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Literacy: 38%

Labor force: NA, but 90% engaged in agriculture

Organized labor: 225,000 workers belong to a single union,
the Mozambique Workers' Organization (OTM)

Note: there are 800,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1989 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: People's Republic of Mozambique

Type: people's republic

Capital: Maputo

Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias,
singular--provincia); Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Nampula,
Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia

Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)

Constitution: 25 June 1975

Legal system: based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Assembly (Assembleia Popular)

Judicial branch: People's Courts at all levels

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6
November 1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mario da Graca MACHUNGO (since
17 July 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Front for the Liberation of Mozambique
(FRELIMO) is the only legal party and is a Marxist organization with close ties
to the USSR

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections: national elections are indirect and based on mass meetings
throughout the country

Communists: about 60,000 FRELIMO members

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO,
IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Valeriano FERRAO; Chancery at
Suite 570, 1990 M Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 293-7146;
US--Ambassador Melissa F. WELLS; Embassy at 3rd Floor, 35 Rua Da Mesquita,
Maputo (mailing address is P. O. Box 783, Maputo); telephone 743167 or 744163

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with
a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in
white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed
rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book

- Economy
Overview: One of Africa's poorest countries, with a per capita GDP of
little more than $100, Mozambique has failed to exploit the economic potential
of its sizable agricultural, hydropower, and transportation resources.
Indeed, national output, consumption, and investment declined throughout the
first half of the 1980s because of internal disorders, lack of government
administrative control, and a growing foreign debt. A sharp increase in foreign
aid, attracted by an economic reform policy, has resulted in successive years of
economic growth since 1985. Agricultural output, nevertheless, is only
at about 75% of its 1981 level, and grain has to be imported. Industry
operates at only 20-40% of capacity. The economy depends heavily on
foreign assistance to keep afloat.

GDP: $1.6 billion, per capita less than $110; real growth rate 5.0%
(1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 81.1% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 40.0 (1988)

Budget: revenues $186 million; expenditures $239 million,
including capital expenditures of $208 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $100 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--shrimp 48%,
cashews 21%, sugar 10%, copra 3%, citrus 3%; partners--US, Western
Europe, GDR, Japan

Imports: $764 million (c.i.f., 1988), including aid;
commodities--food, clothing, farm equipment, petroleum;
partners--US, Western Europe, USSR

External debt: $4.4 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 7% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,265,000 kW capacity; 1,740 million kWh produced,
120 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints),
petroleum products, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products (cement, glass,
asbestos), tobacco

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP, over 80% of labor force, and about
90% of exports; cash crops--cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, shrimp; other
crops--cassava, corn, rice, tropical fruits; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $282 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.1 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $37 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$887 million

Currency: metical (plural--meticais); 1 metical (Mt) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: meticais (Mt) per US$1--800 (September 1989),
528.60 (1988), 289.44 (1987), 40.43 (1986), 43.18 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,288 km total; 3,140 km 1.067-meter gauge; 148 km 0.762-meter
narrow gauge; Malawi-Nacala, Malawi-Beira, and Zimbabwe-Maputo lines are
subject to closure because of insurgency

Highways: 26,498 km total; 4,593 km paved; 829 km gravel, crushed stone,
stabilized soil; 21,076 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: about 3,750 km of navigable routes

Pipelines: 306 km crude oil (not operating); 289 km refined products

Ports: Maputo, Beira, Nacala

Merchant marine: 5 cargo ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,806
GRT/12,873 DWT

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 203 total, 153 usable; 27 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 29 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of troposcatter, open-wire lines, and
radio relay; 57,400 telephones; stations--15 AM, 3 FM, 1 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 3 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Mozambique Armed Forces (including Army, Border Guard, Naval
Command, Air Defense Forces)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,295,067; 1,892,699 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 8.4% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Namibia
- Geography
Total area: 824,290 km2; land area: 823,290 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than half the size of Alaska

Land boundaries: 3,935 km total; Angola 1,376 km, Botswana
1,360 km, South Africa 966 km, Zambia 233 km

Coastline: 1,489 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: short section of boundary with Botswana is indefinite;
quadripoint with Botswana, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is in disagreement;
possible future claim to South Africa's Walvis Bay

Climate: desert; hot, dry; rainfall sparse and erratic

Terrain: mostly high plateau; Namib Desert along coast; Kalahari Desert
in east

Natural resources: diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, lead, tin,
zinc, salt, vanadium, natural gas, fish; suspected deposits of coal
and iron ore

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 64% meadows and
pastures; 22% forest and woodland; 13% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: inhospitable with very limited natural water resources;
desertification

Note: Walvis Bay area is an exclave of South Africa in Namibia

- People
Population: 1,452,951 (July 1990), growth rate 5.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 20 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 71 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 57 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Namibian(s); adjective--Namibian

Ethnic divisions: 86% black, 6.5% white, 7.5% mixed; about 50%
of the population belong to the Ovambo tribe and 9% from the Kavangos
tribe

Religion: predominantly Christian

Language: Afrikaans principal language of about 60% of white population,
German of 33%, and English of 7% (all official); several indigenous languages

Literacy: 100% whites, 16% nonwhites

Labor force: 500,000; 60% agriculture, 19% industry and commerce,
8% services, 7% government, 6% mining (1981 est.)

Organized labor: 15 trade unions--largest is the mineworkers'
union which has a sizable black membership

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Namibia

Type: republic as of 21 March 1990

Capital: Windhoek

Administrative divisions: 26 districts; Bethanien, Boesmanland,
Caprivi Oos, Damaraland, Gobabis, Grootfontein, Hereroland Oos,
Hereroland Wes, Kaokoland, Karasburg, Karibib, Kavango, Keetmanshoop,
Luderitz, Maltahohe, Mariental, Namaland, Okahandja, Omaruru,
Otjiwarongo, Outjo, Owambo, Rehoboth, Swakopmund, Tsumeb, Windhoek

Independence: 21 March 1990

Constitution: ratified 9 February 1990

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law and customary law

National holiday: Settlers' Day, 10 December

Executive branch: president, Cabinet, Constitutional Council

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government President Sam NUJOMA
(since 21 March 1990)

Political parties and leaders: South-West Africa People's
Organization (SWAPO), Sam Nujoma;
Democratic Turnhalle Alliance (DTA), Dirk Mudge;
United Democratic Front (UDF), Justus Garoeb;
Action Christian National (ACN), Kosie Pretorius;
National Patriotic Front (NPF), Moses Katjiuongua;
Federal Convention of Namibia (FCN), Hans Diergaardt;
Namibia National Front (NNF), Vekuii Rukoro

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly--last held on 7-11 November 1989
(next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(72 total) SWAPO 41, DTA 21, UDF 4, ACN 3, NNF 1, FCN 1, NPF 1

Communists: no Communist party

Other political or pressure groups: NA

Member of: FAO, IAEA, ILO, UNESCO, WHO

Diplomatic representation: NA

Flag: a large blue triangle with a yellow sunburst fills the
upper left section, and an equal green triangle (solid) fills the lower
right section; the triangles are separated by a red stripe which is
contrasted by two narrow white edge borders

- Economy
Overview: The economy is heavily dependent on the mining industry
to extract and process minerals for export. Mining accounts for almost 35%
of GDP, agriculture and fisheries 10-15%, and manufacturing about 5%.
Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of nonfuel minerals in Africa and
the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Alluvial diamond deposits are
among the richest in the world, making Namibia a primary source for
gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin,
silver, and tungsten, and it has substantial resources of coal.

GNP: $1.54 billion, per capita $1,245; real growth rate 2.9%
(1987)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.1% (1989)

Unemployment rate: over 30% (1988)

Budget: revenues $781 million; expenditures $932 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88)

Exports: $935 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--diamonds,
uranium, zinc, copper, meat, processed fish, karakul skins;
partners--South Africa

Imports: $856 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--foodstuffs,
manufactured consumer goods, machinery and equipment;
partners--South Africa, FRG, UK, US

External debt: about $27 million at independence; under a 1971
International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruling, Namibia may not be
liable for debt incurred during its colonial period

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 486,000 kW capacity; 1,280 million kWh produced,
930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining (copper,
lead, zinc, diamond, uranium)

Agriculture: accounts for 10% of GDP (including fishing); mostly
subsistence farming; livestock raising major source of cash income;
crops--millet, sorghum, peanuts; fish catch potential of over 1 million
metric tons not being fulfilled, 1987 catch reaching only 520,000 metric
tons; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $47.2 million

Currency: South African rand (plural--rand);
1 South African rand (R) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: South African rand (R) per US$1--2.5555 (January 1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 2,341 km 1.067-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 54,500 km; 4,079 km paved, 2,540 km gravel, 47,881 km earth
roads and tracks

Ports: Luderitz; primary maritime outlet is Walvis Bay (South Africa)

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 143 total, 123 usable; 21 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 63 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good urban, fair rural services; radio relay connects
major towns, wires extend to other population centers; 62,800 telephones;
stations--2 AM, 40 FM, 3 TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: males 15-49, 298,249; 176,660 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 4.9% of GNP (1986)

Note: the South-West Africa Territorial Force, established in
1980, was demobilized in June 1989; a new national defense force will
probably be formed by the new government
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Nauru
- Geography
Total area: 21 km2; land area: 21 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 30 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; monsoonal; rainy season (November to February)

Terrain: sandy beach rises to fertile ring around raised coral reefs
with phosphate plateau in center

Natural resources: phosphates

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: only 53 km south of Equator

Note: one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific
(others are Banaba or Ocean Island in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia)

- People
Population: 9,202 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: NEGL migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 41 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 69 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Nauruan(s); adjective--Nauruan

Ethnic divisions: 58% Nauruan, 26% other Pacific Islander, 8% Chinese, 8%
European

Religion: Christian (two-thirds Protestant, one-third Roman Catholic)

Language: Nauruan, a distinct Pacific Island language (official); English
widely understood, spoken, and used for most government and commercial purposes

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Nauru

Type: republic

Capital: no capital city as such; government offices in Yaren District

Administrative divisions: 14 districts; Aiwo, Anabar, Anetan, Anibare,
Baiti, Boe, Buada, Denigomodu, Ewa, Ijuw, Meneng, Nibok, Uaboe, Yaren

Independence: 31 January 1968 (from UN trusteeship under Australia,
New Zealand, and UK); formerly Pleasant Island

Constitution: 29 January 1968

Legal system: own Acts of Parliament and British common law

National holiday: Independence Day, 31 January (1968)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Bernard DOWIYOGO
(since 12 December 1989)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 20

Elections:
President--last held 9 December 1989 (next to be held December
1992);
results--Bernard Dowiyogo elected by Parliament;

Parliament--last held on 9 December 1989 (next to be held
December 1992);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(18 total) independents 18

Member of: Commonwealth (special member), ESCAP, ICAO, INTERPOL,
ITU, SPC, SPF, UPU

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador T. W. STAR resides in Melbourne
(Australia); there is a Nauruan Consulate in Agana (Guam);
US--the US Ambassador to Australia is accredited to Nauru

Flag: blue with a narrow, horizontal, yellow stripe across the center and
a large white 12-pointed star below the stripe on the hoist side; the
star indicates the country's location in relation to the Equator (the
yellow stripe) and the 12 points symbolize the 12 original tribes of
Nauru

- Economy
Overview: Revenues come from the export of phosphates, the reserves
of which are expected to be exhausted by the year 2000. Phosphates have given
Nauruans one of the highest per capita incomes in the Third
World--$10,000 annually. Few other resources exist so
most necessities must be imported, including fresh water from
Australia. The rehabilitation of mined land and the replacement of income
from phosphates constitute serious long-term problems. Substantial
investment in trust funds, out of phosphate income, will help cushion the
transition.

GNP: over $90 million, per capita $10,000; real growth rate NA% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $69.7 million; expenditures $51.5 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY86 est.)

Exports: $93 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities--phosphates;
partners--Australia, NZ

Imports: $73 million (c.i.f., 1984); commodities--food, fuel,
manufactures, building materials, machinery; partners--Australia, UK, NZ,
Japan

External debt: $33.3 million

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 13,250 kW capacity; 48 million kWh produced,
5,300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, financial services, coconuts

Agriculture: negligible; almost completely dependent on imports for food
and water

Aid: none

Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 3.9 km; used to haul phosphates from the center of the island
to processing facilities on the southwest coast

Highways: about 27 km total; 21 km paved, 6 km improved earth

Ports: Nauru

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,597
GRT/50,729 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 1 cargo, 2 bulk

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft, one on order

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate intraisland and international radio
communications provided via Australian facilities; 1,600 telephones;
4,000 radio receivers; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV; 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: no regular armed forces

Military manpower: males 15-49, 298,249; 176,660 fit for military
service; 100 reach age 18 annually

Defense expenditures: no formal defense structure
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Navassa Island
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2

Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Haiti

Climate: marine, tropical

Terrain: raised coral and limestone plateau, flat to undulating; ringed by
vertical white cliffs (9 to 15 meters high)

Natural resources: guano

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 10% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 90% other

Environment: mostly exposed rock, but enough grassland to support goat
herds; dense stands of fig-like trees, scattered cactus

Note: strategic location between Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica in the
Caribbean Sea; 160 km south of the US Naval Base at Guantanamo, Cuba

- People
Population: uninhabited; transient Haitian fishermen and others camp on
the island

- Government
Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Coast
Guard

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Nepal
- Geography
Total area: 140,800 km2; land area: 136,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Arkansas

Land boundaries: 2,926 km total; China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to
subtropical summers and mild winter in south

Terrain: Tarai or flat river plain of the Ganges in south, central hill
region, rugged Himalayas in north

Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydroelectric potential, scenic
beauty; small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore

Land use: 17% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 13% meadows and
pastures; 33% forest and woodland; 37% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: contains eight of world's 10 highest peaks;
deforestation; soil erosion; water pollution

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and India

- People
Population: 19,145,800 (July 1990), growth rate 2.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 99 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Nepalese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Nepalese

Ethnic divisions: Newars, Indians, Tibetans, Gurungs, Magars, Tamangs,
Bhotias, Rais, Limbus, Sherpas, as well as many smaller groups

Religion: only official Hindu state in world, although no sharp
distinction between many Hindu (about 88% of population) and Buddhist groups;
small groups of Muslims and Christians

Language: Nepali (official); 20 languages divided into numerous dialects

Literacy: 20%

Labor force: 4,100,000; 93% agriculture, 5% services, 2% industry;
severe lack of skilled labor

Organized labor: Teachers' Union, not officially recognized

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Nepal

Type: constitutional monarchy, but King Birendra exercises
control over multitiered system of government

Capital: Kathmandu

Administrative divisions: 14 zones (anchal, singular and plural);
Bagmati, Bheri, Dhawalagiri, Gandaki, Janakpur, Karnali,
Kosi, Lumbini, Mahakali, Mechi, Narayani,
Rapti, Sagarmatha, Seti

Independence: 1768, unified by Prithyi Narayan Shah

Constitution: 16 December 1962

Legal system: based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Birthday of His Majesty the King, 28 December (1945)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Council of State, Council
of State, prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Rashtriya Panchayat)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat)

Leaders:
Chief of State--King BIRENDRA Bir Bikram Shah Dev (since 31 January
1972, crowned King 24 February 1985); Heir Apparent Crown Prince DIPENDRA
Bir Bikram Shah Dev, son of the King (born 21 June 1971);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Marich Man Singh SHRESTHA (since
15 July 1986)

Political parties and leaders: all political parties outlawed but operate
more or less openly; Nepali Congress Party (NCP), Ganesh Man Singh, K. P.
Bhattarai, G. P. Koirala

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
National Assembly--last held on 12 May 1986 (next to be held May 1991);
results--all independents since political parties are officially banned;
seats--(140 total, 112 elected) independents 112

Communists: Communist Party of Nepal (CPN); factions include V. B.
Manandhar, Man Mohan Adhikari/Sahana Pradhan, Bharat Raj Joshi, Rai Majhi,
Tulsi Lal, Krishna Raj Burma

Other political or pressure groups: numerous small, left-leaning student
groups in the capital; Indian merchants in Tarai and capital; several small,
radical Nepalese antimonarchist groups operating from north India

Member of: ADB, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, SAARC, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Mohan Man SAINJU; Chancery at 2131
Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 667-4550; there is a
Nepalese Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Julia Chang BLOCH; Embassy at Pani Pokhari, Kathmandu;
telephone p977o 411179 or 412718, 411601

Flag: red with a blue border around the unique shape of two overlapping
right triangles; the smaller, upper triangle bears a white stylized moon and the
larger, lower triangle bears a white 12-pointed sun

- Economy
Overview: Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the
world with a per capita income of only $158. Real growth averaged 4% in the
1980s until FY89, when it plunged to 1.5% because of the ongoing
trade/transit dispute with India. Agriculture is the mainstay of the
economy, providing a livelihood for over 90% of the population and
accounting for 60% of GDP and about 75% of exports. Industrial activity is
limited, and what there is involves the processing of agricultural
produce (jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain).
Apart from agricultural land and forests, the only other exploitable natural
resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Despite considerable investment in
the agricultural sector, production in the 1980s has not kept pace with the
population growth of 2.7%, which has led to a reduction in exportable surpluses
and balance-of-payments difficulties. Economic prospects for the 1990s
remain grim.

GDP: $2.9 billion, per capita $158; real growth rate 1.5% (FY89)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.1% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 5%; underemployment estimated at 25-40% (1987)

Budget: revenues $296 million; expenditures $635 million, including
capital expenditures of $394 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $374 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.), but does not include
unrecorded border trade with India; commodities--clothing, carpets,
leather goods, grain; partners--India 38%, US 23%, UK 6%, other
Europe 9% (FY88)

Imports: $724 million (c.i.f., FY89 est.); commodities--petroleum
products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%; partners--India 36%,
Japan 13%, Europe 4%, US 1% (FY88)

External debt: $1.3 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate - 4.5% (FY89 est.)

Electricity: 205,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced,
30 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette,
textiles, cement, brick; tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and 90% of work force; farm
products--rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, buffalo meat; not
self-sufficient in food, particularly in drought years

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic and
international drug markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $285 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1980-87), $1.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $30 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $273
million

Currency: Nepalese rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paisa

Exchange rates: Nepalese rupees (NRs) per US$1--28.559 (January 1990),
27.189 (1989), 23.289 (1988), 21.819 (1987), 21.230 (1986), 18.246 (1985)

Fiscal year: 16 July-15 July

- Communications
Railroads: 52 km (1985), all 0.762-meter narrow gauge; all in Tarai close
to Indian border; 10 km from Raxaul to Birganj is government owned

Highways: 5,958 km total (1986); 2,645 km paved, 815 km gravel or crushed
stone, 2,257 km improved and unimproved earth; also 241 km of seasonally
motorable tracks

Civil air: 5 major and 11 minor transport aircraft

Airports: 38 total, 38 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radio
communication and broadcast service; international radio communication service
is poor; 30,000 telephones (1987); stations--4 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Nepalese Army, Royal Nepalese Army Air Service, Nepalese
Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,531,660; 2,347,412 fit for military
service; 225,349 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 2% of GDP, or $58 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Netherlands
- Geography
Total area: 37,290 km2; land area: 33,940 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,027 km total; Belgium 450 km, FRG 577 km

Coastline: 451 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: temperate; marine; cool summers and mild winters

Terrain: mostly coastal lowland and reclaimed land (polders); some
hills in southeast

Natural resources: natural gas, crude oil, fertile soil

Land use: 25% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 34% meadows and
pastures; 9% forest and woodland; 31% other; includes 15% irrigated

Environment: 27% of the land area is below sea level and protected from
the North Sea by dikes

Note: located at mouths of three major European rivers (Rhine,
Maas or Meuse, Schelde)

- People
Population: 14,936,032 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women); adjective--Dutch

Ethnic divisions: 96% Dutch, 4% Moroccans, Turks, and others (1988)

Religion: 36% Roman Catholic, 27% Protestant, 4% other, 33%
unaffiliated (1986)

Language: Dutch

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 5,300,000; 50.1% services, 28.2% manufacturing and
construction, 15.9% government, 5.8% agriculture (1986)

Organized labor: 29% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of the Netherlands

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amsterdam, but government resides at The Hague

Administrative divisions: 12 provinces (provincien,
singular--provincie); Drenthe, Flevoland, Friesland, Gelderland, Groningen,
Limburg, Noord-Brabant, Noord-Holland, Overijssel, Utrecht, Zeeland,
Zuid-Holland

Dependent areas: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles

Independence: 1579 (from Spain)

Constitution: 17 February 1983

Legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory;
judicial review in the Supreme Court of legislation of lower order rather
than Acts of Parliament; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet,
Cabinet of Ministers

Legislative branch: bicameral States General (Staten Generaal) consists of
an upper chamber or First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) and a lower chamber or Second
Chamber (Tweede Kamer)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (De Hoge Raad)

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980);
Heir Apparent WILLEM-ALEXANDER, Prince of Orange, son of Queen Beatrix (born
27 April 1967);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Ruud (Rudolph) F. M. LUBBERS (since
4 November 1982); Deputy Prime Minister Wim KOK (since 2 November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), Willem
van Velzen; Labor (PvdA), Wim Kok; Liberal (VVD), Joris Voorhoeve; Democrats '66
(D'66), Hans van Mierio; Communist (CPN), Henk Hoekstra; a host of minor parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
First Chamber--last held on 9 June l987 (next to be held 9 June 1991);
results--elected by the country's 12 provincial councils;
seats--(75 total) percent of seats by party NA;

Second Chamber--last held on 6 September 1989 (next to be held by
September 1993);
results--CDA 35.3%, PvdA 31.9%, VVD 14.6%, D'66 7.9%, others 10.3%;
seats--(150 total) CDA 54, PvdA 49, VVD 22, D'66 12, others 13

Communists: about 6,000

Other political or pressure groups: large multinational firms; Federation
of Netherlands Trade Union Movement (comprising Socialist and Catholic trade
unions) and a Protestant trade union; Federation of Catholic and Protestant
Employers Associations; the nondenominational Federation of Netherlands
Enterprises; and IKV--Interchurch Peace Council

Member of: ADB, Benelux, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECE, EIB,
EMS, ESA, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICES, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INRO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council
(with respect to interests of the Netherlands Antilles and Suriname), NATO, OAS
(observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO,

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Richard H. FEIN; Chancery at
4200 Linnean Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 244-5300;
there are Dutch Consulates General in Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New
York, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador C. Howard WILKINS; Embassy at Lange Voorhout 102,
2514 EJ The Hague (mailing address APO New York 09159);
telephone p31o (70) 62-49-11; there is a US Consulate General in Amsterdam

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and blue; similar
to the flag of Luxembourg which uses a lighter blue and is longer

- Economy
Overview: This highly developed and affluent economy is based on
private enterprise. The government makes its presence felt, however,
through many regulations, permit requirements, and welfare programs
affecting most aspects of economic activity. The trade and financial
services sector contributes over 50% of GDP. Industrial activity,
including construction, provides about 25% of GDP, and is led by the
food-processing, oil-refining, and metal-working industries. The highly
mechanized agricultural sector employs only 6% of the
labor force, but provides large surpluses for export and the domestic
food-processing industry. An unemployment rate of over 8.6% and a sizable
budget deficit are currently the most serious economic problems.

GDP: $205.9 billion, per capita $13,900; real growth rate 4.2% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 8.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $71 billion; expenditures $82 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA billion (1989)

Exports: $110.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--agricultural
products, processed foods and tobacco, natural gas, chemicals, metal products,
textiles, clothing; partners--EC 74.9% (FRG 28.3%, Belgium-Luxembourg
14.2%, France 10.7%, UK 10.2%), US 4.7% (1988)

Imports: $100.9 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--raw materials
and semifinished products, consumer goods, transportation equipment, crude oil,
food products; partners--EC 63.8% (FRG 26.5%, Belgium-Luxembourg 23.1%,
UK 8.1%), US 7.9% (1988)

External debt: none

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 22,216,000 kW capacity; 63,570 million kWh
produced, 4,300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agroindustries, metal and engineering products, electrical
machinery and equipment, chemicals, petroleum, fishing, construction,
microelectronics

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; animal production predominates;
crops--grains, potatoes, sugar beets, fruits, vegetables; shortages of grain,
fats, and oils

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $15.8 billion

Currency: Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (plural--guilders,
gulden, or florins); 1 Netherlands guilder, gulden, or florin (f.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands guilders, gulden, or florins (f.) per
US$1--2.2906 (January 1990), 2.1207 (1989), 1.9766 (1988), 2.0257 (1987),
2.4500 (1986), 3.3214 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,037 km track (includes 1,871 km electrified and
1,800 km double track; 2,871 km 1.435-meter standard gauge operated by
Netherlands Railways (NS); 166 km privately owned

Highways: 108,360 km total; 92,525 km paved (including 2,185 km of limited
access, divided highways); 15,835 km gravel, crushed stone

Inland waterways: 6,340 km, of which 35% is usable by craft of
1,000 metric ton capacity or larger

Pipelines: 418 km crude oil; 965 km refined products; 10,230 km natural
gas

Ports: maritime--Amsterdam, Delfzijl, Den Helder, Dordrecht,
Eemshaven, Ijmuiden, Rotterdam, Scheveningen, Terneuzen, Vlissingen;
inland--29 ports

Merchant marine: 345 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,661,822
GRT/3,732,282 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 187 cargo, 42 refrigerated
cargo, 23 container, 9 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 livestock carrier,
12 multifunction large-load carrier, 15 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 27 chemical tanker, 11 liquefied gas, 2 specialized tanker, 1 combinatio
n ore/oil, 9 bulk, 2 combination bulk; note--many Dutch-owned ships are also
registered in the captive Netherlands Antilles register

Civil air: 98 major transport aircraft

Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 19 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 3 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed, well maintained, and integrated;
extensive system of multiconductor cables, supplemented by radio relay links;
9,418,000 telephones; stations--6 AM, 20 (32 repeaters) FM, 21 (8 repeaters) TV;
5 submarine cables;
communication satellite earth stations operating in INTELSAT (1 Indian Ocean and
2 Atlantic Ocean) and EUTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Netherlands Army, Royal Netherlands Navy/Marine Corps,
Royal Netherlands Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,134,006; 3,660,048 fit for military
service; 111,948 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.9% of GDP, or $6.0 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Netherlands Antilles
(part of the Dutch realm)
- Geography
Total area: 960 km2; land area: 960 km2; includes Bonaire,
Curacao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten (Dutch part of the
island of Saint Martin)

Comparative area: slightly less than 5.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 364 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by northeast trade winds

Terrain: generally hilly, volcanic interiors

Natural resources: phosphates (Curacao only), salt (Bonaire only)

Land use: 8% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures; 0%
forest and woodland; 92% other

Environment: Curacao and Bonaire are south of Caribbean hurricane
belt, so rarely threatened; Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint Eustatius are
subject to hurricanes from July to October

Note: consists of two island groups--Curacao and Bonaire
are located off the coast of Venezuela, and Sint Maarten, Saba, and Sint
Eustatius lie 800 km to the north

- People
Population: 183,503 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 18 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Netherlands Antillean(s); adjective--Netherlands
Antillean

Ethnic divisions: 85% mixed African; remainder Carib Indian, European,
Latin, and Oriental

Religion: predominantly Roman Catholic; Protestant, Jewish,
Seventh-Day Adventist

Language: Dutch (official); Papiamento, a Spanish-Portuguese-Dutch-English
dialect predominates; English widely spoken; Spanish

Literacy: 95%

Labor force: 89,000; 65% government, 28% industry and commerce
(1983)

Organized labor: 60-70% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: part of the Dutch realm--full autonomy in internal affairs
granted in 1954

Capital: Willemstad

Administrative divisions: none (part of the Dutch realm)

Independence: none (part of the Dutch realm)

Constitution: 29 December 1954, Statute of the Realm of the Netherlands,
as amended

Legal system: based on Dutch civil law system, with some English common
law influence

National holiday: Queen's Day, 30 April (1938)

Executive branch: Dutch monarch, governor, prime minister, vice prime
minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: Parliament (Staten)

Judicial branch: Joint High Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen BEATRIX Wilhelmina Armgard (since 30 April 1980),
represented by Governor General Jaime SALEH (since October 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Maria LIBERIA-PETERS (since 17 May
1988, previously served from September 1984 to November 1985)

Political parties and leaders: political parties are indigenous to each
island:

Curacao--National People's Party (NVP), Maria
Liberia-Peters; New Antilles Movement (MAN), Domenico Felip Martina;
Democratic Party of Curacao (DP), Augustus Diaz; Workers' Liberation
Front (FOL), Wilson (Papa) Godett; Socialist Independent (SI), George
Hueck and Nelson Monte;

Bonaire--New Force, Rudy Ellis; Democratic Party of Bonaire (PDB),
John Evert (Jopie) Abraham;

Sint Maarten--Democratic Party of Sint Maarten, Claude Wathey;
Patriotic Movement of Sint Maarten, Romeo Paplophlet;

Sint Eustatius--Democratic Party of Sint Eustatius, Albert
K. Van Putten; Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM), Eric Henriquez;

Saba--Windward Islands People's Movement (WIPM Saba), Will
Johnston; Saba Democratic Labor Movement, Vernon Hassell; Saba Unity
Party, Carmen Simmonds

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Parliament--last held on 22 November 1985 (next to be held
November 1989); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(22 total) PNP 6, MAN 4, DP-Curacao 3, DP-St. Maarten 3,
DP-Bonaire 2, DP-St. Eustatius 1, FOL 1, UPB 1, WIPM 1; note--the
government of Prime Minister Maria Liberia-Peters is a coalition of
several parties

Communists: small leftist groups

Member of: EC (associate), INTERPOL; associated with UN through the
Netherlands; UPU, WMO

Diplomatic representation: as an autonomous part of the Netherlands,
Netherlands Antillean interests in the US are represented by the Netherlands;
US--Consul General Sharon P. WILKINSON; Consulate General at
St. Anna Boulevard 19, Willemstad, Curacao (mailing address P. O. Box 158,
Willemstad, Curacao); telephone p599o (9) 613066

Flag: white with a horizontal blue stripe in the center superimposed
on a vertical red band also centered; five white five-pointed stars are
arranged in an oval pattern in the center of the blue band; the five stars
represent the five main islands of Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, Sint
Eustatius, and Sint Maarten

- Economy
Overview: Tourism, petroleum refining, and offshore finance are the
mainstays of the economy. The islands enjoy a comparatively high per
capita income and a well-developed infrastructure compared with other
countries in the region. Unlike many Latin American countries, the
Netherlands Antilles has avoided large international debt. Almost all
consumer and capital goods are imported, with the US being the major
supplier. The economy has suffered somewhat in recent years because
of the depressed state of the world oil market and declining tax revenues.
In 1983 the drop in oil prices led to the devaluation of the Venezuelan
bolivar, which ended a substantial flow of Venezuelan tourists to the
islands. As a result of a decline in tax revenues, the government has
been seeking financial support from the Netherlands.

GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $5,500; real growth rate 3% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 26.0% (1988)

Budget: revenues $180 million; expenditures $289 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--petroleum
products 98%; partners--US 55%, UK 7%, Jamaica 5%

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--crude petroleum
64%, food, manufactures; partners--Venezuela 52%, Nigeria 15%, US 12%

External debt: $701.2 million (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 125,000 kW capacity; 365 million kWh produced,
1,990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism (Curacao and Sint Maarten), petroleum refining
(Curacao), petroleum transshipment facilities (Curacao and Bonaire),
light manufacturing (Curacao)

Agriculture: hampered by poor soils and scarcity of water; chief
products--aloes, sorghum, peanuts, fresh vegetables, tropical fruit; not
self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-79), $353 million

Currency: Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin
(plural--guilders, gulden, or florins);
1 Netherlands Antillean guilder, gulden, or florin (NAf.) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Netherlands Antillean guilders, gulden, or florins
(NAf.) per US$1--1.80 (fixed rate since 1971)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 950 km total; 300 km paved, 650 km gravel and earth

Ports: Willemstad, Philipsburg, Kralendijk

Merchant marine: 52 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 418,206
GRT/414,325 DWT; includes 4 passenger, 19 cargo, 5 refrigerated cargo,
7 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 6 multifunction large-load carrier,
1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 2 bulk; note--all but a few are foreign owned

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 7 total, 7 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: generally adequate facilities; extensive interisland
radio relay links; stations--9 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV; 2 submarine cables; 2 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Military Manpower: males 15-49 49,299; 27,888 fit for military service;
1,678 reach military age (20) annually

Note: defense is responsibility of the Netherlands
----------------------------------------------------
Country: New Caledonia
(overseas territory of France)
- Geography
Total area: 19,060 km2; land area: 18,760 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 2,254 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; modified by southeast trade winds; hot, humid

Terrain: coastal plains with interior mountains

Natural resources: nickel, chrome, iron, cobalt, manganese, silver, gold,
lead, copper

Land use: NEGL% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 14% meadows and
pastures; 51% forest and woodland; 35% other

Environment: typhoons most frequent from November to March

Note: located 1,750 km east of Australia in the South Pacific
Ocean

- People
Population: 153,215 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 39 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 64 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--New Caledonian(s); adjective--New Caledonian

Ethnic divisions: Melanesian 42.5%, European 37.1%, Wallisian 8.4%,
Polynesian 3.8%, Indonesian 3.6%, Vietnamese 1.6%, other 3.0%

Religion: over 60% Roman Catholic, 30% Protestant, 10% other

Language: French; Melanesian-Polynesian dialects

Labor force: 50,469; foreign workers for plantations and mines from
Wallis and Futuna, Vanuatu, and French Polynesia (1980 est.)

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies

Type: overseas territory of France

Capital: Noumea

Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of France)

Independence: none (overseas territory of France); note--a
referendum on independence will be held in 1998, with a review of the
issue in 1992

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: the 1988 Matignon Accords grant substantial autonomy
to the islands; formerly under French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: high commissioner, Consultative Committee (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Territorial Assembly

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government High Commissioner and President of the Council
of Government Bernard GRASSET (since 15 July 1988)

Political parties: white-dominated Rassemblement pour la Caledonie
dans la Republique (RPCR), conservative; Melanesian proindependence Kanak
Socialist National Liberation Front (FLNKS); Melanesian moderate Kanak Socialist
Liberation (LKS); National Front (FN), extreme right; Caledonian
Separatist Front, extreme left

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
Territorial Congress--last held NA June 1989 (next to be held NA
1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(54 total) RPCR 27, FLNKS 19, FN 3, others 5;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be
held September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) RPCR 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988
(next to be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) RPCR 2

Communists: number unknown; Palita extreme left party; some politically
active Communists deported during 1950s; small number of North Vietnamese

Member of: EIB (associate), WFTU, WMO

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas territory of France,
New Caledonian interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: New Caledonia has more than 40% of the world's known nickel
resources. In recent years the economy has suffered because of depressed
international demand for nickel, the principal source of export earnings.
Only a negligible amount of the land is suitable for cultivation, and food
accounts for about 25% of imports.

GNP: $860 million, per capita $5,810; real growth rate 2.4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 6.2% (1983)

Budget: revenues $110.5 million; expenditures $110.5 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1981)

Exports: $75 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--nickel metal
87%, nickel ore; partners--France 56.3%, Japan

Imports: $180 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities--foods, fuels,
minerals, machines, electrical equipment; partners--France 50.3%,
Australia

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 2,200 million kWh produced,
14,440 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: nickel mining

Agriculture: large areas devoted to cattle grazing; coffee, corn,
wheat, vegetables; 60% self-sufficient in beef

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $3.6 billion

Currency: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique franc (plural--francs);
1 CFP franc (CFPF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Comptoirs Francais du Pacifique francs (CFPF)
per US$1--104.71 (January 1990), 115.99 (1989), 108.30 (1988), 109.27 (1987),
125.92 (1986), 163.35 (1985); note--linked at the rate of 18.18 to the French
franc

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 5,448 km total; 558 km paved, 2,251 km improved earth,
2,639 km unimproved earth

Ports: Noumea, Nepoui, Poro, Thio

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 29 total, 27 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 32,578 telephones (1987); stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 7 TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: New Zealand
- Geography
Total area: 268,680 km2; land area: 268,670 km2; includes
Antipodes Islands, Auckland Islands, Bounty Islands, Campbell Island,
Chatham Islands, and Kermadec Islands

Comparative area: about the size of Colorado

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 15,134 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: territorial claim in Antarctica (Ross Dependency)

Climate: temperate with sharp regional contrasts

Terrain: predominately mountainous with some large coastal plains

Natural resources: natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber,
hydropower, gold, limestone

Land use: 2% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 53% meadows and
pastures; 38% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: earthquakes are common, though usually not severe

- People
Population: 3,295,866 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 10 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--New Zealander(s); adjective--New Zealand

Ethnic divisions: 88% European, 8.9% Maori, 2.9% Pacific Islander,
0.2% other

Religion: 81% Christian, 18% none or unspecified, 1% Hindu, Confucian, and
other

Language: English (official), Maori

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 1,591,900; 67.4% services, 19.8% manufacturing, 9.3% primary
production (1987)

Organized labor: 681,000 members; 43% of labor force (1986)

- Government
Long-form name: none; abbreviated NZ

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Wellington

Administrative divisions: 93 counties, 9 districts*, and
3 town districts**; Akaroa, Amuri, Ashburton, Bay of Islands, Bruce, Buller,
Chatham Islands, Cheviot, Clifton, Clutha, Cook, Dannevirke, Egmont, Eketahuna,
Ellesmere, Eltham, Eyre, Featherston, Franklin, Golden Bay,
Great Barrier Island, Grey, Hauraki Plains, Hawera*, Hawke's Bay, Heathcote,
Hikurangi**, Hobson, Hokianga, Horowhenua, Hurunui, Hutt, Inangahua, Inglewood,
Kaikoura, Kairanga, Kiwitea, Lake, Mackenzie, Malvern, Manaia**, Manawatu,
Mangonui, Maniototo, Marlborough, Masterton, Matamata, Mount Herbert, Ohinemuri,
Opotiki, Oroua, Otamatea, Otorohanga*, Oxford, Pahiatua, Paparua, Patea, Piako,
Pohangina, Raglan, Rangiora*, Rangitikei, Rodney, Rotorua*, Runanga,
Saint Kilda, Silverpeaks, Southland, Stewart Island, Stratford, Strathallan,
Taranaki, Taumarunui, Taupo, Tauranga, Thames-Coromandel*, Tuapeka, Vincent,
Waiapu, Waiheke, Waihemo, Waikato, Waikohu, Waimairi, Waimarino, Waimate,
Waimate West, Waimea, Waipa, Waipawa*, Waipukurau*, Wairarapa South, Wairewa,
Wairoa, Waitaki, Waitomo*, Waitotara, Wallace, Wanganui, Waverley**, Westland,
Whakatane*, Whangarei, Whangaroa, Woodville

Dependent areas: Cook Islands, Niue, Tokelau

Independence: 26 September 1907 (from UK)

Constitution: no formal, written constitution; consists of various
documents, including certain acts of the UK and New Zealand Parliaments;
Constitution Act 1986 was to have come into force 1 January 1987, but has
not been enacted

Legal system: based on English law, with special land legislation and land
courts for Maoris; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Waitangi Day (Treaty of Waitangi established British
sovereignty), 6 February (1840)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives (commonly called
Parliament)

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II ( since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General The Most Rev. Sir Paul REEVES (since 20 November 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Geoffrey PALMER (since 8 August
1989); Deputy Prime Minister Helen CLARK (since 8 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: New Zealand Labor Party (NZLP; government),
Geoffrey Palmer; National Party (NP; opposition), Jim Bolger; Democratic Party,
Neil Morrison; Socialist Unity Party (SUP; pro-Soviet), Ken Douglas

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held on 15 August 1987 (next to be
held by August 1990);
results--LP 47%, NP 45%, DP 6%;
seats--(97 total) LP 58, NP 39

Communists: SUP about 140, other groups, about 200

Member of: ADB, ANZUS, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth,
DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO,
IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO, ITU, OECD, SPF, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO,
WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Harold Huyton FRANCIS; Chancery at
37 Observatory Circle NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-4800;
there are New Zealand Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;
US--Ambassador Della NEWMAN; Embassy at 29 Fitzherbert Terrace,
Thorndon, Wellington (mailing address is Private Bag, Wellington, or
FPO San Francisco 96690-0001); telephone p64o (4) 722-068; there is a US
Consulate General in Auckland

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant with
four red five-pointed stars edged in white centered in the outer half of the
flag; the stars represent the Southern Cross constellation

- Economy
Overview: Since 1984 the government has been reorienting an
agrarian economy dependent on a guaranteed British market to an open
free market economy that can compete on the global scene. The government
has hoped that dynamic growth would boost real incomes, reduce
inflationary pressures, and permit the expansion of welfare benefits. The
results have been mixed: inflation is down from double-digit levels
but growth has been sluggish and unemployment, always a highly sensitive
issue, has been at a record high 7.4%. In 1988 GDP fell by 1% and in
1989 grew by a moderate 2.4%.

GDP: $39.1 billion, per capita $11,600; real growth rate 2.4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 7.4% (1989)

Budget: revenues $18.6 billion; expenditures $19.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY90 est.)

Exports: $8.9 billion (f.o.b., FY89); commodities--wool, lamb,
mutton, beef, fruit, fish, cheese, manufactures, chemicals, foresty products;
partners--EC 18.3%, Japan 17.9%, Australia 17.5%, US 13.5%, China 3.6%,
South Korea 3.1%

Imports: $7.5 billion (c.i.f., FY89); commodities--petroleum,
consumer goods, motor vehicles, industrial equipment;
partners--Australia 19.7%, Japan 16.9%, EC 16.9%, US 15.3%,
Taiwan 3.0%

External debt: $17.0 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.6% (FY88)

Electricity: 7,800,000 kW capacity; 27,600 million kWh produced,
8,190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery,
transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining

Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GNP and 10% of the
work force; livestock predominates--wool, meat, dairy products all export
earners; crops--wheat, barley, potatoes, pulses, fruits, and
vegetables; surplus producer of farm products; fish catch reached a
record 431,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $448 million

Currency: New Zealand dollar (plural--dollars);
1 New Zealand dollar (NZ$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: New Zealand dollars (NZ$) per US$1--1.6581 (January 1990),
1.6708 (1989), 1.5244 (1988), 1.6886 (1987), 1.9088 (1986),
2.0064 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 4,716 km total; all 1.067-meter gauge; 274 km double track;
113 km electrified; over 99% government owned

Highways: 92,648 km total; 49,547 km paved, 43,101 km gravel or
crushed stone

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; of little importance to transportation

Pipelines: 1,000 km natural gas; 160 km refined products; 150 km
condensate

Ports: Auckland, Christchurch, Dunedin, Wellington, Tauranga

Merchant marine: 18 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 190,553 GRT/257,782
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 2 container, 4 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 railcar carrier,
4 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 5 bulk

Civil air: about 40 major transport aircraft

Airports: 157 total, 157 usable; 33 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 47 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international and domestic systems;
2,110,000 telephones; stations 64 AM, 2 FM, 14 TV; submarine cables extend
to Australia and Fiji; 2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal New Zealand Navy, New Zealand Army, Royal New Zealand
Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 872,336; 740,207 fit for military service;
29,532 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GDP, or $820 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Nicaragua
- Geography
Total area: 129,494 km2; land area: 120,254 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New York State

Land boundaries: 1,231 km total; Costa Rica 309 km, Honduras 922 km

Coastline: 910 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 25 nm security zone (status of claim uncertain);

Continental shelf: not specified;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Disputes: territorial disputes with Colombia over the Archipelago de
San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank

Climate: tropical in lowlands, cooler in highlands

Terrain: extensive Atlantic coastal plains rising to central interior
mountains; narrow Pacific coastal plain interrupted by volcanoes

Natural resources: gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber,
fish

Land use: 9% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 43% meadows and
pastures; 35% forest and woodland; 12% other; including 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to destructive earthquakes, volcanoes,
landslides, and occasional severe hurricanes; deforestation; soil erosion;
water pollution

- People
Population: 3,722,683 (July 1990), growth rate 2.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 40 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 68 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 61 years male, 62 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Nicaraguan(s); adjective--Nicaraguan

Ethnic divisions: 69% mestizo, 17% white, 9% black, 5% Indian

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Protestant

Language: Spanish (official); English- and Indian-speaking minorities on
Atlantic coast

Literacy: 88% (1981)

Labor force: 1,086,000; 43% service, 44% agriculture, 13% industry (1986)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Nicaragua

Type: republic

Capital: Managua

Administrative divisions: 9 administrative regions encompassing 17
departments (departamentos, singular--departamento); North, Atlantic Coast,
South, Atlantic Coast, Boaco, Carazo, Chinandega, Chontales, Esteli,
Granada, Jinotega, Leon, Madriz, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, Nueva Segovia,
Rio San Juan, Rivas

Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)

Constitution: January 1987

Legal system: civil law system; Supreme Court may review
administrative acts

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: National Assembly (Asamblea Nacional)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Corte Suprema) and municipal courts

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President-Elect Violeta
Barios de CHAMORRO (since 25 February 1990; takes office 25 April 1990);
Vice President-elect Virgilio GODOY (since 25 February 1990; takes office
25 April 1990)

Political parties and leaders:

Ruling coalition: National Opposition Union (UNO)--14 party
alliance: National Conservative Party (PNC), Silviano Matamoros;
Conservative Popular Alliance Party (PAPC), Miriam Arguello;
National Conservative Action Party (PANC), Hernaldo Zuniga;
National Democratic Confidence Party (PDCN), Augustin Jarquin;
Independent Liberal Party (PLI), Virgilio Godoy;
Neo-Liberal Party (PALI), Andres Zuniga;
Liberal Constitutionalist Party (PLC), Jose Ernesto Somarriba;
National Action Party (PAN), Eduardo Rivas;
Nicaraguan Socialist Party (PSN), Gustavo Tablada;
Communist Party of Nicaragua (PCdeN), Eli Altimirano;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Luis Humberto;
Nicaraguan Democratic Movement (MDN), Roberto Urroz;
Social Democratic Party (PSD), Guillermo Potoy;
Central American Integrationist Party (PIAC), Alejandro Perez;

Opposition parties: Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN),
Daniel Ortega;
Central American Unionist Party (PUCA), Blanca Rojas;
Democratic Conservative Party of Nicaragua (PCDN), Jose Brenes;
Liberal Party of National Unity (PLUIN), Eduardo Coronado;
Movement of Revolutionary Unity (MUR), Francisco Samper;
Social Christian Party (PSC), Erick Ramirez;
Revolutionary Workers' Party (PRT), Bonifacio Miranda;
Social Conservative Party (PSOC), Fernando Aguerro;
Popular Action Movement--Marxist-Leninist (MAP-ML), Isidro Tellez;
Popular Social Christian Party (PPSC), Mauricio Diaz

Suffrage: universal at age 16

Elections:
President--last held on 25 February 1990 (next to be held February
1996);
results--Violeta Barrios de Chamorro (UNO) 54.7%, Daniel Ortega Saavedra
(FSLN) 40.8%, others 4.5%;

National Constituent Assembly--last held on 25 February 1990
(next to be held February 1996);
results--UNO 53.9%, FSLN 40.8%, PSC 1.6%, MUR 1.0%;
seats--(92 total) UNO 51, FSLN 39, PSC 1, MUR 1

Communists: FSLN--35,000; other Communists--15,000-20,000

Other political or pressure groups: Permanent Congress of Workers
(CPT), Confederation of Labor Unification (CUS), Autonomous Nicaraguan
Workers' Central (CTN-A), Independent General Confederation of Workers
(CTG-I), Communist Labor Action and Unity Central (CAUS), Nicaraguan
Workers' Central (CST); Superior Council of Private Enterprise (COSEP) is
an umbrella group of 11 different business groups, including the Chamber of
Commerce, the Chamber of Industry, and the Nicaraguan Development Institute
(INDE)

Member of: CACM, CEMA (observer), FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC,
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, ODECA, PAHO, SELA, UN,
UNESCO, UPEB, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Charge d'Affaires Leonor Arguello de HUPER;
Chancery at 1627 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone
(202) 387-4371 or 4372;
US--Charge d'Affaires John P. LEONARD; Embassy at Kilometer 4.5
Carretera Sur, Managua (mailing address is APO Miami 34021); telephone p505o
(2) 66010 or 66013, 66015 through 66018, 66026, 66027, 66032 through 66034;
note--Nicaragua expelled the US Ambassador on 11 July 1988, and the US expelled
the Nicaraguan Ambassador on 12 July 1988

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and blue with the
national coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a
triangle encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE NICARAGUA on the top and
AMERICA CENTRAL on the bottom; similar to the flag of El Salvador which
features a round emblem encircled by the words REPUBLICA DE EL SALVADOR EN LA
AMERICA CENTRAL centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of
Honduras, which has five blue stars arranged in an X pattern centered in
the white band

- Economy
Overview: Government control of the economy historically has been
extensive, although the new government has pledged to reduce it.
The financial system is directly controlled by the state, which also
regulates wholesale purchasing, production, sales, foreign trade, and
distribution of most goods. Over 50% of the agricultural and industrial
firms are state owned. Sandinista economic policies and the war have
produced a severe economic crisis. The foundation of the economy
continues to be the export of agricultural commodities, largely coffee
and cotton. Farm production fell by roughly 7% in 1989, the fifth
successive year of decline. The agricultural sector employs 44%
of the work force and accounts for 23% of GDP and 86% of export earnings.
Industry, which employs 13% of the work force and contributes 26% to GDP,
showed a sharp drop of - 23% in 1988 and remains below pre-1979 levels.
External debt is one of the highest in the world on a per capita basis.
In 1989 the annual inflation rate was 1,700%, down from a record
16,000% in 1988. Shortages of basic consumer goods are widespread.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $470; real growth rate - 5.0% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1,700% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 25% (1989)

Budget: revenues $0.9 billion; expenditures $1.4 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.15 billion (1987)

Exports: $250 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--coffee,
cotton, sugar, bananas, seafood, meat, chemicals; partners--CEMA 15%,
OECD 75%, others 10%

Imports: $550 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--petroleum,
food, chemicals, machinery, clothing; partners--CEMA 55%, EC 20%,
Latin America 10%, others 10%

External debt: $8 billion (year end 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate - 23% (1988 est.)

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