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Electricity: 415,000 kW capacity; 1,340 million kWh produced,
380 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, chemicals, metal products, textiles,
clothing, petroleum refining and distribution, beverages, footwear

Agriculture: accounts for 23% of GDP and 44% of work force; cash
crops--coffee, bananas, sugarcane, cotton; food crops--rice, corn,
cassava, citrus fruit, beans; variety of animal products--beef, veal,
pork, poultry, dairy; while normally self-sufficient in food, war-induced
shortages now exist

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-82), $290 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $981 million;
Communist countries (1970-88), $3.3 billion

Currency: cordoba (plural--cordobas); 1 cordoba (C$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: cordobas (C$) per US$1--65,000 (February 1990)
is the free market rate; official rate is 46,000 (February 1990),
270 (1988), 0.103 (1987), 0.097 (1986), 0.039 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 373 km 1.067-meter gauge, government owned; majority of system
not operating; 3 km 1.435-meter gauge line at Puerto Cabezas (does not connect
with mainline)

Highways: 25,930 km total; 4,000 km paved (includes all 2,170 km
gravel or crushed stone, 5,425 km earth or graded earth, 14,335 km
unimproved, 368.5 km of the Pan-American highway)

Inland waterways: 2,220 km, including 2 large lakes

Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km

Ports: Corinto, El Bluff, Puerto Cabezas, Puerto Sandino, Rama

Merchant marine: 2 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,161
GRT/2,500 DWT

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft

Airports: 261 total, 169 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: low-capacity radio relay and wire system being
expanded; connection into Central American Microwave System; 60,000 telephones;
stations--45 AM, no FM, 7 TV, 3 shortwave; satellite earth stations--1
Intersputnik and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Sandinista Popular Army, Sandinista Navy, Sandinista Air
Force/Air Defense, Sandinista People's Militia

Military manpower: males 15-49, 747,144; 459,333 fit for military service;
44,213 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Niger
- Geography
Total area: 1,267,000 km2; land area: 1,266,700 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 5,697 km total; Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km,
Burkina 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in northern Niger; exact locations
of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have
not been determined, so the boundary has not been demarcated and border
incidents have resulted; Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary
demarcation, including the tripoint with Niger

Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south

Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to
rolling plains in south; hills in north

Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates

Land use: 3% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 7% meadows and
pastures; 2% forest and woodland; 88% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recurrent drought and desertification severely affecting
marginal agricultural activities; overgrazing; soil erosion

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 7,969,309 (July 1990), growth rate 3.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 131 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 53 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Nigerien(s) adjective--Nigerien

Ethnic divisions: 56% Hausa; 22% Djerma; 8.5% Fula; 8% Tuareg; 4.3% Beri
Beri (Kanouri); 1.2% Arab, Toubou, and Gourmantche; about 4,000 French
expatriates

Religion: 80% Muslim, remainder indigenous beliefs and Christians

Language: French (official); Hausa, Djerma

Literacy: 13.9%

Labor force: 2,500,000 wage earners (1982); 90% agriculture, 6% industry
and commerce, 4% government; 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: negligible

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Niger

Type: republic; presidential system in which military officers
hold key offices

Capital: Niamey

Administrative divisions: 7 departments (departements,
singular--departement); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey, Tahoua, Zinder

Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: adopted NA December 1989 after 15 years of
military rule

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holidays: Republic Day, 18 December (1958)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Council of Ministers
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Development Council

Judicial branch: State Court (Cour d'Etat), Court of Appeal
(Cour d'Apel)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Brig. Gen. Ali SAIBOU (since 14 November 1987);

Head of Government--Prime Minister ALIOU MAHAMIDA (since 2 March
1990)

Political parties and leaders: only party--National Movement
for the Development Society (MNSD), leader NA

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections:
President--last held December 1989 (next to be held NA 1996);
results--President Ali Saibou was reelected without opposition;

National Development Council--last held December 1989 (next to be
held NA 1994); results--MNSD is the only party;
seats--(150 total) MNSD 150 (indirectly elected)

Communists: no Communist party; some sympathizers in outlawed Sawaba party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente,
FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, Lake Chad Basin
Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Moumouni Adamou DJERMAKOYE;
Chancery at 2204 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 483-4224
through 4227; US--Ambassador Carl C. CUNDIFF; Embassy at Avenue des
Ambassadeurs, Niamey (mailing address is B. P. 11201, Niamey); telephone
p227o 72-26-61 through 64 and 72-26-70

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of orange (top), white, and green with
a small orange disk (representing the sun) centered in the white band; similar
to the flag of India which has a blue, spoked wheel centered in the white band

- Economy

Overview: About 90% of the population is engaged in farming and
stock rearing, activities which generate almost half of the national income.
The economy also depends heavily on exploitation of large uranium deposits.
Uranium production grew rapidly in the mid-1970s, but tapered off in the
early 1980s, when world prices declined. France is a major customer,
while FRG, Japan, and Spain also make regular purchases. The depressed
demand for uranium has contributed to an overall sluggishness in the
economy, a severe trade imbalance, and a mounting external debt.

GDP: $2.4 billion, per capita $330; real growth rate 7.1% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): - 1.4% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $254 million; expenditures $510 million, including
capital expenditures of $239 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $371 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--uranium 76%,
livestock, cowpeas, onions, hides, skins; partners--NA

Imports: $441 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--petroleum
products, primary materials, machinery, vehicles and parts, electronic
equipment, pharmaceuticals, chemical products, cereals, foodstuffs

External debt: $1.8 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.7% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 102,000 kW capacity; 225 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: cement, brick, rice mills, small cotton gins, oilseed presses,
slaughterhouses, and a few other small light industries; uranium production
began in 1971

Agriculture: accounts for roughly 40% of GDP and 90% of labor force; cash
crops--cowpeas, cotton, peanuts; food crops--millet, sorghum, cassava, rice;
livestock--cattle, sheep, goats; self-sufficient in food except in drought years

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $349 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $504 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$61 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Highways: 39,970 km total; 3,170 km bituminous, 10,330 km gravel
and laterite, 3,470 km earthen, 23,000 km tracks

Inland waterways: Niger river is navigable 300 km from Niamey to Gaya on
the Benin frontier from mid-December through March

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 31 total, 29 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 11 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small system of wire, radiocommunications, and radio
relay links concentrated in southwestern area; 11,900 telephones; stations--15
AM, 5 FM, 16 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian
Ocean INTELSAT, and 4 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, paramilitary
Republican Guard, paramilitary Presidential Guard, paramilitary National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,656,466; 894,095 fit for military
service; 87,478 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: $20.6 million (1988)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Nigeria
- Geography
Total area: 923,770 km2; land area: 910,770 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,047 km total; Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km,
Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km

Coastline: 853 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 30 nm

Disputes: exact locations of the Chad-Niger-Nigeria and
Cameroon-Chad-Nigeria tripoints in Lake Chad have not been determined, so the
boundary has not been demarcated and border incidents have resulted; Nigerian
proposals to reopen maritime boundary negotiations and redemarcate the entire
land boundary have been rejected by Cameroon

Climate: varies--equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north

Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus;
mountains in southeast, plains in north

Natural resources: crude oil, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal,
limestone, lead, zinc, natural gas

Land use: 31% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 23% meadows and
pastures; 15% forest and woodland; 28% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: recent droughts in north severely affecting marginal
agricultural activities; desertification; soil degradation, rapid deforestation

- People
Population: 118,819,377 (July 1990), growth rate 3.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 17 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 119 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Nigerian(s); adjective--Nigerian

Ethnic divisions: more than 250 tribal groups; Hausa and Fulani of the
north, Yoruba of the southwest, and Ibos of the southeast make up 65% of the
population; about 27,000 non-Africans

Religion: 50% Muslim, 40% Christian, 10% indigenous beliefs

Language: English (official); Hausa, Yoruba, Ibo, Fulani, and several
other languages also widely used

Literacy: 42.4%

Labor force: 42,844,000; 54% agriculture, 19% industry, commerce,
and services, 15% government; 49% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 3,520,000 wage earners belong to 42 recognized trade
unions, which come under a single national labor federation--the Nigerian
Labor Congress (NLC)

- Government
Long-form name: Federal Republic of Nigeria

Type: military government since 31 December 1983

Capital: Lagos

Administrative divisions: 21 states and 1 territory*;
Abuja Capital Territory*, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bendel, Benue, Borno,
Cross River, Gongola, Imo, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kwara, Lagos, Niger, Ogun,
Ondo, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto

Independence: 1 October 1960 (from UK)

Constitution: 1 October 1979, amended 9 February 1984, revised 1989

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic, and tribal law

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 October (1960)

Executive branch: president of the Armed Forces Ruling Council,
Armed Forces Ruling Council, National Council of State, Council of
Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Assembly was dissolved after the military
coup of 31 December 1983

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President and Commander in
Chief of Armed Forces Gen. Ibrahim BABANGIDA (since 27 August 1985)

Political parties and leaders: two political parties established by
the government in 1989--Social Democratic Party (SDP) and National
Republican Convention (NRC)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--scheduled for 1 October 1992

Communists: the pro-Communist underground consists of a small fraction of
the Nigerian left; leftist leaders are prominent in the country's central
labor organization but have little influence on government

Member of: ACP, AfDB, APC, CCC, Commonwealth, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO,
G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat
Council, Lake Chad Basin Commission, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU,
OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hamzat AHMADU; Chancery at
2201 M Street NW, Washington DC 20037; telephone (202) 822-1500;
there are Nigerian Consulates General in Atlanta, New York and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Lannon WALKER; Embassy at 2 Eleke Crescent,
Victoria Island, Lagos (mailing address is P. O. Box 554, Lagos);
telephone p234o (1) 610097; there is a US Consulate General in Kaduna

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green

- Economy
Overview: In 1989, despite rising oil prices, the economic
performance failed to meet government expectations because of higher
inflationary pressures fueled by a relatively poor agricultural
performance. Agricultural production was up only 4% following a 10%
decline in 1988, and manufacturing remained below the 1985 level
with only a 6% increase. The government is continuing an economic
adjustment program to reduce Nigeria's dependence on oil and to help
create a basis for sustainable noninflationary growth.

GNP: $30.0 billion, per capita $270; real growth rate 4% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 47.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.5% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.5 billion; expenditures $7.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.9 billion (1988 est.)

Exports: $8.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--oil 95%,
cocoa, palm kernels, rubber; partners--EC 51%, US 32%

Imports: $5.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--consumer
goods,
capital equipment, chemicals, raw materials; partners--EC, US

External debt: $32 billion, medium and long-term (December 1989
est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 4,737,000 kW capacity; 11,270 million kWh produced,
100 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: mining--crude oil, natural gas, coal, tin, columbite;
primary processing industries--palm oil, peanut, cotton, rubber, petroleum,
wood, hides and skins; manufacturing industries--textiles, cement, building
materials, food products, footwear, chemical, printing, ceramics, steel

Agriculture: accounts for 28% of GNP and half of labor force; inefficient
small-scale farming dominates; once a large net exporter of food and
now an importer; cash crops--cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, rubber; food
crops--corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava, yams; livestock--cattle,
sheep, goats, pigs; fishing and forestry resources extensively exploited

Illicit drugs: illicit heroin and some cocaine trafficking;
marijuana cultivation for domestic consumption and export; major transit
country for heroin en route from Southwest Asia via Africa to Western
Europe and the US; growing transit route for cocaine from South America
via West Africa to Western Europe and the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $662 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.9 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $2.2 billion

Currency: naira (plural--naira); 1 naira (N) = 100 kobo

Exchange rates: naira (N) per US$1--7.6221 (December 1989), 7.3647
(1989), 4.5370 (1988), 4.0160 (1987), 1.7545 (1986), 0.8938 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,505 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 107,990 km total 30,019 km paved (mostly bituminous-surface
treatment); 25,411 km laterite, gravel, crushed stone, improved earth;
52,560 km unimproved

Inland waterways: 8,575 km consisting of Niger and Benue Rivers and
smaller rivers and creeks

Pipelines: 2,042 km crude oil; 500 km natural gas; 3,000 km refined
products

Ports: Lagos, Port Harcourt, Calabar, Warri, Onne, Sapele

Merchant marine: 28 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 428,116
GRT/680,343 DWT; includes 19 cargo, 1 refrigerated, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo,
5 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 bulk

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

Airports: 84 total, 72 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
22 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above-average system limited by poor maintenance;
major expansion in progress; radio relay and cable routes; 155,000 telephones;
stations--37 AM, 19 FM, 38 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT, domestic, with 19 stations; 1 coaxial submarine cable

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 27,282,248; 15,587,485 fit for military
service; 1,263,883 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1% of GNP, or $300 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Niue
(free association with New Zealand)
- Geography
Total area: 260 km2; land area: 260 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 64 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds

Terrain: steep limestone cliffs along coast, central plateau

Natural resources: fish, arable land

Land use: 61% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 12% other

Environment: subject to typhoons

Note: one of world's largest coral islands; located about 460 km
east of Tonga

- People
Population: 2,019 (July 1990), growth rate NA (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Niuean(s); adjective--Niuean

Ethnic divisions: Polynesian, with some 200 Europeans, Samoans, and
Tongans

Religion: 75% Ekalesia Nieue (Niuean Church)--a Protestant
church closely related to the London Missionary Society, 10% Mormon, 5% Roman
Catholic, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: Polynesian tongue closely related to Tongan and Samoan; English

Literacy: NA%, but education compulsory between 5 and 14 years of age

Labor force: 1,000 (1981 est.); most work on family plantations; paid work
exists only in government service, small industry, and the Niue Development
Board

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: self-governing territory in free association with New Zealand

Capital: Alofi

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (self-governing territory in free association with
New Zealand)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution

Legal system: English common law

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: British monarch, premier, Cabinet

Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Appeal Court of New Zealand, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by New Zealand Representative John SPRINGFORD (since 1974);

Head of Government--Premier Sir Robert R. REX (since NA October
1974)

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Political parties and leaders: Niue People's Action Party,
leader NA

Elections:
Legislative Assembly--last held on 28 March 1987 (next to be
held NA 1990);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(20 total, 6 elected) independents 5, Niue People's Action Party 1

Member of: ESCAP (associate member), SPF

Diplomatic representation: none (self-governing territory in free
association with New Zealand)

Flag: yellow with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant; the
flag of the UK bears five yellow five-pointed stars--a large one on a blue
disk in the center and a smaller one on each arm of the bold red cross

- Economy
Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on aid from New
Zealand. Government expenditures regularly exceed revenues, with the
shortfall made up by grants from New Zealand--the grants are used to pay
wages to the 80% or more of the work force employed in public service.
The agricultural sector consists mainly of subsistence gardening, although some
cash crops are grown for export. Industry consists primarily of small factories
to process passion fruit, lime oil, honey, and coconut cream. The sale of
postage stamps to foreign collectors is an important source of revenue.
The island in recent years has suffered a serious loss of population
because of migration of Niueans to New Zealand.

GNP: $2.1 million, per capita $1,000; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.6% (1984)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $5.5 million; expenditures $6.3 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY85 est.)

Exports: $175,274 (f.o.b., 1985); commodities--canned coconut cream,
copra, honey, passion fruit products, pawpaw, root crops, limes, footballs,
stamps, handicrafts; partners--NZ 89%, Fiji, Cook Islands, Australia

Imports: $3.8 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities--food, live
animals, manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, lubricants, chemicals, drugs;
partners--NZ 59%, Fiji 20%, Japan 13%, Western Samoa, Australia, US

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,500 kW capacity; 3 million kWh produced,
1,420 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourist, handicrafts

Agriculture: copra, coconuts, passion fruit, honey, limes; subsistence
crops--taro, yams, cassava (tapioca), sweet potatoes; pigs, poultry, beef cattle

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $58 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6581 (January 1990),
1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986), 2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 123 km all-weather roads, 106 km access and plantation roads

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway of 1,650 m

Telecommunications: single-line telephone system connects all villages on
island; 383 telephones; 1,000 radio receivers (1987 est.); stations--1 AM, 1 FM,
no TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of New Zealand
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Norfolk Island
(territory of Australia)
- Geography
Total area: 34.6 km2; land area: 34.6 km2

Comparative area: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 32 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: subtropical, mild, little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 25% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 75% other

Environment: subject to typhoons (especially May to July)

Note: located 1,575 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean

- People
Population: 2,533 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: NA births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: NA deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NA migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: NA deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: NA years male, NA years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: NA children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Norfolk Islander(s); adjective--Norfolk Islander(s)

Ethnic divisions: descendants of the Bounty mutiny; more recently,
Australian and New Zealand settlers

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Uniting Church in
Australia, and Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: English (official) and Norfolk--a mixture of 18th century
English and ancient Tahitian

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of Norfolk Island

Type: territory of Australia

Capital: Kingston (administrative center), Burnt Pine (commercial center)

Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)

Independence: none (territory of Australia)

Constitution: Norfolk Island Act of 1957

Legal system: wide legislative and executive responsibility under the
Norfolk Island Act of 1979; Supreme Court

National holiday: Pitcairners Arrival Day Anniversary, 8 June (1856)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general of Australia,
administrator, Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Administrator H. B. MACDONALD (since NA 1989), who is appointed
by the Governor General of Australia;

Head of Government--Assembly President and Chief Minister John
Terence BROWN (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Assembly--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) percent of seats by party NA

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of Australia)

Flag: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a
large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band

- Economy
Overview: The primary economic activity is tourism, which has brought
a level of prosperity unusual among inhabitants of the Pacific Islands. The
number of visitors has increased steadily over the years and reached almost
30,000 in 1986. Revenues from tourism have given the island a favorable balance
of trade and helped the agricultural sector to become self-sufficient in the
production of beef, poultry, and eggs.

GNP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.4 million; expenditures $3.4 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (FY88)

Exports: $1.8 million (f.o.b., FY85); commodities--postage
stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia Palm, small quantities of
avocados;
partners--Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

Imports: $16.3 million (c.i.f., FY85); commodities--NA;
partners--Australia, Pacific Islands, NZ, Asia, Europe

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 7,000 kW capacity; 8 million kWh produced,
3,210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals,
vegetables, fruit, cattle, poultry

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 80 km of roads, including 53 km of sealed roads; remainder are
earth formed or coral surfaced

Ports: none; loading jetties at Kingston and Cascade

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m
(Australian owned)

Telecommunications: 1,500 radio receivers (1982); radio link service
with Sydney; 987 telephones (1983); stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Australia
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Northern Mariana Islands
(commonwealth associated with the US)
- Geography
Total area: 477 km2; land area: 477 km2; includes Saipan, Rota, and Tinian

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,482 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical marine; moderated by northeast trade winds, little
seasonal temperature variation; dry season December to July, rainy season
July to October

Terrain: southern islands are limestone with level terraces and fringing
coral reefs; northern islands are volcanic; highest elevation is 471 meters
(Mt. Tagpochu on Saipan)

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: 1% arable land; NA% permanent crops; 19% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: Mt. Pagan is an active volcano (last erupted in October
1988); subject to typhoons during the rainy season

Note: strategic location 5,635 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the
North Pacific Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and
the Philippines

- People
Population: 22,719 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 17 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: undetermined

Ethnic divisions: Chamorro majority; Carolinians and other Micronesians;
Spanish, German, Japanese admixtures

Religion: Christian with a Roman Catholic majority, although traditional
beliefs and taboos may still be found

Language: English, but Chamorro and Carolinian are also spoken in the
home and taught in school

Literacy: NA%

Labor force: 17,533, including 10,000 foreign workers (1988 est.)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

Type: commonwealth associated with the US and administered by the
Office of Territorial and International Affairs, US Department of the
Interior

Capital: Saipan

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: none (commonwealth associated with the US)

Constitution: Covenant Agreement effective 3 November 1986

Legal system: NA

National holiday: Commonwealth Day, 8 January (1978)

Executive branch: governor, lieutenant governor

Legislative branch: bicameral Legislature consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President George BUSH (since 20 January 1989);
Vice President Dan QUAYLE (since 20 January 1989);

Head of Government--Governor Pedro P. TENORIO (since 1978);
Lieutenant Governor Pedro A. TENORIO (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party, Antonio S. Guerrero;
Republican Party, Alonso Igisomar

Suffrage: universal at age 18; indigenous inhabitants are US
citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Elections:
Governor--last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results--Pedro P. TENORIO (Democratic Party) was elected;

Senate--last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(9 total) number of seats by party NA;

House of Representatives--last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(14 total) number of seats by party NA;

US House of Representatives--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) party of nonvoting delegate NA

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: blue with a white five-pointed star superimposed on the gray
silhouette of a latte stone (a traditional foundation stone used in building)
in the center

- Economy
Overview: The economy benefits substantially from financial assistance
from the US. An agreement for the years 1986 to 1992 entitles the islands to
$228 million for capital development, government operations, and special
programs. Another major source of income is the tourist industry, which
employs about 10% of the work force. The agricultural sector is made up of
cattle ranches and small farms producing coconuts, breadfruit, tomatoes, and
melons. Industry is small scale in nature--mostly handicrafts and fish
processing.

GNP: $165 million, per capita $9,170; real growth rate NA% (1982)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $70.6 million, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $NA; commodities--vegetables, beef, pork;
partners--NA

Imports: $NA; commodities--NA;
partners--NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 25,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
1,640 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, construction, light industry, handicrafts

Agriculture: coffee, coconuts, fruits, tobacco, cattle

Aid: none

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Highways: 300 km total (53 km primary, 55 km secondary, 192 km local)

Ports: Saipan, Rota, Tinian

Airports: 6 total, 4 usable; 3 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Norway
- Geography
Total area: 324,220 km2; land area: 307,860 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,582 km total; Finland 729 km, Sweden 1,657,
USSR 196 km

Coastline: 21,925 km (3,419 km mainland; 2,413 km large islands;
16,093 km long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations)

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary dispute with USSR; territorial claim in
Antarctica (Queen Maud Land); Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime
claims beween Greenland and Jan Mayen

Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder
interior; rainy year-round on west coast

Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken
by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented
by fjords; arctic tundra in north

Natural resources: crude oil, copper, natural gas, pyrites,
nickel, iron ore, zinc, lead, fish, timber, hydropower

Land use: 3% arable land; 0% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 27% forest and woodland; 70% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: air and water pollution; acid rain

Note: strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in
North Atlantic; one of most rugged and longest coastlines in world; Norway and
Turkey only NATO members having a land boundary with the USSR

- People
Population: 4,252,806 (July 1990), growth rate 0.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 14 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 11 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Norwegian(s); adjective--Norwegian

Ethnic divisions: Germanic (Nordic, Alpine, Baltic) and racial-cultural
minority of 20,000 Lapps

Religion: 94% Evangelical Lutheran (state church), 4% other Protestant and
Roman Catholic, 2% other

Language: Norwegian (official); small Lapp- and Finnish-speaking
minorities

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 2,164,000; 33.6% services, 17.4% commerce, 16.6% mining and
manufacturing, 8.4% transportation, 7.8% construction,
6.8% banking and financial services, 6.5% agriculture, forestry, and
fishing (1986)

Organized labor: 66% of labor force (1985)

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Norway

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Oslo

Administrative divisions: 19 provinces (fylker, singular--fylke);
Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal,
Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland,
Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold

Independence: 26 October 1905 (from Sweden)

Constitution: 17 May 1814, modified in 1884

Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard

Legal system: mixture of customary law, civil law system, and common law
traditions; Supreme Court renders advisory opinions to legislature when asked;
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, State Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Storting or Stortinget)
with an Upper Chamber (Lagting) and a Lower Chamber (Odelsting)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Hoiesterett)

Leaders:
Chief of State--King OLAV V (since 21 September 1957); Heir Apparent
Crown Prince HARALD (born 21 February 1937);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jan P. SYSE (since 16 October
1989)

Political parties and leaders: Labor, Gro Harlem Brundtland;
Conservative, Jan P. Syse; Center, Johan J. Jakobsen; Christian
People's, Kjell Magne Bondevik; Socialist Left, Eric Solheim; Norwegian
Communist, Hans I. Kleven; Progress, Carl I. Hagen; Liberal, Arne
Fjortoft; Finnmark List, leader NA

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament--last held on 11 September 1989 (next to be held
6 September 1993);
results--Labor 34.3%, Conservative 22.2%, Progress 13.0%, Socialist Left
10.1%, Christian People's 8.5%, Center 6.6%, Finnmark List 0.3%, others
5%;
seats--(165 total) Labor 63, Conservative 37, Progress 22, Socialist
Left 17, Christian People's 14, Center 11, Finnmark List 1

Communists: 15,500 est.; 5,500 Norwegian Communist Party (NKP); 10,000
Workers Communist Party Marxist-Leninist (AKP-ML, pro-Chinese)

Member of: ADB, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EFTA, ESA, FAO,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA, IEA (associate member),
IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU,
IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International
Wheat Council, NATO, Nordic Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Kjeld VIBE; Chancery at
2720 34th Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 333-6000;
there are Norwegian Consulates General in Houston, Los Angeles,
Minneapolis, New York, and San Francisco, and Consulates in Miami and New
Orleans;
US--Ambassador Loret Miller RUPPE; Embassy at Drammensveien 18,
Oslo 2 (mailing address is APO New York 09085); telephone p47o
(2) 44-85-50

Flag: red with a blue cross outlined in white that extends to the edges of
the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the
style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)

- Economy
Overview: Norway is a prosperous capitalist nation with the resources
to finance extensive welfare measures. Since 1975 exploitation of large
crude oil and natural gas reserves has helped achieve an average annual
growth of roughly 4%, the third-highest among OECD countries. Growth
slackened in 1987-88 because of the sharp drop in world oil prices and a
slowdown in consumer spending, but picked up again in 1989. Future
economic issues involve the aging of the population, the increased
economic integration of Europe, and the balance between private and
public influence in economic decisions.

GDP: $75.8 billion, per capita $17,900; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.9% (1989 est., excluding people in
job-training programs)

Budget: revenues $40.6 billion; expenditures $41.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $22.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989);
commodities--petroleum and petroleum products 25%, natural gas
11%, fish 7%, aluminum 6%, ships 3.5%, pulp and paper;
partners--UK 26%, EFTA 16.3%, less developed countries 14%,
Sweden 12%, FRG 12%, US 6%, Denmark 5% (1988)

Imports: $18.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--machinery,
fuels and lubricants, transportation equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, clothing,
ships; partners--Sweden 18%, less developed countries 18%,
FRG 14%, Denmark 8%, UK 7%, US 7%, Japan 5% (1988)

External debt: $18.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 15.8% (1989)

Electricity: 26,735,000 kW capacity; 121,685 million kWh produced,
28,950 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum and gas, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and
paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 3.1% of GNP and 6.5% of labor force;
among world's top 10 fishing nations; livestock output exceeds value
of crops; over half of food needs imported; fish catch of 1.9 million
metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $3.7 billion

Currency: Norwegian krone (plural--kroner);
1 Norwegian krone (NKr) = 100 ore

Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NKr) per US$1--6.5405 (January 1990),
6.9045 (1989), 6.5170 (1988), 6.7375 (1987), 7.3947 (1986), 8.5972 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 4,223 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; Norwegian State Railways
(NSB) operates 4,219 km (2,450 km electrified and 96 km double track); 4
km other

Highways: 79,540 km total; 18,600 km concrete, bituminous, stone block;
19,980 km bituminous treated; 40,960 km gravel, crushed stone, and earth

Inland waterways: 1,577 km along west coast; 1.5-2.4 m draft vessels
maximum

Pipelines: refined products, 53 km

Ports: Oslo, Bergen, Fredrikstad, Kristiansand, Stavanger,
Trondheim

Merchant marine: 660 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 16,702,254
GRT/28,722,304 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 19 short-sea passenger, 104 cargo,
3 passenger-cargo, 19 refrigerated cargo, 6 container, 40 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 6 vehicle carrier, 1 railcar carrier, 128 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 86 chemical tanker, 62 liquefied gas, 26 combination ore/oil,
142 bulk, 7 combination bulk; note--the government has created a captive
register, the Norwegian International Ship Register (NIS), as a subset of
the Norwegian register; ships on the NIS enjoy many benefits of flags of
convenience and do not have to be crewed by Norwegians; the majority of
ships under the Norwegian flag are now registered with the NIS

Civil air: 76 major transport aircraft

Airports: 104 total, 104 usable; 64 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
16 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: high-quality domestic and international telephone,
telegraph, and telex services; 3,102,000 telephones; stations--8 AM, 46 (1,400
relays) FM, 55 (2,100 relays) TV; 4 coaxial submarine cables; communications
satellite earth stations operating in the EUTELSAT, INTELSAT (1 Atlantic Ocean),
MARISAT, and domestic systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Norwegian Army, Royal Norwegian Navy, Royal Norwegian Air
Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,115,620; 937,555 fit for military
service; 32,748 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.3% of GDP, or $2.5 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Oman
- Geography
Total area: 212,460 km2; land area: 212,460 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Kansas

Land boundaries: 1,374 km total; Saudi Arabia 676 km, UAE 410 km,
PDRY 288 km

Coastline: 2,092 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to be defined;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Administrative Line with PDRY; no defined boundary with
most of UAE, Administrative Line in far north

Climate: dry desert; hot, humid along coast; hot, dry interior; strong
southwest summer monsoon (May to September) in far south

Terrain: vast central desert plain, rugged mountains in north and south

Natural resources: crude oil, copper, asbestos, some marble, limestone,
chromium, gypsum, natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 5% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 95% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: summer winds often raise large sandstorms and duststorms
in interior; sparse natural freshwater resources

Note: strategic location with small foothold on Musandam
Peninsula controlling Strait of Hormuz (17% of world's oil production
transits this point going from Persian Gulf to Arabian Sea)

- People
Population: 1,457,064 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 105 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Omani(s); adjective--Omani

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Arab, with small Balochi, Zanzibari, and
Indian groups

Religion: 75% Ibadhi Muslim; remainder Sunni Muslim, Shia Muslim, some
Hindu

Language: Arabic (official); English, Balochi, Urdu, Indian dialects

Literacy: 20%

Labor force: 430,000; 60% agriculture (est.); 58% are non-Omani

Organized labor: trade unions are illegal

- Government
Long-form name: Sultanate of Oman

Type: absolute monarchy; independent, with residual UK influence

Capital: Muscat

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 1650, expulsion of the Portuguese

Constitution: none

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; ultimate
appeal to the sultan; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Executive branch: sultan, Cabinet, State Consultative Assembly

Legislative branch: none

Judicial branch: none; traditional Islamic judges and a nascent
civil court system

National holiday: National Day, 18 November

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--Sultan and Prime Minister QABOOS
bin Said Al Said (since 23 July 1970)

Political parties: none

Suffrage: none

Elections: none

Other political or pressure groups: outlawed Popular Front for the
Liberation of Oman (PFLO), based in South Yemen; small, clandestine Shia
fundamentalist groups are active

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GCC, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Awadh Bader AL-SHANFARI; Chancery at
2342 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-1980
through 1982;
US--Ambassador Richard BOEHM; Embassy at address NA, Muscat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 966, Muscat); telephone 738-231 or 738-006

Flag: three horizontal bands of white (top, double width), red, and green
(double width) with a broad, vertical, red band on the hoist side; the national
emblem (a khanjar dagger in its sheath superimposed on two crossed swords
in scabbards) in white is centered at the top of the vertical band

- Economy
Overview: Economic performance is closely tied to the fortunes of the oil
industry. Petroleum accounts for nearly all export earnings, about 70% of
government revenues, and more than 50% of GDP. Oman has proved oil reserves of
4 billion barrels, equivalent to about 20 years' supply at the current
rate of extraction. Although agriculture employs a majority of the population,
urban centers depend on imported food.

GDP: $7.8 billion, per capita $6,006; real growth rate - 3.0% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $3.1 billion; expenditures $4.2 billion,
including capital expenditures of $1.0 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $3.6 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.);
commodities--petroleum, reexports, processed copper, dates, nuts, fish;
partners--Japan, South Korea, Thailand

Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities
--machinery, transportation equipment, manufactured goods, food,
livestock, lubricants; partners--Japan, UAE, UK, FRG, US

External debt: $3.1 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5.0% (1986)

Electricity: 1,130,000 kW capacity; 3,600 million kWh produced,
2,760 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: crude oil production and refining, natural gas production,
construction, cement, copper

Agriculture: accounts for 3.4% of GDP and 60% of the labor force
(including fishing); less than 2% of land cultivated; largely subsistence
farming (dates, limes, bananas, alfalfa, vegetables, camels, cattle); not
self-sufficient in food; annual fish catch averages 100,000 metric tons

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $122 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $92 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $797 million

Currency: Omani rial (plural--rials); 1 Omani rial (RO) = 1,000 baiza

Exchange rates: Omani rials (RO) per US$1--0.3845 (fixed rate since 1986)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 22,800 km total; 3,800 km bituminous surface, 19,000 km
motorable track

Pipelines: crude oil 1,300 km; natural gas 1,030 km

Ports: Mina Qabus, Mina Raysut

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 128 total, 119 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 63 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire, radio relay, and radio
communications stations; 50,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, 3 FM, 11 TV;
satellite earth stations--2 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT and 8 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Royal Oman Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 350,173; 198,149 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 16.5% of GDP, or $1.3 billion (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Pacific Islands, Trust Territory of the
(Palau)
- Geography
Total area: 458 km2; land area: 458 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,519 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid

Terrain: islands vary geologically from the high mountainous main island
of Babelthuap to low, coral islands usually fringed by large barrier reefs

Natural resources: forests, minerals (especially gold), marine
products; deep-seabed minerals

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; archipelago of
six island groups totaling over 200 islands in the Caroline chain

Note: important location 850 km southeast of the Philippines;
includes World War II battleground of Peleliu and world-famous rock
islands

- People
Population: 14,310 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 25 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 12 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 74 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Palauan(s); adjective--Palauan

Ethnic divisions: Palauans are a composite of Polynesian, Malayan,
and Melanesian races

Religion: predominantly Christian, mainly Roman Catholic

Language: Palauan is the official language, though English is
commonplace; inhabitants of the isolated southwestern islands speak a
dialect of Trukese

Literacy: NA%, but education compulsory through eight grades

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands
(no short-form name); may change to Republic of Palau after independence;
note--Belau, the native form of Palau, is sometimes used

Type: UN trusteeship administered by the US; constitutional
government signed a Compact of Free Association with the US on
10 January 1986, after approval in a series of UN-observed plebiscites;
until the UN trusteeship is terminated with entry into force of the
Compact, Palau remains under US administration as the Palau District of
the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

Capital: Koror; a new capital is being built about 20 km northeast
in eastern Babelthuap

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: still part of the US-administered UN trusteeship
(the last polity remaining under the trusteeship; the Republic of the
Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, and Commonwealth of the
Northern Marianas have left); administered by the Office of Territorial
and International Affairs, US Department of Interior

Constitution: 11 January 1981

Legal system: based on Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

National holiday: Constitution Day, 9 July (1979)

Executive branch: US president, US vice president, national president,
national vice president

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Olbiil Era Kelulau or OEK)
consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Delegates

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Walker BUSH (since 20 January
1989), represented by High Commissioner Janet MCCOY (since NA);

Head of Government--President Ngiratkel ETPISON (since 2 November 1988)

Political parties: no formal parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 2 November 1988 (next to be held November
1992); Ngiratkel Etpison 26.3%, Roman Tmetuchl 25.9%,
Thomas Remengesau 19.5%, others 28.3%;

Senate--last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held November 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(18 total);

House of Delegates--last held 2 November 1988 (next to be held
November 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(16 total)

Diplomatic representation: none;
US--US Liaison Officer Steven R. PRUETT; US Liaison Office at Top Side,
Neeriyas, Koror (mailing address: P. O. Box 6028, Koror, Republic of Palau
96940); telephone 160-680-920 or 990

Flag: light blue with a large yellow disk (representing the moon) shifted
slightly to the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The economy consists primarily of subsistence agriculture
and fishing. Tourism provides some foreign exchange, although the remote
location of Palau and a shortage of suitable facilities has hindered
development. The government is the major employer of the work force, relying
heavily on financial assistance from the US.

GDP: $31.6 million, per capita $2,260; real growth rate NA% (1986)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 20% (1986)

Budget: revenues $6.0 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $0.5 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--NA;
partners--US, Japan

Imports: $27.2 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities--NA;
partners--US

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 16,000 kW capacity; 22 million kWh produced,
1,550 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, craft items (shell, wood, pearl), some commercial
fishing and agriculture

Agriculture: subsistence-level production of coconut, copra, cassava,
sweet potatoes

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $2 billion;
Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87),
$62.6 million

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Highways: 25.7 km paved macadam and concrete roads, otherwise
stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads (1986)

Ports: Koror

Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--1 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US and that will not
change when the UN trusteeship terminates
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Pacific Ocean
- Geography
Total area: 165,384,000 km2; includes Arafura Sea, Banda Sea,
Bellingshausen Sea, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea,
Gulf of Alaska, Makassar Strait, Philippine Sea, Ross Sea, Sea of Japan,
Sea of Okhotsk, South China Sea, Tasman Sea, and other tributary water bodies

Comparative area: slightly less than 18 times the size of the US;
the largest ocean (followed by the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Arctic
Ocean); covers about one-third of the global surface; larger than the total
land area of the world

Coastline: 135,663 km

Climate: the western Pacific is monsoonal--a rainy season occurs during
the summer months, when moisture-laden winds blow from the ocean over the
land, and a dry season during the winter months, when dry winds blow from
the Asian land mass back to the ocean

Terrain: surface in the northern Pacific dominated by a clockwise, warm
water gyre (broad, circular system of currents) and in the southern Pacific by
a counterclockwise, cool water gyre; sea ice occurs in the Bering Sea and
Sea of Okhotsk during winter and reaches maximum northern extent from
Antarctica in October; the ocean floor in the eastern Pacific is dominated by
the East Pacific Rise, while the western Pacific is dissected by deep trenches;
the world's greatest depth is 10,924 meters in the Marianas Trench

Natural resources: oil and gas fields, polymetallic nodules, sand and
gravel aggregates, placer deposits, fish

Environment: endangered marine species include the dugong, sea lion,
sea otter, seals, turtles, and whales; oil pollution in Philippine Sea and
South China Sea; dotted with low coral islands and rugged volcanic islands in
the southwestern Pacific Ocean; subject to tropical cyclones (typhoons) in
southeast and east Asia from May to December (most frequent from July to
October); tropical cyclones (hurricanes) may form south of Mexico and strike
Central America and Mexico from June to October (most common in August and
September); southern shipping lanes subject to icebergs from Antarctica;
occasional El Nino phenomenon occurs off the coast of Peru when the trade
winds slacken and the warm Equatorial Countercurrent moves south, which
kills the plankton that is the primary food source for anchovies;
consequently, the anchovies move to better feeding grounds, causing resident
marine birds to starve by the thousands because of their lost food source

Note: the major choke points are the Bering Strait, Panama Canal,
Luzon Strait, and the Singapore Strait; the Equator divides the Pacific Ocean
into the North Pacific Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean; ships subject to
superstructure icing in extreme north from October to May and in extreme south
from May to October; persistent fog in the northern Pacific from June to
December is a hazard to shipping; surrounded by a zone of violent volcanic
and earthquake activity sometimes referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire

- Economy
Overview: The Pacific Ocean is a major contributor to the world
economy and particularly to those nations its waters directly touch.
It provides cheap sea transportation between East and West, extensive fishing
grounds, offshore oil and gas fields, minerals, and sand and gravel for the
construction industry. In 1985 over half (54%) of the world's total fish catch
came from the Pacific Ocean, which is the only ocean where the fish catch
has increased every year since 1978. Exploitation of offshore oil and gas
reserves is playing an ever increasing role in the energy supplies of Australia,
New Zealand, China, US, and Peru. The high cost of recovering offshore oil
and gas, combined with the lower world prices for oil since 1985, has slowed
but not stopped new drillings.

Industries: fishing, oil and gas production

- Communications
Ports: Bangkok (Thailand), Hong Kong, Los Angeles (US),
Manila (Philippines), Pusan (South Korea), San Francisco (US), Seattle (US),
Shanghai (China), Singapore, Sydney (Australia), Vladivostok (USSR),
Wellington (NZ), Yokohama (Japan)

Telecommunications: several submarine cables with network focused
on Guam and Hawaii
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Pakistan
- Geography
Total area: 803,940 km2; land area: 778,720 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 6,774 km total; Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km,
India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

Coastline: 1,046 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: boundary with India; Pashtun question with Afghanistan; Baloch
question with Afghanistan and Iran; water sharing problems with upstream
riparian India over the Indus

Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in
north

Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest;
Balochistan plateau in west

Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited
crude oil, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

Land use: 26% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 6% meadows and
pastures; 4% forest and woodland; 64% other; includes 19% irrigated

Environment: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in
north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August);
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water logging

Note: controls Khyber Pass and Malakand Pass, traditional
invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

- People
Population: 114,649,406 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 43 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 6 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 110 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 56 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Pakistani(s); adjective--Pakistani

Ethnic divisions: Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashtun (Pathan), Baloch,
Muhajir (immigrants from India and their descendents)

Religion: 97% Muslim (77% Sunni, 20% Shia), 3% Christian, Hindu, and
other

Language: Urdu and English (official); total spoken languages--64%
Punjabi, 12% Sindhi, 8% Pashtu, 7% Urdu, 9% Balochi and other; English is
lingua franca of Pakistani elite and most government ministries, but
official policies are promoting its gradual replacement by Urdu

Literacy: 26%

Labor force: 28,900,000; 54% agriculture, 13% mining and manufacturing,
33% services; extensive export of labor (1987 est.)

Organized labor: about 10% of industrial work force

- Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Type: parliamentary with strong executive, federal republic

Capital: Islamabad

Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 tribal area*, and 1 territory**;
Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad
Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh; note--the
Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region
includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK; formerly West Pakistan)

Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977,
restored 30 December 1985

Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate
Pakistan's stature as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Pakistan Day (proclamation of the republic),
23 March (1956)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Federal Legislature (Mijlis-e-Shoora)
consists of an upper house or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court, Federal Islamic (Shariat) Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President GHULAM ISHAQ Khan (since 13 December 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Benazir BHUTTO (since 2 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders:
Pakistan People's Party (PPP), Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto;
Pakistan Muslim League (PML), former Prime Minister Mohammed Khan Junejo;
PML is the main party in the anti-PPP Islamic Democratic Alliance (IDA);
Muhajir Quami Movement, Altaf Hussain; Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Islam
(JUI), Fazlur Rahman; Jamaat-i-Islami (JI), Qazi Hussain Ahmed;
Awami National Party (ANP), Khan Abdul Wali Khan

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held on 12 December 1988 (next to be held
December 1993); results--Ghulam Ishaq Khan was elected by the Federal
Legislature;

Senate--last held March 1988 (next to be held March 1990);
results--elected by provincial assemblies;
seats--(87 total) PML 84, PPP 2, independent 1;

National Assembly--last held on 16 November 1988 (next to be held
November 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(237 total) PPP 109, IJI 65, MQM 14, JUI 8, PAI 3, ANP 3, BNA 3,
others 3, independents 29

Communists: the Communist party is no longer outlawed and operates
openly

Other political or pressure groups: military remains dominant political
force; ulema (clergy), industrialists, and small merchants also influential

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OIC,
SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WFTU, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Zulfikar ALI KHAN; Chancery at
2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6200;
there is a Pakistani Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Robert B. OAKLEY; Embassy at Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5,
Islamabad (mailing address is P. O. Box 1048, Islamabad);
telephone p92o (51) 8261-61 through 79; there are US Consulates General
in Karachi and Lahore, and a Consulate in Peshawar

Flag: green with a vertical white band on the hoist side; a large white
crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam

- Economy
Overview: Pakistan is a poor Third World country faced with the usual
problems of rapidly increasing population, sizable government deficits,
and heavy dependence on foreign aid. In addition, the economy must support a
large military establishment and provide for the needs of 4 million Afghan
refugees. A real economic growth rate averaging 5-6% in recent years has enabled
the country to cope with these problems. Almost all agriculture and small-scale
industry is in private hands, and the government seeks to privatize a portion
of the large-scale industrial enterprises now publicly owned. In
December 1988, Pakistan signed a three-year economic reform agreement
with the IMF, which provides for a reduction in the government deficit
and a liberalization of trade in return for further IMF financial
support. The so-called Islamization of the economy has affected mainly the
financial sector; for example, a prohibition on certain types of interest
payments. Pakistan almost certainly will make little headway against its
population problem; at the current rate of growth, population would
double in 32 years.

GNP: $43.2 billion, per capita $409; real growth rate 5.1% (FY89)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 11% (FY89)

Unemployment rate: 4% (FY89 est.)

Budget: revenues $7.5 billion; expenditures $10.3 billion,
including capital expenditures of $2.3 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $4.5 billion (f.o.b., FY89); commodities--rice, cotton,
textiles, clothing; partners--EC 31%, US 11%, Japan 11% (FY88)

Imports: $7.2 billion (f.o.b., FY89); commodities--petroleum,
petroleum products, machinery, transportation, equipment, vegetable oils,

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