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along Mozambique Channel

- People
Population: 11,800,524 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 47 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 97 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 50 years male, 54 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malagasy (sing. and pl.); adjective--Malagasy

Ethnic divisions: basic split between highlanders of predominantly
Malayo-Indonesian origin (Merina 1,643,000 and related Betsileo 760,000) on the
one hand and coastal tribes, collectively termed the Cotiers, with mixed
African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry (Betsimisaraka 941,000, Tsimihety
442,000, Antaisaka 415,000, Sakalava 375,000), on the other; there are also
11,000 European French, 5,000 Indians of French nationality, and 5,000 Creoles

Religion: 52% indigenous beliefs; about 41% Christian, 7% Muslim

Language: French and Malagasy (official)

Literacy: 67.5%

Labor force: 4,900,000; 90% nonsalaried family workers engaged in
subsistence agriculture; 175,000 wage earners--26% agriculture, 17% domestic
service, 15% industry, 14% commerce, 11% construction, 9% services,
6% transportation, 2% other; 51% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 4% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Democratic Republic of Madagascar

Type: republic

Capital: Antananarivo

Administrative divisions: 6 provinces (plural--NA, singular--faritanin);
Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara

Independence: 26 June 1960 (from France; formerly Malagasy Republic)

Constitution: 21 December 1975

Legal system: based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy
law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 June (1960)

Executive branch: president, Supreme Council of the Revolution,
prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Popular National Assembly (Assemblee
Nationale Populaire)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme), High Constitutional
Court (Haute Cour Constitutionnelle)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Adm. Didier RATSIRAKA (since 15 June 1975);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Lt. Col. Victor RAMAHATRA (since
12 February 1988)

Political parties and leaders: seven parties are now allowed limited
political activity under the national front and are represented on the Supreme
Revolutionary Council: Advance Guard of the Malagasy Revolution (AREMA), Didier
Ratsiraka; Congress Party for Malagasy Independence (AKFM);
Congress Party for Malagasy Independence-Revival (AKFM-R), Pastor Richard
Andriamanjato; Movement for National Unity (VONJY), Dr. Marojama Razanabahiny;
Malagasy Christian Democratic Union (UDECMA), Norbert Andriamorasata; Militants
for the Establishment of a Proletarian Regime (MFM), Manandafy Rakotonirina;
National Movement for the Independence of Madagascar (MONIMA), Monja Jaona;
Socialist Organization Monima (VSM, an offshoot of MONIMA), Tsihozony
Maharanga

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 12 March 1989 (next to be held March 1996);
results--Didier Ratsiraka (AREMA) 62%, Manandafy Rakotonirina (MFM/MFT)
20%, Dr. Jerome Marojama Razanabahiny (VONJY) 15%, Monja Jaona
(MONIMA) 3%;

People's National Assembly--last held on 28 May 1989 (next to
be held May 1994);
results--AREMA 88.2%, MFM 5.1%, AKFM 3.7%, VONJY 2.2%, others 0.8%;
seats--(137 total) AREMA 120, MFM 7, AKFM 5, VONJY 4, MONIMA 1,
independent 1

Communists: Communist party of virtually no importance; small and vocal
group of Communists has gained strong position in leadership of AKFM, the rank
and file of which is non-Communist

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, EAMA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAU,
OCAM, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Pierrot Jocelyn RAJAONARIVELO;
Chancery at 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202)
265-5525 or 5526; there is a Malagasy Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Howard K. WALKER; Embassy at 14 and 16 Rue Rainitovo,
Antsahavola, Antananarivo (mailing address is B. P. 620, Antananarivo);
telephone 212-57, 209-56, 200-89, 207-18

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical
white band of the same width on hoist side

- Economy
Overview: Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world.
During the period 1980-85 it had a population growth of 3% a year and
a - 0.4% GDP growth rate. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is
the mainstay of the economy, accounting for over 40% of GDP, employing about
85% of the labor force, and contributing more than 70% to export earnings.
Industry is confined to the processing of agricultural products and textile
manufacturing; in 1988 it contributed only 16% to GDP and employed 3% of the
labor force. Industrial development has been hampered by government policies
that have restricted imports of equipment and spare parts and put strict
controls on foreign-owned enterprises. In 1986 the government introduced a
five-year development plan that stresses self-sufficiency in food (mainly rice)
by 1990, increased production for exports, and reduced energy imports.

GDP: $1.7 billion, per capita $155; real growth rate 2.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.0% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $337 million; expenditures $245 million, including
capital expenditures of $163 million (1988)

Exports: $284 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--coffee 45%, vanilla 15%, cloves 11%, sugar, petroleum
products; partners--France, Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $319 million (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--intermediate manufactures 30%, capital goods 28%,
petroleum 15%, consumer goods 14%, food 13%; partners--France, FRG, UK,
other EC, US

External debt: $3.6 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 3.9 % (1988)

Electricity: 119,000 kW capacity; 430 million kWh produced,
40 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (meat canneries, soap factories,
brewery, tanneries, sugar refining), light consumer goods industries (textiles,
glassware), cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops--coffee, vanilla,
sugarcane, cloves, cocoa; food crops--rice, cassava, beans, bananas, peanuts;
cattle raising widespread; not self-sufficient in rice and wheat flour

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild
varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $118 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.6 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $491 million

Currency: Malagasy franc (plural--francs);
1 Malagasy franc (FMG) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Malagasy francs (FMG) per US$1--1,531.0 (January 1990),
1603.4 (1989), 1,407.1 (1988), 1,069.2 (1987), 676.3 (1986), 662.5 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 1,020 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 40,000 km total; 4,694 km paved, 811 km crushed stone, gravel,
or stabilized soil, 34,495 km improved and unimproved earth (est.)

Inland waterways: of local importance only; isolated streams and small
portions of Canal des Pangalanes

Ports: Toamasina, Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toliara

Merchant marine: 13 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 58,126
GRT/79,420 DWT; includes 8 cargo, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 1 liquefied gas

Civil air: 5 major transport aircraft

Airports: 147 total, 115 usable; 30 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 43 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: above average system includes open-wire lines, coaxial
cables, radio relay, and troposcatter links; submarine cable to Bahrain;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT;
over 38,200 telephones; stations--14 AM, 1 FM, 7 (30 repeaters) TV

- Defense Forces
Branches: Popular Army, Aeronaval Forces (includes Navy and Air Force),
paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,550,775; 1,519,084 fit for military
service; 116,438 reach military age (20) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.2% of GDP, or $37 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Malawi
- Geography
Total area: 118,480 km2; land area: 94,080 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Pennsylvania

Land boundaries: 2,881 km total; Mozambique 1,569 km, Tanzania 475 km,
Zambia 837 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa
(Lake Malawi)

Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to May); dry season (May to
November)

Terrain: narrow elongated plateau with rolling plains, rounded hills,
some mountains

Natural resources: limestone; unexploited deposits of uranium, coal,
and bauxite

Land use: 25% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 20% meadows and
pastures; 50% forest and woodland; 5% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 9,157,528 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 52 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 16 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 130 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 50 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malawian(s); adjective--Malawian

Ethnic divisions: Chewa, Nyanja, Tumbuko, Yao, Lomwe, Sena, Tonga, Ngoni,
Ngonde, Asian, European

Religion: 55% Protestant, 20% Roman Catholic, 20% Muslim; traditional
indigenous beliefs are also practiced

Language: English and Chichewa (official); other languages important
regionally

Literacy: 41.2%

Labor force: 428,000 wage earners; 43% agriculture, 16% manufacturing,
15% personal services, 9% commerce, 7% construction, 4% miscellaneous services,
6% other permanently employed (1986)

Organized labor: small minority of wage earners are unionized

Note: there are 800,000 Mozambican refugees in Malawi (1989 est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Malawi

Type: one-party state

Capital: Lilongwe

Administrative divisions: 24 districts; Blantyre, Chikwawa, Chiradzulu,
Chitipa, Dedza, Dowa, Karonga, Kasungu, Kasupe, Lilongwe, Mangochi, Mchinji,
Mulanje, Mwanza, Mzimba, Ncheu, Nkhata Bay, Nkhota Kota, Nsanje, Ntchisi,
Rumphi, Salima, Thyolo, Zomba

Independence: 6 July 1964 (from UK; formerly Nyasaland)

Constitution: 6 July 1964; republished as amended January 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Appeal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 6 July (1964)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: High Court, Supreme Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Dr. Hastings Kamuzu
BANDA (since 6 July 1966; sworn in as President for Life 6 July 1971)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Malawi Congress Party
(MCP), Maxwell Pashane, administrative secretary; John Tembo, treasurer
general; top party position of secretary general vacant since 1983

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--President Banda sworn in as President for Life on
6 July 1971;

National Assembly--last held 27-28 May 1987 (next to be held
by May 1992);
results--MCP is the only party;
seats--(133 total, 112 elected) MCP 133

Communists: no Communist party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, EC (associated member), FAO,
G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ISO,
ITU, NAM, OAU, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Robert B. MBAYA; Chancery at
2408 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-1007;
US--Ambassador George A. TRAIL, III; Embassy in new capital city
development area, address NA (mailing address is P. O. Box 30016, Lilongwe);
telephone 730-166

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green with a
radiant, rising, red sun centered in the black band; similar to the flag of
Afghanistan which is longer and has the national coat of arms superimposed on
the hoist side of the black and red bands

- Economy
Overview: A landlocked country, Malawi ranks among the world's least
developed with a per capita GDP of $180. The economy is predominately
agricultural and operates under a relatively free enterprise
environment, with about 90% of the population living in rural areas.
Agriculture accounts for 40% of GDP and 90% of export revenues. After
two years of weak performance, economic growth improved significantly
in 1988 as a result of good weather and a broadly based economic
adjustment effort by the government. The closure of traditional trade
routes through Mozambique continues to be a constraint on the economy.

GDP: $1.4 billion, per capita $180; growth rate 3.6% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 31.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $246 million; expenditures $390 million, including
capital expenditures of $97 million (FY88 est.)

Exports: $292 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--tobacco,
tea, sugar, coffee, peanuts; partners--US, UK, Zambia, South Africa, FRG

Imports: $402 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--food,
petroleum, semimanufactures, consumer goods, transportation equipment;
partners--South Africa, Japan, US, UK, Zimbabwe

External debt: $1.4 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.4% (1988)

Electricity: 181,000 kW capacity; 535 million kWh produced,
60 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: agricultural processing (tea, tobacco, sugar), sawmilling,
cement, consumer goods

Agriculture: accounts for 40% of GDP; cash crops--tobacco,
sugarcane, cotton, tea, and corn; subsistence crops--potatoes, cassava,
sorghum, pulses; livestock--cattle and goats


Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $182 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.8 billion

Currency: Malawian kwacha (plural--kwacha);
1 Malawian kwacha (MK) = 100 tambala

Exchange rates: Malawian kwacha (MK) per US$1--2.6793 (January 1990),
2.7595 (1989), 2.5613 (1988), 2.2087 (1987), 1.8611 (1986), 1.7191 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 789 km 1.067-meter gauge

Highways: 13,135 km total; 2,364 km paved; 251 km crushed stone, gravel,
or stabilized soil; 10,520 km earth and improved earth

Inland waterways: Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi); Shire River, 144 km

Ports: Chipoka, Monkey Bay, Nkhata Bay, and Nkotakota--all on Lake
Nyasa (Lake Malawi)

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 48 total, 47 usable; 6 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fair system of open-wire lines, radio relay links, and
radio communication stations; 36,800 telephones; stations--8 AM, 4 FM, no TV;
satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT

Note: a majority of exports would normally go through Mozambique on the
Beira or Nacala railroads, but now most go through South Africa because of
insurgent activity and damage to rail lines

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Army Air Wing, Army Naval Detachment, paramilitary
Police Mobile Force Unit, paramilitary Young Pioneers

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,904,445; 967,032 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $22 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Malaysia
- Geography
Total area: 329,750 km2; land area: 328,550 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 2,669 km total; Brunei 381 km, Indonesia 1,782,
Thailand 506 km

Coastline: 4,675 km total (2,068 km Peninsular Malaysia,
2,607 km East Malaysia)

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation,
specified boundary in the South China Sea;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: involved in a complex dispute over the Spratly Islands with
China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam; state of Sabah claimed by the
Philippines; Brunei may wish to purchase the Malaysian salient that divides
Brunei into two parts

Climate: tropical; annual southwest (April to October) and northeast
(October to February) monsoons

Terrain: coastal plains rising to hills and mountains

Natural resources: tin, crude oil, timber, copper, iron ore,
natural gas, bauxite

Land use: 3% arable land; 10% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 63% forest and woodland; 24% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: subject to flooding; air and water pollution

Note: strategic location along Strait of Malacca and southern
South China Sea

- People
Population: 17,510,546 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 30 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malaysian(s); adjective--Malaysian

Ethnic divisions: 59% Malay and other indigenous, 32% Chinese, 9% Indian

Religion: Peninsular Malaysia--Malays nearly all Muslim, Chinese
predominantly Buddhists, Indians predominantly Hindu; Sabah--38% Muslim,
17% Christian, 45% other; Sarawak--35% tribal religion, 24% Buddhist and
Confucianist, 20% Muslim, 16% Christian, 5% other

Language: Peninsular Malaysia--Malay (official); English, Chinese
dialects, Tamil; Sabah--English, Malay, numerous tribal dialects, Mandarin and
Hakka dialects predominate among Chinese; Sarawak--English, Malay, Mandarin,
numerous tribal languages

Literacy: 65.0% overall, age 20 and up; Peninsular Malaysia--80%;
Sabah--60%; Sarawak--60%

Labor force: 6,800,000; 30.8% agriculture, 17% manufacturing,
13.6% government, 5.8% construction, 4.3% finance, 3.4% business services,
transport and communications, 0.6% mining, 24.5% other (1989 est.)

Organized labor: 660,000, 10% of total labor force (1988)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: Federation of Malaysia formed 9 July 1963; constitutional monarchy
nominally headed by the paramount ruler (king) and a bicameral Parliament
composed of a 58-member Senate and a 177-member House of Representatives;
Peninsular Malaysian states--hereditary rulers in all but Penang and Melaka,
where governors are appointed by Malaysian Government; powers of state
governments are limited by federal Constitution; Sabah--self-governing state,
holds 20 seats in House of Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense,
internal security, and other powers delegated to federal government;
Sarawak--self-governing state within Malaysia, holds 24 seats in House of
Representatives, with foreign affairs, defense, internal security, and
other powers delegated to federal government

Capital: Kuala Lumpur

Administrative divisions: 13 states (negeri-negeri, singular--negeri) and
2 federal territories* (wilayah-wilayah persekutuan,
singular--wilayah persekutuan); Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Labuan*, Melaka,
Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor,
Terengganu, Wilayah Persekutuan*

Independence: 31 August 1957 (from UK)

Constitution: 31 August 1957, amended 16 September 1963 when
Federation of Malaya became Federation of Malaysia

Legal system: based on English common law; judicial review of legislative
acts in the Supreme Court at request of supreme head of the federation; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 31 August (1957)

Executive branch: paramount ruler, deputy paramount ruler, prime minister,
deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlimen) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Dewan Negara) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dewan Rakyat)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Paramount Ruler AZLAN Muhibbuddin Shah ibni Sultan
Yusof Izzudin (since 26 April 1989); Deputy Paramount Ruler JA'AFAR ibni Abdul
Rahman (since 26 April 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. MAHATHIR bin Mohamad (since
16 July 1981); Deputy Prime Minister Abdul GHAFAR Baba (since 7 May 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Peninsular
Malaysia--National Front, a confederation of 14 political parties
dominated by United Malays National Organization Baru (UMNO Baru),
Mahathir bin Mohamad; Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA), Ling Liong Sik;
Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia, Datuk Lim Keng Yaik; Malaysian Indian Congress
(MIC), Datuk Samy Vellu;

Sabah--Berjaya Party, Datuk Haji Mohamed Noor Mansoor; Bersatu Sabah
(PBS), Joseph Pairin Kitingan; United Sabah National Organizaton (USNO),
Tun Datuk Mustapha;

Sarawak--coalition Sarawak National Front composed of the Party
Pesaka Bumiputra Bersatu (PBB), Datuk Patinggi Tan Sri Haji Abdul Taib
Mahmud; Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP), Datuk Amar Stephen Yong
Kuat Tze; Sarawak National Party (SNAP), Datuk James Wong; Parti Bansa
Dayak Sarawak (PBDS), Datuk Leo Moggie; major opposition parties are
Democratic Action Party (DAP), Lim Kit Siang and Pan-Malaysian Islamic
Party (PAS), Fadzil Noor

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held 2-3 August 1986 (next to be held
by August 1991);
results--National Front 57.4%, DAP 20.8%, PAS 15.6%, independents 3.3%,
others 2.9%; note--within the National Front, UMNO got 35% and MCA
14% of the vote;
seats--(177 total) National Front 148, DAP 24, PAS 1, independents 4;
note--within the National Front, UMNO got 83 seats and MCA 17 seats

Communists: Peninsular Malaysia--about 1,000 armed insurgents on
Thailand side of international boundary and about 200 full time inside
Malaysia surrendered on 2 December 1989; only about 100 Communist
insurgents remain in North Kalimantan and Sabah

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries,
CCC, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC,
ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Albert S. TALALLA; Chancery at
2401 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 328-2700;
there are Malaysian Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;
US--Ambassador Paul M. CLEVELAND; Embassy at 376 Jalan Tun Razak,
50400 Kuala Lumpur (mailing address is P. O. Box No. 10035, 50700 Kuala Lumpur);
telephone p6o (03) 248-9011

Flag: fourteen equal horizontal stripes of red (top) alternating with
white (bottom); there is a blue rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner bearing
a yellow crescent and a yellow fourteen-pointed star; the crescent and the star
are traditional symbols of Islam; the design was based on the flag of the US

- Economy
Overview: In 1988-89 booming exports helped Malaysia continue to recover
from the severe 1985-86 recession. Real output grew by 8.7% in 1988 and
about 7.7% in 1989, helped by vigorous growth in manufacturing output and
further increases in foreign direct investment, particularly from
Japanese and Taiwanese firms facing higher costs at home. Malaysia has
become the world's third-largest producer of semiconductor devices
(after the US and Japan) and the world's largest exporter of semiconductor
devices. Inflation remained low as unemployment stood at about 8% of
the labor force and as the government followed prudent fiscal/monetary
policies. The country is not self-sufficient in food, and a majority
of the rural population subsists at the poverty level. Malaysia's
high export dependence (merchandise exports are 63% of GDP) leaves
it vulnerable to a recession in the OECD countries or a fall in
world commodity prices.

GDP: $37.9 billion, per capita $2,270; real growth rate 7.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 7.9% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $8.8 billion; expenditures $11.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $2.5 billion (1989 est.)

Exports: $24 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--natural
rubber, palm oil, tin, timber, petroleum, electronics, light manufactures;
partners--Singapore, Japan, USSR, EC, Australia, US

Imports: $20 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--food, crude
oil, consumer goods, intermediate goods, capital equipment, chemicals;
partners--Japan, Singapore, FRG, UK, Thailand, China, Australia, US

External debt: $16.3 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 13.6% (1988)

Electricity: 5,600,000 kW capacity; 16,500 million kWh produced,
990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: Peninsular Malaysia--rubber and oil palm processing and
manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and
smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah--logging, petroleum production;
Sarawak--agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging

Agriculture: Peninsular Malaysia--natural rubber, palm oil, rice;
Sabah--mainly subsistence; main crops--rubber, timber, coconut, rice;
Sarawak--main crops--rubber, timber, pepper; there is a deficit of rice
in all areas; fish catch of 608,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-84), $170 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $3.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $42 million

Currency: ringgit (plural--ringgits); 1 ringgit (M$) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: ringgits (M$) per US$1--2.7038 (January 1990),
2.7087 (1989), 2.6188 (1988), 2.5196 (1987), 2.5814 (1986), 2.4830 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: Peninsular Malaysia--1,665 km 1.04-meter gauge; 13 km double
track, government owned; Sabah--136 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: Peninsular Malaysia--23,600 km (19,352 km hard surfaced, mostly
bituminous-surface treatment, and 4,248 km unpaved); Sabah--3,782 km;
Sarawak--1,644 km

Inland waterways: Peninsular Malaysia--3,209 km; Sabah--1,569 km;
Sarawak--2,518 km

Ports: Tanjong, Kidurong, Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Pasir Gudang, Penang,
Port Kelang, Sandakan, Tawau

Merchant marine: 159 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,525,635
GRT/2,216,215 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 71 cargo, 21 container,
2 vehicle carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 livestock carrier, 28 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker, 6 liquefied gas,
1 specialized tanker, 1 passenger-cargo, 22 bulk, 1 passenger

Civil air: 53 major transport aircraft

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,307 km; natural gas, 379 km

Airports: 126 total, 121 usable; 32 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 8 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 19 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good intercity service provided to peninsular Malaysia
mainly by microwave relay, adequate intercity radio relay network between Sabah
and Sarawak via Brunei; international service good; good coverage by radio and
television broadcasts; 994,860 telephones (1984); stations--28 AM, 3 FM, 33 TV;
submarine cables extend to India and Sarawak; SEACOM submarine cable links to
Hong Kong and Singapore; satellite earth stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT and
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 domestic

- Defense Forces
Branches: Royal Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy, Royal Malaysian Air
Force, Royal Malaysian Police Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,499,495; 2,744,743 fit for military
service; 178,923 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP, or $1.4 billion (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Maldives
- Geography
Total area: 300 km2; land area: 300 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than 1.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 644 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: about 100 nm (defined by geographic
coordinates);

Extended economic zone: 37-310 nm (segment of zone coincides with
maritime boundary with India);

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry, northeast monsoon (November to
March); rainy, southwest monsoon (June to August)

Terrain: flat with elevations only as high as 2.5 meters

Natural resources: fish

Land use: 10% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 3% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 84% other

Environment: 1,200 coral islands grouped into 19 atolls

Note: archipelago of strategic location astride and along
major sea lanes in Indian Ocean

- People
Population: 217,945 (July 1990), growth rate 3.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 76 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 60 years male, 65 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Maldivian(s); adjective--Maldivian

Ethnic divisions: admixtures of Sinhalese, Dravidian, Arab, and black

Religion: Sunni Muslim

Language: Divehi (dialect of Sinhala; script derived from Arabic); English
spoken by most government officials

Literacy: 36%

Labor force: 66,000 (est.); 80% engaged in fishing industry

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Maldives

Type: republic

Capital: Male

Administrative divisions: 19 district (atolls); Aliff, Baa, Daalu, Faafu,
Gaafu
Aliff, Gaafu Daalu, Haa Aliff, Haa Daalu, Kaafu, Laamu, Laviyani, Meemu,
Naviyani, Noonu, Raa, Seenu, Shaviyani, Thaa, Waavu

Independence: 26 July 1965 (from UK)

Constitution: 4 June 1964

Legal system: based on Islamic law with admixtures of English common law
primarily in commercial matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1965)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Citizens' Council (Majlis)

Judicial branch: High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Maumoon Abdul GAYOOM
(since since 11 November 1978)

Political parties and leaders: no organized political parties; country
governed by the Didi clan for the past eight centuries

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held 23 September 1988 (next to be held September
1994);
results--President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom reelected;

Citizens' Council--last held on 7 December 1984 (next to be held
7 December 1989);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(48 total, 40 elected)

Communists: negligible

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth (special member), ESCAP, FAO,
G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD,
IFC, IMF, IMO, ITU, NAM, OIC, SAARC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Maldives does not maintain an embassy
in the US, but does have a UN mission in New York;
US--the US Ambassador to Sri Lanka is accredited to Maldives and
makes periodic visits there; US Consular Agency, Mahduedurage, Violet
Magu, Henveru, Male; telephone 2581

Flag: red with a large green rectangle in the center bearing a vertical
white crescent; the closed side of the crescent is on the hoist side of the flag

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on fishing, tourism, and shipping.
Agriculture is limited to the production of a few subsistence crops that provide
only 10% of food requirements. Fishing is the largest industry, employing 80%
of the work force and accounting for over 60% of exports; it is also an
important source of government revenue. During the 1980s tourism has become one
of the most important and highest growth sectors of the economy. In 1988
industry accounted for about 14% of GDP. Real GDP is officially
estimated to have increased by about 10% annually during the period
1974-86, and GDP estimates for 1988 show a further growth of 9% on
the strength of a record fish catch and an improved tourist season.

GDP: $136 million, per capita $670; real growth rate 9.2% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 14% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $51 million; expenditures $50 million, including
capital expenditures of $25 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $47.0 million (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--fish 57%,
clothing 39%; partners--Thailand, Western Europe, Sri Lanka

Imports: $90.0 million (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--
intermediate and capital goods 47%, consumer goods 42%, petroleum products 11%;
partners--Japan, Western Europe, Thailand

External debt: $70 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.9% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced,
50 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing and fish processing, tourism, shipping, boat
building, some coconut processing, garments, woven mats, coir (rope),
handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for almost 30% of GDP (including fishing);
fishing more important than farming; limited production of coconuts, corn,
sweet potatoes; most staple foods must be imported

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $28 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $84 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $14 million

Currency: rufiyaa (plural--rufiyaa); 1 rufiyaa (Rf) = 100 laaris

Exchange rates: rufiyaa (Rf) per US$1--9.3043 (January 1990),
9.0408 (1989), 8.7846 (1988), 9.2230 (1987), 7.1507 (1986), 7.0981 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: Male has 9.6 km of coral highways within the city

Ports: Male, Gan

Merchant marine: 16 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 70,066
GRT/112,480 DWT; includes 12 cargo, 1 container, 1 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 bulk

Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: minimal domestic and international facilities;
2,325 telephones; stations--2 AM, 1 FM, 1 TV; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth
station

- Defense Forces
Branches: no military force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,261; 27,519 fit for military
service

Defense expenditures: $1.8 million (1984 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mali
- Geography
Total area: 1,240,000 km2; land area: 1,220,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Texas

Land boundaries: 7,243 km total; Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina 1,000 km,
Guinea 858 km, Ivory Coast 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal
419 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: the disputed international boundary between Burkina and Mali was
submitted to the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in October 1983 and the
ICJ issued its final ruling in December 1986, which both sides agreed to accept;
Burkina and Mali are proceeding with boundary demarcation, including
the tripoint with Niger

Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry February to June; rainy,
humid, and mild June to November; cool and dry November to February

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna
in south, rugged hills in northeast

Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone,
uranium; bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known
but not exploited

Land use: 2% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 25% meadows and
pastures; 7% forest and woodland; 66% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons;
desertification

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 8,142,373 (July 1990), growth rate 2.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 51 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 21 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 116 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 45 years male, 47 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Malian(s); adjective--Malian

Ethnic divisions: 50% Mande (Bambara, Malinke, Sarakole), 17% Peul, 12%
Voltaic, 6% Songhai, 5% Tuareg and Moor, 10% other

Religion: 90% Muslim, 9% indigenous beliefs, 1% Christian

Language: French (official); Bambara spoken by about 80% of the
population; numerous African languages

Literacy: 18%

Labor force: 2,666,000 (1986 est.); 80% agriculture, 19% services,
1% industry and commerce (1981); 50% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: National Union of Malian Workers (UNTM) is umbrella
organization for over 13 national unions

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Mali

Type: republic; single-party constitutional government

Capital: Bamako

Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular--region); Gao,
Kayes, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou; note--there may be a new
capital district of Bamako

Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France; formerly French Sudan)

Constitution: 2 June 1974, effective 19 June 1979; amended September 1981
and March 1985

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law; judicial
review of legislative acts in Constitutional Section of Court of State; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Proclamation of the Republic,
22 September (1960)

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemble Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Moussa TRAORE
(since 6 December 1968)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Democratic Union of
Malian People (UDPM)

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held on 9 June 1985 (next to be held June 1991);
results--General Moussa Traore was reelected without opposition;

National Assembly--last held on 26 June 1988 (next to be held June
1991); results--UDPM is the only party; seats--(82 total) UDPM 82

Communists: a few Communists and some sympathizers (no legal Communist
party)

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CEAO, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto),
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU,
OIC, OMVS (Organization for the Development of the Senegal River
Valley), UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO,

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Alhousseyni TOURE; Chancery
at 2130 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 332-2249 or
939-8950;
US--Ambassador Robert M. PRINGLE; Embassy at Rue Testard and
Rue Mohamed V., Bamako (mailing address is B. P. 34, Bamako); telephone 225834

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and
red; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia

- Economy
Overview: Mali is among the poorest countries in the world, with about
80% of its land area desert or semidesert. Economic activity is largely
confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger. About 10% of the
population lives as nomads and some 80% of the labor force is engaged in
agriculture and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on
processing farm commodities.

GDP: $1.94 billion, per capita $220; real growth rate - 0.9% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% (1987)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $338 million; expenditures $559 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987)

Exports: $260 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities--livestock,
peanuts, dried fish, cotton, skins; partners--mostly franc zone and
Western Europe

Imports: $493 million (f.o.b., 1987); commodities--textiles,
vehicles, petroleum products, machinery, sugar, cereals; partners--mostly
franc zone and Western Europe

External debt: $2.1 billion (December 1988 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 92,000 kW capacity; 165 million kWh produced,
20 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small local consumer goods and processing, construction,
phosphate, gold, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 50% of GDP; most production based on small
subsistence farms; cotton and livestock products account for over 70% of
exports; other crops--millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts;
livestock--cattle, sheep, and goats

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $313 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.4 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $92 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$190 million

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF) per
US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 642 km 1.000-meter gauge; linked to Senegal's rail
system through Kayes

Highways: about 15,700 km total; 1,670 km bituminous, 3,670 km
gravel and improved earth, 10,360 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,815 km navigable

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 37 total, 29 usable; 8 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 9 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic system poor but improving; provides only
minimal service with radio relay, wire, and radio communications stations;
expansion of radio relay in progress; 11,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 2 FM,
2 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Force; paramilitary, Gendarmerie,
Republican Guard, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,585,878; 913,000 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Malta
- Geography
Total area: 320 km2; land area: 320 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 140 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 25 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: Mediterranean with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

Terrain: mostly low, rocky, flat to dissected plains; many coastal cliffs

Natural resources: limestone, salt

Land use: 38% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 59% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: numerous bays provide good harbors; fresh water very
scarce--increasing reliance on desalination

Note: strategic location in central Mediterranean, 93 km south
of Sicily, 290 km north of Libya

- People
Population: 353,465 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 8 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 8 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.0 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Maltese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Maltese

Ethnic divisions: mixture of Arab, Sicilian, Norman, Spanish, Italian,
English

Religion: 98% Roman Catholic

Language: Maltese and English (official)

Literacy: 83%

Labor force: 125,674; 30% services, 24% manufacturing, 21% government
(except job corps), 8% construction, 5% utilities and drydocks, 4% agriculture
(1987)

Organized labor: about 40% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Malta

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Valletta

Administrative divisions: none (administration directly from Valletta)

Independence: 21 September 1964 (from UK)

Constitution: 26 April 1974, effective 2 June 1974

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman civil law; has
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Freedom Day, 31 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court and Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Vincent (Censu) TABONE (since 4 April 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Dr. Edward (Eddie) FENECH
ADAMI (since 12 May 1987); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Guido DE MARCO
(since 14 May 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Nationalist Party, Edward Fenech Adami;
Malta Labor Party, Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held on 9 May 1987 (next to be
held by May 1992);
results--NP 51.1%, MLP 48.9%;
seats--(usually 65 total, but additional seats are given to the party with the
largest popular vote to ensure a legislative majority; current total 69)
MLP 34, NP 31 before popular vote adjustment; MLP 34, NP 35
after adjustment

Communists: fewer than 100 (est.)

Member of: CCC, Commonwealth, Council of Europe, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD,
ICAO, IFAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council,
NAM,UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Salvatore J. STELLINI; Chancery at
2017 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3611
or 3612; there is a Maltese Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador Sally J. NOVETZKE; Embassy at 2nd Floor, Development House,
St. Anne Street, Floriana, Valletta (mailing address is P. O. Box 535,
Valletta); telephone p356o 623653 or 620424, 623216

Flag: two equal vertical bands of white (hoist side) and red; in the upper
hoist-side corner is a representation of the George Cross, edged in red

- Economy
Overview: Significant resources are limestone, a favorable geographic
location, and a productive labor force. Malta produces only about 20% of its
food needs, has limited freshwater supplies, and has no domestic energy
sources. Consequently, the economy is highly dependent on foreign trade and
services. Manufacturing and tourism are the largest contributors to the
economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 30% of GDP, with the textile and
clothing industry a major contributor. In 1988 inflation was held to a low 0.9%.
Per capita GDP at $5,100 places Malta in the middle-income range of the world's
nations.

GDP: $1.9 billion, per capita $5,100; real growth rate 7.1% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 4.4% (1987)

Budget: revenues $844 million; expenditures $938 million, including
capital expenditures of $226 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $710 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--clothing,
textiles, footwear, ships; partners--FRG 31%, UK 14%, Italy 14%

Imports: $1,360 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--food,
petroleum, nonfood raw materials; partners--FRG 19%, UK 17%, Italy 17%,
US 11%

External debt: $90 million, medium and long-term (December 1987)

Industrial production: growth rate 6.2% (1987)

Electricity: 328,000 kW capacity; 1,110 million kWh produced,
2,990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, ship repair yard, clothing, construction,
food manufacturing, textiles, footwear, clothing, beverages, tobacco

Agriculture: overall, 20% self-sufficient; main products--potatoes,
cauliflower, grapes, wheat, barley, tomatoes, citrus, cut flowers, green
peppers, hogs, poultry, eggs; generally adequate supplies of vegetables,
poultry, milk, pork products; seasonal or periodic shortages in grain,
animal fodder, fruits, other basic foodstuffs

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-81), $172 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $332 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $76 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$48 million

Currency: Maltese lira (plural--liri); 1 Maltese lira (LM) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Maltese liri (LM) per US$1--0.3332 (January 1990),
0.3483 (1989), 0.3306 (1988), 0.3451 (1987), 0.3924 (1986), 0.4676 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Highways: 1,291 km total; 1,179 km paved (asphalt), 77 km crushed stone or
gravel, 35 km improved and unimproved earth

Ports: Valletta, Marsaxlokk

Merchant marine: 314 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 3,677,797
GRT/6,357,733 DWT; includes 3 passenger, 4 short-sea passenger, 127 cargo,
2 container, 1 passenger-cargo, 13 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
6 refrigerated cargo, 7 chemical tanker, 4 combination ore/oil,
1 specialized tanker, 61 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
72 bulk, 11 combination bulk; note--a flag of convenience registry;
China owns 1 ship, Cuba owns 8, and Vietnam owns 1

Civil air: 8 major transport aircraft

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runways 2,440-3,659 m

Telecommunications: modern automatic system centered in Valletta;
153,000 telephones; stations--9 AM, 3 FM, 2 TV; 1 submarine cable; 1 Atlantic
Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Armed Forces, Police, Paramilitary Dejima Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 92,610; 74,256 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 1.3% of GDP, or $25 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Man, Isle of
(British crown dependency)
- Geography
Total area: 588 km2; land area: 588 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 113 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: cool summers and mild winters; humid; overcast about half
the time

Terrain: hills in north and south bisected by central valley

Natural resources: lead, iron ore

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; extensive arable land and forests

Environment: strong westerly winds prevail

Note: located in Irish Sea equidistant from England, Scotland,
and Ireland

- People
Population: 64,859 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.8 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Manxman, Manxwoman, adjective--Manx

Ethnic divisions: native Manx of Norse-Celtic descent; British

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian,
Society of Friends

Language: English, Manx Gaelic

Literacy: NA%, but compulsory education between ages of 5 and 15

Labor force: 25,864 (1981)

Organized labor: 22 labor unions patterned along British lines

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Douglas

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

Constitution: 1961, Isle of Man Constitution Act

Legal system: English law and local statute

National holiday: Tynwald Day, 5 July

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, prime minister,
Executive Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Tynwald) consists of an upper
house or Legislative Council and a lower house or House of Keys

Judicial branch: High Court of Justice

Leaders:
Chief of State--Lord of Mann Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February
1952), represented by Lieutenant Governor Maj. Gen. Laurence NEW
(since 1985);

Head of Government--President of the Legislative Council J. C. NIVISON
(since 1985)

Political parties and leaders: there is no party system and members sit
as independents

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
House of Keys--last held in 1986 (next to be held 1991);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(24 total) independents 24

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: red with the Three Legs of Man emblem (Trinacria), in the
center; the three legs are joined at the thigh and bent at the knee; in order
to have the toes pointing clockwise on both sides of the flag, a two-sided
emblem is used

- Economy
Overview: Offshore banking, manufacturing, and tourism are key sectors of
the economy. The government's policy of offering incentives to high-technology
companies and financial institutions to locate on the island has paid off in
expanding employment opportunities in high-income industries. As a result,
agriculture and fishing, once the mainstays of the economy, have declined in
their shares of GNP. Banking now contributes over 20% to GNP and manufacturing
about 15%. Trade is mostly with the UK.

GNP: $490 million, per capita $7,573; real growth rate NA% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: 1.5% (1988)

Budget: revenues $130.4 million; expenditures $114.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $18.1 million (FY85 est.)

Exports: $NA; commodities--tweeds, herring, processed shellfish
meat; partners--UK

Imports: $NA; commodities--timber, fertilizers, fish;
partners--UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 61,000 kW capacity; 190 million kWh produced,
2,930 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: an important offshore financial center; financial services,
light manufacturing, tourism

Agriculture: cereals and vegetables; cattle, sheep, pigs, poultry

Aid: NA

Currency: Manx pound (plural--pounds); 1 Manx pound (LM) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Manx pounds (LM) per US$1--0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);
the Manx pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 36 km electric track, 24 km steam track

Highways: 640 km motorable roads

Ports: Douglas, Ramsey, Peel

Merchant marine: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,656,216
GRT/2,984,047 DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 8 cargo, 5 container,
6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 32 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
5 chemical tanker, 2 combination ore/oil, 6 liquefied gas, 12 bulk;
note--a captive register of the United Kingdom, although not all
ships on the register are British-owned

Airports: 2 total; 1 usable with permanent-surface runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 24,435 telephones; stations--1 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Marshall Islands
- Geography
Total area: 181.3 km2; land area: 181.3 km2; includes the atolls
of Bikini, Eniwetak, and Kwajalein

Comparative area: slightly larger than Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 370.4 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 24 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims US-administered Wake Island

Climate: wet season May to November; hot and humid; islands border
typhoon belt

Terrain: low coral limestone and sand islands

Natural resources: phosphate deposits, marine products, deep seabed
minerals

Land use: 0% arable land; 60% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 40% other

Environment: occasionally subject to typhoons; two archipelagic
island chains of 30 atolls and 1,152 islands

Note: located 3,825 km southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific Ocean,
about two-thirds of the way between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea; Bikini and
Eniwetak are former US nuclear test sites; Kwajalein, the famous World War II
battleground, is now used as a US missile test range

- People
Population: 43,417 (July 1990), growth rate 3.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 39 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 70 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Marshallese; adjective--Marshallese

Ethnic divisions: almost entirely Micronesian

Religion: predominantly Christian, mostly Protestant

Language: English universally spoken and is the official language;
two major Marshallese dialects from Malayo-Polynesian family; Japanese

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 4,800 (1986)

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of the Marshall Islands

Type: constitutional government in free association with the US;
the Compact of Free Association entered into force 21 October 1986

Capital: Majuro

Administrative divisions: none

Independence: 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship;
formerly the Marshall Islands District of the Trust Territory of the Pacific
Islands)

Constitution: 1 May 1979

Legal system: based on adapted Trust Territory laws, acts of the
legislature, municipal, common, and customary laws

National holiday: Proclamation of the Republic of the Marshall Islands,
1 May (1979)

Executive branch: president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (Nitijela)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Amata KABUA (since 1979)

Political parties and leaders: no formal parties; President Kabua
is chief political (and traditional) leader

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results--President Amata Kabua was reelected;

Parliament--last held NA November 1987 (next to be held November
1991); results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(33 total)

Communists: none

Member of: SPF, ESCAP (associate)

Diplomatic representation: Representative Wilfred I. KENDALL;
Representative Office at Suite 1004, 1901 Pennsylvania Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 223-4952;
US--Representative Samuel B. THOMSEN; US Office at NA address (mailing
address is P. O. Box 680, Majuro, Republic of the Marshall Islands 96960);
telephone 692-9-3348

Flag: blue with two stripes radiating from the lower hoist-side
corner--orange (top) and white; there is a white star with four large
rays and 20 small rays on the hoist side above the two stripes

- Economy
Overview: Agriculture and tourism are the mainstays of the economy.
Agricultural production is concentrated on small farms, and the most important
commercial crops are coconuts, tomatoes, melons, and breadfruit. A few cattle
ranches supply the domestic meat market. Small-scale industry is limited to
handicrafts, fish processing, and copra. The tourist industry is the primary
source of foreign exchange and employs about 10% of the labor force. The islands
have few natural resources, and imports far exceed exports. In 1987 the US
Government provided grants of $40 million out of the Marshallese budget of
$55 million.

GDP: $63 million, per capita $1,500; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (1981)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $55 million; expenditures NA, including capital
expenditures of NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $2.5 million (f.o.b., 1985); commodities--copra, copra oil,
agricultural products, handicrafts; partners--NA

Imports: $29.2 million (c.i.f., 1985); commodities--foodstuffs,
beverages, building materials; partners--NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 12,000 kW capacity; 10 million kWh produced, 240 kWh per
capita (1989)

Industries: copra, fish, tourism; craft items from shell, wood, and pearl;
offshore banking (embryonic)

Agriculture: coconuts, cacao, taro, breadfruit, fruits, copra; pigs,
chickens

Aid: under the terms of the Compact of Free Association, the US is to
provide approximately $40 million in aid annually

Currency: US currency is used

Exchange rates: US currency is used

Fiscal year: 1 October-30 September

- Communications
Highways: macadam and concrete roads on major islands (Majuro, Kwajalein),
otherwise stone-, coral-, or laterite-surfaced roads and tracks

Ports: Majuro

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 475,968
GRT/949,888 DWT; includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 bulk carrier; note--a flag of convenience registry

Airports: 5 total, 5 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: telephone network--570 lines (Majuro) and 186
(Ebeye); telex services; islands interconnected by shortwave radio (used
mostly for government purposes); stations--1 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV, 1 shortwave;
2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; US Government satellite communications
system on Kwajalein

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Martinique
(overseas department of France)
- Geography
Total area: 1,100 km2; land area: 1,060 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than six times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 290 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds; rainy season (June to
October)

Terrain: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano

Natural resources: coastal scenery and beaches, cultivable land

Land use: 10% arable land; 8% permanent crops; 30% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 26% other; includes 5% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes, flooding, and volcanic activity that
result in an average of one major natural disaster every five years

Note: located 625 km southeast of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean Sea

- People
Population: 340,381 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 19 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 3 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 11 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 71 years male, 77 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Martiniquais (sing. and pl.); adjective--Martiniquais

Ethnic divisions: 90% African and African-Caucasian-Indian mixture, 5%
Caucasian, less than 5% East Indian, Lebanese, Chinese

Religion: 95% Roman Catholic, 5% Hindu and pagan African

Language: French, Creole patois

Literacy: over 70%

Labor force: 100,000; 31.7% service industry, 29.4% construction and
public works, 13.1% agriculture, 7.3% industry, 2.2% fisheries, 16.3% other

Organized labor: 11% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Department of Martinique

Type: overseas department of France

Capital: Fort-de-France

Administrative divisions: none (overseas department of France)

Independence: none (overseas department of France)

Constitution: 28 September 1958 (French Constitution)

Legal system: French legal system

National holiday: Taking of the Bastille, 14 July (1789)

Executive branch: government commissioner

Legislative branch: unicameral General Council and unicameral Regional
Council

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francois MITTERRAND (since
21 May 1981);

Head of Government--Government Commissioner Jean Claude ROURE (since
5 May 1989); President of the General Council Emile MAURICE (since NA
1988)

Political parties: Rally for the Republic (RPR), Stephen Bago;
Union of the Left composed of the Progressive Party of Martinique (PPM),
Aime Cesaire; Socialist Federation of Martinique, Michael Yoyo; and the
Communist Party of Martinique (PCM), Armand Nicolas; Union for French Democracy
(UDF), Jean Maran

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
General Council--last held on NA October 1988
(next to be held by March 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(44 total) number of seats by party NA;

Regional Assembly--last held on 16 March 1986 (next to be held by
March 1992); results--UDF/RPR coalition 49.8%, PPM/FSM/PCM
coalition 41.3%, others 8.9%;
seats--(41 total) PPM/FSM/PCM coalition 21, UDF/RPR coalition 20;

French Senate--last held 24 September 1989 (next to be held
September 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(2 total) UDF 1, PPM 1;

French National Assembly--last held on 5 and 12 June 1988 (next
to be held June 1993); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(4 total) PPM 1, FSM 1, RPR 1, UDF 1

Communists: 1,000 (est.)

Other political or pressure groups: Proletarian Action Group (GAP);
Alhed Marie-Jeanne Socialist Revolution Group (GRS), Martinique Independence
Movement (MIM), Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance (ARC), Central Union for
Martinique Workers (CSTM), Marc Pulvar; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of
Workers and Peasants

Member of: WFTU

Diplomatic representation: as an overseas department of France,
Martiniquais interests are represented in the US by France;
US--Consul General Ray ROBINSON; Consulate General at 14 Rue Blenac,
Fort-de-France (mailing address is B. P. 561, Fort-de-France);
telephone p596o 63-13-03

Flag: the flag of France is used

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on sugarcane, bananas, tourism, and light
industry. Agriculture accounts for about 7% of GDP and the small industrial
sector for 10%. Sugar production has declined, with most of the sugarcane now
used for the production of rum. Banana exports are increasing, however, going
mostly to France. The bulk of meat, vegetable, and grain requirements must be
imported, contributing to a chronic trade deficit that requires large annual
transfers of aid from France. Tourism has become more important than
agricultural exports as a source of foreign exchange. The majority of the work
force is employed in the service sector and in administration. In 1984 the
annual per capita income was relatively high at $3,650. During 1985 the
unemployment rate was between 25% and 30% and was particularly severe among
younger workers.

GDP: $1.3 billion, per capita $3,650; real growth rate NA% (1984)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (1986)

Unemployment rate: 25-30% (1985)

Budget: revenues $223 million; expenditures $223 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1987 est.)

Exports: $209 million (f.o.b., 1986); commodities--refined petroleum
products, bananas, rum, pineapples; partners--France 65%, Guadeloupe 26%
(1986)

Imports: $879 million (c.i.f., 1986); commodities--petroleum
products, foodstuffs, construction materials, vehicles, clothing and other
consumer goods; partners--France 64% (1986)

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 108,000 kW capacity; 330 million kWh produced,
990 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: construction, rum, cement, oil refining, sugar, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for about 7% of GDP; principal crops--pineapples,
avocados, bananas, flowers, vegetables, and sugarcane for rum; dependent on
imported food, particularly meat and vegetables

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $9.8 billion

Currency: French franc (plural--francs); 1 French franc (F) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: French francs (F) per US$1--5.7598 (January 1990),
6.3801 (1989), 5.9569 (1988), 6.0107 (1987), 6.9261 (1986), 8.9852 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 1,680 km total; 1,300 km paved, 380 km gravel and earth

Ports: Fort-de-France

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total; 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 1 with runways less than 2,439 m

Telecommunications: domestic facilities are adequate; 68,900 telephones;
interisland radio relay links to Guadeloupe, Dominica, and St. Lucia;
stations--1 AM, 6 FM, 10 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Mauritania
- Geography
Total area: 1,030,700 km2; land area: 1,030,400 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than three times the size of New Mexico

Land boundaries: 5,074 km total; Algeria 463 km, Mali 2,237 km, Senegal
813 km, Western Sahara 1,561 km

Coastline: 754 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: edge of continental margin or 200 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: armed conflict in Western Sahara; boundary with Senegal

Climate: desert; constantly hot, dry, dusty

Terrain: mostly barren, flat plains of the Sahara; some central hills

Natural resources: iron ore, gypsum, fish, copper, phosphate

Land use: 1% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 38% meadows and
pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 56% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dust/sand-laden sirocco wind blows primarily
in March and April; desertification; only perennial river is the Senegal

- People
Population: 1,934,549 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 49 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 18 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 96 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 44 years male, 49 years female (1990)

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