revenues $291,777; expenditures $451,011, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Electricity: 900 kW capacity; 2 million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita
(1989)

- Communications
Highways: NA

Ports: Grytviken Harbour on South Georgia

Airports: none

Telecommunications: coastal radio station at Grytviken; no broadcast
stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Soviet Union
- Geography
Total area: 22,402,200 km2; land area: 22,272,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of US

Land boundaries: 19,933 km total; Afghanistan 2,384 km, Czechoslovakia
98 km, China 7,520 km, Finland 1,313 km, Hungary 135 km, Iran 1,690 km,
North Korea 17 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 196 km, Poland 1,215 km, Romania
1,307 km, Turkey 617 km

Coastline: 42,777 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: bilateral negotiations are under way to resolve four
disputed sections of the boundary with China (Pamir, Argun, Amur, and
Khabarovsk areas); US Government has not recognized the incorporation of
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania into the Soviet Union; Habomai Islands,
Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan islands occupied by Soviet Union since
1945, claimed by Japan; Kuril Islands administered by Soviet Union;
maritime dispute with Norway over portion of Barents Sea; has made no
territorial claim in Antarctica (but has reserved the right to do so)
and does not recognize the claims of any other nation; Bessarabia
question with Romania; Kurdish question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey,
and the USSR

Climate: mostly temperate to arctic continental; winters vary from cool
along Black Sea to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from hot in southern deserts
to cool along Arctic coast

Terrain: broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest
and tundra in Siberia, deserts in Central Asia, mountains in south

Natural resources: self-sufficient in oil, natural gas, coal, and
strategic minerals (except bauxite, alumina, tantalum, tin, tungsten, fluorspar,
and molybdenum), timber, gold, manganese, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury, potash,
phosphates

Land use: 10% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 17% meadows and
pastures; 41% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: despite size and diversity, small percentage of land
is arable and much is too far north; some of most fertile land is water
deficient or has insufficient growing season; many better climates have
poor soils; hot, dry, desiccating sukhovey wind affects south;
desertification; continuous permafrost over much of Siberia is a major
impediment to development

Note: largest country in world, but unfavorably located in
relation to major sea lanes of world

- People
Population: 290,938,469 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 24 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Soviet(s); adjective--Soviet

Ethnic divisions: Russian 50.78%, Ukrainian 15.45%, Uzbek 5.84%,
Byelorussian 3.51%, Kazakh 2.85%, Azerbaijan 2.38%, Armenian 1.62%,
Tajik 1.48%, Georgian 1.39%, Moldavian 1.17%, Lithuanian 1.07%,
Turkmen 0.95%, Kirghiz 0.89%, Latvian 0.51%, Estonian 0.36%, others 9.75%

Religion: 20% Russian Orthodox; 10% Muslim; 7% Protestant,
Georgian Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic; less than 1% Jewish;
60% atheist (est.)

Language: Russian (official); more than 200 languages and dialects (at
least 18 with more than 1 million speakers); 75% Slavic group, 8% other
Indo-European, 12% Altaic, 3% Uralian, 2% Caucasian

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 152,300,000 civilians; 80% industry and other nonagricultural
fields, 20% agriculture; shortage of skilled labor (1989)

Organized labor: 98% of workers are union members; all trade unions are
organized within the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions (AUCCTU) and
conduct their work under guidance of the Communist party

- Government
Long-form name: Union of Soviet Socialist Republics; abbreviated USSR

Type: Communist state

Capital: Moscow

Administrative divisions: 1 soviet federative socialist republic*
(sovetskaya federativnaya sotsialistcheskaya respublika) and 14 soviet socialist
republics (sovetskiye sotsialisticheskiye respubliki, singular--sovetskaya
sotsialisticheskaya respublika); Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic,
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic,
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist
Republic*, Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic,
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic; note--the
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic is often abbreviated RSFSR and
Soviet Socialist Republic is often abbreviated SSR

Independence: 1721 (Russian Empire proclaimed)

Constitution: 7 October 1977

Legal system: civil law system as modified by Communist legal theory;
no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Great October Socialist Revolution,
7-8 November (1917)

Executive branch: president

Legislative branch: the Congress of People's Deputies is the
supreme organ of USSR state power and selects the bicameral USSR Supreme
Soviet (Verkhovnyy Sovyet) which consists of two coequal houses--Council
of the Union (Sovet Soyuza) and Council of Nationalities
(Sovet Natsionalnostey)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of the USSR

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Mikhail Sergeyevich GORBACHEV
(since 14 March 1990; General Secretary of the Central Committee of the
Communist Party since 11 March 1985);

Head of Government--Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers
Nikolay Ivanovich RYZHKOV (since 28 September 1985)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Communist Party of the
Soviet Union (CPSU), President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev,
general secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU; note--the CPSU
is the only party, but others are forming

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 14 March 1990 (next to be held NA 1995);
results--Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev was elected by the Congress of
People's Deputies;

Congress of People's Deputies--last held 12 March 1990
(next to be held NA);
results--CPSU is the only party;
seats--(2,250 total) CPSU 1,931, non-CPSU 319;

USSR Supreme Soviet--last held NA June 1989
(next to be held NA);
results--CPSU is the only party;
seats--(542 total) CPSU 475, non-CPSU 67;

Council of the Union--last held Spring 1989
(next to be held NA);
results--CPSU is the only party;
seats--(271 total) CPSU 239, non-CPSU 32;

Council of Nationalities--last held Spring 1989
(next to be held NA);
results--CPSU is the only party;
seats--(271 total) CPSU 236, non-CPSU 35

Communists: about 19 million party members

Other political or pressure groups: Komsomol, trade unions, and
other organizations that facilitate Communist control; regional popular
fronts, informal organizations, and nascent parties with varying
attitudes toward the Communist Party establishment

Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, IAEA, IBEC, ICAC, ICAO, ICCO, ICES, ILO,
ILZSG, IMO, INRO, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, International Whaling
Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, Warsaw Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador-designate Aleksandr
BESSMERTNYKH; Chancery at 1125 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 628-7551 or 8548; there is a Soviet Consulate General
in San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Jack F. MATLOCK, Jr.; Embassy at Ulitsa Chaykovskogo
19/21/23, Moscow (mailing address is APO New York 09862);
telephone p7o (096) 252-24-51 through 59; there is a US Consulate General
in Leningrad

Flag: red with the yellow silhouette of a crossed hammer and sickle below
a yellow-edged five-pointed red star in the upper hoist-side corner

- Economy
Overview: The first five years of perestroyka (economic
restructuring) have undermined the institutions and processes of the
Soviet command economy without replacing them with efficiently
functioning markets. The initial reforms featured greater authority for
enterprise managers over prices, wages, product mix, investment, sources
of supply, and customers. But in the absence of effective market
discipline, the result was the disappearance of low-price goods,
excessive wage increases, an even larger volume of unfinished
construction projects, and, in general, continued economic stagnation.
The Gorbachev regime has made at least four serious errors in economic
policy in these five years: the unpopular and short-lived anti-alcohol
campaign; the initial cutback in imports of consumer goods; the failure
to act decisively for the privatization of agriculture; and the buildup
of a massive overhang of unspent rubles in the hands of households and
enterprises. In October 1989, a top economic adviser, Leonid Abalkin
presented an ambitious but reasonable timetable for the conversion to a
partially privatized market system in the 1990s. In December 1989,
however, Premier Ryzhkov's conservative approach prevailed, namely, the
contention that a period of retrenchment was necessary to provide a
stable financial and legislative base for launching further reforms.
Accordingly, the new strategy was to put the reform process on hold in
1990-92 by recentralizing economic authority and to placate the
rank-and-file through sharp increases in consumer goods output. In still
another policy twist, the leadership in early 1990 was considering a
marked speedup in the marketization process. Because the economy is
caught in between two systems, there was in 1989 an even greater mismatch
between what was produced and what would serve the best interests of
enterprises and households. Meanwhile, the seething nationality problems
have been dislocating regional patterns of economic specialization and
pose a further major threat to growth prospects over the next few years.

GNP: $2,659.5 billion, per capita $9,211; real growth rate 1.4%
(1989 est. based on Soviet statistics; cutbacks in Soviet reporting on
products included in sample make the estimate subject to greater
uncertainty than in earlier years)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: officially, no unemployment

Budget: revenues $622 billion; expenditures $781 billion,
including capital expenditures of $119 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $110.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals,
wood, agricultural products, and a wide variety of manufactured goods
(primarily capital goods and arms);
partners--Eastern Europe 49%, EC 14%, Cuba 5%, US, Afghanistan
(1988)

Imports: $107.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--grain and other agricultural products, machinery and
equipment, steel products (including large-diameter pipe), consumer
manufactures;
partners--Eastern Europe 54%, EC 11%, Cuba, China, US (1988)

External debt: $27.3 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.2% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 355,000,000 kW capacity; 1,790,000 million kWh produced,
6,150 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: diversified, highly developed capital goods and defense
industries; consumer goods industries comparatively less developed

Agriculture: accounts for roughly 20% of GNP and labor force;
production based on large collective and state farms; inefficiently
managed; wide range of temperate crops and livestock produced; world's
second-largest grain producer after the US; shortages of grain, oilseeds,
and meat; world's leading producer of sawnwood and roundwood; annual fish
catch among the world's largest--11.2 million metric tons (1987)

Illicit drugs: illegal producer of cannabis and opium poppy,
mostly for domestic consumption; government has begun eradication
program to control cultivation; used as a transshipment country

Aid: donor--extended to non-Communist less developed countries (1954-88),
$47.4 billion; extended to other Communist countries (1954-88), $147.6 billion

Currency: ruble (plural--rubles); 1 ruble (R) = 100 kopeks

Exchange rates: rubles (R) per US$1--0.600 (February 1990),
0.629 (1989), 0.629 (1988), 0.633 (1987), 0.704 (1986), 0.838 (1985);
note--the exchange rate is administratively set and should not be used
indiscriminately to convert domestic rubles to dollars; on 1 November
1989 the USSR began using a rate of 6.26 rubles to the dollar for
Western tourists buying rubles and for Soviets traveling abroad, but
retained the official exchange rate for most trade transactions

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 146,100 km total; 51,700 km electrified; does not include
industrial lines (1987)

Highways: 1,609,900 km total; 1,196,000 km hard-surfaced (asphalt,
concrete, stone block, asphalt treated, gravel, crushed stone); 413,900 km
earth (1987)

Inland waterways: 122,500 km navigable, exclusive of Caspian Sea (1987)

Pipelines: 81,500 km crude oil and refined products; 195,000 km
natural gas (1987)

Ports: Leningrad, Riga, Tallinn, Kaliningrad, Liepaja, Ventspils,
Murmansk, Arkhangel'sk, Odessa, Novorossiysk, Il'ichevsk, Nikolayev,
Sevastopol', Vladivostok, Nakhodka; inland ports are Astrakhan', Baku, Gor'kiy,
Kazan', Khabarovsk, Krasnoyarsk, Kuybyshev, Moscow, Rostov, Volgograd, Kiev

Merchant marine: 1,646 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
16,436,063 GRT/22,732,215 DWT; includes 53 passenger, 937 cargo,
52 container, 11 barge carrier, 5 roll-on/float off cargo, 5 railcar
carrier, 108 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 251 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 21 combination ore/oil, 4 specialized
liquid carrier, 17 chemical tanker, 171 bulk; note--639 merchant ships
are based in Black Sea, 383 in Baltic Sea, 408 in Soviet Far East, and
216 in Barents Sea and White Sea; the Soviet Ministry of Merchant Marine
is beginning to use foreign registries for its merchant ships to increase
the economic competitiveness of the fleet in the international
market--the first reregistered ships have gone to the Cypriot flag

Civil air: 4,500 major transport aircraft

Airports: 6,950 total, 4,530 usable; 1,050 with permanent-surface
runways; 30 with runways over 3,659 m; 490 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
660 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: extensive network of AM-FM stations broadcasting both
Moscow and regional programs; main TV centers in Moscow and Leningrad plus 11
more in the Soviet republics; hundreds of TV stations; 85,000,000 TV sets;
162,000,000 radio receivers; many satellite earth stations and extensive
satellite networks (including 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth stations)

- Defense Forces
Branches: Ground Forces, Navy, Air Defense Forces, Air Forces, Strategic
Rocket Forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 69,634,893; 55,588,743 fit for military
service; 2,300,127 million reach military age (18) annually (down somewhat
from 2,500,000 a decade ago)

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Spain
- Geography
Total area: 504,750 km2; land area: 499,400 km2; includes Balaeric
Islands, Canary Islands, Ceuta, Mellila, Islas Chafarinas, Penon de
Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon

Land boundaries: 1,903.2 km total; Andorra 65 km, France 623 km,
Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km

Coastline: 4,964 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Gibraltar question with UK; controls two presidios or
places of sovereignty (Ceuta and Melilla) on the north coast of Morocco

Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and
cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool
along coast

Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills;
Pyrenees in north

Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, uranium, mercury,
pyrites, fluorspar, gypsum, zinc, lead, tungsten, copper, kaolin,
potash, hydropower

Land use: 31% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 21% meadows and pastures;
31% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 6% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; air pollution

Note: strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

- People
Population: 39,268,715 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Spaniard(s); adjective--Spanish

Ethnic divisions: composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types

Religion: 99% Roman Catholic, 1% other sects

Language: Castilian Spanish; second languages include 17% Catalan, 7%
Galician, and 2% Basque

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: 14,621,000; 53% services, 24% industry, 14% agriculture,
9% construction (1988)

Organized labor: less 10% of labor force (1988)

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Spain

Type: parliamentary monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Administrative divisions: 17 autonomous communities (comunidades
autonomas, singular--comunidad autonoma); Andalucia, Aragon,
Asturias, Canarias, Cantabria, Castilla-La Mancha, Castilla y Leon,
Cataluna, Extremadura, Galicia, Islas Baleares, La Rioja, Madrid,
Murcia, Navarra, Pais Vasco, Valenciana

Independence: 1492 (expulsion of the Moors and unification)

Constitution: 6 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978

Legal system: civil law system, with regional applications; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 12 October

Executive branch: monarch, president of the government (prime minister),
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet), Council of State

Legislative branch: bicameral The General Courts or National Assembly
(Las Cortes Generales) consists of an upper house or Senate (Senado) and a
lower house or Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Supremo)

Leaders:
Chief of State--King JUAN CARLOS I (since 22 November 1975);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Felipe GONZALEZ Marquez
(since 2 December 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Alfonso GUERRA Gonzalez (since
2 December 1982)

Political parties and leaders: principal national parties, from
right to left--Popular Party (PP), Jose Maria Aznar; Popular Democratic
Party (PDP), Luis de Grandes; Social Democratic Center (CDS),
Adolfo Suarez Gonzalez; Spanish Socialist Workers Party
(PSOE), Felipe Gonzalez Marquez; Spanish Communist Party (PCE),
Julio Anguita; chief regional parties--Convergence and Unity (CiU),
Jordi Pujol Saley, in Catalonia; Basque Nationalist Party (PNV),
Xabier Arzallus; Basque Solidarity (EA), Carlos Garaicoetxea Urizza;
Basque Popular Unity (HB), Jon Idigoras; Basque Left (EE),
Juan Maria Bandries Molet; Andalusian Party (PA); Independent Canary
Group (AIC); Aragon Regional Party (PAR); Valencian Union (UV)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
The Courts General--last held 29 October 1989 (next to be held
October 1993); results--PSOE 39.6%, PP 25.8%, CDS 9%, Communist-led
coalition (IU) 9%, CiU 5%, Basque Nationalist Party 1.2%, HB 1%,
Andalusian Party 1%, others 8.4%;
seats--(350 total, 18 vacant pending new elections caused by
voting irregularities) PSOE 176, PP 106, CiU 18, IU 17, CDS 14, PNV 5,
HB 4, others 10

Communists: PCE membership declined from a possible high of
160,000 in 1977 to roughly 60,000 in 1987; the party gained almost
1 million voters and 10 deputies in the 1989 election; voters came
mostly from the disgruntled socialist left; remaining strength is in
labor, where it dominates the Workers Commissions trade union (one of
the country's two major labor centrals), which claims a membership of
about 1 million; experienced a modest recovery in 1986 national
election, nearly doubling the share of the vote it received in 1982

Other political or pressure groups: on the extreme left, the Basque
Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) and the First of October Antifascist
Resistance Group (GRAPO) use terrorism to oppose the government; free
labor unions (authorized in April 1977) include the Communist-dominated
Workers Commissions (CCOO); the Socialist General Union of Workers (UGT),
and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union (USO); the Catholic
Church; business and landowning interests; Opus Dei; university students

Member of: Andean Pact (observer), ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, EC,
ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITC, ITU, IWC--International
Wheat Council, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Julian SANTAMARIA; Chancery at
2700 15th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 265-0190 or 0191;
there are Spanish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles,
Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US--Ambassador Joseph ZAPPALA; Embassy at Serrano 75, Madrid 6
(mailing address is APO New York 09285); telephone p34o (1) 276-3400 or 3600;
there is a US Consulate General in Barcelona and a Consulate in Bilbao

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red
with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat
of arms includes the royal seal framed by the Pillars of Hercules which are the
two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the
Strait of Gibraltar

- Economy
Overview: This Western capitalistic economy has done well since
Spain joined the European Economic Community in 1986. With increases in
real GNP of 5.5% in 1987 and about 5% in 1988 and 1989, Spain has been
the fastest growing member of the EC. Increased investment--both
domestic and foreign--has been the most important factor pushing the
economic expansion. Inflation moderated to 4.8% in 1988, but an
overheated economy caused inflation to reach an estimated 7% in 1989.
Another economic problem facing Spain is an unemployment rate of 16.5%,
the highest in Europe.

GNP: $398.7 billion, per capita $10,100; real growth rate 4.8% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 16.5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $57.8 billion; expenditures $66.7 billion, including
capital expenditures of $10.4 billion (1987)

Exports: $40.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--foodstuffs,
live animals, wood, footwear, machinery, chemicals;
partners--EC 66%, US 8%, other developed countries 9%

Imports: $60.4 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--petroleum,
footwear, machinery, chemicals, grain, soybeans, coffee, tobacco, iron and
steel, timber, cotton, transport equipment;
partners--EC 57%, US 9%, other developed countries 13%, Middle
East 3%

External debt: $32.7 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.0% (1988)

Electricity: 46,589,000 kW capacity; 157,040 million kWh produced,
3,980 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages,
metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles,
machine tools

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and 14% of labor force; major
products--grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus
fruit, beef, pork, poultry, dairy; largely self-sufficient in food;
fish catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $1.9 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-79), $545.0 million

Currency: peseta (plural--pesetas); 1 peseta (Pta) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: pesetas (Ptas) per US$1--109.69 (January 1990),
118.38 (1989), 116.49 (1988), 123.48 (1987), 140.05 (1986), 170.04 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 15,430 km total; Spanish National Railways (RENFE) operates
12,691 km 1.668-meter gauge, 6,184 km electrified, and 2,295 km double track;
FEVE (government-owned narrow-gauge railways) operates 1,821 km of predominantly
1.000-meter gauge and 441 km electrified; privately owned railways operate
918 km of predominantly 1.000-meter gauge, 512 km electrified, and 56 km double
track

Highways: 150,839 km total; 82,513 km national (includes 2,433 km
limited-access divided highway, 63,042 km bituminous treated, 17,038 km
intermediate bituminous, concrete, or stone block) and 68,326 km provincial or
local roads (bituminous treated, intermediate bituminous, or stone block)

Inland waterways: 1,045 km, but of minor economic importance

Pipelines: 265 km crude oil; 1,794 km refined products; 1,666 km natural
gas

Ports: Algeciras, Alicante, Almeria, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz,
Cartagena, Castellon de la Plana, Ceuta, El Ferrol del Caudillo,
Puerto de Gijon, Huelva, La Coruna, Las Palmas (Canary Islands),
Mahon, Malaga, Melilla, Rota, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Sagunto,
Tarragona, Valencia, Vigo, and 175 minor ports

Merchant marine: 324 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,492,563
GRT/6,128,190 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 9 short-sea passenger, 121 cargo,
19 refrigerated cargo, 17 container, 23 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 51 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 16 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas,
1 specialized tanker, 1 combination ore/oil, 49 bulk, 5 vehicle carrier

Civil air: 142 major transport aircraft

Airports: 110 total, 103 usable; 62 with permanent-surface runways;
4 with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 29 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: generally adequate, modern facilities; 15,310,000
telephones; stations--196 AM, 404 (134 relays) FM, 143 (1,297 relays) TV;
17 coaxial submarine cables; communications satellite earth stations operating
in INTELSAT (5 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean), MARISAT, and ENTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 10,032,649; 8,141,384 fit for military
service; 338,582 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP, or $8.4 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Spratly Islands
- Geography
Total area: less than 5 km2; land area: less than 5 km2; includes
100 or so islets, coral reefs, and sea mounts scattered over the
South China Sea

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 926 km

Maritime claims: undetermined

Disputes: China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam
claim all or part of the Spratly Islands

Climate: tropical

Terrain: flat

Natural resources: fish, guano; oil and natural gas potential

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to typhoons; includes numerous small islands, atolls,
shoals, and coral reefs

Note: strategically located near several primary shipping
lanes in the central South China Sea; serious navigational hazard

- People
Population: no permanent inhabitants; garrisons

- Government
Long-form name: none

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to commercial fishing and
phosphate mining. Geological surveys carried out several years ago
suggest that substantial reserves of oil and natural gas may lie beneath
the islands; commercial exploitation has yet to be developed.

Industries: some guano mining

- Communications
Airports: 3 total, 2 usable; none with runways over 2,439 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: approximately 50 small islands or reefs are occupied
by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Sri Lanka
- Geography
Total area: 65,610 km2; land area: 64,740 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,340 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; northeast monsoon (December to March);
southwest monsoon (June to October)

Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plain; mountains in
south-central interior

Natural resources: limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems,
phosphates, clay

Land use: 16% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
37% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes 8% irrigated

Environment: occasional cyclones, tornados; deforestation; soil erosion

Note: only 29 km from India across the Palk Strait; near major Indian
Ocean sea lanes

- People
Population: 17,196,436 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 31 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Sri Lankan(s); adjective--Sri Lankan

Ethnic divisions: 74% Sinhalese; 18% Tamil; 7% Moor; 1% Burgher, Malay,
and Veddha

Religion: 69% Buddhist, 15% Hindu, 8% Christian, 8% Muslim

Language: Sinhala (official); Sinhala and Tamil listed as national
languages; Sinhala spoken by about 74% of population, Tamil spoken by about 18%;
English commonly used in government and spoken by about 10% of the population

Literacy: 87%

Labor force: 6,600,000; 45.9% agriculture, 13.3% mining and manufacturing,
12.4% trade and transport, 28.4% services and other (1985 est.)

Organized labor: about 33% of labor force, over 50% of which are employed
on tea, rubber, and coconut estates

- Government
Long-form name: Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

Type: republic

Capital: Colombo

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Amparai, Anuradhapura,
Badulla, Batticaloa, Colombo, Galle, Gampaha, Hambantota, Jaffna,
Kalutara, Kandy, Kegalla, Kurunegala, Mannar, Matale, Matara, Moneragala,
Mullativu, Nuwara Eliya, Polonnaruwa, Puttalam, Ratnapura, Trincomalee,
Vavuniya; note--the administrative structure may now include 8 provinces
(Central, North Central, North Eastern, North Western, Sabaragamuwa,
Southern, Uva, and Western) and 25 districts (with Kilinochchi added to
the existing districts)

Independence: 4 February 1948 (from UK; formerly Ceylon)

Constitution: 31 August 1978

Legal system: a highly complex mixture of English common law, Roman-Dutch,
Muslim, and customary law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence and National Day, 4 February (1948)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Ranasinghe PREMADASA (since 2 January 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dingiri Banda WIJETUNGE (since 6 March
1989)

Political parties and leaders:
United National Party (UNP), Ranasinghe Premadasa;
Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), Sirimavo Bandaranaike;
Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (SLMC), Mhm. Ashraff;
All Ceylon Tamil Congress (ACTC), Kumar Ponnambalam;
Mahajana Eksath Peramuna (MEP, or People's United Front),
Dinesh Gundawardene;
Sri Lanka Mahajana Party (SLMP, or Sri Lanka People's Party),
Chandrika Baudaranaike Kumaranatunga;
Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP, Lanka Socialist Party/Trotskyite),
Colin R. de Silva;
Nava Sama Samaja Party (NSSP, or New Socialist Party),
Vasudeva Nanayakkara;
Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), leader NA;
Communist Party/Moscow (CP/M), K. P. Silva;
Communist Party/Beijing (CP/B), N. Shanmugathasan

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1994);
results--Ranasinghe Premadasa (UNP) 50%,
Sirimavo Bandaranaike (SLFP) 45%, others 5%;

Parliament--last held 15 February 1989
(next to be held by February 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(225 total) UNP 125, SLFP 67, others 33

Other political or pressure groups: Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE) and other smaller Tamil separatist groups; Janatha Vimukthi
Peramuna (JVP or People's Liberation Front); Buddhist clergy; Sinhalese
Buddhist lay groups; labor unions

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. Susanta De ALWIS; Chancery at
2148 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4025
through 4028; there is a Sri Lankan Consulate in New York;
US--Ambassador Marion V. CREEKMORE; Embassy at 210 Galle Road,
Colombo 3 (mailing address is P. O. Box 106, Colombo);
telephone p94o (1) 548007

Flag: yellow with two panels; the smaller hoist-side panel has two equal
vertical bands of green (hoist side) and orange; the other panel is a large dark
red rectangle with a yellow lion holding a sword and there is a yellow bo leaf
in each corner; the yellow field appears as a border that goes around the entire
flag and extends between the two panels

- Economy
Overview: Agriculture, forestry, and fishing dominate the economy,
employing about half of the labor force and accounting for about 25% of
GDP. The plantation crops of tea, rubber, and coconuts provide about 50%
of export earnings and almost 20% of budgetary revenues. The economy has
been plagued by high rates of unemployment since the late 1970s.

GDP: $6.1 billion, per capita $370; real growth rate 2.7% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $1.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.7 billion (1989)

Exports: $1.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--tea, textiles
and garments, petroleum products, coconut, rubber, agricultural products, gems
and jewelry, marine products; partners--US 26%, Egypt, Iraq, UK, FRG,
Singapore, Japan

Imports: $2.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--petroleum,
machinery and equipment, textiles and textile materials, wheat, transportation
equipment, electrical machinery, sugar, rice; partners--Japan,
Saudi Arabia, US 5.6%, India, Singapore, FRG, UK, Iran

External debt: $5.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1988)

Electricity: 1,300,000 kW capacity; 4,200 million kWh produced,
250 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, and other agricultural
commodities; cement, petroleum refining, textiles, tobacco, clothing

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and nearly half of labor force; most
important staple crop is paddy rice; other field crops--sugarcane, grains,
pulses, oilseeds, roots, spices; cash crops--tea, rubber, coconuts; animal
products--milk, eggs, hides, meat; not self-sufficient in rice production

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $932 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $4.3 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $169 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$369 million

Currency: Sri Lankan rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Sri Lankan rupee (SLRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Sri Lankan rupees (SLRs) per US$1--40.000 (January 1990),
36.047 (1989), 31.807 (1988), 29.445 (1987), 28.017 (1986), 27.163 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,868 km total (1985); all 1.868-meter broad gauge; 102 km
double track; no electrification; government owned

Highways: 66,176 km total (1985); 24,300 km paved (mostly bituminous
treated), 28,916 km crushed stone or gravel, 12,960 km improved earth or
unimproved earth; several thousand km of mostly unmotorable tracks

Inland waterways: 430 km; navigable by shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude and refined products, 62 km (1987)

Ports: Colombo, Trincomalee

Merchant marine: 40 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 258,923
GRT/334,702 DWT; includes 22 cargo, 8 refrigerated cargo, 4 container,
1 livestock carrier, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
3 bulk

Civil air: 8 major transport (including 1 leased)

Airports: 14 total, 13 usable; 12 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
7 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international service; 109,900 telephones (1982);
stations--12 AM, 5 FM, 1 TV; submarine cables extend to Indonesia, Djibouti,
India; 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Police Force, Special Police Task
Force, National Auxiliary Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,568,648; 3,574,637 fit for military
service; 177,610 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $300 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Sudan
- Geography
Total area: 2,505,810 km2; land area: 2,376,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than one quarter the size of US

Land boundaries: 7,697 km total; Central African Republic 1,165 km,
Chad 1,360 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Ethiopia 2,221 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya 383 km,
Uganda 435 km, Zaire 628 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: international boundary and Administrative Boundary with Kenya;
international boundary and Administrative Boundary with Egypt

Climate: tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season
(April to October)

Terrain: generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in east and west

Natural resources: modest reserves of crude oil, iron ore,
copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, crude oil

Land use: 5% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 24% meadows and pastures;
20% forest and woodland; 51% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: dominated by the Nile and its tributaries; dust storms;
desertification

Note: largest country in Africa

- People
Population: 24,971,806 (July 1990), growth rate 2.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 107 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 51 years male, 55 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Sudanese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Sudanese

Ethnic divisions: 52% black, 39% Arab, 6% Beja, 2% foreigners, 1% other

Religion: 70% Sunni Muslim (in north), 20% indigenous beliefs,
5% Christian (mostly in south and Khartoum)

Language: Arabic (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of
Nilotic, Nilo-Hamitic, and Sudanic languages, English; program of Arabization in
process

Literacy: 31% (1986)

Labor force: 6,500,000; 80% agriculture, 10% industry and commerce,
6% government; labor shortages for almost all categories of skilled employment
(1983 est.); 52% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: trade unions suspended following 30 June 1989
coup; now in process of being legalized anew

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of the Sudan

Type: military; civilian government suspended and martial law
imposed after 30 June 1989 coup

Capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 9 regions (aqalim, singular--iqlim);
Aali an Nil, Al Awsat, Al Istiwai, Al Khartum,
Ash Shamali, Ash Sharqi, Bahr al Ghazal, Darfur, Kurdufan

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK; formerly Anglo-Egyptian
Sudan)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985;
interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30
June 1989

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law;
in September 1983 then President Nimeiri declared the penal code would
conform to Islamic law; some separate religious courts; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Executive branch: executive and legislative authority vested in a
15-member Revolutionary Command Council (RCC); chairman of the RCC acts
as prime minister; in July 1989 RCC appointed a predominately civilian
22-member cabinet to function as advisers

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Special Revolutionary Courts

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Revolutionary Command
Council Chairman and Prime Minister Brig. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad
al-BASHIR (since 30 June 1989);
Deputy Chairman of the Command Council and Deputy Prime Minister
Brig. Gen. al-Zubayr Muhammad SALIH (since 9 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none; banned following
30 June 1989 coup

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdallah Ahmad ABDALLAH;
Chancery at 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 338-8565 through 8570; there is a Sudanese Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador James CHEEK; Embassy at Shar'ia Ali Abdul Latif,
Khartoum (mailing address is P. O. Box 699, Khartoum, or APO New York 09668);
telephone 74700 or 75680, 74611

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: Sudan, one of the world's poorest countries, is buffeted
by civil war, chronic political instability, adverse weather, and
counterproductive economic policies. The economy is dominated
by governmental entities that account for more than 70% of new
investment. The private sector's main areas of activity are agriculture
and trading, with most private industrial investment predating 1980. The
economy's base is agriculture, which employs 80% of the work force.
Industry mainly processes agricultural items. A high foreign debt and
arrearages of about $13 billion continue to cause difficulties. Since
1979 the International Monetary Fund has provided assistance and has
forced Sudan to make economic reforms aimed at improving the
performance of the economy.

GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $340 (FY87); real growth rate 7.0%
(FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 70% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: NA

Budget: revenues $514 million; expenditures $1.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $183 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $550 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.); commodities--cotton 43%,
sesame, gum arabic, peanuts; partners--Western Europe 46%,
Saudi Arabia 14%, Eastern Europe 9%, Japan 9%, US 3% (FY88)

Imports: $1.2 billion (c.i.f., FY89 est.); commodities--petroleum
products, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, medicines and chemicals;
partners--Western Europe 32%, Africa and Asia 15%, US 13%,
Eastern Europe 3% (FY88)

External debt: $11.6 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.7% (FY89 est.)

Electricity: 606,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced,
37 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar,
soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining

Agriculture: accounts for 35% of GNP and 80% of labor force;
untapped potential for higher farm production; two-thirds of land area
suitable for raising crops and livestock; major products--cotton,
oilseeds, sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sheep; marginally
self-sufficient in most foods

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.4 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $3.1 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$588 million

Currency: Sudanese pound (plural--pounds);
1 Sudanese pound (LSd) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: official rate--Sudanese pounds (LSd) per
US$1--4.5004 (fixed rate since 1987), 2.8121 (1987), 2.5000 (1986),
2.2883 (1985); note--commercial exchange rate is set daily, 12.2 (March 1990)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 5,500 km total; 4,784 km 1.067-meter gauge, 716 km
1.6096-meter-gauge plantation line

Highways: 20,000 km total; 1,600 km bituminous treated,
3,700 km gravel, 2,301 km improved earth, 12,399 km unimproved earth
and track

Inland waterways: 5,310 km navigable

Pipelines: refined products, 815 km

Ports: Port Sudan, Suakin

Merchant marine: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 91,107
GRT/122,222 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 78 total, 68 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
31 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: large, well-equipped system by African standards,
but barely adequate and poorly maintained; consists of radio relay, cables,
radio communications, and troposcatter; domestic satellite system with 14
stations; 73,400 telephones; stations--4 AM, 1 FM, 2 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,621,469; 3,437,004 fit for military
service; 273,011 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 7.2% of GDP, or $610 million (1989 est)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Suriname
- Geography
Total area: 163,270 km2; land area: 161,470 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Georgia

Land boundaries: 1,707 km total; Brazil 597 km, French Guiana 510 km,
Guyana 600 km

Coastline: 386 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims area in French Guiana between Litani Rivier and
Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); claims area in Guyana between
New (Upper Courantyne) and Courantyne/Kutari Rivers (all headwaters of the
Courantyne)

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps

Natural resources: timber, hydropower potential, fish, shrimp,
bauxite, iron ore, and modest amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, gold

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 97% forest and woodland; 3% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: mostly tropical rain forest

- People
Population: 396,813 (July 1990), growth rate 1.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Surinamer(s); adjective--Surinamese

Ethnic divisions: 37.0% Hindustani (East Indian), 31.0% Creole (black and
mixed), 15.3% Javanese, 10.3% Bush black, 2.6% Amerindian, 1.7% Chinese,
1.0% Europeans, 1.1% other

Religion: 27.4% Hindu, 19.6% Muslim, 22.8% Roman Catholic,
25.2% Protestant (predominantly Moravian), about 5% indigenous beliefs

Language: Dutch (official); English widely spoken; Sranan Tongo
(Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki) is native language of Creoles and much
of the younger population and is lingua franca among others; also Hindi
Suriname Hindustani (a variant of Bhoqpuri), and Javanese

Literacy: 65%

Labor force: 104,000 (1984)

Organized labor: 49,000 members of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Suriname

Type: republic

Capital: Paramaribo

Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten, singular--distrikt);
Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo,
Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica

Independence: 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands
Guiana or Dutch Guiana)

Constitution: ratified 30 September 1987

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)

Executive branch: president, vice president and prime minister,
Cabinet of Ministers, Council of State; note--commander in chief of the
National Army maintains significant power

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Ramsewak SHANKAR
(since 25 January 1988); Vice President and Prime Minister Henck Alfonsus Eugene
ARRON (since 25 January 1988)

Political parties and leaders: 25 February Movement established by
Lt. Col. Desire Bouterse in November 1983, but much of its
activity taken over by New Democratic Party (NDP) in May 1987; leftists (all
small groups)--Revolutionary People's Party (RVP), Michael Naarendorp;
Progressive Workers and Farmers (PALU), Iwan Krolis; traditional
parties--Progressive Reform Party (VHP), Jaggernath Lachmon; National Party
of Suriname (NPS), Henck Arron; Indonesian Peasants Party (KTPI), Willy Soemita;
the VHP, NPS, and KTPI formed a coalition known as The Front in July 1987 that
overwhelmingly defeated the NDP in the November 1987 elections

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly--last held 25 November 1987 (next to be held
November 1992);
results--The Front 80%, others 20%;
seats--(51 total) The Front 40, NDP 3, PALU 4, Pendawa Llwa 4

Member of: ACP, ECLA, FAO, GATT, G-77, IBA, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM,
OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Willem A. UDENHOUT; Chancery
at Suite 108, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-7488 or 7490 through 7492; there is a Surinamese
Consulate General in Miami;
US--Ambassador Richard HOWLAND; Embassy at Dr. Sophie Redmonstraat
129, Paramaribo (mailing address is P. O. Box 1821, Paramaribo);
telephone p597o 72900 or 76459

Flag: five horizontal bands of green (top, double width), white, red
(quadruple width), white, and green (double width); there is a large yellow
five-pointed star centered in the red band

- Economy
Overview: The economy is dominated by the bauxite industry, which
accounts for about 80% of export earnings and 40% of tax revenues. The
economy has been in trouble since the Dutch ended development aid in
1982. A drop in world bauxite prices that started in the late 1970s and
continued until late 1986, was followed by the outbreak of a guerrilla
insurgency in the interior. The guerrillas targeted the economic
infrastructure, crippling the important bauxite sector and shutting down
other export industries. These problems have created both high inflation
and high unemployment. A small gain in economic growth of 3.6% was
registered in 1988 due to reduced guerrilla activity and improved
international markets for bauxite.

GDP: $1.27 billion, per capita $3,215; real growth rate 3.6%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 27% (1988)

Budget: revenues $466 million; expenditures $716 million,
including capital expenditures of $123 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $425 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--alumina, bauxite, aluminum, rice, wood and wood
products, shrimp and fish, bananas;
partners--Netherlands 28%, US 22%, Norway 18%, Japan 11%,
Brazil 10%, UK 4%

Imports: $365 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton,
consumer goods;
partners--US 34%, Netherlands 20%, Trinidad and Tobago 8%,
Brazil 5%, UK 3%

External debt: $65 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 3.1% (1986)

Electricity: 458,000 kW capacity; 2,018 million kWh produced,
5,030 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: bauxite mining, alumina and aluminum production,
lumbering, food processing, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of both GDP and labor force; paddy
rice planted on 85% of arable land and represents 60% of total farm
output; other products--bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains,
peanuts, beef, chicken; shrimp and forestry products of increasing
importance; self-sufficient in most foods

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $2.5 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.4 billion

Currency: Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (plural--guilders,
gulden, or florins); 1 Surinamese guilder, gulden, or florin (Sf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Surinamese guilders, gulden, or florins (Sf.)
per US$1--1.7850 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 166 km total; 86 km 1.000-meter gauge, government owned, and 80
km 1.435-meter standard gauge; all single track

Highways: 8,300 km total; 500 km paved; 5,400 km bauxite gravel,
crushed stone, or improved earth; 2,400 km sand or clay

Inland waterways: 1,200 km; most important means of transport; oceangoing
vessels with drafts ranging from 4.2 m to 7 m can navigate many of the principal
waterways

Ports: Paramaribo, Moengo

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
6,472 GRT/8,914 DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 container

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 47 total, 43 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: international facilities good; domestic radio relay
system; 27,500 telephones; stations--5 AM, 14 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: National Army (including Support Battalion, Infantry Battalion,
Mechanized Cavalry Unit, Military Police Brigade, Navy which is company-size,
small Air Force element)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 105,328; 62,896 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 7.2% of GDP, or $91 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Svalbard
(territory of Norway)
- Geography
Total area: 62,049 km2; land area: 62,049 km2; includes Spitsbergen
and Bjornoya (Bear Island)

Comparative area: slightly smaller than West Virginia

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3,587 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm unilaterally claimed by Norway,
not recognized by USSR;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Norway
and USSR

Climate: arctic, tempered by warm North Atlantic Current;
cool summers, cold winters; North Atlantic Current flows along west and north
coasts of Spitsbergen, keeping water open and navigable most of the year

Terrain: wild, rugged mountains; much of high land ice covered;
west coast clear of ice about half the year; fjords along west and north coasts

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