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animal fats, chemicals; partners--EC 26%, Japan 15%, US 11% (FY88)

External debt: $17.4 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (FY89)

Electricity: 7,575,000 kW capacity; 29,300 million kWh produced,
270 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, food processing, beverages, petroleum products,
construction materials, clothing, paper products, international finance, shrimp

Agriculture: 24% of GNP, over 50% of labor force; world's largest
contiguous irrigation system; major crops--cotton, wheat, rice, sugarcane,
fruits, and vegetables; livestock products--milk, beef, mutton, eggs;
self-sufficient in food grain

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; government eradication efforts on poppy cultivation
of limited success; 1988 output of opium and hashish each estimated at about
200 metric tons

Aid: (including Bangladesh before 1972) US commitments, including Ex-Im
(FY70-88), $4.2 billion authorized (excluding what is now Bangladesh); Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $7.5 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $2.3 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.9 billion

Currency: Pakistani rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Pakistani rupee (PRe) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Pakistani rupees (PRs) per US$1--21.420 (January 1990),
20.541 (1989), 18.003 (1988), 17.399 (1987), 16.648 (1986), 15.928 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 8,773 km total; 7,718 km broad gauge, 445 km meter
gauge, and 610 km narrow gauge; 1,037 km broad-gauge double track; 286 km
electrified; all government owned (1985)

Highways: 101,315 km total (1987); 40,155 km paved, 23,000 km gravel,
29,000 km improved earth, and 9,160 km unimproved earth or sand tracks
(1985)

Pipelines: 250 km crude oil; 4,044 km natural gas; 885 km refined products
(1987)

Ports: Gwadar, Karachi, Port Muhammad bin Qasim

Merchant marine: 29 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 338,173
GRT/508,107 DWT; includes 4 passenger-cargo, 24 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft

Airports: 115 total, 102 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international radiocommunication service over
microwave and INTELSAT satellite; domestic radio communications poor; broadcast
service good; 564,500 telephones (1987); stations--16 AM, 8 FM, 16;
satellite eath station--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Civil Armed Forces, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 26,215,898; 16,080,545 fit for military
service; 1,282,294 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 5.6% of GNP, or $2.4 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Palmyra Atoll
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 11.9 km2; land area: 11.9 km2

Comparative area: about 20 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 14.5 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: equatorial, hot, and very rainy

Terrain: low, with maximum elevations of about 2 meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
100% forest and woodland; 0% other

Environment: about 50 islets covered with dense vegetation,
coconut trees, and balsa-like trees up to 30 meters tall

Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, almost halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US; privately owned, but
administered by the Office of Territorial and International Affairs,
US Department of the Interior

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage in West Lagoon

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Panama
- Geography
Total area: 78,200 km2; land area: 75,990 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries: 555 km total; Colombia 225 km, Costa Rica 330 km

Coastline: 2,490 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid, cloudy; prolonged rainy season (May
to January), short dry season (January to May)

Terrain: interior mostly steep, rugged mountains and dissected, upland
plains; coastal areas largely plains and rolling hills

Natural resources: copper, mahogany forests, shrimp

Land use: 6% arable land; 2% permanent crops; 15% meadows and
pastures; 54% forest and woodland; 23% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: dense tropical forest in east and northwest

Note: strategic location on eastern end of isthmus forming
land bridge connecting North and South America; controls Panama Canal that
links North Atlantic Ocean via Caribbean Sea with North Pacific Ocean

- People
Population: 2,425,400 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 26 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 22 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Panamanian(s); adjective--Panamanian

Ethnic divisions: 70% mestizo (mixed Indian and European ancestry),
14% West Indian, 10% white, 6% Indian

Religion: over 93% Roman Catholic, 6% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); 14% speak English as native tongue; many
Panamanians bilingual

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 770,472 (1987); 27.9% government and community services;
26.2% agriculture, hunting, and fishing; 16% commerce, restaurants, and hotels;
10.5% manufacturing and mining; 5.3% construction; 5.3% transportation and
communications; 4.2% finance, insurance, and real estate; 2.4% Canal Zone;
shortage of skilled labor, but an oversupply of unskilled labor

Organized labor: 17% of labor force (1986)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Panama

Type: centralized republic

Capital: Panama

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (provincias, singular--provincia)
and 1 territory* (comarca); Bocas del Toro, Chiriqui, Cocle, Colon,
Darien, Herrera, Los Santos, Panama, San Blas*, Veraguas

Independence: 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent
from Spain 28 November 1821)

Constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted April 1983

Legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of
legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 3 November (1903)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly (Asamblea Legislativa)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema
de Justica) currently being reorganized

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Guillermo ENDARA
(since 20 December 1989, elected 7 May 1989);
First Vice President Ricardo Arias CALDERON (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989);
Second Vice President Guillermo FORD (since 20 December 1989,
elected 7 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
Government alliance--Authentic Liberal Party (PLA); faction of Authentic
Panamenista Party (PPA), Guillermo Endara; Christian Democrat Party
(PDC), Ricardo Arias Calderon; Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement
(MOLIRENA), Alfredo Ramirez; former Noriegist parties--Democratic
Revolutionary Party (PRD, ex-official government party), Carlos Duque;
Labor Party (PALA), Ramon Sieiro Murgas; People's Party (PdP,
Soviet-oriented Communist party), Ruben Dario Sousa Batista; Democratic
Workers Party; National Action Party (PAN);

other opposition parties--Popular Nationalist Party (PNP),
Olimpo A. Saez Maruci; factions of the former Liberal and Republican
parties; Popular Action Party (PAP), Carlos Ivan Zuniga; Socialist Workers
Party (PST, leftist), Jose Cambra; Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT, leftist),
Graciela Dixon

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later upheld (next
to be held May 1994);
results--anti-Noriega coalition believed to have won about 75% of the
total votes cast;

Legislative Assembly--last held on 7 May 1989, annulled but later
upheld; in process of reorganization (next to be held May 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(67 total) the Electoral Tribunal has confirmed 58 of the
67 seats--PDC 27, MOLIRENA 15, PLA 6, Noriegist PRD 7, PPA 3;
legitimate holders of the other 9 seats cannot be determined and a
special election will be held

Communists: People's Party (PdP), pro-Noriega regime mainline Communist
party, did not obtain the necessary 3% of the total vote in the 1984 election
to retain its legal status; about 3,000 members

Other political or pressure groups: National Council of Organized
Workers (CONATO); National Council of Private Enterprise (CONEP);
Panamanian Association of Business Executives (APEDE)

Member of: FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IRC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat
Council, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eduardo VALLARINO;
Chancery at 2862 McGill Terrace NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone
(202) 483-1407; the status of the Consulates General and Consulates has
not yet been determined;
US--Ambassador Deane R. HINTON; Embassy at Avenida Balboa and
Calle 38, Apartado 6959, Panama City 5 (mailing address is Box E,
APO Miami 34002); telephone p507o 27-1777

Flag: divided into four, equal rectangles; the top quadrants are white
with a blue five-pointed star in the center (hoist side) and plain red, the
bottom quadrants are plain blue (hoist side) and white with a red five-pointed
star in the center

- Economy
Overview: The GDP contracted an estimated 7.5% in 1989, following a
drop of 20% in 1988. Political instability, lack of credit, and the
erosion of business confidence prompted declines of 20-70% in the
financial, agricultural, commercial, manufacturing, and construction
sectors between 1987 and 1989. Transits through the Panama Canal were
off slightly, as were toll revenues. Unemployment remained about 23%
during 1989. Imports of foodstuffs and crude oil increased during 1989,
but capital goods imports continued their slide. Exports were widely
promoted by Noriega trade delegations, but sales abroad remained
stagnant.

GDP: $3.9 billion, per capita $1,648; real growth rate - 7.5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 0.1% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $598 million; expenditures $750 million,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989 est.)

Exports: $220 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--bananas 40%,
shrimp 27%, coffee 4%, sugar, petroleum products;
partners--US 90%, Central America and Caribbean, EC (1989 est.)

Imports: $830 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--foodstuffs
16%, capital goods 9%, crude oil 16%, consumer goods, chemicals;
partners--US 35%, Central America and Caribbean, EC,
Mexico, Venezuela (1989 est.)

External debt: $5.2 billion (November 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 4.1% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,113,000 kW capacity; 3,270 million kWh produced,
1,380 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: manufacturing and construction activities, petroleum refining,
brewing, cement and other construction material, sugar mills, paper products

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (1989 est.), 26% of labor
force (1987); crops--bananas, rice, corn, coffee, sugarcane; livestock;
fishing; importer of food grain, vegetables, milk products

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $515 million;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$568 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $4 million

Currency: balboa (plural--balboas); 1 balboa (B) = 100 centesimos

Exchange rates: balboas (B) per US$1--1.000 (fixed rate)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 238 km total; 78 km 1.524-meter gauge, 160 km 0.914-meter
gauge

Highways: 8,530 km total; 2,745 km paved, 3,270 km gravel or crushed
stone, 2,515 km improved and unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km navigable by shallow draft vessels; 82 km Panama
Canal

Pipelines: crude oil, 130 km

Ports: Cristobal, Balboa, Puerto de La Bahia de Las Minas

Merchant marine: 3,187 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling
46,502,092 GRT/72,961,250 DWT; includes 34 passenger, 22 short-sea
passenger, 3 passenger-cargo, 1,087 cargo, 179 refrigerated cargo,
186 container, 71 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 136 vehicle carrier,
7 livestock carrier, 9 multifunction large-load carrier,
315 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 184 chemical tanker,
30 combination ore/oil, 91 liquefied gas, 8 specialized tanker, 767 bulk,
58 combination bulk; note--all but 5 are foreign owned and operated;
the top 4 foreign owners are Japan 41%, Greece 9%, Hong Kong 9%, and the
US 7% (China owns at least 144 ships, Yugoslavia 12, Cuba 6, and
Vietnam 9)

Civil air: 16 major transport aircraft

Airports: 123 total, 112 usable; 42 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
15 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic and international facilities well developed;
connection into Central American Microwave System; 2 Atlantic Ocean satellite
antennas; 220,000 telephones; stations--91 AM, no FM, 23 TV; 1 coaxial submarine
cable

- Defense Forces
Branches: the Panamanian Defense Forces (PDF) ceased to exist as a
military institution shortly after the United States invaded Panama on
20 December 1989; President Endara is attempting to restructure the
forces, with more civilian control, under the new name of Panamanian
Public Forces (PPF)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 628,327; 433,352 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.0% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Papua New Guinea
- Geography
Total area: 461,690 km2; land area: 451,710 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundary: 820 km with Indonesia

Coastline: 5,152 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast
monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills

Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber,
oil potential

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 1% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 71% forest and woodland; 28% other

Environment: one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast;
some active volcanos; frequent earthquakes

Note: shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia

- People
Population: 3,822,875 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Papua New Guinean(s); adjective--Papua New Guinean

Ethnic divisions: predominantly Melanesian and Papuan; some Negrito,
Micronesian, and Polynesian

Religion: over half of population nominally Christian (490,000
Roman Catholic, 320,000 Lutheran, other Protestant sects); remainder indigenous
beliefs

Language: 715 indigenous languages; English spoken by 1-2%, pidgin
English widespread, Motu spoken in Papua region

Literacy: 32%

Labor force: 1,660,000; 732,806 in salaried employment; 54% agriculture,
25% government, 9% industry and commerce, 8% services (1980)

Organized labor: more than 50 trade unions, some with fewer than 20
members

- Government
Long-form name: Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Moresby

Administrative divisions: 20 provinces; Central, Chimbu,
Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Madang, Manus,
Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital, New Ireland, Northern, North Solomons,
Sandaun, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain

Independence: 16 September 1975 (from UN trusteeship under Australian
administration)

Constitution: 16 September 1975

Legal system: based on English common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, National Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament (sometimes referred to
as the House of Assembly)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen Elizabeth II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Vincent ERI (since 18 January 1990);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Rabbie NAMALIU (since 4 July 1988);
Deputy Prime Minister Akoko DOI (since 7 July 1988)

Political parties: Pangu Party, People's Progress Party, United Party,
Papua Besena, National Party, Melanesian Alliance

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Parliament--last held 13 June-4 July 1987 (next to be held
4 July 1992);
results--PP 14.7%, PDM 10.8%, PPP 6.1%, MA 5.6%, NP 5.1%, PAP 3.2%,
independents 42.9%, others 11.6%;
seats--(109 total) PP 26, PDM 17, NP 12, MA 7, PAP 6, PPP 5, independents 22,
others 14

Communists: no significant strength

Member of: ACP, ADB, ANRPC, CIPEC (associate), Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, SPC, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Margaret TAYLOR; Chancery at
Suite 350, 1330 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 659-0856;
US--Ambassador-designate William FERRAND; Embassy at Armit
Street, Port
Moresby (mailing address is P. O. Box 1492, Port Moresby); telephone
p675o 211-455 or 594, 654

Flag: divided diagonally from upper hoist-side corner; the upper triangle
is red with a soaring yellow bird of paradise centered; the lower triangle is
black with five white five-pointed stars of the Southern Cross constellation
centered

- Economy
Overview: Papua New Guinea is richly endowed with natural
resources, but exploitation has been hampered by the rugged terrain and
the high cost of developing an infrastructure. Agriculture provides a
subsistence livelihood for more than half of the population. Mining of
numerous deposits, including copper and gold, accounts for about 60% of
export earnings. Budgetary support from Australia and development aid
under World Bank auspices help sustain the economy.

GDP: $3.26 billion, per capita $890; real growth rate 1.2% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5% (1988)

Budget: revenues $962 million; expenditures $998 million,
including capital expenditures of $169 million (1988)

Exports: $1.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--gold, copper
ore, coffee, copra, palm oil, timber, lobster; partners--FRG, Japan,
Australia, UK, Spain, US

Imports: $1.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--machinery and
transport equipment, fuels, food, chemicals, consumer goods;
partners--Australia, Singapore, Japan, US, New Zealand, UK

External debt: $2.5 billion (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 397,000 kW capacity; 1,510 million kWh produced,
400 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: copra crushing, oil palm processing, plywood processing,
wood chip production, gold, silver, copper, construction, tourism

Agriculture: one-third of GDP; livelihood for 85% of population; fertile
soils and favorable climate permits cultivating a wide variety of crops; cash
crops--coffee, cocoa, coconuts, palm kernels; other products--tea, rubber, sweet
potatoes, fruit, vegetables, poultry, pork; net importer of food for urban
centers

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $38.8 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $5.8
billion; OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $17 million

Currency: kina (plural--kina); 1 kina (K) = 100 toea

Exchange rates: kina (K) per US$1--1.1592 (December 1989), 1.1685 (1989),
1.1538 (1988), 1.1012 (1987), 1.0296 (1986), 1.0000 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 19,200 km total; 640 km paved, 10,960 km gravel, crushed stone,
or stabilized-soil surface, 7,600 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 10,940 km

Ports: Anewa Bay, Lae, Madang, Port Moresby, Rabaul

Merchant marine: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 18,675 GRT/27,954
DWT; includes 6 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 combination ore/oil, 2 bulk

Civil air: about 15 major transport aircraft

Airports: 575 total, 455 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
38 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: services are adequate and being improved; facilities
provide radiobroadcast, radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio,
aeronautical radio, and international radiocommunication services; submarine
cables extend to Australia and Guam; 51,700 telephones (1985); stations--31 AM,
2 FM, 2 TV (1987); 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 952,454; 529,570 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.3% of GDP, or $42 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Paracel Islands
- Geography
Total area: undetermined

Comparative area: undetermined

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 518 km

Maritime claims: undetermined

Disputes: occupied by China, but claimed by Taiwan and Vietnam

Climate: tropical

Terrain: undetermined

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: subject to typhoons

Note: located 400 km east of Vietnam in the South China Sea
about one-third of the way between Vietnam and the Philippines

- People
Population: no permanent inhabitants

- Government
Long-form name: none

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: occupied by China
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Paraguay
- Geography
Total area: 406,750 km2; land area: 397,300 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: 3,920 km total; Argentina 1,880 km, Bolivia 750 km,
Brazil 1,290 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: short section of the boundary with Brazil (just west of
Guaira Falls on the Rio Parana) is in dispute

Climate: varies from temperate in east to semiarid in far west

Terrain: grassy plains and wooded hills east of Rio Paraguay;
Gran Chaco region west of Rio Paraguay mostly low, marshy plain near the
river, and dry forest and thorny scrub elsewhere

Natural resources: iron ore, manganese, limestone, hydropower, timber

Land use: 20% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 39% meadows and
pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: local flooding in southeast (early September to June);
poorly drained plains may become boggy (early October to June)

Note: landlocked; buffer between Argentina and Brazil

- People
Population: 4,660,270 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 67 years male, 72 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Paraguayan(s); adjective--Paraguayan

Ethnic divisions: 95% mestizo (Spanish and Indian), 5% white and Indian

Religion: 90% Roman Catholic; Mennonite and other Protestant denominations

Language: Spanish (official) and Guarani

Literacy: 81%

Labor force: 1,300,000; 44% agriculture, 34% industry and commerce,
18% services, 4% government (1986)

Organized labor: about 2% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Paraguay

Type: republic

Capital: Asuncion

Administrative divisions: 19 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento); Alto Paraguay, Alto Parana, Amambay, Boqueron,
Caaguazu, Caazapa, Canendiyu, Central, Chaco, Concepcion, Cordillera,
Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, Neembucu, Nueva Asuncion, Paraguari,
Presidente Hayes, San Pedro

Independence: 14 May 1811 (from Spain)

Constitution 25 August 1967

Legal system: based on Argentine codes, Roman law, and French codes;
judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court of Justice; does not
accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Days, 14-15 May (1811)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet),
Council of State

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate and a lower chamber or Chamber of
Deputies

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Andres
RODRIGUEZ Pedotti (since 15 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Colorado Party, Juan Ramon Chaves;
Authentic Radical Liberal Party (PLRA), Domingo Laino; Christian Democratic
Party (PDC), Jorge Dario Cristaldo; Febrerista Revolutionary Party (PRF),
Euclides Acevedo; Liberal Party (PL), Reinaldo Odone; Popular Colorado
Movement (MOPOCO), Miguel Angel Gonzalez Casabianca; Radical Liberal Party
(PLR), Emilio Forestieri; Popular Democratic Movement (MDP)

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18 and up to age 60

Elections:
President--last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held February 1993);
results--Gen. Rodriguez 75.8%, Domingo Laino 19.4%;

Senate--last held 1 May 1989 (next to be held by May 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(36 total) Colorado Party 24, PLRA 10, PLR 1, PRF 1;

Chamber of Deputies--last held on 1 May 1989 (next to be held by
May 1994);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(72 total) Colorado Party 48, PLRA 19, PRF 2, PDC 1, PL 1, PLR 1

Communists: Oscar Creydt faction and Miguel Angel Soler faction (both
illegal); 3,000 to 4,000 (est.) party members and sympathizers in Paraguay,
very few are hard core; party beginning to return from exile is small and
deeply divided

Other political or pressure groups: Febrerista; Authentic Radical
Liberal; Christian Democratic Parties; Confederation of Workers (CUT);
Roman Catholic Church

Member of: CCC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, IRC, ITU, LAIA, OAS, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Marcos MARTINEZ MENDIETA; Chancery
at 2400 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-6960
through 6962; there are Paraguayan Consulates General in New Orleans and
New York, and a Consulate in Houston; US--Ambassador Timothy L. TOWELL;
Embassy at 1776 Avenida Mariscal Lopez, Asuncion (mailing address is
C. P. 402, Asuncion, or APO Miami 34036-0001); telephone p595o (21) 201-041
or 049

Flag: three equal, horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue with an
emblem centered in the white band; unusual flag in that the emblem is different
on each side; the obverse (hoist side at the left) bears the national coat of
arms (a yellow five-pointed star within a green wreath capped by the words
REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles); the reverse (hoist side
at the right) bears the seal of the treasury (a yellow lion below a red Cap of
Liberty and the words Paz y Justica (Peace and Justice) capped
by the words REPUBLICA DEL PARAGUAY, all within two circles)

- Economy
Overview: The economy is predominantly agricultural. Agriculture,
including forestry, accounts for about 25% of GNP, employs about 45% of
the labor force, and provides the bulk of exports. Paraguay has no known
significant mineral or petroleum resources, but does have a large
hydropower potential. Since 1981 economic performance has declined
compared with the boom period of 1976-81, when real GDP grew at an
average annual rate of nearly 11%. During 1982-86 real GDP fell three
out of five years, inflation jumped to an annual rate of 32%, and
foreign debt rose. Factors responsible for the erratic behavior of the
economy were the completion of the Itaipu hydroelectric dam, bad weather
for crops, and weak international commodity prices for agricultural exports.
In 1987 the economy experienced a modest recovery because of improved weather
conditions and stronger international prices for key agricultural exports. The
recovery continued through 1988, with a bumper soybean crop and record cotton
production. The government, however, must follow through on promises of reforms
needed to deal with large fiscal deficits, growing debt arrearages,
and falling reserves.

GDP: $8.9 billion, per capita $1,970; real growth rate 5.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $609 million; expenditures $909 million,
including capital expenditures of $401 million (1988)

Exports: $1,020 million (registered f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--cotton, soybean, timber, vegetable oils, coffee, tung oil,
meat products; partners--EC 37%, Brazil 25%, Argentina 10%, Chile 6%,
US 6%

Imports: $1,010 million (registered c.i.f., 1989 est.);
commodities--capital goods 35%, consumer goods 20%, fuels and lubricants
19%, raw materials 16%, foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco 10%;
partners--Brazil 30%, EC 20%, US 18%, Argentina 8%, Japan 7%

External debt: $2.9 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 2% (1987)

Electricity: 5,169,000 kW capacity; 15,140 million kWh produced,
3,350 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meat packing, oilseed crushing, milling, brewing,
textiles, other light consumer goods, cement, construction

Agriculture: accounts for 25% of GDP and 50% of labor force; cash
crops--cotton, sugarcane; other crops--corn, wheat, tobacco, soybeans, cassava,
fruits, and vegetables; animal products--beef, pork, eggs, milk; surplus
producer of timber; self-sufficient in most foods

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade with an estimated 300 hectares cultivated in 1988; important
transshipment point for Bolivian cocaine headed for the US and Europe

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $168 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $994 million

Currency: guarani (plural--guaranies);
1 guarani (G) = 100 centimos

Exchange rates: guaranies (G) per US$1--1,200.20 (November 1989;
floated in February 1989), 550.00 (fixed rate 1986-February 1989),
339.17 (1986), 306.67 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 970 km total; 440 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 60 km
1.000-meter gauge, 470 km various narrow gauge (privately owned)

Highways: 21,960 km total; 1,788 km paved, 474 km gravel, and 19,698 km
earth

Inland waterways: 3,100 km

Ports: Asuncion

Merchant marine: 15 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 20,735 GRT/26,043
DWT; includes 13 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker;
note--1 naval cargo ship is sometimes used commercially

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 873 total, 753 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 52 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: principal center in Asuncion; fair intercity
microwave net; 78,300 telephones; stations--40 AM, no FM, 5 TV, 7 shortwave;
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Paraguayan Army, Paraguayan Navy, Paraguayan Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,096,227; 798,750 fit for military
service; 49,791 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Peru
- Geography
Total area: 1,285,220 km2; land area: 1,280,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Alaska

Land boundaries: 6,940 km total; Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km,
Chile 160 km, Colombia 2,900 km, Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline: 2,414 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: two sections of the boundary with Ecuador are in dispute

Climate: varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west

Terrain: western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center
(sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)

Natural resources: copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber,
fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash

Land use: 3% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 21% meadows and
pastures; 55% forest and woodland; 21% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, mild volcanic
activity; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; air
pollution in Lima

Note: shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable
lake, with Bolivia

- People
Population: 21,905,605 (July 1990), growth rate 2.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Peruvian(s); adjective--Peruvian

Ethnic divisions: 45% Indian; 37% mestizo (mixed Indian and European
ancestry); 15% white; 3% black, Japanese, Chinese, and other

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic

Language: Spanish and Quechua (official), Aymara

Literacy: 80% (est.)

Labor force: 6,800,000 (1986); 44% government and other services,
37% agriculture, 19% industry (1988 est.)

Organized labor: about 40% of salaried workers (1983 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Peru

Type: republic

Capital: Lima

Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos,
singular--departamento) and 1 constitutional province*
(provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho,
Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad,
Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno,
San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali

Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: 28 July 1980 (often referred to as the 1979 Constitution
because constituent assembly met in 1979, but Constitution actually took effect
the following year); reestablished civilian government with a popularly elected
president and bicameral legislature

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress (Congreso) consists of an upper
chamber or Senate (Senado) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President-elect Alberto FUJIMORI (since 10 June
1990; Vice President-elect Maximo San ROMAN (since 10 June 1990);
Vice President-elect Carlos GARCIA;
President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 1985);
First Vice President Luis Alberto SANCHEZ Sanchez (since 28 July 1985);
Second Vice President Luis Juan ALVA Castro (since 28 July 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Guillermo LARCO Cox (since 3 October
1989)

Political parties and leaders: American Popular Revolutionary Alliance
(APRA), Alan Garcia Perez; United Left (IU), run by committee;
Democratic Front (FREDEMO), headed by Mario Vargas Llosa of the Liberty
Movement (ML), coalition also includes the Popular Christian Party (PPC),
Luis Bedoya Reyes and the Popular Action Party (AP), Fernando
Belaunde Terry; Socialist Left (ISO), Alfonso Barrantes Lingan

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 10 June 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results--Alberto Fujimori xx%, Mario Vargas Llosa xx%, others xx%;

Senate--last held on 8 April 1990 (next to be held April 1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total) APRA 32, IU 15, AP 5, others 8;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 8 April 1990 (next to be held April
1995);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(180 total) APRA 107, IU 48, AP 10, others 15

Communists: Peruvian Communist Party-Unity (PCP-U), pro-Soviet,
2,000; other minor Communist parties

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: Andean Pact, AIOEC, ASSIMER, CCC, CIPEC, FAO, G-77, GATT,
Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IATP, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, INTERPOL, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, ISO, ITU,
IWC--International Wheat Council, LAIA, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WFTU, WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Cesar G. ATALA; Chancery at
1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 833-9860
through 9869); Peruvian Consulates General are located in Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, and
San Juan (Puerto Rico);
US--Ambassador Anthony QUAINTON; Embassy at the corner of
Avenida Inca Garcilaso de la Vega and Avenida Espana, Lima (mailing address
is P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1010, or APO Miami 34031); telephone p51o (14) 338-000

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with
the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield
bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia
spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

- Economy
Overview: The economy is verging on hyperinflation and economic activity
is contracting rapidly. Deficit spending is at the root of domestic economic
problems, but poor relations with international lenders--the result of
curtailing debt payments since 1985--are preventing an inflow of funds to
generate a recovery. Reduced standards of living have increased labor tensions,
and strikes, particularly in the key mining sector, have cut production and
exports. Foreign exchange shortages have forced reductions in vital consumer
imports such as food and industrial inputs. Peru is the world's leading producer
of coca, from which the drug cocaine is produced.

GDP: $18.9 billion, per capita $880; real growth rate - 12.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2,775% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15.0%; underemployment estimated at 60% (1989)

Budget: revenues $3.2 billion; expenditures $3.7 billion,
including capital expenditures of $796 million (1986)

Exports: $3.55 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--fishmeal,
cotton, sugar, coffee, copper, iron ore, refined silver, lead, zinc, crude
petroleum and byproducts; partners--EC 22%, US 20%, Japan 11%,
Latin America 8%, USSR 4%

Imports: $2.50 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--foodstuffs,
machinery, transport equipment, iron and steel semimanufactures, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals; partners--US 23%, Latin America 16%, EC 12%, Japan 7%,
Switzerland 3%

External debt: $17.7 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 25.0% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 4,867,000 kW capacity; 15,540 million kWh produced,
725 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing,
food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, metal fabrication

Agriculture: accounts for 12% of GDP, 37% of labor force; commercial
crops--coffee, cotton, sugarcane; other crops--rice, wheat, potatoes,
plantains, coca; animal products--poultry, red meats, dairy, wool; not
self-sufficient in grain or vegetable oil; fish catch of 4.6 million
metric tons (1987), world's fifth-largest

Illicit drugs: world's largest coca producer and source of supply
for coca paste and cocaine base; about 85% of cultivation is for
illicit production; most of coca base is shipped to Colombian drug
dealers for processing into cocaine for the international drug market

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.6 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.7 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $577 million

Currency: inti (plural--intis); 1 inti (I/) = 1,000 soles

Exchange rates: intis (I/) per US$1--5,261.40 (December 1989),
128.83 (1988), 16.84 (1987), 13.95 (1986), 10.97 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,876 km total; 1,576 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 300 km
0.914-meter gauge

Highways: 56,645 km total; 6,030 km paved, 11,865 km gravel, 14,610 km
improved earth, 24,140 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system
and 208 km Lago Titicaca

Pipelines: crude oil, 800 km; natural gas and natural gas liquids, 64 km

Ports: Callao, Ilo, Iquitos, Matarani, Talara

Merchant marine: 32 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 341,213 GRT/535,215
DWT; includes 18 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 8 bulk;
note--in addition, 7 naval tankers and 1 naval cargo are sometimes used
commercially

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airports: 242 total, 226 usable; 35 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 24 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 39 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fairly adequate for most requirements; nationwide
radio relay system; 544,000 telephones; stations--273 AM, no FM, 140 TV,
144 shortwave; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations, 12 domestic antennas

- Defense Forces
Branches: Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de
Guerra del Peru), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,543,166; 3,751,077 fit for military
service; 236,814 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 4.9% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Philippines
- Geography
Total area: 300,000 km2; land area: 298,170 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 36,289 km

Maritime claims: (measured from claimed archipelagic baselines);

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from
coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed
polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth

Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; claims Malaysian state of Sabah

Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April);
southwest monsoon (May to October)

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands

Natural resources: timber, crude oil, nickel, cobalt, silver,
gold, salt, copper

Land use: 26% arable land; 11% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck
by five to six cyclonic storms per year; subject to landslides, active
volcanoes, destructive earthquakes, tsunami; deforestation; soil erosion; water
pollution

- People
Population: 66,117,284 (July 1990), growth rate 2.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 32 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 48 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Filipino(s); adjective--Philippine

Ethnic divisions: 91.5% Christian Malay, 4% Muslim Malay, 1.5% Chinese, 3%
other

Religion: 83% Roman Catholic, 9% Protestant, 5% Muslim, 3% Buddhist and
other

Language: Pilipino (based on Tagalog) and English; both official

Literacy: 88% (est.)

Labor force: 22,889,000; 47% agriculture, 20% industry and commerce,
13.5% services, 10% government, 9.5% other (1987)

Organized labor: 2,064 registered unions; total membership 4.8 million
(includes 2.7 million members of the National Congress of Farmers Organizations)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of the Philippines

Type: republic

Capital: Manila

Administrative divisions: 73 provinces and 61 chartered cities*; Abra,
Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay, Angeles*, Antique, Aurora,
Bacolod*, Bago*, Baguio*, Bais*, Basilan, Basilan City*, Bataan, Batanes,
Batangas, Batangas City*, Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Butuan*,
Cabanatuan*, Cadiz*, Cagayan, Cagayan de Oro*, Calbayog*, Caloocan*,
Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Canlaon*, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite,
Cavite City*, Cebu, Cebu City*, Cotabato*, Dagupan*, Danao*, Dapitan*,
Davao City* Davao, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dipolog*, Dumaguete*,
Eastern Samar, General Santos*, Gingoog*, Ifugao, Iligan*, Ilocos Norte,
Ilocos Sur, Iloilo, Iloilo City*, Iriga*, Isabela, Kalinga-Apayao, La Carlota*,
Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Laoag*, Lapu-Lapu*, La Union, Legaspi*,
Leyte, Lipa*, Lucena*, Maguindanao, Mandaue*, Manila*, Marawi*, Marinduque,
Masbate, Mindoro Occidental, Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental,
Misamis Oriental, Mountain, Naga*, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental,
North Cotabato, Northern Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Olongapo*, Ormoc*,
Oroquieta*, Ozamis*, Pagadian*, Palawan, Palayan*, Pampanga, Pangasinan,
Pasay*, Puerto Princesa*, Quezon, Quezon City*, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Roxas*,
Samar, San Carlos* (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos* (in Pangasinan),
San Jose*, San Pablo*, Silay*, Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato,
Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat, Sulu, Surigao*, Surigao del Norte,
Surigao del Sur, Tacloban*, Tagaytay*, Tagbilaran*, Tangub*, Tarlac, Tawitawi,
Toledo*, Trece Martires*, Zambales, Zamboanga*, Zamboanga del Norte,
Zamboanga del Sur

Independence: 4 July 1946 (from US)

Constitution: 2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987

Legal system: based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day (from Spain), 12 June (1898)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Congress consists of an upper house or
Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Corazon C. AQUINO
(since 25 February 1986); Vice President Salvador H. LAUREL (since 25 February
1986)

Political parties and leaders: PDP-Laban, Aquilino Pimentel; Struggle of
Philippine Democrats (LDP), Neptali Gonzales; Nationalista Party, Salvador
Laurel, Juan Ponce Enrile; Liberal Party, Jovito Salonga

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President--last held 7 February 1986 (next election to be
held May 1992); results--Corazon C. Aquino elected after the fall of the
Marcos regime;

Senate--last held 11 May 1987 (next to be held May 1993);
results--Pro-Aquino LDP 63%, Liberals LDP and
PDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 25%, Opposition Nationalista Party 4%,
independents 8%;
seats--(24 total) Pro-Aquino LDP 15, Liberals
LDP-Laban (Pimentel wing) 6, Opposition 1, independents 2;

House of Representatives--last held on 11 May 1987 (next to be
held May 1992);
results--Pro-Aquino LDP 73%, Liberals LDP and PDP-Laban
(Pimentel wing) 10%, Opposition Nationalista Party 17%;
seats--(250 total, 180 elected) number of seats by party NA

Communists: the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) controls
about 18,000-23,000 full-time insurgents and is not recognized as a legal
party; a second Communist party, the pro-Soviet Philippine Communist
Party (PKP), has quasi-legal status

Member of: ADB, ASEAN, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Emmanuel PELAEZ; Chancery at
1617 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-1414;
there are Philippine Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Chicago, Honolulu,
Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle;
US--Ambassador Nicholas PLATT; Embassy at 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Manila
(mailing address is APO San Francisco 96528); telephone p63o (2) 521-7116;
there is a US Consulate in Cebu

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a white
equilateral triangle based on the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a
yellow sun with eight primary rays (each containing three individual rays) and
in each corner of the triangle is a small yellow five-pointed star

- Economy
Overview: The economy continues to recover from the political turmoil
following the ouster of former President Marcos and several coup attempts.
After two consecutive years of economic contraction (1984 and 1985), the
economy has since 1986 had positive growth. The agricultural sector,
together with forestry and fishing, plays an important role in the economy,
employing about 50% of the work force and providing almost 30% of GDP. The
Philippines is the world's largest exporter of coconuts and coconut products.
Manufacturing contributed about 25% of GDP. Major industries include food
processing, chemicals, and textiles.

GNP: $40.5 billion, per capita $625; real growth rate 5.2% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.6% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 8.7% (1989)

Budget: $7.2 billion; expenditures $8.12 billion,
including capital expenditures of $0.97 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: revenues $8.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--electrical equipment 19%, textiles 16%, minerals
and ores 11%, farm products 10%, coconut 10%, chemicals 5%, fish 5%,
forest products 4%; partners--US 36%, EC 19%, Japan 18%,
ESCAP 9%, ASEAN 7%

Imports: $10.5 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--raw materials
53%, capital goods 17%, petroleum products 17%; partners--US 25%,
Japan 17%, ESCAP 13%, EC 11%, ASEAN 10%, Middle East 10%

External debt: $27.8 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7.3% (1989)

Electricity: 6,700,000 kW capacity; 25,000 million kWh produced,
385 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, wood products,
food processing, electronics assembly, petroleum refining, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GNP and 50% of labor force;
major crops--rice, coconut, corn, sugarcane, bananas, pineapple, mango; animal
products--pork, eggs, beef; net exporter of farm products; fish catch of 2
million metric tons annually

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade; growers are producing more and better quality cannabis
despite government eradication efforts

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $3.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $5 million; Communist countries (1975-88), $123
million

Currency: Philippine peso (plural--pesos);
1 Philippine peso (P) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: Philippine pesos (P) per US$1--22.464 (January 1990),
21.737 (1989), 21.095 (1988), 20.568 (1987), 20.386 (1986), 18.607 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 378 km operable on Luzon, 34% government owned (1982)

Highways: 156,000 km total (1984); 29,000 km paved; 77,000 km gravel,
crushed-stone, or stabilized-soil surface; 50,000 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 3,219 km; limited to shallow-draft (less than 1.5 m)
vessels

Pipelines: refined products, 357 km

Ports: Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Guimaras, Iloilo, Legaspi, Manila,
Subic Bay

Merchant marine: 595 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 9,134,924
GRT/15,171,692 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 10 short-sea passenger,
16 passenger-cargo, 166 cargo, 17 refrigerated cargo, 30 vehicle carrier,
8 livestock carrier, 7 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 container, 36 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas,
3 combination ore/oil, 282 bulk, 5 combination bulk; note--many
Philippine flag ships are foreign owned and are on the register for the
purpose of long-term bare-boat charter back to their original owners who
are principally in Japan and FRG

Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

Airports: 301 total, 237 usable; 70 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 9 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
49 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good international radio and submarine cable services;
domestic and interisland service adequate; 872,900 telephones; stations--267 AM
(including 6 US), 55 FM, 33 TV (including 4 US); submarine cables extended to
Hong Kong, Guam, Singapore, Taiwan, and Japan; satellite earth stations--1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 11 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Constabulary--Integrated
National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 16,160,543; 11,417,451 fit for military
service; 684,976 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GNP, or $850 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Pitcairn Islands
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 47 km2; land area: 47 km2

Comparative area: about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 51 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical, hot, humid, modified by southeast trade winds;
rainy season (November to March)

Terrain: rugged volcanic formation; rocky coastline with cliffs

Natural resources: miro trees (used for handicrafts), fish

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to typhoons (especially November to March)

Note: located in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between
Peru and New Zealand

- People
Population: 56 (July 1990), growth rate 0.0% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Pitcairn Islander(s); adjective--Pitcairn Islander

Ethnic divisions: descendants of Bounty mutineers

Religion: 100% Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official); also a Tahitian/English dialect

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA; no business community in the usual sense; some public
works; subsistence farming and fishing

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Adamstown

Administrative divisions: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Independence: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Constitution: Local Government Ordinance of 1964

Legal system: local island by-laws

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday in June), 10 June 1989

Executive branch: British monarch, governor, island magistrate

Legislative branch: unicameral Island Council

Judicial branch: Island Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by the Governor and UK High Commissioner to New Zealand
Robin A. C. BYATT (since NA 1988);

Head of Government--Island Magistrate and Chairman of the Island
Council Brian YOUNG (since NA 1985)

Political parties and leaders: NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18 with three years residency

Elections:
Island Council--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(11 total, 5 elected) number of seats by party NA

Communists: none

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Diplomatic representation: none (dependent territory of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Pitcairn Islander coat of arms centered on the outer half of the flag; the
coat of arms is yellow, green, and light blue with a shield featuring a yellow
anchor

- Economy
Overview: The inhabitants exist on fishing and subsistence farming.
The fertile soil of the valleys produces a wide variety of fruits and
vegetables, including citrus, sugarcane, watermelons, bananas, yams, and beans.
Bartering is an important part of the economy. The major sources of revenue
are the sale of postage stamps to collectors and the sale of handicrafts
to passing ships.

GNP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $430,440; expenditures $429,983, including capital
expenditures of $NA (FY87 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities--fruits, vegetables, curios;
partners--NA

Imports: $NA; commodities--fuel oil, machinery, building materials,
flour, sugar, other foodstuffs; partners--NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 110 kW capacity; 0.30 million kWh produced,
4,410 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: postage stamp sales, handicrafts

Agriculture: based on subsistence fishing and farming; wide variety of
fruits and vegetables grown; must import grain products

Aid: none

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6581 (January
1990), 1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6866 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: none

Highways: 6.4 km dirt roads

Ports: Bounty Bay

Airports: none

Telecommunications: 24 telephones; party line telephone service on the
island; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; diesel generator provides electricity

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Poland
- Geography
Total area: 312,680 km2; land area: 304,510 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,980 km total; Czechoslovakia 1,309 km, GDR 456 km,
USSR 1,215 km

Coastline: 491 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with
frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers

Terrain: mostly flat plain, mountains along southern border

Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver,
lead, salt

Land use: 46% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 13% meadows and
pastures; 28% forest and woodland; 12% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: plain crossed by a few north-flowing, meandering
streams; severe air and water pollution in south

Note: historically, an area of conflict because of flat terrain
and the lack of natural barriers on the North European Plain

- People
Population: 37,776,725 (July 1990), growth rate NEGL (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 13 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Pole(s); adjective--Polish

Ethnic divisions: 98.7% Polish, 0.6% Ukrainian, 0.5% Byelorussian, less
than 0.05% Jewish

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic (about 75% practicing),
5% Russian Orthodox, Protestant, and other

Language: Polish

Literacy: 98%

Labor force: 17,128,000 (1988); 36.5% industry and construction;
28.5% agriculture; 14.7% trade, transport, and communications;
20.3% government and other

Organized labor: trade union pluralism

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Poland

Type: democratic state

Capital: Warsaw

Administrative divisions: 49 provinces (wojewodztwa,
singular--wojewodztwo); Biala Podlaska, Bialystok, Bielsko-Biala,
Bydgoszcz, Chelm, Ciechanow, Czestochowa, Elblag, Gdansk,
Gorzow Wielkopolski, Jelenia Gora, Kalisz, Katowice, Kielce, Konin,
Koszalin, Krakow, Krosno, Legnica, Leszno, Lodz, Lomza,
Lublin, Nowy Sacz, Olsztyn, Opole, Ostroleka, Pila, Piotrkow,
Plock, Poznan, Przemysl, Radom, Rzeszow, Siedlce, Sieradz,
Skierniewice, Slupsk, Suwalki, Szczecin, Tarnobrzeg, Tarnow,
Torun, Walbrzych, Warszawa, Wloclawek, Wroclaw, Zamosc,
Zielona Gora

Independence: 11 November 1918, independent republic proclaimed

Constitution: the Communist-imposed Constitution of 22 July 1952
will be replaced by a democratic Constitution before May 1991

Legal system: mixture of Continental (Napoleonic) civil law and Communist
legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Liberation Day, 22 July (1952) will
probably be replaced by Constitution Day, 3 May (1794)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlament) consists of
an upper house or Senate (Senat) and a lower house or National Assembly
(Sejm)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Gen. Wojciech JARUZELSKI (since
19 July 1989, Chairman of Council of State since 6 November 1985);

Head of Government--Premier Tadeusz MAZOWIECKI (since 24 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders:
Center-right agrarian parties--Polish Peasant Party (PSL, known
unofficially as PSL-Wilanowska), Gen. Franciszek Kaminski, chairman;
Polish Peasant Party-Solidarity, Josef Slisz, chairman;
Polish Peasant Party-Rebirth (formerly the United Peasant Party),
Kazimirrz Olrsiak, chairman;

Other center-right parties--National Party, Bronislaw Ekert,
chairman;
Christian National Union, Urrslaw Chnzanowski, chairman;
Christian Democratic Labor Party, Wladyslaw Sila Nowicki, chairman;
Democratic Party, Jerzy Jozwiak, chairman;

Center-left parties--Polish Socialist Party, Jan Jozef Lipski,
chairman;

Left-wing parties--Polish Socialist Party-Democratic Revolution;

Other--Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (formerly the
Communist Party or Polish United Workers' Party/PZPR), Aleksander
Kwasnuewski, chairman;
Union of the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland (breakaway
faction of the PZPR), Tadrusz Fiszbach, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Senate--last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(100 total) Solidarity 99, independent 1;

National Assembly--last held 4 and 18 June 1989 (next to be
held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(460 total) Communists 173, Solidarity 161, Polish Peasant
Party 76, Democratic Party 27, Christian National Union 23; note--rules
governing the election limited Solidarity's share of the vote to 35%
of the seats; future elections are to be freely contested

Communists: 70,000 members in the Communist successor party (1990)

Other political or pressure groups: powerful Roman Catholic Church;
Confederation for an Independent Poland (KPN), a nationalist group;
Solidarity (trade union); All Poland Trade Union Alliance (OPZZ),
populist program; Clubs of Catholic Intellectuals (KIKs); Freedom and
Peace (WiP), a pacifist group; Independent Student Union (NZS)

Member of: CCC, CEMA, Council of Europe, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBEC,
ICAO, ICES, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMO, IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, Warsaw Pact, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Jan KINAST; Chancery at 2640 16th
Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 234-3800 through 3802; there are
Polish Consulates General in Chicago and New York;
US--Ambassador-designate Thomas SIMONS, Jr.; Embassy at Aleje
Ujazdowskie 29/31, Warsaw (mailing address is
APO New York 09213); telephone p48o 283041 through 283049; there is a US
Consulate General in Krakow and a Consulate in Poznan

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red--a crowned
eagle is to be added; similar to the flags of Indonesia and Monaco which
are red (top) and white

- Economy
Overview: The economy, except for the agricultural sector, had
followed the Soviet model of state ownership and control of the country's
productive assets. About 75% of agricultural production had come from the
private sector and the rest from state farms. The economy has presented a
picture of moderate but slowing growth against a background of underlying
weaknesses in technology and worker motivation. GNP increased between 3%
and 6% annually during the period 1983-1986, but grew only 2.5% and 2.1%
in 1987 and 1988, respectively. Output dropped by 1.5% in 1989. The
inflation rate, after falling sharply from the 1982 peak of 100% to 22%
in 1986, rose to a galloping rate of 640% in 1989. Shortages of consumer
goods and some food items worsened in 1988-89. Agricultural products and
coal have remained the biggest hard currency earners, but manufactures
are increasing in importance. Poland, with its hard currency debt of
approximately $40 billion, is severely limited in its ability to import
much-needed hard currency goods. The sweeping political changes of 1989
disrupted normal economic channels and exacerbated shortages. In January
1990, the new Solidarity-led government adopted a cold turkey program for
transforming Poland to a market economy. The government moved to
eliminate subsidies, end artificially low prices, make the zloty
convertible, and, in general, halt the hyperinflation. These financial
measures are accompanied by plans to privatize the economy in stages.
Substantial outside aid will be needed if Poland is to make a successful
transition in the 1990s.

GNP: $172.4 billion, per capita $4,565; real growth rate - 1.6%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 640% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%; 215,000 (official number, mid-March 1990)

Budget: revenues $23 billion; expenditures $24 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.5 billion (1988)

Exports: $24.7 billion (f.o.b., 1987 est.);
commodities--machinery and equipment 63%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 14%; manufactured consumer goods 14%; agricultural and forestry
products 5% (1987 est.);
partners--USSR 25%, FRG 12%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1988)

Imports: $22.8 billion (f.o.b., 1987 est.);
commodities--machinery and equipment 36%; fuels, minerals, and
metals 35%; manufactured consumer goods 9%; agricultural and forestry
products 12%;
partners--USSR 23%, FRG 13%, Czechoslovakia 6% (1988)

External debt: $40 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 2.0% (1988)

Electricity: 31,390,000 kW capacity; 125,000 million kWh produced,
3,260 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machine building, iron and steel, extractive industries,
chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles

Agriculture: accounts for 15% of GNP and 28% of labor force; 75% of
output from private farms, 25% from state farms; productivity remains
low by European standards; leading European producer of rye, rapeseed,
and potatoes; wide variety of other crops and livestock; major exporter
of pork products; normally self-sufficient in food

Aid: donor--bilateral aid to non-Communist less developed countries,
$2.1 billion (1954-88)

Currency: zloty (plural--zlotych); 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy

Exchange rates: zlotych (Zl) per US$1--9,500.00 (January 1990),
1,439.18 (1989), 430.55 (1988), 265.08 (1987), 175.29 (1986), 147.14 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 27,245 km total; 24,333 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 397 km
1.524-meter broad gauge, 2,515 km narrow gauge; 8,986 km double track; 10,000 km
electrified; government owned (1986)

Highways: 299,887 km total; 130,000 km improved hard surface (concrete,
asphalt, stone block); 24,000 km unimproved hard surface (crushed stone,
gravel); 100,000 km earth; 45,887 km other urban roads (1985)

Inland waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (1988)

Pipelines: 4,500 km for natural gas; 1,986 km for crude oil;
360 km for refined products (1987)

Ports: Gdansk, Gdynia, Szczecin, Swinoujscie; principal inland
ports are Gliwice on Kanal Gliwice, Wroclaw on the Oder, and Warsaw
on the Vistula

Merchant marine: 234 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,957,534
GRT/4,164,665 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 93 cargo, 3 refrigerated
cargo, 12 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 9 container, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 105 bulk

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 160 total, 160 usable; 85 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runway over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 65 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--30 AM, 28 FM, 41 TV; 4 Soviet TV relays;
9,691,075 TV sets; 9,290,000 radio receivers; at least 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Ground Forces, National Air Defense Forces, Air Force Command,
Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 9,501,088; 7,503,477 fit for military
service; 292,769 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 954 billion zlotych, NA% of total budget (1989);
note--conversion of the military budget into US dollars using the official
administratively set exchange rate would produce misleading results
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Portugal
- Geography
Total area: 92,080 km2; land area: 91,640 km2; includes Azores and
Madeira Islands

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundary: 1,214 km with Spain

Coastline: 1,793 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Macau is scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region
of China in 1999; East Timor question with Indonesia

Climate: maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier
in south

Terrain: mountainous north of the Tagus, rolling plains in south

Natural resources: fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore,
uranium ore, marble

Land use: 32% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 16% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: Azores subject to severe earthquakes

Note: Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations
along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar

- People
Population: 10,354,497 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 14 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Portuguese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Portuguese

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous Mediterranean stock in mainland, Azores,
Madeira Islands; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland
during decolonization number less than 100,000

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 1% Protestant denominations, 2% other

Language: Portuguese

Literacy: 83%

Labor force: 4,605,700; 45% services, 35% industry, 20% agriculture (1988)

Organized labor: about 55% of the labor force; the Communist-dominated
General Confederation of Portuguese Workers--Intersindical (CGTP-IN) represents
more than half of the unionized labor force; its main competition, the General
Workers Union (UGT), is organized by the Socialists and Social Democrats and
represents less than half of unionized labor

- Government
Long-form name: Portuguese Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Lisbon

Administrative divisions: 18 districts (distritos,
singular--distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas,
singular--regiao autonoma); Acores*, Aveiro, Beja, Braga,
Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria,
Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal,
Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu

Dependent area: Macau (scheduled to become a Special Administrative
Region of China in 1999)

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