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Industries: fishing and supply base for fishing fleets; tourism

Agriculture: vegetables, cattle, sheep and pigs for local
consumption; fish catch, 14,750 metric tons (1986)

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $477 million

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 120 km total; 60 kM paved (1985)

Ports: St. Pierre

Civil air: Air Saint-Pierre

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways,
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,601 telephones; stations--1 AM, 3 FM, no TV;
radiotelecommunication with most countries in the world; 1 satellite earth
station in French domestic system

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: St. Vincent and the Grenadines
- Geography
Total area: 340 km2; land area: 340 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 84 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; little seasonal temperature variation;
rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous; Soufriere volcano on the island of
St. Vincent

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 38% arable land; 12% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 41% forest and woodland; 3% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes; Soufriere volcano is a constant
threat

Note: some islands of the Grenadines group are administered by Grenada

- People
Population: 112,646 (July 1990), growth rate 1.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--St. Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s); adjectives--St.
Vincentian or Vincentian

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent; remainder mixed, with
some white, East Indian, Carib Indian

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English, some French patois

Literacy: 82%

Labor force: 67,000 (1984 est.)

Organized labor: 10% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kingstown

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes; Charlotte, Grenadines,
Saint Andrew, Saint David, Saint George, Saint Patrick

Independence: 27 October 1979 (from UK)

Constitution: 27 October 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 27 October (1979)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (includes 15 elected
representatives and six appointed senators)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General David JACK (since 29 Septermber 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister James F. MITCHELL (since 30 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: New Democratic Party (NDP), James (Son)
Mitchell; St. Vincent Labor Party (SVLP), Vincent Beach; United People's
Movement (UPM), Adrian Saunders; Movement for National Unity (MNU),
Ralph Gonsalves; National Reform Party (NRP), Joel Miguel

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 16 May 1989
(next to be held July 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total) NDP 15

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO,
IDA, IFAD, IMF, IMO, OAS, OECS, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: three vertical bands of blue (hoist side), gold (double width), and
green; the gold band bears three green diamonds arranged in a V pattern

- Economy
Overview: Agriculture, dominated by banana production, is the most
important sector of the economy, providing employment for over 60% of the labor
force and contributing about 20% to GDP. The services sector is next in
importance, based mostly on a growing tourist industry. The economy
continues to have a high unemployment rate of 30% because of an
overdependence on the weather-plagued banana crop as a major export earner.
Government progress toward diversifying into new industries has been relatively
unsuccessful.

GDP: $136 million, per capita $1,305; real growth rate 8.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $42.7 million; expenditures $67.5 million,
including capital expenditures of $25.8 (FY88)

Exports: $63.8 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--bananas,
eddoes and dasheen (taro), arrowroot starch, copra;
partners--CARICOM 60%, UK 27%, US 10%

Imports: $87.3 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities--foodstuffs,
machinery and equipment, chemicals and fertilizers, minerals and fuels;
partners--US 37%, CARICOM 18%, UK 13%

External debt: $35 million (July 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.2% (1986)

Electricity: 16,600 kW capacity; 64 million kWh produced,
610 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing (sugar, flour), cement, furniture, rum,
starch, sheet metal, beverage

Agriculture: accounts for 20% of GDP and 60% of labor force; provides bulk
of exports; products--bananas, arrowroot (world's largest producer), coconuts,
sweet potatoes, spices; small numbers of cattle, sheep, hogs, goats; small fish
catch used locally

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $11 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $71 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: about 1,000 km total; 300 km paved; 400 km improved; 300 km
unimproved

Ports: Kingstown

Merchant marine: 175 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,305,945
GRT/2,029,935 DWT; includes 2 passenger, 1 passenger cargo, 103 cargo,
10 container, 8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo,
9 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 28 bulk, 4 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience
registry

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: islandwide fully automatic telephone system;
6,500 telephones; VHF/UHF interisland links to Barbados and the Grenadines;
new SHF links to Grenada and St. Lucia; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV (cable)

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal St. Vincent and the Grenadines Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: San Marino
- Geography
Total area: 60 km2; land area: 60 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 39 km with Italy

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool winters; warm, sunny summers

Terrain: rugged mountains

Natural resources: building stones

Land use: 17% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: dominated by the Appenines

Note: landlocked; world's smallest republic; enclave of Italy

- People
Population: 23,123 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 8 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Sanmarinese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Sanmarinese

Ethnic divisions: Sanmarinese, Italian

Religion: Roman Catholic

Language: Italian

Literacy: 97%

Labor force: about 4,300

Organized labor: Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers (affiliated
with ICFTU) has about 1,800 members; Communist-dominated General Federation of
Labor, 1,400 members

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of San Marino

Type: republic

Capital: San Marino

Administrative divisions: 9 municipalities (castelli, singular--castello);
Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino,
Monte Giardino, San Marino, Serravalle

Independence: 301 (by tradition)

Constitution: 8 October 1600; electoral law of 1926 serves some of the
functions of a constitution

Legal system: based on civil law system with Italian law influences;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic,
3 September

Executive branch: two captains regent, Congress of State (cabinet); real
executive power is wielded by the secretary of state for foreign affairs and the
secretary of state for internal affairs

Legislative branch: unicameral Grand and General Council (Consiglio
Grande e Generale)

Judicial branch: Council of Twelve (Consiglio dei XII)

Leaders:
Co-Chiefs of State and Co-Heads of Government--Captain Regent Salvatori
REVES (since April 1989) and Captain Regent Luciano CARDELLI (since April 1989);
Captains Regent are elected for six-month terms

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DCS),
Gabriele Gatti; Communist Party (PCS), Gilberto Ghiotti; Socialist Unity Party
(PSU), Emilio Della Balda and Patrizia Busignani; San Marino Socialist Party
(PSS), Antonio Volpinari; San Marino Social Democratic Party (PSDS),
Augusto Casali; San Marino Republican Party (PRS), Cristoforo Buscarini

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Grand and General Council--last held 29 May 1988
(next to be held by May 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total) DCS 27, PCS 18, PSU 8, PSS 7

Communists: about 300 members; the PCS, in conjunction with the PSS, PSU,
and PSDS, has led the government since 1978

Other political parties or pressure groups: political parties influenced
by policies of their counterparts in Italy

Member of: ICJ, ITU, IRC, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WTO; observer
status in NAM

Diplomatic representation: San Marino maintains honorary
Consulates General in Washington and New York, and an honorary Consulate
in Detroit;
US--no mission in San Marino, but the Consul General in Florence
(Italy) is accredited to San Marino; Consulate General at
38 Lungarno Amerigo Vespucci, Florence, Italy (mailing address is APO
NY 09019); telephone p39o (55) 298-276

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and light blue with the
national coat of arms superimposed in the center; the coat of arms has a shield
(featuring three towers on three peaks) flanked by a wreath, below a crown and
above a scroll bearing the word LIBERTAS (Liberty)

- Economy
Overview: The economy relies heavily on the tourist industry as a source
of revenue. More than 2 million tourists visit each year, contributing about
60% to GDP. The sale of postage stamps to foreign collectors is another
important income producer. The manufacturing sector employs nearly 40% of the
labor force and agriculture less than 4%. The per capita level of output
and standard of living are comparable to northern Italy.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 6.5% (1985)

Budget: revenues $99.2 million; expenditures $NA, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1983)

Exports: trade data are included with the statistics for Italy; commodity
trade consists primarily of exchanging building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts,
wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics for a wide variety of consumer
manufactures

Imports: see Exports

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: supplied by Italy

Industries: wine, olive oil, cement, leather, textile, tourist

Agriculture: employs less than 4% of labor force; products--wheat, grapes,
corn, olives, meat, cheese, hides; small numbers of cattle, pigs, horses;
depends on Italy for food imports

Aid: NA

Currency: Italian lira (plural--lire);
1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100 centesimi; also mints its own coins

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1--1,262.5 (January 1990),
1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 104 km

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 11,700 telephones;
stations--no AM, 20 FM, no TV; radio relay and cable links into Italian
networks; no communication satellite facilities

- Defense Forces
Branches: public security or police force of less than 50 people

Military manpower: all fit men ages 16-60 constitute a militia that can
serve as an army

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Sao Tome and Principe
- Geography
Total area: 960 km2; land area: 960 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 209 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; one rainy season (October to May)

Terrain: volcanic, mountainous

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 1% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
75% forest and woodland; 3% other

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion

Note: located south of Nigeria and west of Gabon near the Equator
in the North Atlantic Ocean

- People
Population: 124,765 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 38 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 61 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Sao Tomean(s); adjective--Sao Tomean

Ethnic divisions: mestico, angolares (descendents of Angolan slaves),
forros (descendents of freed slaves), servicais (contract laborers from Angola,
Mozambique, and Cape Verde), tongas (children of servicais born on the islands),
and Europeans (primarily Portuguese)

Religion: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Protestant, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: Portuguese (official)

Literacy: 50% (est.)

Labor force: 21,096 (1981); most of population engaged in subsistence
agriculture and fishing; labor shortages on plantations and of skilled workers;
56% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

Type: republic

Capital: Sao Tome

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular--concelho);
Principe, Sao Tome

Independence: 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 5 November 1975, approved 15 December 1982

Legal system: based on Portuguese law system and customary law; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly, sometimes
referred to as the National Popular Assembly (Assembleia Popular Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Manuel Pinto da COSTA (since 12 July 1975);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Celestino Rocha da COSTA (since
8 January 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Movement for the
Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe (MLSTP), Dr. Manuel Pinto da Costa

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 30 September 1985 (next to be held September
1990);
results--President Dr. Manuel Pinto da Costa was reelected without
opposition by the National People's Assembly;

National People's Assembly--last held 30 September 1985 (next to be
held September 1990);
results--MLSTP is the only party;
seats--(40 total) MLSTP 40 (indirectly elected)

Member of: ACP, AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joaquim Rafael BRANCO; Chancery
(temporary) at 801 Second Avenue, Suite 1504, New York, NY 10017;
telephone (212) 697-4211;
US--the US Ambassador in Gabon is accredited to Sao Tome and Principe
on a nonresident basis and makes periodic visits to the islands

Flag: three horizontal bands of green (top), yellow (double width), and
green with two black five-pointed stars placed side by side in the center of the
yellow band and a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: The economy has remained dependent on cocoa since the
gained independence nearly 15 years ago. Since then, however, cocoa
production has gradually deteriorated because of drought and
mismanagement, so that by 1987 output had fallen to less than 50% of
its former levels. As a result, a shortage of cocoa for export has
created a serious balance-of-payments problem. Production of less
important crops, such as coffee, copra, and palm kernels, has
also declined. The value of imports generally exceeds that of
exports by a ratio of 4 to 1. The emphasis on cocoa production at
the expense of other food crops has meant that Sao Tome has to import
90% of food needs. It also has to import all fuels and most manufactured
goods. Over the years, Sao Tome has been unable to service its external
debt, which amounts to roughly 80% of export earnings. Considerable
potential exists for development of a tourist industry, and the
government has taken steps to expand facilities in recent years. The
government also implemented a Five-Year Plan covering 1986-90 to
restructure the economy and reschedule external debt service payments in
cooperation with the International Development Association and Western
lenders.

GDP: $37.9 million, per capita $340; real growth rate 1.8% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $19.2 million; expenditures $25.1 million,
including capital expenditures of $19.9 million (1987)

Exports: $9.1 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--cocoa 90%,
copra, coffee, palm oil; partners--FRG, GDR, Netherlands, China

Imports: $17.3 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--machinery
and electrical equipment 59%, food products 32%, fuels 9%;
partners--Portugal, GDR, Angola, China

External debt: $95 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.1% (1986)

Electricity: 6,000 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: light construction, shirts, soap, beer, fisheries,
shrimp processing

Agriculture: dominant sector of economy, primary source of exports; cash
crops--cocoa (90%), coconuts, palm kernels, coffee; food products--bananas,
papaya, beans, poultry, fish; not self-sufficient in food grain and meat

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $7 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
41.9 million

Currency: dobra (plural--dobras); 1 dobra (Db) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: dobras (Db) per US$1--122.48 (December 1988),
72.827 (1987), 36.993 (1986), 41.195 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 300 km (two-thirds are paved); roads on Principe are mostly
unpaved and in need of repair

Ports: Sao Tome, Santo Antonio

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: minimal system; 2,200 telephones; stations--1 AM,
2 FM, no TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 27,805; 14,662 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP (1980)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Saudi Arabia
- Geography
Total area: 2,149,690 km2; land area: 2,149,690 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than one-fourth the size of US

Land boundaries: 4,410 km total; Iraq 488 km, Iraq-Saudi Arabia Neutral
Zone 198 km, Jordan 742 km, Kuwait 222 km, Oman 676 km, Qatar 40 km, UAE 586 km,
PDRY 830 km, YAR 628 km

Coastline: 2,510 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 18 nm;

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: no defined boundaries with PDRY, UAE, and YAR;
shares Neutral Zone with Iraq--in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia
signed an agreement to divide the zone between them, but the agreement
must be ratified, however, before it becomes effective; Kuwaiti
ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands is disputed by Saudi Arabia

Climate: harsh, dry desert with great extremes of temperature

Terrain: mostly uninhabited, sandy desert

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 39% meadows and pastures;
1% forest and woodland; 59% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: no perennial rivers or permanent water bodies; developing
extensive coastal seawater desalination facilities; desertification

Note: extensive coastlines on Persian Gulf and Red Sea provide great
leverage on shipping (especially crude oil) through Persian Gulf and Suez Canal

- People
Population: 17,115,728 (July 1990), growth rate 4.4% (1990); note--the
population figure is based on growth since the last official Saudi census of
1974 reported a total of 7 million persons and includes foreign workers, while
estimates from other sources may be 15-30% lower

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 13 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 71 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Saudi(s); adjective--Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Arab, 10% Afro-Asian

Religion: 100% Muslim

Language: Arabic

Literacy: 52%

Labor force: 4,200,000; about 60% are foreign workers; 34% government,
28% industry and oil, 22% services, and 16% agriculture

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Type: monarchy

Capital: Riyadh

Administrative divisions: 14 emirates (imarat, singular--imarah);
Al Bahah, Al Hudud ash Shamaliyah, Al Jawf, Al Madinah,
Al Qasim, Al Qurayyat, Ar Riyad, Ash Sharqiyah, Asir,
Hail, Jizan, Makkah, Najran, Tabuk

Independence: 23 September 1932 (unification)

Constitution: none; governed according to Sharia (Islamic law)

Legal system: based on Islamic law, several secular codes have been
introduced; commercial disputes handled by special committees; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Unification of the Kingdom, 23 September (1932)

Executive branch: monarch and prime minister, crown prince and deputy
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: Supreme Council of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--King and Prime Minister
FAHD bin Abd al-Aziz Al Saud (since 13 June 1982);
Crown Prince and Deputy Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al-Aziz Al
Saud (half-brother to the King, appointed heir to the throne 13 June 1982)

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Communists: negligible

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador BANDAR Bin Sultan; Chancery at
601 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 342-3800;
there are Saudi Arabian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles, and
New York;
US--Ambassador Charles W. FREEMAN; Embassy at Collector Road M,
Diplomatic Quarter, Riyadh (mailing address is P. O. Box 9041, Riyadh 11143,
or APO New York 09038); telephone p966o (1) 488-3800; there are US Consulates
General in Dhahran and Jiddah (Jeddah)

Flag: green with large white Arabic script (that may be translated
as There is no God but God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God) above a
white horizontal saber (the tip points to the hoist side); green is the
traditional color of Islam

- Economy
Overview: By far the most important economic activity is the production of
petroleum and petroleum products. The petroleum sector accounts for about 85% of
budget revenues, 80% of GDP, and almost all export earnings. Saudi Arabia has
the largest reserves of petroleum in the world, is the largest exporter of
petroleum, and plays a leading role in OPEC. Oil wealth has provided a per
capita GDP that is comparable to most industrialized countries. Saudi Arabia is
one of the few countries where consumer prices have been dropping or showing
little change in recent years.

GDP: $73 billion, per capita $4,720; real growth rate 3.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $31.5 billion; expenditures $38.1 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1990)

Exports: $24.5 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--petroleum
and petroleum products 89%; partners--Japan 26%, US 26%, France 6%,
Bahrain 6%

Imports: $21.8 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--manufactured goods, transportation equipment, construction
materials, processed food products; partners--US 20%, Japan 18%, UK 16%,
Italy 11%

External debt: $18.9 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.1% (1980-86)

Electricity: 25,066,000 kW capacity; 50,000 million kWh produced,
3,100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic
petrochemicals, cement, small steel-rolling mill, construction, fertilizer,
plastic

Agriculture: accounts for about 10% of GDP, 16% of labor force; fastest
growing economic sector; subsidized by government; products--wheat, barley,
tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus fruit, mutton, chickens, eggs, milk; approaching
self-sufficiency in food

Aid: donor--pledged $64.7 billion in bilateral aid (1979-89)

Currency: Saudi riyal (plural--riyals); 1 Saudi riyal (SR) = 100 halalas

Exchange rates: Saudi riyals (SR) per US$1--3.7450 (fixed rate since late
1986), 3.7033 (1986), 3.6221 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 886 km 1.435-meter standard gauge

Highways: 74,000 km total; 35,000 km bituminous, 39,000 km gravel and
improved earth

Pipelines: 6,400 km crude oil; 150 km refined products; 2,200 km natural
gas, includes 1,600 km of natural gas liquids

Ports: Jiddah, Ad Dammam, Ras Tanura, Jizan, Al Jubayl, Yanbu al
Bahr, Yanbu al Sinaiyah

Merchant marine: 94 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,988,322
GRT/3,474,788 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 6 short-sea passenger,
1 passenger-cargo, 15 cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 container,
6 refrigerated cargo, 4 livestock carrier, 32 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil,
1 specialized tanker, 3 bulk

Civil air: 182 major transport aircraft available

Airports: 204 total, 179 usable; 66 with permanent-surface runways; 13
with runways over 3,659 m; 33 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 98 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system with extensive microwave and coaxial
cable systems; 1,624,000 telephones; stations--21 AM, 16 FM, 97 TV;
radio relay to Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, UAE, YAR, and Sudan;
coaxial cable to Kuwait; submarine cable to Djibouti and Egypt; satellite
earth stations--3 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT,
1 ARABSAT, 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Saudi Arabian Land Forces, Royal Saudi Naval Forces, Royal Saudi
Air Force, Royal Saudi Air Defense Force, Saudi Arabian National Guard,
Coast Guard and Frontier Forces, Special Security Force, Public Security Force,
Special Emergency Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,437,039; 3,606,344 fit for military
service; 159,186 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 16.9% of GDP, or $12.3 billion (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Senegal
- Geography
Total area: 196,190 km2; land area: 192,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km,
Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

Coastline: 531 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: short section of the boundary with The Gambia is
indefinite; the International Court of Justice (ICJ) rendered its
decision on the Guinea-Bissau/Senegal maritime boundary in favor
of Senegal--that decision has been rejected by Guinea-Bissau;
boundary with Mauritania

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (December to April) has
strong southeast winds; dry season (May to November) dominated by hot, dry
harmattan wind

Terrain: generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

Natural resources: fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use: 27% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 30% meadows and pastures;
31% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: lowlands seasonally flooded; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification

Note: The Gambia is almost an enclave

- People
Population: 7,713,851 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 44 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 87 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Senegalese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Senegalese

Ethnic divisions: 36% Wolof, 17% Fulani, 17% Serer, 9% Toucouleur, 9%
Diola, 9% Mandingo, 1% European and Lebanese, 2% other

Religion: 92% Muslim, 6% indigenous beliefs, 2% Christian (mostly Roman
Catholic)

Language: French (official); Wolof, Pulaar, Diola, Mandingo

Literacy: 28.1%

Labor force: 2,509,000; 77% subsistence agricultural workers; 175,000 wage
earners--40% private sector, 60% government and parapublic; 52% of population of
working age (1985)

Organized labor: majority of wage-labor force represented by unions;
however, dues-paying membership very limited; major confederation is
National Confederation of Senegalese Labor (CNTS), an affiliate of governing
party

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Senegal

Type: republic under multiparty democratic rule

Capital: Dakar

Administrative divisions: 10 regions (regions, singular--region);
Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Saint-Louis, Tambacounda,
Thies, Ziguinchor

Independence: 4 April 1960 (from France); The Gambia and Senegal signed
an agreement on 12 December 1981 (effective 1 February 1982) that called for
the creation of a loose confederation to be known as Senegambia, but the
agreement was dissolved on 30 September 1989

Constitution: 3 March 1963, last revised in 1984

Legal system: based on French civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in Supreme Court, which also audits the government's accounting
office; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders: Chief of State and Head of Government--President Abdou
DIOUF (since 1 January 1981)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS), Abdou Diouf;
Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS), Abdoulaye Wade; 13 other small uninfluential
parties

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held 28 February 1988 (next to be held February
1993);
results--Abdou Diouf (PS) 73%, Abdoulaye Wade (PDS) 26%, others 1%;

National Assembly--last held 28 February 1988 (next to be
held February 1993);
results--PS 71%, PDS 25%, others 4%;
seats--(120 total) PS 103, PDS 17

Communists: small number of Communists and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: students, teachers, labor, Muslim
Brotherhoods

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate),
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD,
IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, OMVS
(Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ibra Deguene KA; Chancery at
2112 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 234-0540 or 0541;
US--Ambassador George E. MOOSE; Embassy on Avenue Jean XXIII at the
corner of Avenue Kleber, Dakar (mailing address is B. P. 49, Dakar);
telephone p221o 21-42-96

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red
with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; uses the
popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: The agricultural sector accounts for about 20% of GDP and
provides employment for about 75% of the labor force. About 40% of the total
cultivated land is used to grow peanuts, an important export crop. The principal
economic resource is fishing, which brought in about $200 million or about 25%
of total foreign exchange earnings in 1987. Mining is dominated by the
extraction of phosphate, but production has faltered because of reduced
worldwide demand for fertilizers in recent years. Over the past 10 years tourism
has become increasingly more important to the economy.

GDP: $5.0 billion, per capita $680; real growth rate 5.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.8% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3.5% (1987)

Budget: revenues $921 million; expenditures $1,024 million; including
capital expenditures of $14 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $761 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--manufactures 30%, fish products 27%, peanuts 11%,
petroleum products 11%, phosphates 10%;
partners--US, France, other EC, Ivory Coast, India

Imports: $1.1 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--semimanufactures 30%, food 27%, durable consumer
goods 17%, petroleum 12%, capital goods 14%;
partners--US, France, other EC, Nigeria, Algeria, China, Japan

External debt: $3.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.9% (1986)

Electricity: 210,000 kW capacity; 760 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, agricultural processing, phosphate mining,
petroleum refining, building materials

Agriculture: including fishing, accounts for 20% of GDP and 75% of
labor force; major products--peanuts (cash crop), millet, corn, sorghum,
rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; estimated two-thirds
self-sufficient in food; fish catch of 299,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $492 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $589 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$295 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 1,034 km 1.000-meter gauge; all single track except 70 km
double track Dakar to Thies

Highways: 14,000 km total; 3,770 km paved, 10,230 km laterite or
improved earth

Inland waterways: 900 km total; 785 km on the Senegal, 115 km
on the Saloum

Ports: Dakar, Kaolack

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 9,263 GRT/15,167
DWT; includes 2 cargo, 1 bulk

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 25 total, 20 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above-average urban system, using radio relay and
cable; 40,200 telephones; stations--8 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 3 submarine cables;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,682,786; 878,812 fit for military
service; 88,940 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2% of GDP, or $100 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Seychelles
- Geography
Total area: 455 km2; land area: 455 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon
(late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)

Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly;
others are coral, flat, elevated reefs

Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees

Land use: 4% arable land; 18% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
18% forest and woodland; 60% other

Environment: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare;
short droughts possible; no fresh water, catchements collect rain; 40 granitic
and about 50 coralline islands

Note: located north-northeast of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

- People
Population: 68,336 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Seychellois (sing. and pl.); adjective--Seychelles

Ethnic divisions: Seychellois (mixture of Asians, Africans, Europeans)

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 8% Anglican, 2% other

Language: English and French (official); Creole

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 27,700; 31% industry and commerce, 21% services,
20% government, 12% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 16% other (1985);
57% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: three major trade unions

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Seychelles

Type: republic; member of the Commonwealth

Capital: Victoria

Administrative divisions: none; note--there may be 21
administrative districts named Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse
Louis, Anse Royale, Baie Lazare, Baie St. Anne, Beau Vallon,
Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse (on Mahe Island),
Grand Anse (on Praslin Island), La Digue, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance,
Pointe Larue, Port-Glaud, Riviere Anglaise, St. Louis, Takamaka

Independence: 29 June 1976 (from UK)

Constitution: 5 June 1979

Legal system: based on English common law, French civil law, and
customary law

National holiday: Liberation Day (anniversary of coup), 5 June (1977)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President France Albert
RENE (since 5 June 1977)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Seychelles People's
Progressive Front (SPPF), France Albert Rene

Suffrage: universal at age 17

Elections:
President--last held 9-11 June 1989 (next to be held June 1994);
results--President France Albert Rene reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held 5 December 1987 (next to be
held December 1992);
results--SPPF is the only party;
seats--(25 total, 23 elected) SPPF 23

Communists: negligible, although some Cabinet ministers
espouse pro-Soviet line

Other political or pressure groups: trade unions, Roman Catholic Church

Member of: ACP, AfDB, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IFAD, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, NAM, OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Second Secretary, Charge d'Affaires
ad interim Marc R. MARENGO; Chancery (temporary) at 820 Second Avenue,
Suite 201, New York, NY 10017; telephone (212) 687-9766;
US--Ambassador James MORAN; Embassy at 4th Floor, Victoria House, Victoria
(mailing address is Box 148, Victoria, or APO New York 09030);
telephone 23921 or 23922

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (wavy), and green;
the white band is the thinnest, the red band is the thickest

- Economy
Overview: In this small, open tropical island economy, the tourist
industry employs about 30% of the labor force and provides the main
source of hard currency earnings. In recent years the government has
encouraged foreign investment in order to upgrade hotels and other
services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the high
dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing,
and small-scale manufacturing.

GDP: $255 million, per capita $3,720; real growth rate 6.2%;
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1986)

Budget: revenues $106 million; expenditures $130 million, including
capital expenditures of $21 million (1987)

Exports: $17 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--fish, copra, cinnamon bark, petroleum products
(reexports);
partners--France 63%, Pakistan 12%, Reunion 10%, UK 7% (1987)

Imports: $116 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--manufactured goods, food, tobacco, beverages,
machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products;
partners--UK 20%, France 14%, South Africa 13%, PDRY 13%,
Singapore 8%, Japan 6% (1987)

External debt: $178 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1987)

Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 67 million kWh produced,
960 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, processing of coconut and vanilla, fishing,
coir rope factory, boat building, printing, furniture, beverage

Agriculture: accounts for 7% of GDP, mostly subsistence farming;
cash crops--coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla; other products--sweet potatoes,
cassava, bananas; broiler chickens; large share of food needs imported;
expansion of tuna fishing under way

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY78-88), $23 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1978-87), $297 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$56 million

Currency: Seychelles rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Seychelles rupee (SRe) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SR) per US$1--5.4884 (January 1990),
5.6457 (1989), 5.3836 (1988), 5.6000 (1987), 6.1768 (1986), 7.1343 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 260 km total; 160 km bituminous, 100 km crushed stone or earth

Ports: Victoria

Merchant marine: 1 refrigerated cargo (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
1,827 GRT/2,170 DWT

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 14 total, 14 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: direct radio communications with adjacent islands and
African coastal countries; 13,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station; USAF tracking station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 17,073; 8,776 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 6% of GDP, or $12 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Sierra Leone
- Geography
Total area: 71,740 km2; land area: 71,620 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: 958 km total; Guinea 652 km, Liberia 306 km

Coastline: 402 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; summer rainy season (May to December);
winter dry season (December to April)

Terrain: coastal belt of mangrove swamps, wooded hill country,
upland plateau, mountains in east

Natural resources: diamonds, titanium ore, bauxite, iron ore, gold,
chromite

Land use: 25% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 31% meadows and pastures;
29% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: extensive mangrove swamps hinder access to sea;
deforestation; soil degradation

- People
Population: 4,165,953 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 154 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 42 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Sierra Leonean(s); adjective--Sierra Leonean

Ethnic divisions: 99% native African (30% Temne, 30% Mende); 1% Creole,
European, Lebanese, and Asian; 13 tribes

Religion: 30% Muslim, 30% indigenous beliefs, 10% Christian, 30% other or
none

Language: English (official); regular use limited to literate minority;
principal vernaculars are Mende in south and Temne in north; Krio is the
language of the resettled ex-slave population of the Freetown area and is
lingua franca

Literacy: 31% (1986)

Labor force: 1,369,000 (est.); 65% agriculture, 19% industry, 16% services
(1981); only about 65,000 earn wages (1985); 55% of population of working age

Organized labor: 35% of wage earners

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Sierra Leone

Type: republic under presidential regime

Capital: Freetown

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces; Eastern, Northern, Southern,
Western

Independence: 27 April 1961 (from UK)

Constitution: 14 June 1978

Legal system: based on English law and customary laws indigenous to local
tribes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Republic Day, 27 April (1961)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Joseph Saidu MOMOH
(since 28 November 1985); First Vice President Abu Bakar KAMARA (since 4 April
1987); Second Vice President Salia JUSU-SHERIFF (since 4 April 1987)

Political parties and leaders: only party--All People's Congress
(APC), Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held 1 October 1985 (next to be held October 1992);
results--Gen. Joseph Saidu Momoh was elected without opposition;

House of Representatives--last held 30 May 1986 (next to be
held May 1991);
results--APC is the only party;
seats--(127 total, 105 elected) APC 105

Communists: no party, although there are a few Communists and a slightly
larger number of sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA,
IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM, OAU, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador George CAREW; Chancery at
1701 19th Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 939-9261;
US--Ambassador Johnny YOUNG; Embassy at the corner of Walpole and
Siaka Stevens Street, Freetown; telephone 26481

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light green (top), white, and
light blue

- Economy
Overview: The economic and social infrastructure is not well developed.
Subsistence agriculture dominates the economy, generating about one-third of
GDP and employing about two-thirds of the working population. Manufacturing
accounts for less than 10% of GDP, consisting mainly of the processing of
raw materials and of light manufacturing for the domestic market. Diamond mining
provides an important source of hard currency. The economy suffers from high
unemployment, rising inflation, large trade deficits, and a growing dependency
on foreign assistance.

GDP: $965 million, per capita $250; real growth rate 1.8% (FY87)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 42% (September 1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $86 million; expenditures $128 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $106 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--rutile 50%, bauxite 17%, cocoa 11%, diamonds 3%,
coffee 3%;
partners--US, UK, Belgium, FRG, other Western Europe

Imports: $167 million (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--capital goods 40%, food 32%, petroleum 12%,
consumer goods 7%, light industrial goods;
partners--US, EC, Japan, China, Nigeria

External debt: $805 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 19% (FY88 est.)

Electricity: 83,000 kW capacity; 180 million kWh produced,
45 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining (diamonds, bauxite, rutile), small-scale
manufacturing (beverages, textiles, cigarettes, footwear), petroleum refinery

Agriculture: accounts for over 30% of GDP and two-thirds of the
labor force; largely subsistence farming; cash crops--coffee, cocoa, palm
kernels; harvests of food staple rice meets 80% of domestic needs;
annual fish catch averages 53,000 metric tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $149 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $698 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $18 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$101 million

Currency: leone (plural--leones); 1 leone (Le) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: leones per US$1--87.7193 (January 1990), 58.1395 (1989),
31.2500 (1988), 30.7692 (1987), 8.3963 (1986), 4.7304 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 84 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge mineral line is used on a
limited basis because the mine at Marampa is closed

Highways: 7,400 km total; 1,150 km bituminous, 490 km laterite (some
gravel), remainder improved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km; 600 km navigable year round

Ports: Freetown, Pepel

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 12 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
3 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: marginal telephone and telegraph service; national
microwave radio relay system unserviceable at present; 23,650 telephones;
stations--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 918,078; 433,350 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 1% of GDP (1986)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Singapore
- Geography
Total area: 632.6 km2; land area: 622.6 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 193 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; no pronounced rainy or dry
seasons; thunderstorms occur on 40% of all days (67% of days in April)

Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water
catchment area and nature preserve

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: 4% arable land; 7% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 5%
forest and woodland; 84% other

Environment: mostly urban and industrialized

Note: focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes

- People
Population: 2,720,915 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Singaporean(s), adjective--Singapore

Ethnic divisions: 76.4% Chinese, 14.9% Malay, 6.4% Indian, 2.3% other

Religion: majority of Chinese are Buddhists or atheists; Malays nearly all
Muslim (minorities include Christians, Hindus, Sikhs, Taoists,
Confucianists)

Language: Chinese, Malay, Tamil, and English (official); Malay (national)

Literacy: 86.8% (1987)

Labor force: 1,280,000; 34.4% industry, 1.2% agriculture, 61.7%
services (1988)

Organized labor: 211,200; 16.5% of labor force (1988)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Singapore

Type: republic within Commonwealth

Capital: Singapore

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)

Constitution: 3 June 1959, amended 1965; based on preindependence
State of Singapore Constitution

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, two deputy prime ministers,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President WEE Kim Wee (since 3 September 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister LEE Kuan Yew (since 5 June 1959);
First Deputy Prime Minister GOH Chok Tong (since 2 January 1985); Second Deputy
Prime Minister ONG Teng Cheong (since 2 January 1985)

Political parties and leaders: government--People's Action Party (PAP),
Lee Kuan Yew; opposition--Workers' Party (WP), J. B. Jeyaretnam;
Singapore Democratic Party (SDP), Chiam See Tong;
National Solidarity Party (NSP), Soon Kia Seng;
United People's Front (UPF), Harbans Singh; Barisan Sosialis (BS);
Communist party illegal

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20

Elections:
President--last held 31 August 1989 (next to be held NA August 1993);
results--President Wee Kim Wee was reelected by Parliament without opposition;

Parliament--last held 3 September 1988 (next to be held NA September
1993);
results--PAP 61.8%, WP 18.4%, SDP 11.5%, NSP 3.7%, UPF 1.3%, others 3.3%;
seats--(81 total) PAP 80, SDP 1; note--BS has 1 nonvoting seat

Communists: 200-500; Barisan Sosialis infiltrated by Communists

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU,
ISO, ITU, NAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tommy KOH Tong Bee; Chancery at
1824 R Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 667-7555;
US--Ambassador Robert D. ORR; Embassy at 30 Hill Street, Singapore 0617
(mailing address is FPO San Francisco 96699); telephone p65o 338-0251

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; near the hoist
side of the red band, there is a vertical, white crescent (closed portion is
toward the hoist side) partially enclosing five white five-pointed stars
arranged in a circle

- Economy
Overview: Singapore has an open entrepreneurial economy with strong
service and manufacturing sectors and excellent international trading links
derived from its entrepot history. During the 1970s and early 1980s, the
economy expanded rapidly, achieving an average annual growth rate of 9%. Per
capita GDP is among the highest in Asia. In 1985 the economy registered its
first drop in 20 years and achieved less than a 2% increase in 1986. Recovery
was strong. Estimates for 1989 suggest a 9.2% growth rate based on rising
demand for Singapore's products in OECD countries, a strong Japanese yen, and
improved competitiveness of domestic manufactures.

GDP: $27.5 billion, per capita $10,300; real growth rate 9.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.6 billion; expenditures $5.9 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.2 billion (FY88)

Exports: $46 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--includes
transshipments to Malaysia--petroleum products, rubber, electronics,
manufactured goods; partners--US 24%, Malaysia 14%, Japan 9%,
Thailand 6%, Hong Kong 5%, Australia 3%, FRG 3%

Imports: $53 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--includes
transshipments from Malaysia--capital equipment, petroleum, chemicals,
manufactured goods, foodstuffs; partners--Japan 22%, US 16%, Malaysia 15%,
EC 12%, Kuwait 1%

External debt: $5.2 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 9% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 4,000,000 kW capacity; 12,000 million kWh produced,
4,490 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum refining, electronics, oil drilling equipment,
rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship
repair, entrepot trade, financial services, biotechnology

Agriculture: occupies a position of minor importance in the economy;
self-sufficient in poultry and eggs; must import much of other food; major
crops--rubber, copra, fruit, vegetables

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-83), $590 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $882 million

Currency: Singapore dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Singapore dollar (S$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Singapore dollars per US$1--1.8895 (January 1990),
1.9503 (1989), 2.0124 (1988), 2.1060 (1987), 2.1774 (1986), 2.2002 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 38 km of 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 2,597 km total (1984)

Ports: Singapore

Merchant marine: 407 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,286,824
GRT/11,921,610 DWT; includes 126 cargo, 52 container, 5 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 11 refrigerated cargo, 13 vehicle carrier, 1 livestock carrier,
103 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 chemical tanker,
4 combination ore/oil, 1 specialized tanker, 15 liquefied gas, 68 bulk,
3 combination bulk; note--many Singapore flag ships are foreign owned

Civil air: 38 major transport aircraft (est.)

Airports: 6 total, 6 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good domestic facilities; good international
service; good radio and television broadcast coverage; 1,110,000
telephones; stations--13 AM, 4 FM, 2 TV; submarine cables extend to
Malaysia (Sabah and peninsular Malaysia), Indonesia, and the Philippines;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Pacific Ocean
INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Army Reserve

Military manpower: males 15-49, 834,720; 621,497 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 5% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Solomon Islands
- Geography
Total area: 28,450 km2; land area: 27,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 5,313 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical monsoon; few extremes of temperature and weather

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains with some low coral atolls

Natural resources: fish, forests, gold, bauxite, phosphates

Land use: 1% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
93% forest and woodland; 4% other

Environment: subject to typhoons, which are rarely destructive;
geologically active region with frequent earth tremors

Note: located just east of Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific Ocean

- People
Population: 335,082 (July 1990), growth rate 3.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 41 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Solomon Islander(s); adjective--Solomon Islander

Ethnic divisions: 93.0% Melanesian, 4.0% Polynesian, 1.5% Micronesian,
0.8% European, 0.3% Chinese, 0.4% other

Religion: almost all at least nominally Christian; Anglican, Seventh-Day
Adventist, and Roman Catholic Churches dominant

Language: 120 indigenous languages; Melanesian pidgin in much of the
country is lingua franca; English spoken by 1-2% of population

Literacy: 60%

Labor force: 23,448 economically active; 32.4% agriculture, forestry, and
fishing; 25% services, 7.0% construction, manufacturing, and mining;
4.7% commerce, transport, and finance (1984)

Organized labor: NA, but most of the cash-economy workers have trade
union representation

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: independent parliamentary state within Commonwealth

Capital: Honiara

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 town*; Central, Guadalcanal,
Honiara*, Isabel, Makira, Malaita, Temotu, Western

Independence: 7 July 1978 (from UK; formerly British Solomon Islands)

Constitution: 7 July 1978

Legal system: common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 7 July (1978)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General George LEPPING (since 27 June 1989, previously acted as
governor general since 7 July 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Solomon MAMALONI (since 28 March 1989);
Deputy Prime Minister Danny PHILIP (since 31 March 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
People's Alliance Party (PAP), Solomon Mamaloni;
United Party (UP), Sir Peter Kenilorea;
Solomon Islands Liberal Party (SILP), Bartholemew Ulufa'alu;
Nationalist Front for Progress (NFP), Andrew Nori;
Labor Party (LP), Joses Tuhanuku

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
National Parliament--last held 22 February 1989 (next to be held
February 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(38 total) PAP 13, UP 6, NFP 4, SILP 4, LP 2, independents 9

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, SPF, UN, UPU, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) resides in Honiara
(Solomon Islands);
US--the ambassador in Papua New Guinea is accredited to the
Solomon Islands; Embassy at Mud Alley, Honiara (mailing address is
American Embassy, P. O. Box 561, Honiara); telephone (677) 23488

Flag: divided diagonally by a thin yellow stripe from the lower hoist-side
corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is blue with five white five-pointed
stars arranged in an X pattern; the lower triangle is green

- Economy
Overview: About 90% of the population depend on subsistence
agriculture, fishing, and forestry for at least part of their livelihood.
Agriculture, fishing, and forestry contribute about 75% to GDP, with the
fishing and forestry sectors being important export earners. The service
sector contributes about 25% to GDP. Manufacturing activity is
negligible. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be
imported. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as
lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. The economy suffered from a severe cyclone
in mid-1986 which caused widespread damage to the infrastructure.

GDP: $156 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 4.3% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.2% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $139.0 million; expenditures $154.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $113.4 million (1987)

Exports: $80.1 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--fish 46%,
timber 31%, copra 5%, palm oil 5%; partners--Japan 51%, UK 12%,
Thailand 9%, Netherlands 8%, Australia 2%, US 2% (1985)

Imports: $101.7 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--plant and
machinery 30%, fuel 19%, food 16%; partners--Japan 36%, US 23%,
Singapore 9%, UK 9%, NZ 9%, Australia 4%, Hong Kong 4%, China 3% (1985)

External debt: $128 million (1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987)

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 30 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra, fish (tuna)

Agriculture: including fishing and forestry, accounts for about
75% of GDP; mostly subsistence farming; cash crops--cocoa, beans,
coconuts, palm kernels, timber; other products--rice, potatoes,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, pigs; not self-sufficient in food grains;
90% of the total fish catch of 44,500 metric tons was exported (1988)

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1985), $16.1 million

Currency: Solomon Islands dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Solomon Islands dollar (SI$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Solomon Islands dollars (SI$) per US$1--2.4067
(January 1990), 2.3090 (1989), 2.0825 (1988), 2.0033 (1987), 1.7415 (1986),
1.4808 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: about 2,100 km total (1982); 30 km sealed, 290 km gravel,
980 km earth, 800 private logging and plantation roads of varied
construction

Ports: Honiara, Ringi Cove

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Somalia
- Geography
Total area: 637,660 km2; land area: 627,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Texas

Land boundaries: 2,340 km total; Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,600 km,
Kenya 682 km

Coastline: 3,025 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: southern half of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional
Administrative Line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden;
possible claims to Djibouti, Ethiopia, and Kenya based on unification of
ethnic Somalis

Climate: desert; northeast monsoon (December to February),
cooler southwest monsoon (May to October); irregular rainfall; hot, humid
periods (tangambili) between monsoons

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

Natural resources: uranium, and largely unexploited reserves
of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 46% meadows and pastures;
14% forest and woodland; 38% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern
plains in summer; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

Note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern
approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

- People
Population: 8,424,269 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 24 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 125 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 53 years male, 54 years female (1990)

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