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Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mauritanian(s); adjective--Mauritanian

Ethnic divisions: 40% mixed Maur/black, 30% Maur, 30% black

Religion: nearly 100% Muslim

Language: Hasaniya Arabic (national); French (official); Toucouleur, Fula,
Sarakole, Wolof

Literacy: 17%

Labor force: 465,000 (1981 est.); 45,000 wage earners (1980);
47% agriculture, 29% services, 14% industry and commerce, 10% government;
53% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 30,000 members claimed by single union, Mauritanian
Workers' Union

- Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Type: republic; military first seized power in bloodless coup 10 July
1978; a palace coup that took place on 24 December 1984 brought President
Taya to power

Capital: Nouakchott

Administrative divisions: 12 regions (regions, singular--region);
Adrar, Brakna, Dakhlet Nouadhibou, El Acaba, Gorgol, Guidimaka,
Hodh Ech Chargui, Hodh El Gharbi, Inchiri, Tagant, Tiris Zemmour, Trarza;
note--there may be a new capital district of Nouakchott

Independence: 28 November 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 20 May 1961, abrogated after coup of 10 July 1978;
provisional constitution published 17 December 1980 but abandoned in 1981; new
constitutional charter published 27 February 1985

Legal system: based on Islamic law

National holiday: Independence Day, 28 November (1960)

Executive branch: president, Military Committee for National
Salvation (CMSN), Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale), dissolved after 10 July 1978 coup; legislative power
resides with the CMSN

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Col. Maaouiya Ould
SidAhmed TAYA (since 12 December 1984)

Political parties and leaders: suspended

Suffrage: none

Elections: none; last presidential election August 1976;
National Assembly dissolved 10 July 1978; no national elections
are scheduled

Communists: no Communist party, but there is a scattering of Maoist
sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, AIOEC, Arab League, CCC, CEAO, CIPEC (associate),
EAMA, EIB (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic
Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM,
OAU, OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River Valley),
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdellah OULD DADDAH; Chancery at
2129 Leroy Place NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 232-5700;
US--Ambassador William H. TWADDELL; Embassy at address NA, Nouakchott
(mailing address is B. P. 222, Nouakchott); telephone p2222o 52660 or 52663

Flag: green with a yellow five-pointed star above a yellow, horizontal
crescent; the closed side of the crescent is down; the crescent, star, and color
green are traditional symbols of Islam

- Economy
Overview: A majority of the population still depends on agriculture
and livestock for a livelihood, even though most of the nomads and many
subsistence farmers were forced into the cities by recurrent drought in 1983.
Mauritania has extensive deposits of iron ore that account for almost 50% of
total exports. The decline in world demand for this ore, however, has led to
cutbacks in production in recent years. The nation's coastal waters are among
the richest fishing areas in the world, but overexploitation by foreigners
threatens this key source of revenue. The country's first deepwater
port opened near Nouakchott in 1986.

GDP: $1.0 billion, per capita $520; real growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 50% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $358 million; expenditures $334 million, including
capital expenditures of $79 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $424 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--iron ore,
processed fish, small amounts of gum arabic and gypsum, unrecorded but
numerically significant cattle exports to Senegal; partners--EC 57%,
Japan 39%, Ivory Coast 2%

Imports: $365 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--foodstuffs,
consumer goods, petroleum products, capital goods; partners--EC 79%,
Africa 5%, US 4%, Japan 2%

External debt: $2.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.4% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 189,000 kW capacity; 136 million kWh produced,
70 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, fish processing, mining of iron ore and gypsum

Agriculture: accounts for 29% of GDP (including fishing); largely
subsistence farming and nomadic cattle and sheep herding except in Senegal
river valley; crops--dates, millet, sorghum, root crops; fish products
number-one export; large food deficit in years of drought

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $160 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.1 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $490 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$277 million

Currency: ouguiya (plural--ouguiya); 1 ouguiya (UM) = 5 khoums

Exchange rates: ouguiya (UM) per US$1--83.838 (January 1990),
83.051 (1989), 75.261 (1988), 73.878 (1987), 74.375 (1986), 77.085 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 670 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track, owned and
operated by government mining company

Highways: 7,525 km total; 1,685 km paved; 1,040 km gravel, crushed stone,
or otherwise improved; 4,800 km unimproved roads, trails, tracks

Inland waterways: mostly ferry traffic on the Senegal River

Ports: Nouadhibou, Nouakchott

Merchant marine: 1 cargo ship (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,272 GRT/
1,840 DWT

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 30 total, 29 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: poor system of cable and open-wire lines, minor
radio relay links, and radio communications stations; 5,200 telephones;
stations--2 AM, no FM, 1 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
and 2 ARABSAT, with a third planned

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie, paramilitary
National Guard, paramilitary National Police, paramilitary Presidential Guard,
paramilitary Nomad Security Guards

Military manpower: males 15-49, 410,153; 200,212 fit for military service;
conscription law not implemented

Defense expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mauritius
- Geography
Total area: 1,860 km2; land area: 1,850 km2; includes Agalega
Islands, Cargados Carajos Shoals (St. Brandon) and Rodrigues

Comparative area: slightly less than 10.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 177 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Chagos Archipelago, which includes the island of
Diego Garcia in UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory; claims
French-administered Tromelin Island

Climate: tropical modified by southeast trade winds; warm, dry winter
(May to November); hot, wet, humid summer (November to May)

Terrain: small coastal plain rising to discontinuous mountains
encircling central plateau

Natural resources: arable land, fish

Land use: 54% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 4% meadows and
pastures; 31% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: subject to cyclones (November to April); almost completely
surrounded by reefs

Note: located 900 km east of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean

- People
Population: 1,070,005 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 20 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mauritian(s); adjective--Mauritian

Ethnic divisions: 68% Indo-Mauritian, 27% Creole, 3% Sino-Mauritian, 2%
Franco-Mauritian

Religion: 51% Hindu, 30% Christian (mostly Roman Catholic with a few
Anglicans), 17% Muslim, 2% other

Language: English (official), Creole, French, Hindi, Urdu, Hakka,
Bojpoori

Literacy: 82.8%

Labor force: 335,000; 29% government services, 27% agriculture and
fishing, 22% manufacturing, 22% other; 43% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force in more than 270 unions

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Port Louis

Administrative divisions: 5 urban councils and 3 district councils*;
Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Curepipe, Moka-Flacq*, North*, Port Louis, Quatre
Bornes, South*, Vacoas-Phoenix; note--there may now be 4 urban councils
and 9 district councils* named Beau Bassin-Rose Hill, Black River*,
Curepipe, Flacq*, Grand Port*, Moka*, Pamplemousses*, Plaine Wilhems*,
Port Louis*, Quartre Bornes, Riviere du Rempart*, Savanne*, and
Vacoas-Phoenix

Independence: 12 March 1968 (from UK)

Constitution: 12 March 1968

Legal system: based on French civil law system with elements of English
common law in certain areas

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 March (1968)

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor General Sir Veerasamy RINGADOO (since 17 January
1986);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Anerood JUGNAUTH (since 12 June
1982); Deputy Prime Minister Sir Satcam BOOLELL (since 15 August 1988)

Political parties and leaders: the government is currently controlled by a
coalition composed of the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), A. Jugnauth,
and the Mauritian Labor Party (MLP), S. Boolell; the main opposition union
consists of the Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM), Prem Nababsing; Socialist
Workers Front, Sylvio Michel; Democratic Labor Movement, Anil Baichoo;
Mauritian Social Democratic Party (PMSD), G. Duval

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Assembly--last held on 30 August 1987 (next to be held 30
August 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(70 total, 62 elected) MSM 24, MMM 21, MLP 10, PMSD 5, others 10

Communists: may be 2,000 sympathizers; several Communist organizations;
Mauritius Lenin Youth Organization, Mauritius Women's Committee, Mauritius
Communist Party, Mauritius People's Progressive Party, Mauritius Young Communist
League, Mauritius Liberation Front, Chinese Middle School Friendly Association,
Mauritius/USSR Friendship Society

Other political or pressure groups: various labor unions

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU,
IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Chitmansing JESSERAMSING; Chancery
at Suite 134, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 244-1491 or 1492;
US--Ambassador Penne KORTH; Embassy at 4th Floor, Rogers Building,
John Kennedy Street, Port Louis; telephone 082347

Flag: four equal horizontal bands of red (top), blue, yellow, and green

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles),
and tourism. Despite significant expansion in other sectors over the past
decade, sugarcane remains dominant and is grown on about 90% of the cultivated
land area, accounting for 40% of export earnings. The government's
development strategy is centered on industrialization (with a view to exports),
agricultural diversification, and tourism. Economic performance in 1988 was
impressive, with 6.3% real growth rate and low unemployment.

GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $1,910; real growth rate 6.3% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 3.6% (1988)

Budget: revenues $351 million; expenditures $414 million, including
capital expenditures of $76 million (FY87 est.)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--textiles 44%,
sugar 40%, light manufactures 10%; partners--EC and US have preferential
treatment, EC 77%, US 15%

Imports: $1.3 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--manufactured
goods 50%, capital equipment 17%, foodstuffs 13%, petroleum products 8%,
chemicals 7%; partners--EC, US, South Africa, Japan

External debt: $670 million (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 12.9% (FY87)

Electricity: 233,000 kW capacity; 420 million kWh produced,
375 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing (largely sugar milling), textiles, wearing
apparel, chemical and chemical products, metal products, transport equipment,
nonelectrical machinery, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 14% of GDP; about 90% of cultivated land in
sugarcane; other products--tea, corn, potatoes, bananas, pulses, cattle, goats,
fish; net food importer, especially rice and fish

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $72 million; Western
(non-US) countries (1970-87), $538 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $54
million

Currency: Mauritian rupee (plural--rupees);
1 Mauritian rupee (MauR) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Mauritian rupees (MauRs) per US$1--15.033 (January 1990),
15.250 (1989), 13.438 (1988), 12.878 (1987), 13.466 (1986), 15.442 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 1,800 km total; 1,640 km paved, 160 km earth

Ports: Port Louis

Merchant marine: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 143,029 GRT/
248,754 DWT; includes 1 passenger-cargo, 3 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 liquefied gas, 3 bulk

Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft

Airports: 5 total, 4 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: small system with good service; new microwave link to
Reunion; high-frequency radio links to several countries; 48,000 telephones;
stations--2 AM, no FM, 4 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: paramilitary Special Mobile Force, Special Support Units,
regular Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 297,975; 153,130 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mayotte
(territorial collectivity of France)
- Geography
Total area: 375 km2; land area: 375 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 185.2 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Comoros

Climate: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern
monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November)

Terrain: generally undulating with ancient volcanic peaks, deep ravines

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and
pastures; NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to cyclones during rainy season

Note: part of Comoro Archipelago; located in the Mozambique Channel about
halfway between Africa and Madagascar

- People
Population: 72,186 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 12 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 89 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mahorais (sing., pl.); adjective--Mahoran

Religion: 99% Muslim; remainder Christian, mostly Roman Catholic

Language: Mahorian (a Swahili dialect), French

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Territorial Collectivity of Mayotte

Type: territorial collectivity of France

Capital: Dzaoudzi

Administrative divisions: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Independence: none (territorial collectivity of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French law

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council (Conseil General)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Tribunal Superieur d'Appel)

Leaders:
Chief of State President Francois MITTERRAND (since 21 May 1981);

Head of Government Government Commissioner Akli KHIDER (since 1983);
President of the General Council Youssouf BAMANA (since 1976)

Political parties and leaders: Mahoran Popular Movement (MPM), Zna
M'Oere; Party for the Mahoran Democratic Rally (PRDM), Daroueche Maoulida;
Mahoran Rally for the Republic (RMPR), Abdoul Anizizi; Union of the
Center (UDC)

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
General Council--last held NA June 1988 (next to be held June
1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total) MPM 9, RPR 6, others 2;

French Senate--last held on 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) MPM 1;

French National Assembly--last held 5 and 12 June 1988 (next to
be held June 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(1 total) UDC 1

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: as a territorial collectivity of France,
Mahoran interests are represented in the US by France

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is based primarily on the agricultural
sector, including fishing and livestock raising. Mayotte is not self-sufficient
and must import a large portion of its food requirements, mainly
from France. The economy and future development of the island is heavily
dependent on French financial assistance.

GDP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues NA; expenditures $37.3 million, including capital
expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $4.0 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities--ylang-ylang,
vanilla; partners--France 79%, Comoros 10%, Reunion 9%

Imports: $21.8 million (f.o.b., 1984); commodities--building
materials, transportation equipment, rice, clothing, flour;
partners--France 57%, Kenya 16%, South Africa 11%, Pakistan 8%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: NA kW capacity; NA million kWh produced, NA kWh per capita

Industries: newly created lobster and shrimp industry

Agriculture: most important sector; provides all export earnings;
crops--vanilla, ylang-ylang, coffee, copra; imports major share of food
needs

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $287.8 million

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 42 km total; 18 km bituminous

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m

Ports: Dzaoudzi

Telecommunications: small system administered by French Department of
Posts and Telecommunications; includes radio relay and high-frequency radio
communications for links with Comoros and international communications;
450 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mexico
- Geography
Total area: 1,972,550 km2; land area: 1,923,040 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than three times the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 4,538 km total; Belize 250 km, Guatemala 962 km,
US 3,326 km

Coastline: 9,330 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: natural prolongation of continental margin or
200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: varies from tropical to desert

Terrain: high, rugged mountains, low coastal plains, high plateaus,
and desert

Natural resources: crude oil, silver, copper, gold, lead, zinc,
natural gas, timber

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 39% meadows and
pastures; 24% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to tsunamis along the Pacific coast and destructive
earthquakes in the center and south; natural water resources scarce and polluted
in north, inaccessible and poor quality in center and extreme southeast;
deforestation; erosion widespread; desertification; serious air pollution in
Mexico City and urban centers along US-Mexico border

Note: strategic location on southern border of US

- People
Population: 87,870,154 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 33 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mexican(s); adjective--Mexican

Ethnic divisions: 60% mestizo (Indian-Spanish), 30% Amerindian or
predominantly Amerindian, 9% white or predominantly white, 1% other

Religion: 97% nominally Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant

Language: Spanish

Literacy: 88%

Labor force: 26,100,000 (1988); 31.4% services; 26% agriculture, forestry,
hunting, and fishing, 13.9% commerce, 12.8% manufacturing, 9.5% construction,
4.8% transportation, 1.3% mining and quarrying, 0.3% electricity, (1986)

Organized labor: 35% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: United Mexican States

Type: federal republic operating under a centralized government

Capital: Mexico

Administrative divisions: 31 states (estados, singular--estado) and
1 federal district* (distrito federal); Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte,
Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima,
Distrito Federal*, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico,
Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro,
Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala,
Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas

Independence: 16 September 1810 (from Spain)

Constitution: 5 February 1917

Legal system: mixture of US constitutional theory and civil law system;
judicial review of legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction,
with reservations

National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1810)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress (Congreso de la Union)
consists of an upper chamber or Senate (Camara de Senadores)
and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies (Camara de Diputados)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Suprema Corte de Justicia)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Carlos SALINAS de
Gortari (since 1 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: (recognized parties) Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI), Luis Donaldo Colosio Murrieta; National Action
Party (PAN), Luis Alvarez; Popular Socialist Party (PPS), Indalecio Sayago
Herrera; Democratic Revolutionary Party (PRD), Cuauhtemoc Cardenas;
Cardenist Front for the National Reconstruction Party (PFCRN), Rafael
Aguilar Talamantes; Authentic Party of the Mexican Revolution (PARM),
Carlos Enrique Cantu Rosas

Suffrage: universal and compulsory (but not enforced) at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September 1994);
results--Carlos Salinas de Gortari (PRI) 50.74%,
Cuauhtemoc Cardemas Solorzano (FDN) 31.06%,
Manuel Clouthier (PAN) 16.81%; others 1.39%; note--several of the smaller
parties ran a common candidate under a coalition called the National
Democratic Front (FDN)

Senate--last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September
1991); results--PRI 94%, FDN (now PRD) 6%;
seats--(64 total) number of seats by party NA;

Chamber of Deputies--last held on 6 July 1988 (next to be held September
1991);
results--PRI 53%, PAN 20%, PFCRN 10%, PPS 6%, PARM 7%, PMS (now part of PRD) 4%;
seats--(500 total) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: Roman Catholic Church, Confederation
of Mexican Workers (CTM), Confederation of Industrial Chambers (CONCAMIN),
Confederation of National Chambers of Commerce (CONCANACO), National Peasant
Confederation (CNC), National Confederation of Popular Organizations (CNOP),
Revolutionary Workers Party (PRT), Mexican Democratic Party (PDM),
Revolutionary Confederation of Workers and Peasants (CROC), Regional
Confederation of Mexican Workers (CROM), Confederation of Employers of
the Mexican Republic (COPARMEX), National Chamber of Transformation
Industries (CANACINTRA), Business Coordination Council (CCE)

Member of: FAO, G-77, GATT, Group of Eight, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO,
ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, IWC--International Whaling Commission, LAIA,
OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gustavo PETRICIOLI Iturbide;
Chancery at 1911 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone
(202) 728-1600;
there are Mexican Consulates General in Chicago, Dallas, Denver, El Paso,
Houston, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Antonio,
San Diego, and Consulates in Albuquerque, Atlanta, Austin, Boston, Brownsville
(Texas), Calexico (California), Corpus Christi, Del Rio (Texas), Detroit,
Douglas (Arizona), Eagle Pass (Texas), Fresno (California), Kansas City
(Missouri), Laredo, McAllen (Texas), Miami, Nogales (Arizona), Oxnard
(California), Philadelphia, Phoenix, Presidio (Texas), Sacramento, St. Louis,
St. Paul (Minneapolis), Salt Lake City, San Bernardino, San Jose, San Juan
(Puerto Rico), and Seattle;
US--Ambassador John D. NEGROPONTE, Jr.; Embassy at Paseo de la
Reforma 305, Mexico 5, D.F. (mailing address is P. O. Box 3087, Laredo, TX
78044); telephone p52o (5) 211-0042; there are US Consulates General in
Ciudad Juarez, Guadalajara, Monterrey, and Tijuana, and Consulates in
Hermosillo, Matamoros, Mazatlan, Merida, and Nuevo Laredo

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red;
the coat of arms (an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake is its beak) is
centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: Mexico's economy is a mixture of state-owned industrial plants
(notably oil), private manufacturing and services, and both large-scale and
traditional agriculture. In the 1980s Mexico experienced severe economic
difficulties: the nation accumulated large external debts as world
petroleum prices fell; rapid population growth outstripped the domestic
food supply; and inflation, unemployment, and pressures to emigrate
became more acute. Growth in national output dropped from 8% in
1980 to 1.1% in 1988 and 2.5% in 1989. The US is Mexico's major
trading partner, accounting for two-thirds of its exports and
imports. After petroleum, border assembly plants and tourism are the largest
earners of foreign exchange. The government, in consultation with international
economic agencies, is implementing programs to stabilize the economy
and foster growth.

GDP: $187.0 billion, per capita $2,165; real growth rate 2.5% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 20% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $36.1 billion; expenditures $56.1 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7.7 biilion (1988)

Exports: $23.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--crude oil,
oil products, coffee, shrimp, engines, cotton; partners--US 66%,
EC 16%, Japan 11%

Imports: $23.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--grain,
metal manufactures, agricultural machinery, electrical equipment;
partners--US 62%, EC 18%, Japan 10%

External debt: $95.1 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.3% (1988)

Electricity: 26,900,000 kW capacity; 103,670 million kWh produced,
1,200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel,
petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, transportation equipment, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 9% of GDP and over 25% of work force; large
number of small farms at subsistence level; major food crops--corn,
wheat, rice, beans; cash crops--cotton, coffee, fruit, tomatoes; fish
catch of 1.4 million metric tons among top 20 nations (1987)

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis
continues in spite of government eradication efforts; major link in
chain of countries used to smuggle cocaine from South American
dealers to US markets

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $3.0 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.8
billion; Communist countries (1970-88), $110 million

Currency: Mexican peso (plural--pesos);
1 Mexican peso (Mex$) = 100 centavos

Exchange rates: market rate of Mexican pesos (Mex$) per US$1--2,660.3
(January 1990), 2,461.3 (1989), 2,273.1 (1988), 1,378.2 (1987), 611.8 (1986),
256.9 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 20,680 km total; 19,950 km 1.435-meter standard gauge; 730 km
0.914-meter narrow gauge

Highways: 210,000 km total; 65,000 km paved, 30,000 km semipaved or
cobblestone, 60,000 km rural roads (improved earth) or roads under construction,
55,000 km unimproved earth roads

Inland waterways: 2,900 km navigable rivers and coastal canals

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,381 km; refined products, 8,345 km; natural gas,
13,254 km

Ports: Acapulco, Coatzacoalcos, Ensenada, Guaymas, Manzanillo,
Mazatlan, Progreso, Puerto Vallarta, Salina Cruz, Tampico, Veracruz

Merchant marine: 68 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,041,229
GRT/1,552,478 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 10 cargo, 2 refrigerated
cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 31 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL)
tanker, 3 chemical tanker, 7 liquefied gas, 4 bulk, 4 combination bulk

Civil air: 174 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1,785 total, 1,484 usable; 190 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 31 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 259 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: highly developed system with extensive radio relay
links; connection into Central American Microwave System; 6.41 million
telephones; stations--679 AM, no FM, 238 TV, 22 shortwave; 120 domestic
satellite terminals; satellite earth stations--4 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 21,575,525; 15,803,322 fit for military
service; 1,118,046 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 0.5% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Micronesia, Federated States of
- Geography
Total area: 702 km2; land area: 702 km2; includes Pohnpei, Truk, Yap,
and Kosrae

Comparative area: slightly less than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 6,112 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; heavy year-round rainfall, especially in the eastern
islands; located on southern edge of the typhoon belt with occasional severe
damage

Terrain: islands vary geologically from high mountainous islands to low,
coral atolls; volcanic outcroppings on Pohnpei, Kosrae, and Truk

Natural resources: forests, marine products, deep-seabed minerals

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other

Environment: subject to typhoons from June to December; four major
island groups totaling 607 islands

Note: located 5,150 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about three-quarters of the way between Hawaii and Indonesia

- People
Population: 104,937 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 26 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Micronesian(s); adjective--Micronesian;
Kosrae(s), Pohnpeian(s), Trukese, Yapese

Ethnic divisions: nine ethnic Micronesian and Polynesian groups

Religion: predominantly Christian, divided between Roman Catholic and
Protestant; other churches include Assembly of God, Jehovah's Witnesses,
Seventh-Day Adventist, Latter Day Saints, and the Baha'i Faith

Language: English is the official and common language; most indigenous
languages fall within the Austronesian language family, the exceptions are the
Polynesian languages; major indigenous languages are Trukese, Pohnpeian,
Yapese, and Kosrean

Literacy: NA%, but education compulsory through eight grades

Labor force: NA; two-thirds are government employees; 45,000 people are
between the ages of 15 and 65

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Federated States of Micronesia (no short-form name)

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US; the
Compact of Free Association entered into force 3 November 1986

Capital: Kolonia (on the island of Pohnpei); note--a new capital is being
built about 10 km southwest in the Palikir valley

Administrative divisions: 4 states; Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, Yap

Independence: 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship;
formerly the Kosrae, Pohnpei, Truk, and Yap districts of the Trust Territory
of the Pacific Islands)

Constitution: 10 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

National holiday: Proclamation of the Federated States of Micronesia,
10 May (1979)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President John R. HAGLELGAM
(since 11 May 1987); Vice President Hiroshi H. ISMAEL (since 11 May 1987)

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 11 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results--John R. Haglelgam was elected;

House of Representatives--last held on NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(NA total)

Communists: none

Member of: SPF, ESCAP (associate)

Diplomatic representation: Deputy Representative Jesse B. MAREHALAN;
Representative Office at 706 G Street SE, Washington DC 20003;
telephone (202) 544-2640;
US--Representative Michael G. WYGANT; US Office at address NA, Kolonia
(mailing address is P. O. Box 1286, Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia
96941); telephone 691-320-2187

Flag: light blue with four white five-pointed stars centered; the stars
are arranged in a diamond pattern

- Economy
Overview: Financial assistance from the US is the primary source
of revenue, with the US pledged to spend $1 billion in the islands in the 1990s.
Micronesia also earns about $4 million a year in fees from foreign commercial
fishing concerns. Economic activity consists primarily of subsistence farming
and fishing. The islands have few mineral deposits worth exploiting,
except for high-grade phosphate. The potential for a tourist industry
exists, but the remoteness of the location and a lack of adequate
facilities hinder development; note--GNP numbers reflect US spending.

GNP: $150 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 80%

Budget: revenues $110.8 million; expenditures NA, including
capital expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $1.6 million (f.o.b., 1983); commodities--copra;
partners--NA

Imports: $48.9 million (c.i.f., 1983); commodities--NA;
partners--NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 35 million kWh produced,
340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, craft items from shell, wood, and pearl

Agriculture: mainly a subsistence economy; copra, black pepper; tropical
fruits and vegetables, coconuts, cassava, sweet potatoes, pigs, chickens

Aid: under terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US will
provide $1.3 billion in grant aid during the period 1986-2001

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Highways: 39 km of paved macadam and concrete roads on major islands,
otherwise 187 km stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads

Ports: Colonia (Yap), Truk (Kosrae), Okat (Kosrae)

Airports: 11 total, 10 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
6 with runways 1,220-2,439

Telecommunications: 16,000 radio receivers, 1,125 TV sets (est. 1987);
telephone network--960 telephone lines at both Kolonia and Truk; islands
interconnected by shortwave radio (used mostly for government purposes);
stations--5 AM, 1 FM, 6 TV, 1 shortwave; 4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Midway Islands
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 5.2 km2; land area: 5.2 km2; includes Eastern Island
and Sand Island

Comparative area: about nine times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 15 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing easterly winds

Terrain: low, nearly level

Natural resources: fish and wildlife

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: coral atoll

Note: located 2,350 km west-northwest of Honolulu at the western end of
Hawaiian Islands group, about one-third of the way between Honolulu and Tokyo;
closed to the public

- People
Population: 453 US military personnel (1989)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy,
under command of the Barbers Point Naval Air Station in Hawaii and managed
cooperatively by the US Navy and the Fish and Wildlife Service of the US
Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife Refuge System

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: the US flag is used

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on providing support services for US naval
operations located on the islands. All food and manufactured goods must be
imported.

- Communications
Highways: 32 km total

Pipelines: 7.8 km

Ports: Sand Island

Airports: 3 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Monaco
- Geography
Total area: 1.9 km2; land area: 1.9 km2

Comparative area: about three times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundary: 4.4 km with France

Coastline: 4.1 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: hilly, rugged, rocky

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: almost entirely urban

Note: second-smallest independent state in world (after
Vatican City)

- People
Population: 29,453 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 7 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Monacan(s) or Monegasque(s); adjective--Monacan or
Monegasque

Ethnic divisions: 47% French, 16% Monegasque, 16% Italian, 21% other

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic

Language: French (official), English, Italian, Monegasque

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: 4,000 members in 35 unions

- Government
Long-form name: Principality of Monaco

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Monaco

Administrative divisions: 4 quarters (quartiers, singular--quartier);
Fontvieille, La Condamine, Monaco-Ville, Monte-Carlo

Independence: 1419, rule by the House of Grimaldi

Constitution: 17 December 1962

Legal system: based on French law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 19 November

Executive branch: prince, minister of state, Council of Government
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Council (Conseil National)

Judicial branch: Supreme Tribunal (Tribunal Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State--Prince RAINIER III (since November 1949); Heir Apparent
Prince ALBERT Alexandre Louis Pierre (born 14 March 1958);

Head of Government Minister of State Jean AUSSEIL (since 10
September 1985)

Political parties and leaders: National and Democratic Union (UND),
Democratic Union Movement (MUD), Monaco Action, Monegasque Socialist Party (PSM)

Suffrage: universal adult at age 25

Elections:
National Council--last held on 24 January 1988 (next to be held 24
January 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(18 total) UND 18

Member of: IAEA, ICAO, IHO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU,
UN (permanent observer), UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO

Diplomatic representation: Monaco maintains honorary consulates
general in Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New Orleans, New York, and San
Francisco, and honorary consulates in Dallas, Honolulu, Palm Beach,
Philadelphia, and Washington;
US--no mission in Monaco, but the US Consul General in Marseille,
France, is accredited to Monaco; Consul General R. Susan WOOD; Consulate
General at 12 Boulevard Paul Peytral, 13286 Marseille Cedex (mailing
address APO NY 09777); telephone p33o (91) 549-200

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the
flag of Indonesia which is longer and the flag of Poland which is white (top)
and red

- Economy
Overview: No data are published on the economy. Monaco, situated
on the French Mediterranean coast, is a popular resort, attracting tourists
to its casino and pleasant climate. The Principality has successfully sought to
diversify into services and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries.
The state has no income tax and low business taxes and thrives as a tax
haven both for individuals who have established residence and for foreign
companies that have set up businesses and offices. About 50% of Monaco's annual
revenue comes from value-added taxes on hotels, banks, and the industrial
sector; about 25% of revenue comes from tourism. Living standards are
high, that is, roughly comparable to those in prosperous French
metropolitan suburbs.

GNP: NA

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: full employment (1989)

Budget: revenues $386 million; expenditures $NA, including capital
expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through
customs union with France

Imports: $NA; full customs integration with France, which collects and
rebates Monacan trade duties; also participates in EC market system through
customs union with France

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 10,000 kW standby capacity (1988); power supplied by France

Industries: pharmaceuticals, food processing, precision instruments,
glassmaking, printing, tourism

Agriculture: NA

Aid: NA

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1.6 km 1.435-meter gauge

Highways: none; city streets

Ports: Monaco

Merchant marine: 1 tanker (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,268 GRT/4,959 DWT

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 usable airfield with permanent-surface runways

Telecommunications: served by the French communications system; automatic
telephone system; 38,200 telephones; stations--3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV;
no communication satellite stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mongolia
- Geography
Total area: 1,565,000 km2; land area: 1,565,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 8,114 km total; China 4,673 km, USSR 3,441 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature
ranges)

Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and
southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

Natural resources: coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin,
nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 79% meadows and
pastures; 10% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: harsh and rugged

Note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Soviet Union

- People
Population: 2,187,275 (July 1990), growth rate 2.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 35 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 50 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mongolian(s); adjective--Mongolian

Ethnic divisions: 90% Mongol, 4% Kazakh, 2% Chinese, 2% Russian, 2% other

Religion: predominantly Tibetan Buddhist, about 4% Muslim, limited
religious activity because of Communist regime

Language: Khalkha Mongol used by over 90% of population; minor languages
include Turkic, Russian, and Chinese

Literacy: 80% (est.); 100% claimed (1985)

Labor force: NA, but primarily agricultural; over half the adult
population is in the labor force, including a large percentage of women;
shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: 425,000 members of the Central Council of Mongolian Trade
Unions (CCMTU) controlled by the government (1984)

- Government
Long-form name: Mongolian People's Republic; abbreviated MPR

Type: Communist state

Capital: Ulaanbaatar

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (aymguud, singular--aymag) and
3 municipalities* (hotuud, singular--hot); Arhangay, Bayanhongor, Bayan-Olgiy,
Bulgan, Darhan*, Dornod, Dornogovi, Dundgovi, Dzavhan, Erdenet*,
Govi-Altay, Hentiy, Hovd, Hovsgol, Omnogovi, Ovorhangay,
Selenge, Suhbaatar, Tov, Ulaanbaatar*, Uvs

Independence: 13 March 1921 (from China; formerly Outer Mongolia)

Constitution: 6 July 1960

Legal system: blend of Russian, Chinese, and Turkish systems of law;
no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: People's Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)

Executive branch: chairman and deputy chairman of the Presidium of
the People's Great Hural, Presidium of the People's Great Hural, chairman
of the Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral People's Great Hural

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Great
Hural Punsalmaagiyn OCHIRBAT (since 21 March 1990);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers
Sharabyn GUNGAADORJ (since 21 March 1990);

Political parties and leaders: only party--Mongolian People's
Revolutionary Party (MPRP), Gombojabin Ochirbat, General Secretary

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 21 March 1990 (next to be held July 1991);
results--Punsalmaagiyn Ochirbat elected by the People's Great Hural;

People's Great Hural--last held on 22 June 1986 (next to be held
June 1990);
results--MPRP was the only party;
seats--(370 total) MPRP 370

Communists: MPRP membership 88,150 (1986 est.)

Member of: CEMA, ESCAP, FAO, IAEA, IBEC, ILO, IPU, ITU, UN, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Gendengiin NYAMDOO;
US--Ambassador Richard L. WILLIAMS

Flag: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), blue, and red;
centered on the hoist-side red band in yellow is a five-pointed star above the
national emblem (soyombo--a columnar arrangement of abstract and
geometric representations for fire, sun, moon, earth, water, and the yin-yang
symbol)

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity traditionally has been based on
agriculture and the breeding of livestock--Mongolia has the highest
number of livestock per person in the world. In recent years extensive
mineral resources have been developed with Soviet support. The mining and
processing of coal, copper, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold
account for a large part of industrial production.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $880 (1985 est.); average real
growth rate 3.6% (1976-85 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $2.2 billion; expenditures $2.19 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.9 billion (1987 est.)

Exports: $388 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities--livestock, animal
products, wool, hides, fluorspar, nonferrous metals, minerals;
partners--nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

Imports: $1.0 billion (c.i.f., 1985); commodities--machinery and
equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building
materials, sugar, tea;
partners--nearly all trade with Communist countries (about 80% with USSR)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 10.9% (1985)

Electricity: 657,000 kW capacity; 29,500 million kWh produced,
1,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: processing of animal products, building materials, food and
beverage, mining (particularly coal)

Agriculture: accounts for 90% of exports and provides livelihood for about
50% of the population; livestock raising predominates (sheep, goats, horses);
crops--wheat, barley, potatoes, forage

Aid: about $500-$700 million annually from USSR

Currency: tughrik (plural--tughriks); 1 tughrik (Tug) = 100 mongos

Exchange rates: tughriks (Tug) per US$1--3.355 (1986-1988),
3.600 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,750 km 1.524-meter broad gauge (1986)

Highways: 46,700 km total; 1,000 km hard surface; 45,700 km other surfaces
(1986)

Inland waterways: 397 km of principal routes (1986)

Civil air: 22 major transport aircraft

Airports: 80 total, 30 usable; 10 with permanent-surface runways;
fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; fewer than 20 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 10 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--13 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV (with 18 provincial
relays); relay of Soviet TV; 60,000 TV sets; 186,000 radio receivers;
at least 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Mongolian People's Army, Air Force (negligible)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 518,482; 338,652 fit for military service;
24,783 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Montserrat
(dependent territory of the UK)
- Geography
Total area: 100 km2; land area: 100 km2

Comparative area: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: volcanic islands, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 20% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 10% meadows and
pastures; 40% forest and woodland; 30% other

Environment: subject to severe hurricanes from June to November

Note: located 400 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

- People
Population: 12,467 (July 1990), growth rate 0.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 4 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Montserratian(s); adjective--Montserratian

Ethnic divisions: mostly black with a few Europeans

Religion: Anglican, Methodist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day
Adventist, other Christian denominations

Language: English

Literacy: 77%

Labor force: 5,100; 40.5% community, social, and personal services,
13.5% construction, 12.3% trade, restaurants, and hotels, 10.5% manufacturing,
8.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing, 14.4% other (1983 est.)

Organized labor: 30% of labor force, three trade unions with 1,500
members (1984 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: dependent territory of the UK

Capital: Plymouth

Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges,
Saint Peter

Independence: none (colony of the UK)

Constitution: 1 January 1960

Legal system: English common law and statute law

National holiday: Celebration of the Birthday of the Queen (second
Saturday of June)

Executive branch: monarch, governor, Executive Council (cabinet),
chief minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952),
represented by Governor Christopher J. TURNER (since 1987);

Head of Government--Chief Minister John A. OSBORNE (since 1978)

Political parties and leaders: People's Liberation Movement (PLM), John
Osborne; Progressive Democratic Party (PDP), Howell Bramble; United
National Front (UNF), Dr. George Irish; National Development Party (NDP),
Bertrand Osborne

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Council--last held on 25 August 1987 (next to be
held NA 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(11 total, 7 elected) PLM 4, NDP 2, PDP 1

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (colony of the UK)

Flag: blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and
the Montserratian coat of arms centered in the outer half of the flag; the coat
of arms features a woman standing beside a yellow harp with her arm around
a black cross

- Economy
Overview: The economy is small and open with economic activity centered
on tourism and construction. Tourism is the most important sector and
accounted for 20% of GDP in 1986. Agriculture accounted for about 4%
of GDP and industry 9%. The economy is heavily dependent on imports,
making it vulnerable to fluctuations in world prices. Exports consist
mainly of electronic parts sold to the US.

GDP: $45.4 million, per capita $3,780; real growth rate 12% (1988
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.7% (1987)

Unemployment rate: 3.0% (1987)

Budget: revenues $10.0 million; expenditures $9.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $3.2 million (1987)

Exports: $3.0 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities--plastic bags,
electronic parts, apparel, hot peppers, live plants, cattle; partners--NA

Imports: $25.3 million (c.i.f., 1987); commodities--machinery and
transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants,
and related materials; partners--NA

External debt: $3.7 million (1985)

Industrial production: growth rate 8.1% (1986)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 12 million kWh produced,
930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism; light manufacturing--rum, textiles, electronic
appliances

Agriculture: accounts for 4% of GDP; small-scale farming; food
crops--tomatoes, onions, peppers; not self-sufficient in food, especially
livestock products

Aid: NA

Currency: East Caribbean dollar (plural--dollars);
1 EC dollar (EC$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (EC$) per US$1--2.70 (fixed
rate since 1976)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 280 km total; about 200 km paved, 80 km gravel and earth

Ports: Plymouth

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,036 m

Telecommunications: 3,000 telephones; stations--8 AM, 4 FM, 1 TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Morocco
- Geography
Total area: 446,550 km2; land area: 446,300 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than California

Land boundaries: 2,002 km total; Algeria 1,559 km, Western
Sahara 443 km

Coastline: 1,835 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims and administers Western Sahara, but sovereignty is
unresolved; armed conflict in Western Sahara; Spain controls two coastal
presidios or places of sovereignty (Ceuta, Melilla)

Climate: Mediterranean, becoming more extreme in the interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with rich coastal plains

Natural resources: phosphates, iron ore, manganese, lead,
zinc, fish, salt

Land use: 18% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 28% meadows and
pastures; 12% forest and woodland; 41% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: northern mountains geologically unstable and subject
to earthquakes; desertification

Note: strategic location along Strait of Gibraltar

- People
Population: 25,648,241 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 31 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 78 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 63 years male, 66 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Moroccan(s); adjective--Moroccan

Ethnic divisions: 99.1% Arab-Berber, 0.7% non-Moroccan, 0.2% Jewish

Religion: 98.7% Muslim, 1.1% Christian, 0.2% Jewish

Language: Arabic (official); several Berber dialects; French is language
of business, government, diplomacy, and postprimary education

Literacy: 28%

Labor force: 7,400,000; 50% agriculture, 26% services, 15% industry,
9% other (1985)

Organized labor: about 5% of the labor force, mainly in the Union of
Moroccan Workers (UMT) and the Democratic Confederation of Labor (CDT)

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Morocco

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Rabat

Administrative divisions: 36 provinces (provinces, singular--province)
and 2 municipalities* (wilayas, singular--wilaya); Agadir, Al Hoceima, Azilal,
Beni Mellal, Ben Slimane, Boulemane, Casablanca*, Chaouen, El Jadida,
El Kelaa des Srarhna, Er Rachidia, Essaouira, Fes, Figuig, Guelmim, Ifrane,
Kenitra, Khemisset, Khenifra, Khouribga, Laayoune, Marrakech, Meknes, Nador,
Ouarzazate, Oujda, Rabat-Sale*, Safi, Settat, Sidi Kacem, Tanger, Tan-Tan,
Taounate, Taroudannt, Tata, Taza, Tetouan, Tiznit

Independence: 2 March 1956 (from France)

Constitution: 10 March 1972

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law
system; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Chamber of Supreme
Court

National holiday: National Day (anniversary of King Hassan II's accession
to the throne), 3 March (1961)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Representatives (Majlis al
Nuwab)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--King HASSAN II (since 3 March 1961);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. Azzedine LARAKI (since
30 September 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Morocco has 15 political parties; the major
ones are Istiqlal Party, M'Hamed Boucetta; Socialist Union of Popular Forces
(USFP), Abderrahim Bouabid; Popular Movement (MP), Secretariat General;
National Assembly of Independents (RNI), Ahmed Osman; National Democratic Party
(PND), Mohamed Arsalane El-Jadidi; Party for Progress and Socialism (PPS),
Ali Yata; Constitutional Union (UC), Maati Bouabid

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
Chamber of Representatives--last held on 14 September 1984 (were
scheduled for September 1990, but postponed until NA 1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(306 total, 206 elected) CU 83, RNI 61, MP 47, Istiqlal 41,
USFP 36, PND 24, others 14

Communists: about 2,000

Member of: AfDB, Arab League, CCC, EC (associate), FAO, G-77, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO,
ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Ali BENGELLOUN; Chancery at
1601 21st Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 462-7979;
there is a Moroccan Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Michael USSERY; Embassy at 2 Avenue de Marrakech, Rabat
(mailing address is P. O. Box 120, Rabat, or APO New York 09284);
telephone p212o (7) 622-65; there are US Consulates General in Casablanca
and Tangier

Flag: red with a green pentacle (five-pointed, linear star) known as
Solomon's seal in the center of the flag; green is the traditional color of
Islam

- Economy
Overview: After registering a robust 10% growth in 1988, the
economy slowed in 1989 because of higher prices for food and oil
imports, lower worker remittances, and a trade dispute with India over
phosphoric acid prices that cost Rabat $500 million. To meet the foreign
payments shortfall, Rabat has been drawing down foreign exchange reserves.
Servicing the $22 billion foreign debt, high unemployment, and Morocco's
vulnerability to external forces remain severe problems for the 1990s.

GDP: $21.9 billion, per capita $880 (1988); real growth rate 4.5% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1988)

Budget: revenues $5.1 billion; expenditures $6.0 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.4 billion (1988)

Exports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--food and
beverages 30%, semiprocessed goods 23%, consumer goods 21%, phosphates 17%;
partners--EC 58%, India 7%, Japan 5%, USSR 3%, US 2%

Imports: $5.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--capital
goods 24%, semiprocessed goods 22%, raw materials 16%, fuel and lubricants 16%,
food and beverages 13%, consumer goods 10%; partners--EC 53%, US 11%,
Canada 4%, Iraq 3%, USSR 3%, Japan 2%

External debt: $22.2 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 2,140,000 kW capacity; 7,760 million kWh produced,
300 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate rock mining and processing, food processing,
leather goods, textiles, construction, tourism

Agriculture: 50% of employment and 30% of export value; not
self-sufficient in food; cereal farming and livestock raising predominate;
barley, wheat, citrus fruit, wine, vegetables, olives; fishing catch
of 491,000 metric tons in 1987

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis; trafficking on
the increase for both domestic and international drug markets; shipments
of cannabis mostly directed to Western Europe; occasional transit point
for cocaine from South America destined for Western Europe.

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.3 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4.8 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$2.3 billion

Currency: Moroccan dirham (plural--dirhams);
1 Moroccan dirham (DH) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Moroccan dirhams (DH) per US$1--8.093 (January 1990),
8.488 (1989), 8.209 (1988), 8.359 (1987), 9.104 (1986), 10.062 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,893 km 1.435-meter standard gauge (246 km double track, 974
km electrified)

Highways: 59,198 km total; 27,740 km bituminous treated, 31,458 km gravel,
crushed stone, improved earth, and unimproved earth

Pipelines: 362 km crude oil; 491 km (abandoned) refined products; 241 km
natural gas

Ports: Agadir, Casablanca, El Jorf Lasfar, Kenitra, Mohammedia, Nador,
Safi, Tangier; also Spanish-controlled Ceuta and Melilla

Merchant marine: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 334,931
GRT/513,762 DWT; includes 11 cargo, 2 container, 14 refrigerated cargo,
5 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 3 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
12 chemical tanker, 4 bulk, 3 short-sea passenger

Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

Airports: 75 total, 68 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with
runways over 3,659 m; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 27 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good system composed of wire lines, cables, and radio
relay links; principal centers are Casablanca and Rabat, secondary centers are
Fes, Marrakech, Oujda, Tangier, and Tetouan; 280,000 telephones;
stations--14 AM, 6 FM, 47 TV; 5 submarine cables; satellite earth stations--2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 ARABSAT; radio relay to Gibraltar, Spain, and
Western Sahara; coaxial cable to Algeria; microwave network linking Syria,
Jordan, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Moroccan Army, Royal Moroccan Navy, Royal Moroccan Air
Force, Royal Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,203,759; 3,946,408 fit for military
service; 293,893 reach military age (18) annually; limited conscription

Defense expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mozambique
- Geography
Total area: 801,590 km2; land area: 784,090 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of California

Land boundaries: 4,571 km total; Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km,
Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km

Coastline: 2,470 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical to subtropical

Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in
northwest, mountains in west

Natural resources: coal, titanium

Land use: 4% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 56% meadows and
pastures; 20% forest and woodland; 20% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: severe drought and floods occur in south; desertification

- People
Population: 14,565,656 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 138 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 49 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mozambican(s); adjective--Mozambican

Ethnic divisions: majority from indigenous tribal groups; about
10,000 Europeans, 35,000 Euro-Africans, 15,000 Indians

Religion: 60% indigenous beliefs, 30% Christian, 10% Muslim

Language: Portuguese (official); many indigenous dialects

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