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Independence: 1140; independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910

Constitution: 25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982; new discussions on
constitutional revision began October 1987

Legal system: civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the
constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Executive branch: president, Council of State, prime minister, deputy
prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the Republic (Assembleia
da Republica)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de
Justica)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Mario Alberto Nobre Lopes SOARES
(since 9 March 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Anibal CAVACO SILVA (since 6
November 1985); Deputy Prime Minister (vacant)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party (PSD), Anibal
Cavaco Silva; Portuguese Socialist Party (PS), Jorge Sampaio; Party of
Democratic Renewal (PRD), Herminio Martinho; Portuguese Communist Party (PCP),
Alvaro Cunhal; Social Democratic Center (CDS), Diogo Freitas do Amaral

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 16 February 1986 (next to be held January
1991);
results--Dr. Mario Lopes Soares 51.3%, Prof. Diogo Freitas do Amal
48.7%;

Assembly of the Republic--last held 19 July 1987
(next to be held July 1991);
results--Social Democrats 59.2%, Socialists 24.0%, Communists (in a
front coalition) 12.4%, Democratic Renewal 2.8%, Center Democrats 1.6%;
seats--(250 total) Social Democrats 148, Socialists 60, Communists
(in a front coalition) 31 seats, Democratic Renewal 7,
Center Democrats 4

Communists: Portuguese Communist Party claims membership of 200,753
(December 1983)

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EFTA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC,
IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International
Wheat Council, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Joao Eduardo M. PEREIRA BASTOS;
Chancery at 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 328-8610; there are Portuguese Consulates General in Boston,
New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Los Angeles, Newark (New Jersey),
New Bedford (Massachusetts), and Providence (Rhode Island);
US--Ambassador Edward M. ROWELL; Embassy at Avenida das Forcas Armadas,
1600 Lisbon (mailing address is APO New York 09678-0002);
telephone p351o (1) 726-6600 or 6659, 8670, 8880; there are US Consulates in
Oporto and Ponta Delgada (Azores)

Flag: two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red
(three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line

- Economy
Overview: During the past four years, the economy has made a sustained
recovery from the severe recession of 1983-85. The economy grew by 4.7% in
1987, 4.1% in 1988, and 3.5% in 1989, largely because of strong domestic
consumption and investment spending. Unemployment has declined for the
third consecutive year, but inflation continues to be about three times
the European Community average. The government is pushing economic
restructuring and privatization measures in anticipation of the 1992
European Community timetable to form a single large market in Europe.

GDP: $72.1 billion, per capita $6,900; real growth rate 3.5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11.8% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.9% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $19.0 billion; expenditures $22.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $11.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--cotton
textiles, cork and cork products, canned fish, wine, timber and timber
products, resin, machinery, appliances; partners--EC 72%, other
developed countries 13%, US 6%

Imports: $17.7 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--petroleum,
cotton, foodgrains, industrial machinery, iron and steel, chemicals;
partners--EC 67%, other developed countries 13%, less developed countries
15%, US 4%

External debt: $17.2 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.5% (1988)

Electricity: 6,729,000 kW capacity; 16,000 million kWh produced,
1,530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork;
metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and 20% of labor force; small
inefficient farms; imports more than half of food needs; major crops--grain,
potatoes, olives, grapes; livestock sector--sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, meat,
dairy products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.8 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $998 million

Currency: Portuguese escudo (plural--escudos);
1 Portuguese escudo (Esc) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Portuguese escudos (Esc) per US$1--149.15 (January 1990),
157.46 (1989), 143.95 (1988), 140.88 (1987), 149.59 (1986), 170.39 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,613 km total; state-owned Portuguese Railroad Co. (CP)
operates 2,858 km 1.665-meter gauge (434 km electrified and 426 km double
track), 755 km 1.000-meter gauge; 12 km (1.435-meter gauge) electrified,
double track, privately owned

Highways: 73,661 km total; 61,599 km paved (bituminous, gravel, and
crushed stone), including 140 km of limited-access divided highway; 7,962 km
improved earth; 4,100 km unimproved earth (motorable tracks)

Inland waterways: 820 km navigable; relatively unimportant to national
economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300-metric-ton cargo capacity

Pipelines: crude oil, 11 km; refined products, 58 km

Ports: Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Velas
(Azores), Setubal, Sines

Merchant marine: 50 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 576,654
GRT/1,005,740 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 21 cargo,
2 refrigerated cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
1 liquefied gas, 10 bulk, 1 combination bulk; note--Portugal has created
a captive register on Madeira (MAR) for Portuguese-owned ships that will
have the taxation and crewing benefits of a flag of convenience;
although only one ship is currently known to fly the Portuguese flag on
the MAR register, it is likely that a majority of Portuguese flag ships
will transfer to this subregister in a few years

Airports: 69 total, 64 usable; 37 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runways over 3,659 m; 11 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 8 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: facilities are generally adequate; 2,250,000
telephones; stations--44 AM, 66 (22 relays) FM, 25 (23 relays) TV; 7 submarine
cables; communication satellite ground stations operating in the INTELSAT (2
Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), EUTELSAT, and domestic systems (mainland and
Azores)

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,583,782; 2,102,835 fit for military
service; 88,384 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: $1.3 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Puerto Rico
(commonwealth associated with the US)
- Geography
Total area: 9,104 km2; land area: 8,959 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 501 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal plain belt in north;
mountains precipitous to sea on west coast

Natural resources: some copper and nickel; potential for onshore
and offshore crude oil

Land use: 8% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 51% meadows and pastures;
25% forest and woodland; 7% other

Environment: many small rivers and high central mountains ensure
land is well watered; south coast relatively dry; fertile coastal plain
belt in north

Note: important location between the Dominican Republic and the Virgin
Islands group along the Mona Passage--a key shipping lane to the Panama Canal;
San Juan is one of the biggest and best natural harbors in the Caribbean

- People
Population: 3,291,207 (July 1990), growth rate 0.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Puerto Rican(s); adjective--Puerto Rican

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Hispanic

Religion: mostly Christian, 85% Roman Catholic, 15% Protestant
denominations and other

Language: Spanish (official); English is widely understood

Literacy: 89%

Labor force: 1,062,000; 23% government, 20% trade, 18% manufacturing,
4% agriculture, 35% other (1988)

Organized labor: 115,000 members in 4 unions; the largest is the
General Confederation of Puerto Rican Workers with 35,000 members (1983)

- Government
Long-form name: Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

Type: commonwealth associated with the US

Capital: San Juan

Administrative divisions: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Constitution: ratified 3 March 1952; approved by US Congress 3 July 1952;
effective 25 July 1952

National holiday: Constitution Day, 25 July (1952)

Legal system: based on English common law

Executive branch: US president, US vice president, governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislative Assembly consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January
1989); Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government Governor Rafael HERNANDEZ Colon (since 2 January
1989)

Political parties and leaders: Popular Democratic Party (PPD), Rafael
Hernandez Colon; New Progressive Party (PNP), Baltasar Corrado del Rio;
Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP), Juan Mari Bras and Carlos Gallisa;
Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP), Ruben Berrios Martinez; Puerto
Rican Communist Party (PCP), leader(s) unknown

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections:
Governor--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992);
results--Rafael Hernandez Colon (PPD) 48.7%, Baltasar Corrada Del Rio
(PNP) 45.8%, Ruben Barrios Martinez (PIP) 5.5%;

Senate--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(27 total) PPD 18, PNP 8, PIP 1;

House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1988 (next to be
held November 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(53 total) PPD 36, PNP 15, PIP 2

Other political or pressure groups: all have engaged in terrorist
activities--Armed Forces for National Liberation (FALN), Volunteers of the
Puerto Rican Revolution, Boricua Popular Army (also known as the Macheteros),
Armed Forces of Popular Resistance

Diplomatic representation: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Flag: five equal horizontal bands of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; a blue isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bears a large white
five-pointed star in the center; design based on the US flag

- Economy
Overview: Puerto Rico has one of the most dynamic economies in the
Caribbean region. Industry has surpassed agriculture as the primary
sector of economic activity and income. Encouraged by duty-free
access to the US and by tax incentives, US firms have invested heavily
in Puerto Rico since the 1970s. Important new industries include
pharmaceuticals, electronics, textiles, petrochemicals, and processed
foods. Sugar production has lost out to dairy production and other
livestock products as the main source of income in the agricultural
sector. Tourism has traditionally been an important source of income
for the island.

GNP: $18.4 billion, per capita $5,574; real growth rate 4.9% (FY88)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 33% (December 1987-88)

Unemployment rate: 12.8% (December 1988)

Budget: revenues $4.9 million; expenditures $4.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)

Exports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., FY88); commodities--sugar, coffee,
petroleum products, chemical, metal products, textiles, electronic equipment;
partners--US 87%

Imports: $11.8 billion (c.i.f., FY88); commodities--chemicals,
clothing, food, fish products, crude oil; partners--US 60%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (FY87)

Electricity: 4,149,000 kW capacity; 14,050 million kWh produced,
4,260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, chemicals,
food processing, petroleum refining

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of labor force; crops--sugarcane,
coffee, pineapples, tobacco, bananas; livestock--cattle, chickens;
imports a large share of food needs

Aid: none

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 100 km rural narrow-gauge system for hauling sugarcane;
no passenger railroads

Highways: 13,762 km paved

Ports: San Juan, Ponce, Mayaguez, Arecibo

Airports: 33 total; 23 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 2,000,000 radio receivers; 810,000 TV receivers;
769,140 telephones; stations--69 AM, 42 FM, 24 TV (1984)

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; paramilitary National
Guard; police force of 10,050 men and women (1984)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Qatar
- Geography
Total area: 11,000 km2; land area: 11,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: 60 km total; Saudi Arabia 40 km, UAE 20 km

Coastline: 563 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: as delimited with neighboring states, or
to limit of shelf, or to median line;

Extended economic zone: to median line;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: boundary with UAE is in dispute; territorial dispute with
Bahrain over the Hawar Islands

Climate: desert; hot, dry; humid and sultry in summer

Terrain: mostly flat and barren desert covered with loose sand and gravel

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, fish

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 5% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 95% other

Environment: haze, duststorms, sandstorms common; limited freshwater
resources mean increasing dependence on large-scale desalination facilities

Note: strategic location in central Persian Gulf near
major crude oil sources

- People
Population: 490,897 (July 1990), growth rate 5.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 38 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 25 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Qatari(s); adjective--Qatari

Ethnic divisions: 40% Arab, 18% Pakistani, 18% Indian, 10% Iranian,
14% other

Religion: 95% Muslim

Language: Arabic (official); English is commonly used as second language

Literacy: 40%

Labor force: 104,000; 85% non-Qatari in private sector (1983)

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

- Government
Long-form name: State of Qatar

Type: traditional monarchy

Capital: Doha

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 3 September 1971 (from UK)

Constitution: provisional constitution enacted 2 April 1970

Legal system: discretionary system of law controlled by the amir,
although civil codes are being implemented; Islamic law is significant in
personal matters

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 September (1971)

Executive branch: amir, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Advisory Council (Majlis al-Shura)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Amir and Prime Minister
Khalifa bin Hamad Al THANI (since 22 February 1972); Heir Apparent Hamad
bin Khalifa AL THANI (appointed 31 May 1977; son of Amir)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: none

Elections:
Advisory Council--constitution calls for elections for part
of this consultative body, but no elections have been held;
seats--(30 total)

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), GCC, IBRD, ICAO,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU,
NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamad Abd al-Aziz
AL-KAWARI, Chancery at Suite 1180, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington
DC 20037; telephone (202) 338-0111;
US--Ambassador Mark G. HAMBLEY; Embassy at Fariq Bin Omran
(opposite the television station), Doha (mailing address is P. O. Box 2399,
Doha); telephone p974o 864701 through 864703

Flag: maroon with a broad white serrated band (nine white points) on the
hoist side

- Economy
Overview: Oil is the backbone of the economy and accounts for 90% of
export earnings and more than 80% of government revenues. Proved oil
reserves of 3.3 billion barrels should ensure continued output at current
levels for about 25 years. Oil has given Qatar a per capita GDP of about
$17,000, among the highest in the world.

GDP: $5.4 billion, per capita $17,070; real growth rate 9.0% (1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.6% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $1.7 billion; expenditures $3.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--petroleum
products 90%, steel, fertilizers; partners--France, FRG, Italy, Japan,
Spain

Imports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.), excluding military equipment;
commodities--foodstuffs, beverages, animal and vegetable oils, chemicals,
machinery and equipment; partners--EC, Japan, Arab countries, US,
Australia

External debt: $1.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0.6% (1987)

Electricity: 1,514,000 kW capacity; 4,000 million kWh produced,
8,540 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, fertilizers,
petrochemicals, steel, cement

Agriculture: farming and grazing on small scale, less than 2% of GDP;
commercial fishing increasing in importance; most food imported

Aid: donor--pledged $2.7 billion in ODA to less developed countries (1979-
88)

Currency: Qatari riyal (plural--riyals); 1 Qatari riyal (QR) = 100 dirhams

Exchange rates: Qatari riyals (QR) per US$1--3.6400 riyals (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 1,500 km total; 1,000 km bituminous, 500 km gravel or
natural surface (est.)

Pipelines: crude oil, 235 km; natural gas, 400 km

Ports: Doha, Musayid, Halul Island

Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 273,318 GRT/420,227
DWT; includes 7 cargo, 3 container, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 4 total, 4 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; none with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern system centered in Doha; 110,000 telephones;
tropospheric scatter to Bahrain; radio relay to Saudi Arabia; submarine cable to
Bahrain and UAE; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations--1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 255,474; 120,614 fit for military service;
3,982 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Reunion
(overseas department of France)
- Geography
Total area: 2,510 km2; land area: 2,500 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 201 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderates with elevation; cool and dry from
May to November, hot and rainy from November to April

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: 20% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 39% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: periodic devastating cyclones

Note: located 750 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

- People
Population: 595,583 (July 1990), growth rate 1.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Reunionese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Reunionese

Ethnic divisions: most of the population is of intermixed French, African,
Malagasy, Chinese, Pakistani, and Indian ancestry

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official); Creole widely used

Literacy: NA%, but over 80% among younger generation

Labor force: NA; 30% agriculture, 21% industry, 49% services (1981);
63% of population of working age (1983)

Organized labor: General Confederation of Workers of Reunion (CGTR)

- Government
Long-form name: Department of Reunion

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Saint-Denis

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: French president, Commissioner of the Republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council, unicameral Regional
Council

Judicial branch: Court of Appeals (Cour d'appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND
(since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Daniel CONSTANTIN
(since September 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Rally for the Republic (RPR),
Francois Mas; Union for French Democracy (UDF), Gilbert Gerard; Communist
Party of Reunion (PCR); France-Reunion Future (FRA), Andre Thien Ah Koon;
Socialist Party (PS), Jean-Claude Fruteau; Social Democrats (CDS), other
small parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Regional Council--last held 16 March 1986
(next to be held March 1991);
results--RPR/UDF 36.8%, PCR 28.2%, FRA and other right wing 17.3%,
PS 14.1%, other 3.6%;
seats--(45 total) RPR/UDF 18, PCR 13, FRA and other right wing 8, PS 6;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(3 total) RPR-UDF 1, PS 1, independent 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(5 total) PCR 2, RPR 1, UDF-CDS 1, FRA 1

Communists: Communist party small but has support among sugarcane cutters,
the minuscule Popular Movement for the Liberation of Reunion (MPLR), and in the
district of Le Port

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France, Reunionese
interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: The economy has traditionally been based on agriculture.
Sugarcane has been the primary crop for more than a century, and in some years
it accounts for 85% of exports. The government is pushing the development
of a tourist industry to relieve a high unemployment rate that was over 30%
in 1986. The economic well-being of Reunion depends heavily on continued
financial assistance from France.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $4,290 (1985);
real growth rate 9% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.8% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 32.0%; high seasonal unemployment (1986)

Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $914 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1986)

Exports: $136 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--sugar 75%, rum
and molasses 4%, perfume essences 4%, vanilla and tea 1%;
partners--France, Mauritius, Bahrain, S. Africa, Italy

Imports: $1.1 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities--manufactured
goods, food, beverages, tobacco, machinery and transportation equipment, raw
materials, and petroleum products; partners--France, Mauritius, Bahrain,
South Africa, Italy

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 245,000 kW capacity; 546 million kWh produced,
965 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar, rum, cigarettes, several small shops producing
handicraft items

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of labor force; dominant sector of economy;
cash crops--sugarcane, vanilla, tobacco; food crops--tropical fruits,
vegetables, corn; imports large share of food needs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $13.5 billion

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 2,800 km total; 2,200 km paved, 600 km gravel, crushed stone, or
stabilized earth

Ports: Pointe des Galets

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system for needs; modern open-wire line and
radio relay network; principal center Saint-Denis; radiocommunication to
Comoros, France, Madagascar; new radio relay route to Mauritius;
85,900 telephones; stations--3 AM, 13 FM, 1 (18 relays) TV;
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Military manpower: males 15-49, 158,812; 82,400 fit for military
service; 6,075 reach military age (18) annually

Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Romania
- Geography
Total area: 237,500 km2; land area: 230,340 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Oregon

Land boundaries: 2,904 km total; Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km,
USSR 1,307 km, Yugoslavia 546 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Transylvania question with Hungary; Bessarabia question
with USSR

Climate: temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog;
sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms

Terrain: central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the plain of
Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the
Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps

Natural resources: crude oil (reserves being exhausted), timber,
natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt

Land use: 43% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 19% meadows and
pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: frequent earthquakes most severe in south and southwest;
geologic structure and climate promote landslides, air pollution in south

Note: controls most easily traversable land route between
the Balkans and western USSR

- People
Population: 23,273,285 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Romanian(s); adjective--Romanian

Ethnic divisions: 89.1% Romanian; 7.8% Hungarian; 1.5% German; 1.6%
Ukrainian, Serb, Croat, Russian, Turk, and Gypsy

Religion: 80% Romanian Orthodox; 6% Roman Catholic; 4% Calvinist,
Lutheran, Jewish, Baptist

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 10,690,000; 34% industry, 28% agriculture, 38% other (1987)

Organized labor: until December 1989, a single trade union system
organized by the General Confederation of Romanian Trade Unions (UGSR)
under control of the Communist Party; since Ceausescu's overthrow,
newly-created trade and professional trade unions are joining two rival
umbrella organizations--Organization of Free Trade Unions and Fratia
(Brotherhood)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: former Communist state; current multiparty provisional
government has scheduled a general democratic election for 20 May 1990

Capital: Bucharest

Administrative divisions: 40 counties (judete, singular--judet) and
1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor,
Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*,
Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna,
Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita,
Iasi, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj,
Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea

Independence: 1881 (from Turkey); republic proclaimed 30 December 1947

Constitution: 21 August 1965; new constitution being drafted

Legal system: former mixture of civil law system and Communist
legal theory that increasingly reflected Romanian traditions is being
revised; Communist regime had not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction;
Provisional Council of National Unity will probably accept ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Liberation Day, 23 August (1944); new national
day to commemorate popular anti-Ceausescu uprising under discussion

Executive branch: president, vice president, prime minister, and
Council of Ministers (cabinet) appointed by provisional government

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or House of Deputies
(Adunarea Deputatilor)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State--President of Provisional Council of National Unity
Ion ILIESCU (since 23 December 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister of Council of Ministers
Petre ROMAN (since 23 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Social Democratic Party,
Sergiu Cunescu; National Liberal Party, Radu Cimpeanu; National Christian
Peasants Party, Corneliu Coposu; Free Democratic Social Justice Party,
Gheorghe Susana; several others being formed; Communist Party has ceased
to exist; formation of left-wing parties is uncertain

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Senate--elections for the new upper house to be held 20 May 1990;

House of Deputies--elections for the new lower house to be held
20 May 1990

Communists: 3,400,000 (November 1984); Communist Party has ceased
to exist

Member of: CCC, CEMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBEC, IBRD, ICAO,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, Warsaw
Pact, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Virgil CONSTANTINESCU;
Chancery at 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 232-4747; US--Ambassador Alan GREEN, Jr., recalled to
Washington May 1990; Embassy at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
(mailing address is APO New York 09213); telephone p40o (0) 10-40-40

Flag: three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and
red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow
band, has been removed; now similar to the flags of Andorra and Chad

- Economy
Overview: Industry, which accounts for one-third of the labor force
and generates over half the GNP, suffers from an aging capital plant and
persistent shortages of energy. In recent years the agricultural sector
has had to contend with drought, mismanagement, and shortages of inputs.
Favorable weather in 1989 helped produce a good harvest, although far
below government claims. The new government is slowly loosening the tight
central controls of Ceausescu's command economy. It has instituted
moderate land reforms, with close to one-third of cropland now in
private hands, and it has allowed changes in prices for private
agricultural output. Also, the new regime is permitting the
establishment of private enterprises of 20 or fewer employees in
services, handicrafts, and small-scale industry. Furthermore, the
government has halted the old policy of diverting food from domestic
consumption to hard currency export markets. So far, the government
does not seem willing to adopt a thorough-going market system.

GNP: $79.8 billion, per capita $3,445; real growth rate - 1.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $26 billion; expenditures $21.6 billion,
including capital expenditures of $13.6 billion (1987)

Exports: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--machinery and
equipment 34.7%, fuels, minerals and metals 24.7%, manufactured consumer goods
16.9%, agricultural materials and forestry products 11.9%, other 11.6% (1986);
partners--USSR 27%, Eastern Europe 23%, EC 15%, US 5%, China 4% (1987)

Imports: $8.75 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--fuels, minerals,
and metals 51.0%, machinery and equipment 26.7%, agricultural and forestry
products 11.0%, manufactured consumer goods 4.2% (1986);
partners--Communist countries 60%, non-Communist countries 40% (1987)

External debt: none (mid-1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Electricity: 22,640,000 kW capacity; 80,000 million kWh produced,
3,440 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy,
chemicals, machine building, food processing, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 28% of labor force; major
wheat and corn producer; other products--sugar beets, sunflower seed,
potatoes, milk, eggs, meat, grapes

Aid: donor--$4.3 billion in bilateral aid to non-Communist less
developed countries (1956-88)

Currency: leu (plural--lei); 1 leu (L) = 100 bani

Exchange rates: lei (L) per US$1--20.96 (February 1990), 14.922 (1989),
14.277 (1988), 14.557 (1987), 16.153 (1986), 17.141 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 11,221 km total; 10,755 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 421 km
narrow gauge, 45 km broad gauge; 3,328 km electrified, 3,060 km double track;
government owned (1986)

Highways: 72,799 km total; 15,762 km concrete, asphalt, stone block;
20,208 km asphalt treated; 27,729 km gravel, crushed stone, and other paved
surfaces; 9,100 km unpaved roads (1985)

Inland waterways: 1,724 km (1984)

Pipelines: 2,800 km crude oil; 1,429 km refined products; 6,400 km natural
gas

Ports: Constanta, Galati, Braila, Mangalia; inland ports are Giurgiu,
Drobeta-Turnu Severin, Orsova

Merchant marine: 282 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,313,320
GRT/5,134,335 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 184 cargo, 1 container,
1 rail-car carrier, 14 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 livestock carrier,
10 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 69 bulk

Civil air: 70 major transport aircraft

Airports: 165 total, 165 usable; 25 with permanent-surface runways;
15 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--39 AM, 30 FM, 38 TV; 3,910,000 TV sets;
3,225,000 radio receivers; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Romanian Army, Security Troops, Air and Air Defense Forces,
Romanian Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,736,783; 4,860,427 fit for military
service; 193,537 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 11.8 billion lei, 2.8% of total budget (1989);
note--conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Rwanda
- Geography
Total area: 26,340 km2; land area: 24,950 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maryland

Land boundaries: 893 km total; Burundi 290 km, Tanzania 217 km,
Uganda 169 km, Zaire 217 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November
to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible

Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; mountains in west

Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten
ore), natural gas, hydropower

Land use: 29% arable land; 11% permanent crops; 18% meadows and
pastures; 10% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion;
periodic droughts

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 7,609,119 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 53 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 113 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 8.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun and adjective--Rwandan(s)

Ethnic divisions: Hutu 90%, Tutsi 9%, Twa (Pygmoid) 1%

Religion: Roman Catholic 65%, Protestant 9%, Muslim 1%,
indigenous beliefs and other 25%

Language: Kinyarwanda, French (official); Kiswahili used in commercial
centers

Literacy: 46.6%

Labor force: 3,600,000; 93% agriculture, 5% government and services,
2% industry and commerce; 49% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Rwanda

Type: republic; presidential system in which military leaders hold key
offices

Capital: Kigali

Administrative divisions: 10 prefectures (prefectures,
singular--prefecture in French; plural--NA, singular--prefegitura in
Kinyarwanda); Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibungo,
Kibuye, Rigali, Ruhengeri

Constitution: 17 December 1978

Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian
administration)

Legal system: based on German and Belgian civil law systems and customary
law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Development Council (Conseil pour
le Developpement National)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (consists of the Court of Cassation
and the Council of State in joint session)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Maj. Gen.
Juvenal HABYARIMANA (since 5 July 1973)

Political parties and leaders: only party--National Revolutionary
Movement for Development (MRND), Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana
(officially a development movement, not a party)

Suffrage: universal adult, exact age NA

Elections:
President--last held 19 December 1988 (next to be held December
1993); results--President Maj. Gen. Juvenal Habyarimana reelected;

National Development Council--last held 19 December 1988 (next
to be held December 1993);
results--MRND is the only party;
seats--(70 total); MRND 70

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, EAMA, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Aloys UWIMANA; Chancery at
1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 232-2882;
US--Ambassador Leonard H. O. SPEARMAN, Sr.; Embassy at Boulevard de la
Revolution, Kigali (mailing address is B. P. 28, Kigali);
telephone p205o 75601 through 75603 or 72126 through 72128

Flag: three equal vertical bands of red (hoist side), yellow, and green
with a large black letter R centered in the yellow band; uses the popular
pan-African colors of Ethiopia; similar to the flag of Guinea, which has a plain
yellow band

- Economy
Overview: About 40% of GDP comes from the agricultural sector; coffee
and tea make up 80-90% of total exports. The amount of fertile land is limited,
however, and deforestation and soil erosion have created problems. The
industrial sector in Rwanda is small, contributing less than 20% to GDP.
Manufacturing focuses mainly on the processing of agricultural products.
The Rwandan economy remains dependent on coffee exports and foreign aid,
with no relief in sight. Weak international prices since 1986 have
caused the economy to contract and per capita GDP to decline.

GDP: $2.3 billion, per capita $325; real growth rate - 2.5% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $413 million; expenditures $522 million, including
capital expenditures of $230 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $118 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--coffee 85%, tea,
tin, cassiterite, wolframite, pyrethrum; partners--FRG, Belgium, Italy,
Uganda, UK, France, US

Imports: $278 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--textiles,
foodstuffs, machines and equipment, capital goods, steel, petroleum products,
cement and construction material; partners--US, Belgium, FRG, Kenya, Japan

External debt: $645 million (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.2% (1988)

Electricity: 26,000 kW capacity; 112 million kWh produced,
15 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining of cassiterite (tin ore) and wolframite (tungsten
ore), tin, cement, agricultural processing, small-scale beverage production,
soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes

Agriculture: cash crops--coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made
from chrysanthemums); main food crops--bananas, beans, sorghum,
potatoes; stock raising; self-sufficiency declining; country imports
foodstuffs as farm production fails to keep up with a 3.8% annual growth
in population

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $118 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.7 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $45 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$58 million

Currency: Rwandan franc (plural--francs); 1 Rwandan franc (RF) = 100
centimes

Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RF) per US$1--78.99 (December 1989),
79.98 (1989), 76.45 (1988), 79.67 (1987), 87.64 (1986), 101.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 4,885 km total; 460 km paved, 1,725 km gravel and/or improved
earth, 2,700 km unimproved

Inland waterways: Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native
craft

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 8 total, 8 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system with low-capacity radio relay system
centered on Kigali; 6,600 telephones; stations--2 AM, 5 FM, no TV;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 SYMPHONIE

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, paramilitary, Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,586,989; 810,560 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: St. Helena
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 410 km2; land area: 410 km2; includes Ascension, Gough Island,
Inaccessible Island, Nightingale Island, and Tristan da Cunha

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 60 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine; mild, tempered by trade winds

Terrain: rugged, volcanic; small scattered plateaus and plains

Natural resources: fish; Ascension is a breeding ground for sea turtles
and sooty terns; no minerals

Land use: 7% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: very few perennial streams

Note: Napoleon Bonaparte's place of exile and burial; the remains
were taken to Paris in 1840

- People
Population: 6,657 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGl migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 46 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--St. Helenian(s); adjective--St. Helenian

Ethnic divisions: NA

Religion: Anglican majority; also Baptist, Seventh-Day Adventist,
and Roman Catholic

Language: English

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: St. Helena General Workers' Union, 472 members;
17% crafts, 10% professional and technical, 10% service, 9% management and
clerical, 9% farming and fishing, 6% transport, 5% sales, 1% security, and
33% other

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Jamestown

Administrative divisions: 2 dependencies and 1 administrative area*;
Ascension*, Saint Helena, Tristan da Cunha

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 1 January 1967

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Governor and Commander in Chief Robert
F. STIMSON (since 1987)

Political parties and leaders: St. Helena Labor Party, G. A. O.
Thornton; St. Helena Progressive Party, leader unknown; note--both
political parties inactive since 1976

Suffrage: NA

Elections:
Legislative Council--last held October 1984 (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(15 total, 12 elected) number of seats by party NA

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the St. Helenian shield centered on the outer half of the flag; the shield
features a rocky coastline and three-masted sailing ship

- Economy
Overview: The economy depends primarily on financial assistance
from the UK. The local population earns some income from fishing,
the rearing of livestock, and sales of handicrafts. Because there are
few jobs, a large proportion of the work force have left to seek employment
overseas.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.1% (1986)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.2 million; expenditures $2.9 million,
including capital expenditures of NA (1984)

Exports: $23.9 thousand (f.o.b., 1984); commodities--fish (frozen
skipjack, tuna, salt-dried skipjack), handicrafts; partners--South Africa,
UK

Imports: $2.4 million (c.i.f., 1984); commodities--food,
beverages, tobacco, fuel oils, animal feed, building materials, motor
vehicles and parts, machinery and parts; partners--UK, South Africa

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 9,800 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced,
1,390 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crafts (furniture, lacework, fancy woodwork), fish

Agriculture: maize, potatoes, vegetables; timber production being
developed; crawfishing on Tristan da Cunha

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $168 million

Currency: St. Helenian pound (plural--pounds);
1 St. Helenian pound (LS) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: St. Helenian pounds (LS) per US$1--0.6055
(January 1990), 0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986),
0.7714 (1985); note--the St. Helenian pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 87 km bitumen-sealed roads, 20 km earth roads on St. Helena;
80 km bitumen-sealed on Ascension; 2.7 km bitumen-sealed on Tristan da Cunha

Ports: Jamestown (St. Helena), Georgetown (Ascension)

Merchant marine: 1 passenger-cargo ship totaling 3,150 GRT/2,264 DWT

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m on Ascension

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers; stations--1 AM,
no FM, no TV; 550 telephones in automatic network; HF radio links to Ascension,
then into worldwide submarine cable and satellite networks; major coaxial
cable relay point between South Africa, Portugal, and UK at Ascension; 2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: St. Kitts and Nevis
- Geography
Total area: 360 km2; land area: 360 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 135 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: subtropical tempered by constant sea breezes; little seasonal
temperature variation; rainy season (May to November)

Terrain: volcanic with mountainous interiors

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 22% arable land; 17% permanent crops; 3% meadows and
pastures; 17% forest and woodland; 41% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes (July to October)

Note: located 320 km southeast of Puerto Rico

- People
Population: 40,157 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 40 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.7 children born/woman (1990)

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

Nationality: noun--Kittsian(s), Nevisian(s); adjective--Kittsian, Nevisian

Religion: Anglican, other Protestant sects, Roman Catholic

Language: English

Literacy: 80%

Labor force: 20,000 (1981)

Organized labor: 6,700

- Government
Long-form name: Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Basseterre

Administrative divisions: 14 parishs; Christ Church Nichola Town,
Saint Anne Sandy Point, Saint George Basseterre, Saint George Gingerland,
Saint James Windward, Saint John Capisterre, Saint John Figtree, Saint Mary
Cayon, Saint Paul Capisterre, Saint Paul Charlestown, Saint Peter Basseterre,
Saint Thomas Lowland, Saint Thomas Middle Island, Trinity Palmetto Point

Independence: 19 September 1983 (from UK)

Constitution: 19 September 1983

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 19 September (1983)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (sometimes referred to as
the National Assembly)

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Sir Clement Athelston ARRINDELL (since 19 September 1983,
previously Governor General of the Associated State since November 1981);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. Kennedy Alphonse SIMMONDS
(since 19 September 1983, previously Premier of the Associated State since
February 1980); Deputy Prime Minister Michael Oliver POWELL (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: People's Action Movement (PAM), Kennedy
Simmonds; St. Kitts and Nevis Labor Party (SKNLP), Lee Moore; Nevis
Reformation Party (NRP), Simeon Daniel; Concerned Citizens Movement (CCM),
Vance Amory

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 21 March 1989
(next to be held by 21 March 1994);
seats--(14 total, 11 elected) PAM 6, SKNLP 2, NRP 2, CCM 1

Communists: none known

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, IBRD, IMF, ISO, OAS, OECS, UN

Diplomatic representation: Minister-Counselor (Deputy Chief of Mission),
Charge d'Affaires ad interim Erstein M. EDWARDS; Chancery at Suite 540,
2501 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 833-3550;
US--none

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side by a broad black band
bearing two white five-pointed stars; the black band is edged in yellow; the
upper triangle is green, the lower triangle is red

- Economy
Overview: The economy has historically depended on the growing and
processing of sugarcane and on remittances from overseas workers. In
recent years, tourism and export-oriented manufacturing have assumed
larger roles.

GDP: $119 million, per capita $3,240; real growth rate 6%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 20-25% (1987)

Budget: revenues $38.5 million; expenditures $45.0 million,
including capital expenditures of $15.8 million (1988)

Exports: $30.3 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--sugar,
manufactures, postage stamps; partners--US 44%, UK 30%, Trinidad and
Tobago 12% (1987)

Imports: $94.7 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--foodstuffs,
intermediate manufactures, machinery, fuels; partners--US 35%, UK 18%,
Trinidad and Tobago 10%, Canada 6%, Japan 4% (1987)

External debt: $27.6 million (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1986)

Electricity: 15,800 kW capacity; 45 million kWh produced,
1,120 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: sugar processing, tourism, cotton, salt, copra,
clothing, footwear, beverages

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP; cash crop--sugarcane; subsistence
crops--rice, yams, bananas; fishing potential not fully exploited; most food
imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $13.6 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $46 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 58 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge on St. Kitts for sugarcane

Highways: 300 km total; 125 km paved, 125 km otherwise improved, 50 km
unimproved earth

Ports: Basseterre (St. Kitts), Charlestown (Nevis)

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good interisland VHF/UHF/SHF radio connections and
international link via Antigua and Barbuda and St. Martin; 2,400 telephones;
stations--2 AM, no FM, 4 TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal St. Kitts and Nevis Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: St. Lucia
- Geography
Total area: 620 km2; land area: 610 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 158 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, moderated by northeast trade winds;
dry season from January to April, rainy season from May to August

Terrain: volcanic and mountainous with some broad, fertile valleys

Natural resources: forests, sandy beaches, minerals (pumice), mineral
springs, geothermal potential

Land use: 8% arable land; 20% permanent crops; 5% meadows and
pastures; 13% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes and volcanic activity;
deforestation; soil erosion

Note: located 700 km southeast of Puerto Rico

- People
Population: 153,196 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 33 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--St. Lucian(s); adjective--St. Lucian

Ethnic divisions: 90.3% African descent, 5.5% mixed, 3.2% East Indian,
0.8% Caucasian

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic, 7% Protestant, 3% Anglican

Language: English (official), French patois

Literacy: 78%

Labor force: 43,800; 43.4% agriculture, 38.9% services, 17.7% industry
and commerce (1983 est.)

Organized labor: 20% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Castries

Administrative divisions: 11 parishes; Anse-la-Raye, Castries, Choiseul,
Dauphin, Dennery, Gros-Islet, Laborie, Micoud, Praslin, Soufriere, Vieux-Fort

Independence: 22 February 1979 (from UK)

Constitution: 22 February 1979

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 February (1979)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Stanislaus Anthony JAMES (since 10 October 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister John George Melvin COMPTON (since
3 May 1982)

Political parties and leaders: United Workers' Party (UWP), John Compton;
St. Lucia Labor Party (SLP), Julian Hunte; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), George
Odlum

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 6 April 1987 (next to be held
April 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total) UWP 10, SLP 7

Communists: negligible

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, NAM, OAS, OECS, PAHO, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Joseph Edsel EDMUNDS;
Chancery at Suite 309, 2100 M Street NW, Washington DC 30037;
telephone (202) 463-7378 or 7379; there is a St. Lucian Consulate General
in New York;
US--none

Flag: blue with a gold isosceles triangle below a black arrowhead; the
upper edges of the arrowhead have a white border

- Economy
Overview: Since 1983 the economy has shown an impressive average
annual growth rate of almost 5% because of strong agricultural and tourist
industry sectors. There is also an expanding industrial base supported by
foreign investment in manufacturing and other activities, such as in data
processing. The economy, however, remains vulnerable because the important
agricultural sector is dominated by banana production. St. Lucia is subject
to periodic droughts and/or tropical storms, and its protected market agreement
with the UK for bananas may end in 1992.

GDP: $172 million, per capita $1,258; real growth rate 6.8% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.0% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 18.6% (1986)

Budget: revenues $71.7 million; expenditures $79.3 million,
including capital expenditures of $19.6 million (1987)

Exports: $76.8 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities--bananas 67%,
cocoa, vegetables, fruits, coconut oil, clothing; partners--UK 55%,
CARICOM 21%, US 18%, other 6%

Imports: $178.1 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities--manufactured
goods 22%, machinery and transportation equipment 21%, food and live animals
20%, mineral fuels, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, fertilizers, petroleum
products; partners--US 33%, UK 16%, CARICOM 14.8%, Japan 6.5%, other 29.7%

External debt: $39.5 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 2.4% (1987)

Electricity: 20,000 kW capacity; 80 million kWh produced,
530 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: clothing, assembly of electronic components, beverages,
corrugated boxes, tourism, lime processing, coconut processing

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GDP and 43% of labor force;
crops--bananas, coconuts, vegetables, citrus fruit, root crops, cocoa;
imports food for the tourist industry

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $4 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $93 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal Year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 760 km total; 500 km paved; 260 km otherwise improved

Ports: Castries

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
1 with runways 1,220-2,439

Telecommunications: fully automatic telephone system; 9,500 telephones;
direct radio relay link with Martinique and St. Vincent and the Grenadines;
interisland troposcatter link to Barbados; stations--4 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (cable)

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal St. Lucia Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: St. Pierre and Miquelon
(territorial collectivity of France)
- Geography
Total area: 242 km2; land area: 242 km2; includes eight small islands
in the St. Pierre and the Miquelon groups

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 120 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: focus of maritime boundary dispute between Canada and
France

Climate: cold and wet, with much mist and fog; spring and autumn are windy

Terrain: mostly barren rock

Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports

Land use: 13% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 83% other

Environment: vegetation scanty

Note: located 25 km south of Newfoundland, Canada, in the
North Atlantic Ocean

- People
Population: 6,330 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women); adjective--French

Ethnic divisions: originally Basques and Bretons (French fishermen)

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic

Language: French

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education between 6 and 16 years of age

Labor force: 2,510 (1982)

Organized labor: Workers' Force trade union

- Government
Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: St. Pierre

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: National Day, 14 July

Executive branch: commissioner of the Republic

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council

Judicial branch: Superior Tribunal of Appeals (Tribunal Superieur
d'Appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Commissioner of the Republic Jean-Pierre MARQUIE
(since February 1989); President of the General Council Marc PLANTEGENEST
(since NA)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party (PS);
Union for French Democracy (UDF/CDS), Gerard Grignon

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
General Council--last held September-October 1988 (next to be
held September 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(19 total) Socialist and other left-wing parties 13, UDF and
right-wing parties 6;

French President--last held 8 May 1988 (next to be held May 1995);
results--(second ballot) Jacques Chirac 56%, Francois Mitterrand 44%;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next
to be held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) PS 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) UDF/CDS 1

Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France,
local interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: The inhabitants have traditionally earned their livelihood
by fishing and by servicing fishing fleets operating off the coast of
Newfoundland. The economy has been declining, however, because the number
of ships stopping at St. Pierre has steadily dropped over the years. In
March 1989, an agreement between France and Canada set fish quotas for
St. Pierre's trawlers fishing in Canadian and Canadian-claimed waters for
three years. The agreement settles a longstanding dispute that had
virtually brought fish exports to a halt. The islands are heavily
subsidized by France. Imports come primarily from Canada.

GDP: $NA, per capita $2,495 (1984); real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 13.3% (1987)

Budget: revenues $NA million; expenditures $13.9 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1988)

Exports: $23.3 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--fish and fish
products, fox and mink pelts; partners--US 58%, France 17%, UK 11%,
Canada, Portugal

Imports: $50.3 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities--meat, clothing,
fuel, electrical equipment, machinery, building materials;
partners--Canada, France, US, Netherlands, UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW capacity; 25 million kWh produced,
3,970 kWh per capita (1989)

Book of the day: