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- Communications
Railroads: 3,189 km total; 2,879 km 1.067-meter gauge, 310 km 0.600-meter
gauge; limited trackage in use because of insurgent attacks; sections of the
Benguela Railroad closed because of insurgency

Highways: 73,828 km total; 8,577 km bituminous-surface treatment, 29,350
km crushed stone, gravel, or improved earth, remainder unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,295 km navigable

Pipelines: crude oil, 179 km

Ports: Luanda, Lobito, Namibe, Cabinda

Merchant marine: 12 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
66,348 GRT/102,825 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airports: 317 total, 184 usable; 28 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 60 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of wire, radio relay, and troposcatter
routes; high frequency used extensively for military/Cuban links; 40,300
telephones; stations--17 AM, 13 FM, 2 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force/Air Defense; paramilitary
forces--People's Defense Organization and Territorial Troops, Frontier Guard,
Popular Vigilance Brigades

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,049,295; 1,030,868 fit for military
service; 90,877 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Anguilla
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 91 km2; land area: 91 km2

Comparative area: about half the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 61 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by northeast trade winds

Terrain: flat and low-lying island of coral and limestone

Natural resources: negligible; salt, fish, lobsters

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; mostly rock with sparse
scrub oak, few trees, some commercial salt ponds

Environment: frequent hurricanes, other tropical storms (July to October)

Note: located 270 km east of Puerto Rico

- People
Population: 6,883 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 18 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Anguillan(s); adjective--Anguillan

Ethnic divisions: mainly of black African descent

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, and Roman Catholic

Language: English (official)

Literacy: 80%

Labor force: 2,780 (1984)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: The Valley

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: 1 April 1982

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Anguilla Day, 30 May

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, chief minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by
Governor Geoffrey O. WHITTAKER (since NA 1987);

Head of Government--Chief Minister Emile GUMBS (since NA March
1984, served previously from February 1977 to May 1980)

Political parties and leaders: Anguilla National Alliance (ANA), Emile
Gumbs; Anguilla United Party (AUP), Ronald Webster; Anguilla Democratic Party
(ADP), Victor Banks

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 27 February 1989 (next to
be held February 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(11 total, 7 elected) ANA 3, AUP 2, ADP 1, independent 1

Communists: none

Member of: Commonwealth

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: two horizontal bands of white (top, almost triple width) and light
blue with three orange dolphins in an interlocking circular design centered
in the white band

- Economy
Overview: Anguilla has few natural resources, and the economy
depends heavily on lobster fishing, offshore banking, tourism, and
remittances from emigrants. In recent years the economy has benefited
from a boom in tourism. Development is planned to improve the
infrastructure, particularly transport and tourist facilities, and
also light industry. Improvement in the economy has reduced
unemployment from 40% in 1984 to about 5% in 1988.

GDP: $23 million, per capita $3,350 (1988 est.); real growth rate
8.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $9.0 million; expenditures $8.8 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities--lobsters and salt; partners--NA

Imports: $NA; commodities--NA; partners --NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 3,000 kW capacity; 9 million kWh produced, 1,300 kWh per
capita (1988)

Industries: tourism, boat building, salt, fishing (including lobster)

Agriculture: pigeon peas, corn, sweet potatoes, sheep, goats, pigs,
cattle, poultry

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral
commitments (1970-87), $33 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications
Highways: 60 km surfaced

Ports: Road Bay, Blowing Point

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways of 1,100 m
(Wallblake Airport)

Telecommunications: modern internal telephone system; 890 telephones;
stations--3 AM, 1 FM, no TV; radio relay link to island of St. Martin

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Antarctica
- Geography
Total area: about 14,000,000 km2; land area: about 14,000,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of the US;
second-smallest continent (after Australia)

Land boundaries: see entry on Disputes

Coastline: 17,968 km

Maritime claims: see entry on Disputes

Disputes: Antarctic Treaty suspends all claims; sections (some
overlapping) claimed by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France (Adelie Land),
New Zealand (Ross Dependency), Norway (Queen Maud Land), and UK; Brazil claims
a Zone of Interest; the US and USSR do not recognize the territorial claims of
other nations and have made no claims themselves (but reserve the right to do
so); no formal claims have been made in the sector between 90o west and
150o west

Climate: severe low temperatures vary with latitude, elevation, and
distance from the ocean; East Antarctica colder than Antarctic Peninsula in
the west; warmest temperatures occur in January along the coast and average
slightly below freezing

Terrain: about 98% thick continental ice sheet, with average elevations
between 2,000 and 4,000 meters; mountain ranges up to 5,000 meters high;
ice-free coastal areas include parts of southern Victoria Land, Wilkes Land,
and the scientific research areas of Graham Land and Ross Island on McMurdo
Sound; glaciers form ice shelves along about half of coastline

Natural resources: coal and iron ore; chromium, copper, gold, nickel,
platinum, and hydrocarbons have been found in small quantities along the coast;
offshore deposits of oil and gas

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other (98% ice, 2% barren rock)

Environment: mostly uninhabitable; katabatic (gravity) winds blow
coastward from the high interior; frequent blizzards form near the foot of the
plateau; cyclonic storms form over the ocean and move clockwise around the
coast; during summer more solar radiation reaches the surface at the South
Pole than is received at the Equator in an equivalent period; in October 1987
it was reported that the ozone shield, which protects the Earth's surface
from harmful ultraviolet radiation, has dwindled to its lowest level
ever over Antarctica; subject to active volcanism (Deception Island)

Note: the coldest continent

- People
Population: no indigenous inhabitants; staffing of research stations
varies seasonally;

Summer (January) population--3,330; Argentina 179, Australia 216,
Brazil 36, Chile 124, China 62, France 46, FRG 9, GDR 15, India 59,
Italy 121, Japan 52, NZ 251, Poland 19, South Africa 102, South
Korea 17, UK 72, Uruguay 47, US 1,250, USSR 653 (1986-87);

Winter (July) population--1,148 total; Argentina 149, Australia
82, Brazil 11, Chile 59, China 16, France 32, FRG 9, GDR 9, India 17,
Japan 37, NZ 11, Poland 19, South Africa 15, UK 61, Uruguay 10, US 242,
USSR 369 (1986-87);

Year-round stations--43 total; Argentina 7, Australia 3, Brazil 1,
Chile 3, China 1, France 1, FRG 1, GDR 1, India 1, Japan 2, NZ 1,
Poland 1, South Africa 1, South Korea 1, UK 6, Uruguay 1, US 3, USSR 8
(1986-87);

Summer only stations--26 total; Argentina 3, Australia 3, Chile 4,
Italy 1, Japan 1, NZ 2, South Africa 2, US 4, USSR 6 (1986-87)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: The Antarctic Treaty, signed on 1 December 1959 and entered into
force on 23 June 1961, established, for at least 30 years, a legal framework for
peaceful use, scientific research, and suspension of territorial claims.
Administration is carried out through consultative member meetings--the 14th
and last meeting was held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in October 1987.

Consultative (voting) members include claimant nations (they claim portions of
Antarctica as national territory and some claims overlap) and nonclaimant
nations (they have made no claims to Antarctic territory, although the US and
USSR have reserved the right to do so and do not recognize the claims of
others); the year in parentheses indicates when an acceding nation was voted to
full consultative (voting) status, while no date indicates an original 1959
treaty signatory. Claimant nations are--Argentina, Australia, Chile, France,
New Zealand, Norway, and the UK. Nonclaimant nations are--Belgium,
Brazil (1983), China (1985), FRG (1981), GDR (1987), India (1983), Italy (1987),
Japan, Poland (1977), South Africa, Uruguay (1985), US, and the USSR.

Acceding (nonvoting) members, with year of accession in parenthesis,
are--Austria (1987), Bulgaria (1978), Cuba (1984), Czechoslovakia (1962),
Denmark (1965), Finland (1984), Greece (1987), Hungary (1984),
Netherlands (1987), North Korea (1987), Papua New Guinea (1981), Peru (1981),
Romania (1971), South Korea (1986), Spain (1982), and Sweden (1984).

Antarctic Treaty Summary: Article 1--area to be used for peaceful purposes only
and military activity, such as weapons testing, is prohibited, but military
personnel and equipment may be used for scientific purposes; Article 2--freedom
of scientific investigation and cooperation shall continue; Article 3--free
exchange of information and personnel; Article 4--does not recognize, dispute,
or establish territorial claims and no new claims shall be asserted while the
treaty is in force; Article 5--prohibits nuclear explosions or disposal of
radioactive wastes; Article 6--includes under the treaty all land and ice
shelves south of 60o 00' south, but that the water areas be covered by
international law; Article 7--treaty-state observers have free access, including
aerial observation, to any area and may inspect all stations, installations, and
equipment; advance notice of all activities and the introduction of
military personnel must be given; Article 8--allows for jurisdiction over
observers and scientists by their own states; Article 9--frequent consultative
meetings take place among member nations and acceding nations given consultative
status; Article 10--treaty states will discourage activities by any country in
Antarctica that are contrary to the treaty; Article 11--disputes to be settled
peacefully by the parties concerned or, ultimately, by the ICJ; Articles 12, 13,
14--deal with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved
nations.

Other agreements: Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living
Resources; Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals; a mineral
resources agreement is currently undergoing ratification by the Antarctic Treaty
consultative parties

- Economy
Overview: No economic activity at present except for fishing off
the coast and small-scale tourism, both based abroad. Exploitation of
mineral resources will be held back by technical difficulties, high
costs, and objections by environmentalists.

- Communications
Airports: 39 total; 25 usable; none with permanent surface runways;
3 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: none; Article 7 of the Antarctic Treaty states that advance notice
of all activities and the introduction of military personnel must be given
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Antigua and Barbuda
- Geography
Total area: 440 km2; land area: 440 km2; includes Redonda

Comparative area: slightly less than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 153 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly low-lying limestone and coral islands with some higher
volcanic areas

Natural resources: negligible; pleasant climate fosters
tourism

Land use: 18% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 7% meadows and
pastures; 16% forest and woodland; 59% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes and tropical storms (July to October);
insufficient freshwater resources; deeply indented coastline provides many
natural harbors

Note: 420 km east-southeast of Puerto Rico

- People
Population: 63,726 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Antiguan(s); adjective--Antiguan

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely of black African origin; some of
British, Portuguese, Lebanese, and Syrian origin

Religion: Anglican (predominant), other Protestant sects, some Roman
Catholic

Language: English (official), local dialects

Literacy: 90% (est.)

Labor force: 30,000; 82% commerce and services, 11% agriculture,
7% industry (1983)

Organized labor: Antigua and Barbuda Public Service Association
(ABPSA), membership 500; Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), 10,000 members;
Antigua Workers Union (AWU), 10,000 members (1986 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Saint John's

Administrative divisions: 6 parishes and 2 dependencies*; Barbuda*,
Redonda*, Saint George, Saint John, Saint Mary, Saint Paul, Saint Peter,
Saint Philip

Independence: 1 November 1981 (from UK)

Constitution: 1 November 1981

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 November (1981)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Wilfred Ebenezer JACOBS (since 1 November
1981, previously Governor since 1976);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Vere Cornwall BIRD, Sr. (since NA
1976); Deputy Prime Minister Lester BIRD (since NA 1976)

Political parties and leaders: Antigua Labor Party (ALP), Vere C. Bird,
Sr., Lester Bird; United National Democratic Party (UNDP), Dr. Ivor Heath

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held 9 March 1989 (next to be
held 1994);
results--percentage of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total) ALP 15, UNDP 1, independent 1

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Antigua Caribbean Liberation Movement
(ACLM), a small leftist nationalist group led by Leonard (Tim) Hector;
Antigua Trades and Labor Union (ATLU), headed by Noel Thomas

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ILO, IMF,
ISO, OAS, UN, UNESCO, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Edmund Hawkins LAKE;
Chancery at Suite 2H, 3400 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 362-5211 or 5166, 5122, 5225; there is an Antiguan Consulate
in Miami;
US--the US Ambassador to Barbados is accredited to Antigua and Barbuda,
and in his absence, the Embassy is headed by Charge d'Affaires
Roger R. GAMBLE; Embassy at Queen Elizabeth Highway, Saint John's
(mailing address is FPO Miami 34054); telephone (809) 462-3505 or 3506

Flag: red with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the
flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue,
and white with a yellow rising sun in the black band

- Economy
Overview: The economy is primarily service oriented, with tourism the
most important determinant of economic performance. During the period
1983-87, real GDP expanded at an annual average rate of 8%. Tourism's
contribution to GDP, as measured by value added in hotels and restaurants, rose
from about 14% in 1983 to 17% in 1987, and stimulated growth in other
sectors--particularly in construction, communications, and public utilities.
During the same period the combined share of agriculture and manufacturing
declined from 12% to less than 10%. Antigua and Barbuda is one of the few areas
in the Caribbean experiencing a labor shortage in some sectors of the economy.

GDP: $353.5 million, per capita $5,550; real growth rate 6.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5.0% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $77 million; expenditures $81 million,
including capital expenditures of $13 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $30.4 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--petroleum products 46%, manufactures 29%, food and live
animals 14%, machinery and transport equipment 11%; partners--Trinidad
and Tobago 40%, Barbados 8%, US 0.3%

Imports: $302.1 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--food and
live animals, machinery and transport equipment, manufactures, chemicals,
oil; partners--US 27%, UK 14%, CARICOM 7%, Canada 4%, other 48%

External debt: $245.4 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 10% (1987)

Electricity: 49,000 kW capacity; 90 million kWh produced, 1,410 kWh
per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, construction, light manufacturing (clothing,
alcohol, household appliances)

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; expanding output of cotton,
fruits, vegetables, and livestock sector; other crops--bananas, coconuts,
cucumbers, mangoes; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $40 million

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars); 1 EC dollar
(EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed rate
since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 64 km 0.760-meter narrow gauge and 13 km 0.610-meter gauge
used almost exclusively for handling sugarcane

Highways: 240 km

Ports: St. John's

Merchant marine: 80 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 307,315
GRT/501,552 DWT; includes 50 cargo, 4 refrigerated cargo, 8 container,
8 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
5 chemical tanker, 2 liquefied gas, 1 short-sea passenger; note--a flag of
convenience registry

Civil air: 10 major transport aircraft

Airports: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with
runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with runways less than 2,440 m

Telecommunications: good automatic telephone system; 6,700 telephones;
tropospheric scatter links with Saba and Guadeloupe; stations--4 AM, 2 FM, 2 TV,
2 shortwave; 1 coaxial submarine cable; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Antigua and Barbuda Defense Force, Royal Antigua
and Barbuda Police Force (includes the Coast Guard)

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Arctic Ocean
- Geography
Total area: 14,056,000 km2; includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea,
Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay,
Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of the US;
smallest of the world's four oceans (after Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean,
and Indian Ocean)

Coastline: 45,389 km

Climate: persistent cold and relatively narrow annual temperature ranges;
winters characterized by continuous darkness, cold and stable weather
conditions, and clear skies; summers characterized by continuous daylight,
damp and foggy weather, and weak cyclones with rain or snow

Terrain: central surface covered by a perennial drifting polar icepack
which averages about 3 meters in thickness, although pressure ridges may be
three times that size; clockwise drift pattern in the Beaufort Gyral Stream,
but nearly straight line movement from the New Siberian Islands (USSR) to
Denmark Strait (between Greenland and Iceland); the ice pack is surrounded by
open seas during the summer, but more than doubles in size during the winter
and extends to the encircling land masses; the ocean floor is about 50%
continental shelf (highest percentage of any ocean) with the remainder a
central basin interrupted by three submarine ridges (Alpha Cordillera, Nansen
Cordillera, and Lomonsov Ridge); maximum depth is 4,665 meters in the Fram Basin

Natural resources: sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits,
polymetallic nodules, oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals, whales)

Environment: endangered marine species include walruses and whales; ice
islands occasionally break away from northern Ellesmere Island; icebergs calved
from western Greenland and extreme northeastern Canada; maximum snow cover in
March or April about 20 to 50 centimeters over the frozen ocean and lasts about
10 months; permafrost in islands; virtually icelocked from October to June;
fragile ecosystem slow to change and slow to recover from disruptions or damage

Note: major chokepoint is the southern Chukchi Sea (northern
access to the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait); ships subject to
superstructure icing from October to May; strategic location between North
America and the USSR; shortest marine link between the extremes of eastern and
western USSR; floating research stations operated by the US and USSR

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to the exploitation of natural
resources, including crude oil, natural gas, fishing, and sealing.

- Communications
Ports: Churchill (Canada), Murmansk (USSR), Prudhoe Bay (US)

Telecommunications: no submarine cables

Note: sparse network of air, ocean, river, and land routes; the Northwest
Passage (North America) and Northern Sea Route (Asia) are important waterways
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Argentina
- Geography
Total area: 2,766,890 km2; land area: 2,736,690 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 9,665 km total; Bolivia 832 km, Brazil 1,224 km,
Chile 5,150 km, Paraguay 1,880 km, Uruguay 579 km

Coastline: 4,989 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm (overflight and navigation permitted beyond
12 nm)

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Uruguay is in dispute; short
section of the boundary with Chile is indefinite; claims British-administered
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas); claims British-administered South Georgia and
the South Sandwich Islands; territorial claim in Antarctica

Climate: mostly temperate; arid in southeast; subantarctic in southwest

Terrain: rich plains of the Pampas in northern half, flat to rolling
plateau of Patagonia in south, rugged Andes along western border

Natural resources: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, zinc,
tin, copper, iron ore, manganese, crude oil, uranium

Land use: 9% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 52% meadows and pastures;
22% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: Tucuman and Mendoza areas in Andes subject to earthquakes;
pamperos are violent windstorms that can strike Pampas and northeast; irrigated
soil degradation; desertification; air and water pollution in
Buenos Aires

Note: second-largest country in South America (after Brazil);
strategic location relative to sea lanes between South Atlantic and
South Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage)

- People
Population: 32,290,966 (July 1990), growth rate 1.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 32 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Argentine(s); adjective--Argentine

Ethnic divisions: 85% white, 15% mestizo, Indian, or other nonwhite groups

Religion: 90% nominally Roman Catholic (less than 20% practicing), 2%
Protestant, 2% Jewish, 6% other

Language: Spanish (official), English, Italian, German, French

Literacy: 94%

Labor force: 10,900,000; 12% agriculture, 31% industry, 57% services
(1985 est.)

Organized labor: 3,000,000; 28% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Argentine Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Buenos Aires (tentative plans to move to Viedma by
1990 indefinitely postponed)

Administrative divisions: 22 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia),
1 national territory* (territorio nacional), and 1 district** (distrito);
Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes,
Distrito Federal**, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza,
Misiones, Neuquen, Rio Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz,
Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego and Antartida e Islas del
Atlantico Sur*, Tucuman

Independence: 9 July 1816 (from Spain)

Constitution: 1 May 1853

Legal system: mixture of US and West European legal systems; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 25 May (1810)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or
Chamber of Deputies (Camera de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos Saul MENEM
(since 8 July 1989); Vice President Eduardo DUHALDE (since 8 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
Justicialist Party (JP), Antonio Cafiero, Peronist umbrella political
organization; Radical Civic Union (UCR), Raul Alfonsin, moderately
left of center; Union of the Democratic Center (UCEDE), Alvaro
Alsogaray, conservative party; Intransigent Party (PI), Dr. Oscar
Alende, leftist party; several provincial parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 14 May 1989 (next to be held May 1995);
results--Carlos Saul Menem was elected;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14 May 1989 (next to be
held May 1991); results--JP 47%, UCR 30%, UDC 7%, other 16%;
seats--(254 total); JP 122, UCR 93, UDC 11, other 28

Communists: some 70,000 members in various party organizations, including
a small nucleus of activists

Other political or pressure groups: Peronist-dominated labor movement,
General Confederation of Labor (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor
organization), Argentine Industrial Union (manufacturers' association),
Argentine Rural Society (large landowners' association), business
organizations, students, the Roman Catholic Church, the Armed Forces

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission,
IWC--International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Guido Jose Maria DI TELLA;
Chancery at 1600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
202) 939-6400 through 6403; there are Argentine Consulates General in
Houston, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, and San Juan (Puerto
Rico), and Consulates in Baltimore, Chicago, and Los Angeles;
US--Ambassador Terence A. TODMAN; Embassy at 4300 Colombia,
1425 Buenos Aires (mailing address is APO Miami 34034);
telephone p54o (1) 774-7611 or 8811, 9911

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of light blue (top), white, and light
blue; centered in the white band is a radiant yellow sun with a human face known
as the Sun of May

- Economy
Overview: Argentina is rich in natural resources, and has a highly
literate population, an export-oriented agricultural sector, and a
diversified industrial base. Nevertheless, the economy has encountered
major problems in recent years, leading to a recession in 1988-89.
Economic growth slowed to 2.0% in 1987 and to - 1.8% in 1988; a sharp
decline of - 5.5% has been estimated for 1989. A widening public-sector
deficit and a multidigit inflation rate has dominated the
economy over the past three years, reaching about 5,000% in 1989.
Since 1978, Argentina's external debt has nearly doubled to $60
billion, creating severe debt-servicing difficulties and hurting
the country's creditworthiness with international lenders.

GNP: $72.0 billion, per capita $2,217; real growth rate - 5.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4,925% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 8.5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $11.5 billion; expenditures $13.0 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.93 billion (1988)

Exports: $9.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--meat, wheat, corn, oilseed, hides, wool;
partners--US 14%, USSR, Italy, Brazil, Japan, Netherlands

Imports: $4.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, fuels and
lubricants, agricultural products;
partners--US 25%, Brazil, FRG, Bolivia, Japan, Italy, Netherlands

External debt: $60 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 8% (1989)

Electricity: 16,449,000 kW capacity; 46,590 million kWh produced,
1,460 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing (especially meat packing), motor vehicles,
consumer durables, textiles, chemicals and petrochemicals, printing,
metallurgy, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP (including fishing); produces
abundant food for both domestic consumption and exports; among world's
top five exporters of grain and beef; principal crops--wheat, corn, sorghum,
soybeans, sugar beets; 1987 fish catch estimated at 500,000 tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.0 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.6 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $718 million

Currency: austral (plural--australes); 1 austral (A) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: australes (A) per US$1--1,930 (December
1989), 8.7526 (1988), 2.1443 (1987), 0.9430 (1986), 0.6018 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 34,172 km total (includes 169 km electrified); includes a
mixture of 1.435-meter standard gauge, 1.676-meter broad gauge, 1.000-meter
gauge, and 0.750-meter gauge

Highways: 208,350 km total; 47,550 km paved, 39,500 km gravel,
101,000 km improved earth, 20,300 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 11,000 km navigable

Pipelines: 4,090 km crude oil; 2,900 km refined products; 9,918 km
natural gas

Ports: Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires, Necochea, Rio Gallegos, Rosario,
Santa Fe

Merchant marine: 131 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,693,540
GRT/2,707,079 DWT; includes 45 cargo, 6 refrigerated cargo, 6 container,
1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar carrier, 48 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 4 liquefied gas, 18 bulk

Civil air: 54 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1,799 total, 1,617 usable; 132 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 335 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: extensive modern system; 2,650,000 telephones
(12,000 public telephones); radio relay widely used; stations--171 AM, no FM,
231 TV, 13 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; domestic
satellite network has 40 stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Argentine Army, Navy of the Argentine Republic, Argentine Air
Force, National Gendarmerie, Argentine Naval Prefecture, National Aeronautical
Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 7,860,054; 6,372,189 fit for military
service; 277,144 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.4% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Aruba
(part of the Dutch realm)
- Geography
Total area: 193 km2; land area: 193 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 68.5 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation

Natural resources: negligible; white sandy beaches

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt

Note: 28 km north of Venezuela

- People
Population: 62,656 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Aruban(s); adjective--Aruban

Ethnic divisions: 80% mixed European/Caribbean Indian

Religion: 82% Roman Catholic, 8% Protestant; also small Hindu, Muslim,
Confucian, and Jewish minority

Language: Dutch (official), Papiamento (a Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch,
English dialect), English (widely spoken), Spanish

Literacy: 95%

Labor force: NA, but most employment is in the tourist industry (1986)

Organized labor: Aruban Workers' Federation (FTA)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: part of the Dutch realm--full autonomy in internal affairs obtained
in 1986 upon separation from the Netherlands Antilles

Capital: Oranjestad

Administrative divisions: none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)

Independence: planned for 1996

Constitution: 1 January 1986

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English
common law influence

National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March

Executive branch: Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Staten)

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980),
represented by Governor General Felipe B. TROMP (since 1 January 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Nelson ODUBER (since NA February 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Electoral Movement Party (MEP),
Nelson Oduber; Aruban People's Party (AVP), Henny Eman; National
Democratic Action (ADN), Pedro Charro Kelly; New Patriotic Party (PPN),
Eddy Werlemen; Aruban Patriotic Party (PPA), Benny Nisbet; Aruban Democratic
Party (PDA), Leo Berlinski; Democratic Action '86 (AD'86), Arturo
Oduber; governing coalition includes the MEP, PPA, and ADN

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament--last held 6 January 1989 (next to be held by January
1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(21 total) MEP 10, AVP 8, ADN 1, PPN 1, PPA 1

Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing part of the Netherlands)

Flag: blue with two narrow horizontal yellow stripes across the lower
portion and a red, four-pointed star outlined in white in the upper hoist-side
corner

- Economy
Overview: Tourism is the mainstay of the economy. In 1985 the economy
suffered a severe blow when Exxon closed its refinery, a major source of
employment and foreign exchange earnings. Economic collapse was prevented
by soft loans from the Dutch Government and by a booming tourist industry.
Hotel capacity expanded by 20% between 1985 and 1987 and is projected to more
than double by 1990. Unemployment has steadily declined from about 20% in
1986 to about 3% in 1988.

GDP: $620 million, per capita $10,000; real growth rate 16.7%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $145 million; expenditures $185 million, including
capital expenditures of $42 million (1988)

Exports: $47.5 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--mostly petroleum products;
partners--US 64%, EC

Imports: $296.0 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.);
commodities--food, consumer goods, manufactures;
partners--US 8%, EC

External debt: $81 million (1987)

Industrial production: growth rate - 20% (1984)

Electricity: 310,000 kW capacity; 945 million kWh produced, 15,120
kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, transshipment facilities

Agriculture: poor quality soils and low rainfall limit agricultural
activity to the cultivation of aloes

Aid: none

Currency: Aruban florin (plural--florins);
1 Aruban florin (Af.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Aruban florins (Af.) per US$1--1.7900 (fixed rate since
1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Ports: Oranjestad, Sint Nicolaas

Airfield: government-owned airport east of Oranjestad

Telecommunications: generally adequate; extensive interisland radio relay
links; 72,168 telephones; stations--4 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 1 sea cable to St. Maarten

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands until 1996
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Ashmore and Cartier Islands
(territory of Australia)
- Geography
Total area: 5 km2; land area: 5 km2; includes Ashmore Reef (West, Middle,
and East Islets) and Cartier Island

Comparative area: about 8.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 74.1 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploration;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical

Terrain: low with sand and coral

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other--grass and sand

Environment: surrounded by shoals and reefs; Ashmore Reef National
Nature Reserve established in August 1983

Note: located in extreme eastern Indian Ocean between Australia
and Indonesia 320 km off the northwest coast of Australia

- People
Population: no permanent inhabitants; seasonal caretakers

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands

Type: territory of Australia administered by the Australian Ministry
for Territories and Local Government

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Legal system: relevant laws of the Northern Territory of Australia

Note: administered by the Australian Minister for Arts, Sports, the
Environment, Tourism, and Territories Graham Richardson

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia; periodic
visits by the Royal Australian Navy and Royal Australian Air Force
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Atlantic Ocean
- Geography
Total area: 82,217,000 km2; includes Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea,
Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Mediterranean Sea,
North Sea, Norwegian Sea, Weddell Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly less than nine times the size of the US;
second-largest of the world's four oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger
than Indian Ocean or Arctic Ocean)

Coastline: 111,866 km

Climate: tropical cyclones (hurricanes) develop off the coast of Africa
near Cape Verde and move westward into the Caribbean Sea; hurricanes can occur
from May to December, but are most frequent from August to November

Terrain: surface usually covered with sea ice in Labrador Sea, Denmark
Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June; clockwise warm water gyre (broad,
circular system of currents) in the north Atlantic, counterclockwise warm water
gyre in the south Atlantic; the ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic
Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin;
maximum depth is 8,605 meters in the Puerto Rico Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and
whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules,
precious stones

Environment: endangered marine species include the manatee, seals,
sea lions, turtles, and whales; municipal sludge pollution off eastern US,
southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in Caribbean Sea,
Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; industrial
waste and municipal sewage pollution in Baltic Sea, North Sea, and
Mediterranean Sea; icebergs common in Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the
northwestern Atlantic from February to August and have been spotted as far
south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands; icebergs from Antarctica occur
in the extreme southern Atlantic

Note: ships subject to superstructure icing in extreme north Atlantic
from October to May and extreme south Atlantic from May to October; persistent
fog can be a hazard to shipping from May to September; major choke points
include the Dardanelles, Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Panama and Suez
Canals; strategic straits include the Dover Strait, Straits of Florida,
Mona Passage, The Sound (Oresund), and Windward Passage; north Atlantic
shipping lanes subject to icebergs from February to August; the Equator
divides the Atlantic Ocean into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic
Ocean

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to exploitation of natural
resources, especially fish, dredging aragonite sands (The Bahamas), and
crude oil and natural gas production (Caribbean Sea and North Sea).

- Communications
Ports: Alexandria (Egypt), Algiers (Algeria), Antwerp (Belgium),
Barcelona (Spain), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Casablanca (Morocco),
Colon (Panama), Copenhagen (Denmark), Dakar (Senegal), Gdansk (Poland),
Hamburg (FRG), Helsinki (Finland), Las Palmas (Canary Islands, Spain),
Le Havre (France), Leningrad (USSR), Lisbon (Portugal), London (UK),
Marseille (France), Montevideo (Uruguay), Montreal (Canada), Naples (Italy),
New Orleans (US), New York (US), Oran (Algeria), Oslo (Norway),
Piraeus (Greece), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Rotterdam (Netherlands),
Stockholm (Sweden)

Telecommunications: numerous submarine cables with most between
continental Europe and the UK, North America and the UK, and in the
Mediterranean; numerous direct links across Atlantic via INTELSAT
satellite network

Note: Kiel Canal and St. Lawrence Seaway are two important waterways
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Australia
- Geography
Total area: 7,686,850 km2; land area: 7,617,930 km2; includes
Macquarie Island

Comparative area: slightly smaller than the US

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 25,760 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Australian Antarctic Territory)

Climate: generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east;
tropical in north

Terrain: mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast

Natural resources: bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, silver, uranium,
nickel, tungsten, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas,
crude oil

Land use: 6% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 58% meadows and
pastures; 14% forest and woodland; 22% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: subject to severe droughts and floods; cyclones along coast;
limited freshwater availability; irrigated soil degradation; regular, tropical,
invigorating, sea breeze known as the doctor occurs along west coast in summer;
desertification

Note: world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country

- People
Population: 16,923,478 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Australian(s); adjective--Australian

Ethnic divisions: 95% Caucasian, 4% Asian, 1% Aboriginal and other

Religion: 26.1% Anglican, 26.0% Roman Catholic, 24.3% other Christian

Language: English, native languages

Literacy: 98.5%

Labor force: 7,700,000; 33.8% finance and services, 22.3% public and
community services, 20.1% wholesale and retail trade, 16.2% manufacturing and
industry, 6.1% agriculture (1987)

Organized labor: 42% of labor force (1988)

- Government
Long-form name: Commonwealth of Australia

Type: federal parliamentary state

Capital: Canberra

Administrative divisions: 6 states and 2 territories*; Australian
Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland,
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia

Dependent areas: Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island,
Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald
Islands, Norfolk Island

Independence: 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)

Constitution: 9 July 1900, effective 1 January 1901

Legal system: based on English common law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Australia Day (last Monday in January), 29 January 1990

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Parliament consists of an upper
house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since February 1952),
represented by Governor General William George HAYDEN (since NA February 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Robert James Lee HAWKE (since
11 March 1983); Deputy Prime Minister Paul KEATING (since 3 April 1990)

Political parties and leaders: government--Australian Labor
Party, Robert Hawke; opposition--Liberal Party, Andrew Peacock;
National Party, Charles Blunt; Australian Democratic Party, Janine Haines

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
Senate--last held 11 July 1987 (next to be held by 12 May 1990);
results--Labor 43%, Liberal-National 42%, Australian Democrats 8%,
independents 2%;
seats--(76 total) Labor 32, Liberal-National 34, Australian
Democrats 7, independents 3;

House of Representatives--last held 24 March 1990 (next to be
held by November 1993);
results--Labor 39.7%, Liberal-National 43%, Australian Democrats
and independents 11.1%;
seats--(148 total) Labor 78, Liberal-National 69, independent 1

Communists: 4,000 members (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: Australian Democratic Labor Party
(anti-Communist Labor Party splinter group); Peace and Nuclear Disarmament
Action (Nuclear Disarmament Party splinter group)

Member of: ADB, AIOEC, ANZUS, CCC, CIPEC (associate), Colombo Plan,
Commonwealth, DAC, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IATP, IBA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO,
ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC,
IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission,
IWC--International Wheat Council, OECD, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Michael J. COOK; Chancery at
1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 797-3000;
there are Australian Consulates General in Chicago, Honolulu, Houston,
Los Angeles, New York, Pago Pago (American Samoa), and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Melvin F. SEMBLER; Moonah Place, Yarralumla,
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600 (mailing address is APO San
Francisco 6404);
telephone p61o (62) 705000; there are US Consulates General in Melbourne, Perth,
and Sydney, and a Consulate in Brisbane

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a
large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant; the remaining half is
a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small
five-pointed star and four, larger, seven-pointed stars

- Economy
Overview: Australia has a prosperous Western-style capitalist economy,
with a per capita GNP comparable to levels in
industrialized West European countries. Rich in natural resources,
Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, minerals, metals, and
fossil fuels. Of the top 25 exports, 21 are primary products, so that,
as happened during 1983-84, a downturn in world commodity prices can have a big
impact on the economy. The government is pushing for increased exports
of manufactured goods but competition in international markets will be severe.

GNP: $240.8 billion, per capita $14,300; real growth rate 4.1%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.0% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 6.0% (December 1989)

Budget: revenues $76.3 billion; expenditures $69.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $43.2 billion (f.o.b., FY89);
commodities--wheat, barley, beef, lamb, dairy products, wool, coal,
iron ore;
partners--Japan 26%, US 11%, NZ 6%, South Korea 4%, Singapore 4%,
USSR 3%

Imports: $48.6 billion (c.i.f., FY89);
commodities--manufactured raw materials, capital equipment, consumer
goods;
partners--US 22%, Japan 22%, UK 7%, FRG 6%, NZ 4% (1984)

External debt: $111.6 billion (September 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.6% (FY88)

Electricity: 38,000,000 kW capacity; 139,000 million kWh produced,
8,450 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food
processing, chemicals, steel, motor vehicles

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP and 37% of export revenues;
world's largest exporter of beef and wool, second-largest for mutton,
and among top wheat exporters; major crops--wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruit;
livestock--cattle, sheep, poultry

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $8.8 billion

Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Australian dollar
($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 40,478 km total; 7,970 km 1.600-meter gauge, 16,201 km
1.435-meter standard gauge, 16,307 km 1.067-meter gauge; 183 km dual gauge;
1,130 km electrified; government owned (except for a few hundred kilometers of
privately owned track) (1985)

Highways: 837,872 km total; 243,750 km paved, 228,396 km gravel,
crushed stone, or stabilized soil surface, 365,726 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 8,368 km; mainly by small, shallow-draft craft

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,500 km; refined products, 500 km; natural gas,
5,600 km

Ports: Adelaide, Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Devonport, Fremantle, Geelong,
Hobart, Launceston, Mackay, Melbourne, Sydney, Townsville

Merchant marine: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,300,049
GRT/3,493,802 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 7 cargo, 5 container,
10 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 17 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
2 chemical tanker, 3 liquefied gas, 1 combination ore/oil, 1 livestock carrier,
29 bulk

Civil air: around 150 major transport aircraft

Airports: 564 total, 524 usable; 235 with permanent-surface runways,
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 311 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international and domestic service; 8.7
million telephones; stations--258 AM, 67 FM, 134 TV; submarine cables to
New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and Indonesia; domestic satellite service;
satellite stations--4 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 6 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Australian Navy, Australian Army, Royal Australian Air
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,588,750; 4,009,127 fit for military
service; 136,042 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Austria
- Geography
Total area: 83,850 km2; land area: 82,730 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Maine

Land boundaries: 2,640 km total; Czechoslovakia 548 km, Hungary 366 km,
Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 37 km, Switzerland 164 km, FRG 784 km,
Yugoslavia 311 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: South Tyrol question with Italy

Climate: temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain
in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers

Terrain: mostly mountains with Alps in west and south; mostly flat, with
gentle slopes along eastern and northern margins

Natural resources: iron ore, crude oil, timber, magnesite, aluminum,
lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower

Land use: 17% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 24% meadows and pastures;
39% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: because of steep slopes, poor soils, and cold temperatures,
population is concentrated on eastern lowlands

Note: landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of
central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys;
major river is the Danube

- People
Population: 7,644,275 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Austrian(s); adjective--Austrian

Ethnic divisions: 99.4% German, 0.3% Croatian, 0.2% Slovene, 0.1% other

Religion: 85% Roman Catholic, 6% Protestant, 9% other

Language: German

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 3,037,000; 56.4% services, 35.4% industry and crafts,
8.1% agriculture and forestry; an estimated 200,000 Austrians are employed in
other European countries; foreign laborers in Austria number 177,840, about
6% of labor force (1988)

Organized labor: 1,672,820 members of Austrian Trade Union Federation
(1984)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Austria

Type: federal republic

Capital: Vienna

Administrative divisions: 9 states (bundeslander, singular--bundesland);
Burgenland, Karnten, Niederosterreich, Oberosterreich, Salzburg,
Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien

Independence: 12 November 1918 (from Austro-Hungarian Empire)

Constitution: 1920, revised 1929 (reinstated 1945)

Legal system: civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of
legislative acts by a Constitutional Court; separate administrative and
civil/penal supreme courts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 26 October (1955)

Executive branch: president, chancellor, vice chancellor, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Assembly (Bundesversammlung)
consists of an upper council or Federal Council (Bundesrat) and a lower council
or National Council (Nationalrat)

Judicial branch: Supreme Judicial Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for civil
and criminal cases, Administrative Court (Verwaltungsgerichtshof) for
bureaucratic cases, Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) for
constitutional cases

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Kurt WALDHEIM (since 8 July 1986);

Head of Government--Chancellor Franz VRANITZKY (since 16 June 1986);
Vice Chancellor Josef RIEGLER (since 19 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Socialist Party of Austria (SPO),
Franz Vranitzky, chairman; Austrian People's Party (OVP), Josef
Riegler, chairman; Freedom Party of Austria (FPO), Jorg Haider,
chairman; Communist Party (KPO), Franz Muhri, chairman; Green
Alternative List (GAL), Andreas Wabl, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 19; compulsory for presidential elections

Elections:
President--last held 8 June 1986 (next to be held May 1992);
results of Second Ballot--Dr. Kurt Waldheim 53.89%, Dr. Kurt Steyrer
46.11%;

Federal Council--last held 23 November 1986 (next to be
held November 1990);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(63 total) OVP 32, SPO 30, FPO 1;

National Council--last held 23 November 1986 (next to be
held November 1990);
results--SP0 43.1%, OVP 41.3%, FPO 9.7%, GAL 4.8%, KPO 0.7%,
other 0.32%;
seats--(183 total) SP0 80, OVP 77, FP0 18, GAL 8

Communists: membership 15,000 est.; activists 7,000-8,000

Other political or pressure groups: Federal Chamber of Commerce and
Industry; Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist); three
composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party (OVP) representing
business, labor, and farmers; OVP-oriented League of Austrian
Industrialists; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization,
Catholic Action

Member of: ADB, Council of Europe, CCC, DAC, ECE, EFTA, ESA,
FAO, GATT, IAEA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU,
IWC--International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO, WSG; Austria is neutral and is not a member of NATO or the EC

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Friedrich HOESS; Embassy at
2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4474;
there are Austrian Consulates General in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York;
US--Ambassador Henry A. GRUNWALD; Embassy at Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091,
Vienna (mailing address is APO New York 09108); telephone p43o (222) 31-55-11;
there is a US Consulate General in Salzburg

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red

- Economy
Overview: Austria boasts a prosperous and stable capitalist
economy with a sizable proportion of nationalized industry and extensive
welfare benefits. Thanks to an excellent raw material endowment, a
technically skilled labor force, and strong links with West German
industrial firms, Austria has successfully occupied specialized niches
in European industry and services (tourism, banking) and produces almost
enough food to feed itself with only 8% of the labor force in
agriculture. Living standards are roughly comparable with the large
industrial countries of Western Europe. Problems for the l990s include
an aging population and the struggle to keep welfare benefits within
budget capabilities.

GDP: $103.2 billion, per capita $13,600; real growth rate 4.2%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.7% (1989)

Unemployment: 4.8% (1989)

Budget: revenues $34.2 billion; expenditures $39.5 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $31.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--machinery and equipment, iron and steel, lumber, textiles,
paper products, chemicals;
partners--FRG 35%, Italy 10%, Eastern Europe 9%, Switzerland 7%, US 4%,
OPEC 3%

Imports: $37.9 billion (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, vehicles,
chemicals, textiles and clothing, pharmaceuticals;
partners--FRG 44%, Italy 9%, Eastern Europe 6%, Switzerland 5%, US 4%,
USSR 2%

External debt: $12.4 billion (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 17,562,000 kW capacity; 49,290 million kWh produced,
6,500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: foods, iron and steel, machines, textiles, chemicals,
electrical, paper and pulp, tourism, mining

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP (including forestry);
principal crops and animals--grains, fruit, potatoes, sugar beets,
sawn wood, cattle, pigs poultry; 80-90% self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $1.7 billion

Currency: Austrian schilling (plural--schillings); 1 Austrian
schilling (S) = 100 groschen

Exchange rates: Austrian schillings (S) per US$1--11.907 (January 1990),
13.231 (1989), 12.348 (1988), 12.643 (1987), 15.267 (1986), 20.690 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 6,028 km total; 5,388 km government owned and 640 km privately
owned (1.435- and 1.000-meter gauge); 5,403 km 1.435-meter standard gauge of
which 3,051 km is electrified and 1,520 km is double tracked; 363 km 0.760-meter
narrow gauge of which 91 km is electrified

Highways: 95,412 km total; 34,612 are the primary network (including
1,012 km of autobahn, 10,400 km of federal, and 23,200 km of provincial roads);
of this number, 21,812 km are paved and 12,800 km are unpaved; in addition,
there are 60,800 km of communal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth)

Inland waterways: 446 km

Ports: Vienna, Linz (river ports)

Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
209,311 GRT/366,401 DWT; includes 23 cargo, 1 container, 5 bulk

Pipelines: 554 km crude oil; 2,611 km natural gas; 171 km refined
products

Civil air: 25 major transport aircraft

Airports: 55 total, 54 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed and efficient; 4,014,000
telephones; extensive TV and radiobroadcast systems; stations--6 AM, 21 (544
repeaters) FM, 47 (867 repeaters) TV; satellite stations operating in INTELSAT
1 Atlantic Ocean earth station and 1 Indian Ocean earth station and EUTELSAT
systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Flying Division

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,970,189; 1,656,228 fit for military
service; 50,090 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1% of GDP, or $1.1 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: The Bahamas
- Geography
Total area: 13,940 km2; land area: 10,070 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3,542 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by warm waters of Gulf Stream

Terrain: long, flat coral formations with some low rounded hills

Natural resources: salt, aragonite, timber

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows
and pastures; 32% forest and woodland; 67% other

Environment: subject to hurricanes and other tropical storms
that cause extensive flood damage

Note: strategic location adjacent to US and Cuba; extensive island
chain

- People
Population: 246,491 (July 1990), growth rate 1.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 21 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bahamian(s); adjective--Bahamian

Ethnic divisions: 85% black, 15% white

Religion: Baptist 29%, Anglican 23%, Roman Catholic 22%, smaller groups
of other Protestants, Greek Orthodox, and Jews

Language: English; some Creole among Haitian immigrants

Literacy: 95% (1986)

Labor force: 132,600; 30% government, 25% hotels and restaurants,
10% business services, 5% agriculture (1986)

Organized labor: 25% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: The Commonwealth of The Bahamas

Type: commonwealth

Capital: Nassau

Administrative divisions: 21 districts; Abaco, Acklins Island,
Andros Island, Berry Islands, Biminis, Cat Island, Cay Lobos, Crooked Island,
Eleuthera, Exuma, Grand Bahama, Harbour Island, Inagua, Long Cay, Long Island,
Mayaguana, New Providence, Ragged Island, Rum Cay, San Salvador, Spanish Wells

Independence: 10 July 1973 (from UK)

Constitution: 10 July 1973

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 July (1973)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Acting Governor General Sir Henry TAYLOR (since 26 June 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Sir Lynden Oscar PINDLING (since
16 January 1967)

Political parties and leaders: Progressive Liberal Party (PLP),
Sir Lynden O. Pindling; Free National Movement (FNM), Cecil Wallace-Whitfield

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Assembly--last held 19 June 1987 (next to be held
by June 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(49 total) PLP 31, FNM 16, independents 2

Communists: none known

Other political or pressure groups: Vanguard Nationalist and Socialist
Party (VNSP), a small leftist party headed by Lionel Carey; Trade Union
Congress (TUC), headed by Arlington Miller

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, CDB, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77,
GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAS, PAHO, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO,
WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Margaret E. MCDONALD; Chancery at
Suite 865, 600 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20037;
telephone (202) 944-3390; there are Bahamian Consulates General in Miami
and New York;
US--Ambassador Chic HECHT; Embassy at Mosmar Building,
Queen Street, Nassau (mailing address is P. O. Box N-8197, Nassau);
telephone (809) 322-1181 or 328-2206

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of aquamarine (top), gold, and
aquamarine with a black equilateral triangle based on the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The Bahamas is a stable, middle-income developing nation whose
economy is based primarily on tourism and offshore banking. Tourism alone
provides about 50% of GDP and directly or indirectly employs about 50,000 people
or 40% of the local work force. The economy has boomed in recent years, aided by
a steady annual increase in the number of tourists. The per capita GDP of over
$9,800 is one of the highest in the region.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $9,875; real growth rate 2.0%
(1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.1% (1988)

Unemployment: 12% (1986)

Budget: revenues $555 million; expenditures $702 million, including
capital expenditures of $138 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $733 million (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--pharmaceuticals, cement, rum, crawfish;
partners--US 90%, UK 10%

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1987);
commodities--foodstuffs, manufactured goods, mineral fuels;
partners--Iran 30%, Nigeria 20%, US 10%, EC 10%, Gabon 10%

External debt: $1.5 billion (September 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 368,000 kW capacity; 857 million kWh produced,
3,470 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, tourism, cement, oil refining and
transshipment, salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral weld,
steel pipe

Agriculture: accounts for less than 5% of GDP; dominated by
small-scale producers; principal products--citrus fruit, vegetables,
poultry; large net importer of food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $42 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $344 million

Currency: Bahamian dollar (plural--dollars); 1 Bahamian dollar
(B$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Bahamian dollar (B$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 2,400 km total; 1,350 km paved, 1,050 km gravel

Ports: Freeport, Nassau

Merchant marine: 533 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 11,684,123
GRT/19,574,532 DWT; includes 26 passenger, 15 short-sea passenger, 121 cargo,
40 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 42 refrigerated cargo, 16 container, 6 car carrier,
123 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 6 liquefied gas, 19
combination ore/oil, 29 chemical tanker, 1 specialized tanker, 86 bulk,
3 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry

Civil air: 9 major transport aircraft

Airports: 59 total, 57 usable; 31 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 25 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed; 99,000 telephones in totally
automatic system; tropospheric scatter and submarine cable links to Florida;
stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 3 coaxial submarine cables;1 Atlantic Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Bahamas Defense Force (a coast guard element only),
Royal Bahamas Police Force

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Bahrain
- Geography
Total area: 620 km2; land area: 620 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 161 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: territorial dispute with Qatar over the Hawar Islands

Climate: arid; mild, pleasant winters; very hot, humid summers

Terrain: mostly low desert plain rising gently to low central escarpment

Natural resources: oil, associated and nonassociated natural gas,
fish

Land use: 2% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 6% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 90% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: subsurface water sources being rapidly depleted (requires
development of desalination facilities); dust storms; desertification

Note: proximity to primary Middle Eastern crude oil sources
and strategic location in Persian Gulf through which much of Western world's
crude oil must transit to reach open ocean

- People
Population: 520,186 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 3 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 19 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Bahraini(s); adjective--Bahraini

Ethnic divisions: 63% Bahraini, 13% Asian, 10% other Arab, 8% Iranian, 6%
other

Religion: Muslim (70% Shia, 30% Sunni)

Language: Arabic (official); English also widely spoken; Farsi, Urdu

Literacy: 40%

Labor force: 140,000; 42% of labor force is Bahraini; 85% industry and
commerce, 5% agriculture, 5% services, 3% government (1982)

Organized labor: General Committee for Bahrain Workers exists in only
eight major designated companies

- Government
Long-form name: State of Bahrain

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