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Net migration rate: 11 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 15 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 76 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Kuwaiti(s); adjective--Kuwaiti

Ethnic divisions: 27.9% Kuwaiti, 39% other Arab, 9% South Asian, 4%
Iranian, 20.1% other

Religion: 85% Muslim (30% Shia, 45% Sunni, 10% other),
15% Christian, Hindu, Parsi, and other

Language: Arabic (official); English widely spoken

Literacy: 71% (est.)

Labor force: 566,000 (1986); 45.0% services, 20.0% construction, 12.0%
trade, 8.6% manufacturing, 2.6% finance and real estate, 1.9% agriculture, 1.7%
power and water, 1.4% mining and quarrying; 70% of labor force is non-Kuwaiti

Organized labor: labor unions exist in oil industry and among government
personnel

- Government
Long-form name: State of Kuwait

Type: nominal constitutional monarchy

Capital: Kuwait

Administrative divisions: 4 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Ahmadi, Al Jahrah, Al Kuwayt,
Hawalli; note--there may be a new governorate of Farwaniyyah

Independence: 19 June 1961 (from UK)

Constitution: 16 November 1962 (some provisions suspended since 29
August 1962)

Legal system: civil law system with Islamic law significant in personal
matters; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 25 February

Executive branch: amir, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: National Assembly (Majlis al Umma) dissolved
3 July 1986

Judicial branch: High Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--Amir Sheikh Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir Al SABAH
(since 31 December 1977);

Head of Government--Prime Minister and Crown Prince Sad Abdallah
al-Salim Al SABAH (since 8 February 1978)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: adult males who resided in Kuwait before 1920 and their male
descendants at age 21; note--out of all citizens, only 8.3% are
eligible to vote and only 3.5% actually vote

Elections:
National Assembly--dissolved 3 July 1986 and no elections are
planned

Communists: insignificant

Other political or pressure groups: large (350,000) Palestinian
community; several small, clandestine leftist and Shia fundamentalist groups
are active

Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT, GCC, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Shaikh Saud Nasir AL-SABAH;
Chancery at 2940 Tilden Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-0702;
US--Ambassador W. Nathaniel HOWELL; Embassy at Bneid al-Gar (opposite the
Hilton Hotel), Kuwait City (mailing address is P. O. Box 77 Safat, 13001 Safat,
Kuwait City); telephone p965o 242-4151 through 4159

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red with a
black trapezoid based on the hoist side

- Economy
Overview: The oil sector dominates the economy. Of the countries in the
Middle East, Kuwait has oil reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia.
Earnings from hydrocarbons generate over 90% of both export and government
revenues and contribute about 40% to GDP. Most of the nonoil sector is dependent
upon oil-derived government revenues to provide infrastructure development and
to promote limited industrial diversification. The economy is heavily dependent
upon foreign labor--Kuwaitis account for less than 20% of the labor force. The
early years of the Iran-Iraq war pushed Kuwait's GDP well below its 1980 peak;
however, during the period 1986-88, GDP increased each year, rising to 5% in
1988.

GDP: $20.5 billion, per capita $10,500; real growth rate 5.0% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 0%

Budget: revenues $7.1 billion; expenditures $10.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.1 billion (FY88)

Exports: $7.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--oil 90%;
partners--Japan, Italy, FRG, US

Imports: $5.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--food,
construction material, vehicles and parts, clothing; partners--Japan,
US, FRG, UK

External debt: $7.2 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1988)

Electricity: 8,287,000 kW capacity; 21,500 million kWh produced,
10,710 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, desalination, food processing,
salt, construction

Agriculture: virtually none; dependent on imports for food; about 75% of
potable water must be distilled or imported

Aid: donor--pledged $18.3 billion in bilateral aid to less developed
countries (1979-89)

Currency: Kuwaiti dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Kuwaiti dinar (KD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Kuwaiti dinars (KD) per US$1--0.2915 (January 1990),
0.2937 (1989), 0.2790 (1988), 0.2786 (1987), 0.2919 (1986), 0.3007 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: 3,000 km total; 2,500 km bituminous; 500 km earth, sand, light
gravel

Pipelines: crude oil, 877 km; refined products, 40 km; natural gas, 165 km

Ports: Ash Shuwaykh, Ash Shuaybah, Mina al Ahmadi

Merchant marine: 51 ships (1,000 GRT or over), totaling 1,862,010
GRT/2,935,007 DWT; includes 18 cargo, 5 container, 5 livestock carrier,
18 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 5 liquefied gas

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

Airports: 8 total, 4 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent international, adequate domestic facilities;
258,000 telephones; stations--3 AM, 2 FM, 3 TV; satellite earth stations--1
Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT; 1 INMARSAT, 1 ARABSAT;
coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq and Saudi Arabia

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police Force, National Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 688,516; about 411,742 fit for
military service; 18,836 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5.8% of GDP, or $1.2 billion (FY89)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Laos
- Geography
Total area: 236,800 km2; land area: 230,800 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Utah

Land boundaries: 5,083 km total; Burma 235 km, Cambodia 541 km, China
423 km, Thailand 1,754 km, Vietnam 2,130 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Disputes: boundary dispute with Thailand

Climate: tropical monsoon; rainy season (May to November); dry season
(December to April)

Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; some plains and plateaus

Natural resources: timber, hydropower, gypsum, tin, gold,
gemstones

Land use: 4% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 3% meadows and
pastures; 58% forest and woodland; 35% other; includes 1% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; soil erosion; subject to floods

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 4,023,726 (July 1990), growth rate 2.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 15 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 48 years male, 51 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Lao (sing., Lao or Laotian); adjective--Lao or Laotian

Ethnic divisions: 50% Lao, 15% Phoutheung (Kha), 20% tribal Thai, 15% Meo,
Hmong, Yao, and other

Religion: 85% Buddhist, 15% animist and other

Language: Lao (official), French, and English

Literacy: 85%

Labor force: 1-1.5 million; 85-90% in agriculture (est.)

Organized labor: Lao Federation of Trade Unions is subordinate to the
Communist party

- Government
Long-form name: Lao People's Democratic Republic

Type: Communist state

Capital: Vientiane

Administrative divisions: 16 provinces (khoueng, singular and plural)
and 1 municipality* (kampheng nakhon, singular and plural); Attapu, Bokeo,
Bolikhamsai, Champasak, Houaphan, Khammouan, Louang Namtha, Louangphrabang,
Oudomxai, Phongsali, Saravan, Savannakhet, Sekong, Vientiane,
Vientiane*, Xaignabouri, Xiangkhoang

Independence: 19 July 1949 (from France)

Constitution: draft constitution under discussion since 1976

Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (proclamation of the Lao People's
Democratic Republic), 2 December (1975)

Executive branch: president, chairman and five vice chairmen of the
Council of Ministers, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: Supreme People's Assembly

Judicial branch: Central Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Acting President PHOUMI VONGVICHIT (since 29 October
1986);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Council of Ministers General
KAYSONE PHOMVIHAN (since 2 December 1975)

Political parties and leaders: Lao People's Revolutionary Party
(LPRP), Kaysone Phomvihan, party chairman; includes Lao Patriotic
Front and Alliance Committee of Patriotic Neutralist Forces; other
parties moribund

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Supreme People's Assembly--last held on 26 March 1989 (next to be
held NA); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(79 total) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: non-Communist political groups
moribund; most leaders have fled the country

Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFAD,
ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mekong Committee, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO,
UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: First Secretary, Charge d'Affaires ad interim
DONE SOMVORACHIT; Chancery at 2222 S Street NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 332-6416 or 6417;
US--Charge d'Affaires Charles B. SALMON; Embassy at Rue
Bartholonie, Vientiane (mailing address is B. P. 114, Vientiane, or
Box V, APO San Francisco 96346); telephone 2220, 2357, 2384

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), blue (double width), and red
with a large white disk centered in the blue band

- Economy
Overview: One of the world's poorest nations, Laos has had a Communist
centrally planned economy with government ownership and control of
productive enterprises of any size. Recently, however, the government
has been decentralizing control and encouraging private enterprise.
Laos is a landlocked country with a primitive infrastructure, that is,
it has no railroads, a rudimentary road system, limited
external and internal telecommunications, and electricity
available in only a limited area. Subsistence agriculture is the
main occupation, accounting for over 60% of GDP and providing about 85-90% of
total employment. The predominant crop is rice. For the foreseeable future the
economy will continue to depend for its survival on foreign aid--from
CEMA, IMF, and other international sources.

GDP: $585 million, per capita $150; real growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 15% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $71 million; expenditures $198 million, including
capital expenditures of $132 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $57.5 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--
electricity, wood products, coffee, tin; partners--Thailand, Malaysia,
Vietnam, USSR, US

Imports: $219 million (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--food, fuel
oil, consumer goods, manufactures; partners--Thailand, USSR, Japan,
France, Vietnam

External debt: $964 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 8% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 176,000 kW capacity; 900 million kWh produced,
225 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tin mining, timber, electric power, agricultural
processing

Agriculture: accounts for 60% of GDP and employs most of the work force;
subsistence farming predominates; normally self-sufficient; principal
crops--rice (80% of cultivated land), potatoes, vegetables, coffee,
sugarcane, cotton

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis and opium poppy for the
international drug trade; production of cannabis increased in 1989;
marijuana and heroin are shipped to Western countries, including the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-79), $276 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $468
million; Communist countries (1970-88), $895 million

Currency: new kip (plural--kips); 1 new kip (NK) = 100 at

Exchange rates: new kips (NK) per US$1--700 (December 1989), 725 (1989),
350 (1988), 200 (1987), 108 (1986), 95 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Highways: about 27,527 km total; 1,856 km bituminous or bituminous
treated; 7,451 km gravel, crushed stone, or improved earth; 18,220 km unimproved
earth and often impassable during rainy season mid-May to mid-September

Inland waterways: about 4,587 km, primarily Mekong and tributaries; 2,897
additional kilometers are sectionally navigable by craft drawing less than 0.5 m

Pipelines: 136 km, refined products

Ports: none

Airports: 64 total, 50 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
12 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: service to general public considered poor; radio
network provides generally erratic service to government users; 7,390 telephones
(1986); stations--10 AM, no FM, 1 TV; 1 satellite earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Lao People's Army (LPA, which consists of an army with naval,
aviation, and militia elements), Air Force, National Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 967,047; 517,666 fit for military service;
44,176 reach military age (18) annually; conscription age NA

Defense expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Lebanon
- Geography
Total area: 10,400 km2; land area: 10,230 km2

Comparative area: about 0.8 times the size of Connecticut

Land boundaries: 454 km total; Israel 79 km, Syria 375 km

Coastline: 225 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: separated from Israel by the 1949 Armistice Line;
Israeli troops in southern Lebanon since June 1982; Syrian troops in
northern Lebanon since October 1976

Climate: Mediterranean; mild to cool, wet winters with hot, dry summers

Terrain: narrow coastal plain; Al Biqa (Bekaa Valley) separates
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains

Natural resources: limestone, iron ore, salt; water-surplus state
in a water-deficit region

Land use: 21% arable land; 9% permanent crops; 1% meadows and
pastures; 8% forest and woodland; 61% other; includes 7% irrigated

Environment: rugged terrain historically helped isolate, protect,
and develop numerous factional groups based on religion, clan, ethnicity;
deforestation; soil erosion; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: Nahr al Litani only major river in Near East
not crossing an international boundary

- People
Population: 3,339,331 (July 1990), growth rate 1.3% (1990)

Birth rate: 28 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 8 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 49 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.7 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Lebanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Lebanese

Ethnic divisions: 93% Arab, 6% Armenian, 1% other

Religion: 75% Islam, 25% Christian, NEGL% Judaism; 17 legally recognized
sects--4 Orthodox Christian (Armenian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox, Nestorean,
Syriac Orthodox), 7 Uniate Christian (Armenian Catholic, Caldean, Greek
Catholic, Maronite, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Syrian Catholic), 5 Islam
(Alawite or Nusayri, Druze, Ismailite, Shia, Sunni), and 1 Jewish

Language: Arabic and French (both official); Armenian, English

Literacy: 75%

Labor force: 650,000; 79% industry, commerce, and services,
11% agriculture, 10% goverment (1985)

Organized labor: 250,000 members (est.)

- Government
Note: Between early 1975 and late 1976 Lebanon was torn by civil
war between its Christians--then aided by Syrian troops--and its Muslims
and their Palestinian allies. The cease-fire established in October
1976 between the domestic political groups generally held for about six
years, despite occasional fighting. Syrian troops constituted as the Arab
Deterrent Force by the Arab League have remained in Lebanon. Syria's
move toward supporting the Lebanese Muslims and the Palestinians and
Israel's growing support for Lebanese Christians brought the two sides
into rough equilibrium, but no progress was made toward national
reconciliation or political reforms--the original cause of the war.

Continuing Israeli concern about the Palestinian presence in
Lebanon led to the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in June 1982. Israeli
forces occupied all of the southern portion of the country and mounted a
summer-long siege of Beirut, which resulted in the evacuation of the
PLO from Beirut in September under the supervision of a multinational
force (MNF) made up of US, French, and Italian troops.

Within days of the departure of the MNF, Lebanon's newly elected
president, Bashir Gemayel, was assassinated. In the wake of his death,
Christian militiamen massacred hundreds of Palestinian refugees in two
Beirut camps. This prompted the return of the MNF to ease the security
burden on Lebanon's weak Army and security forces. In late March 1984
the last MNF units withdrew.

Lebanese Parliamentarians met in Taif, Saudi Arabia in late 1989 and
concluded a national reconciliation pact that codified a new power-sharing
formula, specifiying a Christian president but giving Muslims more
authority. Rene Muawad was subsequently elected president on 4 November
1989, ending a 13-month period during which Lebanon had no president and
rival Muslim and Christian governments. Muawad was assassinated
17 days later, on 22 November; on 24 November Elias Harawi was
elected to succeed Muawad.

Progress toward lasting political compromise in Lebanon has been
stalled by opposition from Christian strongman Gen. Michel Awn.
Awn--appointed acting Prime Minister by outgoing president Amin Gemayel
in September 1988--called the national reconciliation accord
illegitimate and has refused to recognize the new Lebanese Government.

Lebanon continues to be partially occupied by Syrian troops. Syria
augmented its troop presence during the weeks following Muawad's
assassination. Troops are deployed in West Beirut and its southern
suburbs, in Al Biqa, and in northern Lebanon. Iran also maintains
a small contingent of revolutionary guards in Al Biqa, from
which it supports Lebanese Islamic fundamentalist groups.

Israel withdrew the bulk of its forces from the south in 1985,
although it still retains troops in a 10-km-deep security zone north
of its border with Lebanon. Israel arms and trains the Army of South
Lebanon (ASL), which also occupies the security zone and is Israel's
first line of defense against attacks on its northern border.

The following description is based on the present constitutional and
customary practices of the Lebanese system.

Long-form name: Republic of Lebanon; note--may be changed to
Lebanese Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Beirut

Administrative divisions: 5 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Biqa, Al Janub, Ash Shamal,
Bayrut, Jabal Lubnan

Independence: 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under
French administration)

Constitution: 26 May 1926 (amended)

Legal system: mixture of Ottoman law, canon law, Napoleonic code,
and civil law; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 22 November (1943)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, Cabinet; note--by custom,
the president is a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim,
and the president of the legislature is a Shia Muslim

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Arabic--Majlis
Alnuwab, French--Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: four Courts of Cassation (three courts for civil and
commercial cases and one court for criminal cases)

Leaders:
Chief of State--Elias HARAWI (since 24 November 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Salim AL-HUSS (since 24
November 1989)

Political parties and leaders: political party activity is organized along
largely sectarian lines; numerous political groupings exist, consisting of
individual political figures and followers motivated by religious, clan, and
economic considerations; most parties have well-armed militias, which are still
involved in occasional clashes

Suffrage: compulsory for all males at age 21; authorized for women
at age 21 with elementary education

Elections:
National Assembly--elections should be held every four years
but security conditions have prevented elections since May 1972

Communists: the Lebanese Communist Party was legalized in 1970; members
and sympathizers estimated at 2,000-3,000

Member of: Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant); Charge
d'Affaires Suleiman RASSI; note--the former Lebanese Ambassador,
Dr. Abdallah Bouhabib, is loyal to Gen. Awn and has refused to
abandon his residence or relinquish his post; Chancery at 2560 28th
Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6300;
there are Lebanese Consulates General in Detroit, New York, and Los Angeles;
US--Ambassador John T. MCCARTHY; Embassy at Avenue de Paris, Beirut
(mailing address is P. O. Box 70-840, Beirut); telephone p961o 417774 or 415802,
415803, 402200, 403300

Flag: three horizontal bands of red (top), white (double width), and red
with a green and brown cedar tree centered in the white band

- Economy
Overview: Severe factional infighting in 1989 has been destroying physical
property, interrupting the established pattern of economic affairs, and
practically ending chances of restoring Lebanon's position as a Middle
Eastern entrepot and banking hub. The ordinary Lebanese citizen
struggles to keep afloat in an environment of physical danger, high
unemployment, and growing shortages. The central government's ability
to collect taxes has suffered greatly from militia control and taxation
of local areas. As the civil strife persists, the US dollar has become
more and more the medium of exchange. Transportation,
communications, and other parts of the infrastructure continue to deteriorate.
Family remittances, foreign political money going to the factions, international
emergency aid, and a small volume of manufactured exports help prop up the
battered economy. Prospects for 1990 are grim, with expected further declines in
economic activity and living standards.

GDP: $2.3 billion, per capita $700; real growth rate NA% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 60% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 33% (1987 est.)

Budget: revenues $50 million; expenditures $650 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1988 est.)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1987);
commodities--agricultural products, chemicals, textiles, precious
and semiprecious metals and jewelry, metals and metal products;
partners--Saudi Arabia 16%, Switzerland 8%, Jordan 6%, Kuwait 6%, US 5%

Imports: $1.5 billion (c.i.f., 1987); commodities--NA;
partners--Italy 14%, France 12%, US 6%, Turkey 5%, Saudi Arabia 3%

External debt: $935 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 1,381,000 kW capacity; 3,870 million kWh produced,
1,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, food processing, textiles, cement, oil refining,
chemicals, jewelry, some metal fabricating

Agriculture: accounts for about one-third of GDP; principal
products--citrus fruits, vegetables, potatoes, olives, tobacco, hemp
(hashish), sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in grain

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy and cannabis for the
international drug trade; opium poppy production in Al Biqa
is increasing; most hashish production is shipped to
Western Europe

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $356 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $509 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $962 million; Communist countries (1970-86),
$9 million

Currency: Lebanese pound (plural--pounds);
1 Lebanese pound (LL) = 100 piasters

Exchange rates: Lebanese pounds (LL) per US$1--474.21 (December 1989),
496.69 (1989), 409.23 (1988), 224.60 (1987), 38.37 (1986), 16.42 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 378 km total; 296 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 82 km
1.050-meter gauge; all single track; system almost entirely inoperable

Highways: 7,370 km total; 6,270 km paved, 450 km gravel and crushed stone,
650 km improved earth

Pipelines: crude oil, 72 km (none in operation)

Ports: Beirut, Tripoli, Ras Silata, Juniyah, Sidon,
Az Zahrani, Tyre, Shikka (none are under the direct control
of the Lebanese Government); northern ports are occupied by Syrian
forces and southern ports are occupied or partially quarantined by
Israeli forces; illegal ports scattered along the central coast are
owned and operated by various Christian, Druze, and Shia militias

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 325,361
GRT/494,319 DWT; includes 43 cargo, 1 refrigerated cargo, 2 vehicle
carrier, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 container, 7 livestock carrier, 1
petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
1 specialized tanker, 6 bulk, 1 combination bulk

Civil air: 15 major transport aircraft

Airports: 9 total, 8 usable; 5 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m; none under the direct control of the
Lebanese Government

Telecommunications: rebuilding program disrupted; had fair system of
radio relay, cable; 325,000 telephones; stations--5 AM, 3 FM, 15 TV;
1 inactive Indian Ocean INTELSAT satellite earth station; 3 submarine
coaxial cables; radio relay to Jordan and Syria, inoperable

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 702,961; 434,591 fit for military
service; about 44,625 reach military age (18) yearly

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Lesotho
- Geography
Total area: 30,350 km2; land area: 30,350 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Maryland

Land boundary: 909 km with South Africa

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: temperate; cool to cold, dry winters; hot, wet summers

Terrain: mostly highland with some plateaus, hills, and mountains

Natural resources: some diamonds and other minerals, water,
agricultural and grazing land

Land use: 10% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 66% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 24% other

Environment: population pressure forcing settlement in marginal areas
results in overgrazing, severe soil erosion, soil exhaustion; desertification

Note: surrounded by South Africa; Highlands Water Project will control,
store, and redirect water to South Africa

- People
Population: 1,754,664 (July 1990), growth rate 2.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 80 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 59 years male, 62 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Mosotho (sing.), Basotho (pl.); adjective--Basotho

Ethnic divisions: 99.7% Sotho; 1,600 Europeans, 800 Asians

Religion: 80% Christian, rest indigenous beliefs

Language: Sesotho (southern Sotho) and English (official); also Zulu and
Xhosa

Literacy: 59% (1989)

Labor force: 689,000 economically active; 86.2% of resident population
engaged in subsistence agriculture; roughly 60% of active male labor force works
in South Africa

Organized labor: there are two trade union federations; the
government favors formation of a single, umbrella trade union
confederation

- Government
Long-form name: Kingdom of Lesotho

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Maseru

Administrative divisions: 10 districts; Berea, Butha-Buthe, Leribe,
Mafeteng, Maseru, Mohales Hoek, Mokhotlong, Qachas Nek, Quthing,
Thaba-Tseka

Independence: 4 October 1966 (from UK; formerly Basutoland)

Constitution: 4 October 1966, suspended January 1970

Legal system: based on English common law and Roman-Dutch law;
judicial review of legislative acts in High Court and Court of Appeal; has
not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 4 October (1966)

Executive branch: monarch, chairman of the Military Council, Military
Council, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: a bicameral Parliament consisting of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or National Assembly was dissolved in January 1970;
following the military coup of 20 January 1986, legislative powers were vested
in the monarch

Judicial branch: High Court, Court of Appeal

Leaders:
Chief of State--King MOSHOESHOE II (Paramount Chief from 1960 until
independence on 4 October 1966, when he became King); Heir Apparent Letsie
David SEEISO (son of the King);

Head of Government--Chairman of the Military Council Maj. Gen. Justin
Metsing LEKHANYA (since 24 January 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Basotho National Party (BNP),
position vacant; Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), Ntsu Mokhehle; Basotho
Democratic Alliance (BDA), A. S. Nqojane; National Independent Party (NIP),
A. C. Manyeli; Marematlou Freedom Party (MFP), S. H. Mapheleba; United
Democratic Party, C. D. Mofeli

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
National Assembly --dissolved following the military coup in
January 1986; no date set for national elections

Communists: small Lesotho Communist Party

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD,
ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAU, Southern African
Customs Union, SADCC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador W. T. VAN TONDER; Chancery at
2511 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-5 534;
US--Ambassador (vacant): Deputy Chief of Mission Howard F. JETER;
Embassy at address NA, Maseru (mailing address is P. O. Box 333, Maseru
100); telephone p266o 312666

Flag: divided diagonally from the lower hoist side corner; the upper half
is white bearing the brown silhouette of a large shield with crossed spear and
club; the lower half is a diagonal blue band with a green triangle in the corner

- Economy
Overview: Small, landlocked, and mountainous, Lesotho has no important
natural resources other than water. Its economy is based on agriculture,
light manufacturing, and remittances from laborers employed in South Africa.
Subsistence farming is the principal occupation for about 86% of the domestic
labor force and accounts for about 20% of GDP. Manufacturing depends largely on
farm products to support the milling, canning, leather, and jute industries;
other industries include textile, clothing, and light engineering. Industry's
share of total GDP rose from 6% in 1982 to 10.5% in 1987. During the period
1985-87 real GDP growth averaged 2.9% per year, only slightly above the
population growth rate. In FY89 per capita GDP was only $245 and
nearly 25% of the labor force was unemployed.

GDP: $412 million, per capita $245; real growth rate 8.2% (FY89 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15.0% (FY89 est.)

Unemployment rate: 23% (1988)

Budget: revenues $159 million; expenditures $224 million, including
capital expenditures of $68 million (FY89 est.)

Exports: $55 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.); commodities--wool,
mohair, wheat, cattle, peas, beans, corn, hides, skins, baskets;
partners--South Africa 87%, EC 10%, (1985)

Imports: $526 million (f.o.b., FY89 est.); commodities--mainly
corn, building materials, clothing, vehicles, machinery, medicines, petroleum,
oil, and lubricants; partners--South Africa 95%, EC 2% (1985)

External debt: $235 million (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 10.3% (1988 est.)

Electricity: power supplied by South Africa

Industries: tourism

Agriculture: exceedingly primitive, mostly subsistence farming and
livestock; principal crops are corn, wheat, pulses, sorghum, barley

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $252 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $714 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $4 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$14 million

Currency: loti (plural--maloti); 1 loti (L) = 100 lisente

Exchange rates: maloti (M) per US$1--2.5555 (January 1990),
2.6166 (1989), 2.2611 (1988), 2.0350 (1987), 2.2685 (1986), 2.1911 (1985);
note--the Basotho loti is at par with the South African rand

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 1.6 km; owned, operated, and included in the statistics of
South Africa

Highways: 5,167 km total; 508 km paved; 1,585 km crushed stone,
gravel, or stabilized soil; 946 km improved earth, 2,128 km unimproved earth

Civil air: 2 major transport aircraft

Airports: 28 total, 28 usable; 2 with permanent surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modest system consisting of a few land lines, a small
radio relay system, and minor radiocommunication stations; 5,920 telephones;
stations--2 AM, 2 FM, 1 TV; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Air Wing, Police Department

Military manpower: males 15-49, 381,015; 205,499 fit for military service

Defense expenditures: 8.6% of GDP, or $35 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Liberia
- Geography
Total area: 111,370 km2; land area: 96,320 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Tennessee

Land boundaries: 1,585 km total; Guinea 563 km, Ivory Coast 716 km,
Sierra Leone 306 km

Coastline: 579 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; dry winters with hot days and cool
to cold nights; wet, cloudy summers with frequent heavy showers

Terrain: mostly flat to rolling coastal plains rising to rolling plateau
and low mountains in northeast

Natural resources: iron ore, timber, diamonds, gold

Land use: 1% arable land; 3% permanent crops; 2% meadows and pastures;
39% forest and woodland; 55% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: West Africa's largest tropical rain forest, subject to
deforestation

- People
Population: 2,639,809 (July 1990), growth rate 3.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 14 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 2 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 126 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 54 years male, 58 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Liberian(s); adjective--Liberian

Ethnic divisions: 95% indigenous African tribes, including Kpelle, Bassa,
Gio, Kru, Grebo, Mano, Krahn, Gola, Gbandi, Loma, Kissi, Vai, and Bella; 5%
descendants of repatriated slaves known as Americo-Liberians

Religion: 70% traditional, 20% Muslim, 10% Christian

Language: English (official); more than 20 local languages of the
Niger-Congo language group; English used by about 20%

Literacy: 35%

Labor force: 510,000, including 220,000 in the monetary economy;
70.5% agriculture, 10.8% services, 4.5% industry and commerce, 14.2% other;
non-African foreigners hold about 95% of the top-level management and
engineering jobs; 52% of population of working age

Organized labor: 2% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Liberia

Type: republic

Capital: Monrovia

Administrative divisions: 13 counties; Bomi, Bong, Grand Bassa,
Grand Cape Mount, Grand Jide, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado,
Nimba, Rivercess, Sino

Independence: 26 July 1847

Constitution: 6 January 1986

Legal system: dual system of statutory law based on Anglo-American common
law for the modern sector and customary law based on unwritten tribal practices
for indigenous sector

National holiday: Independence Day, 26 July (1847)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of an
upper house or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. Dr. Samuel Kanyon
DOE (since 12 April 1980); Vice President Harry F. MONIBA (since 6 January
1986)

Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party of Liberia
(NDPL), Augustus Caine, chairman; Liberian Action Party (LAP), Emmanuel
Koromah, chairman; Unity Party (UP), Carlos Smith, chairman; United
People's Party (UPP), Gabriel Baccus Matthews, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held October 1991);
results--Samuel Kanyon Doe (NDPL) 50.9%, Jackson Doe (LAP) 26.4%,
others 22.7%;

Senate--last held on 15 October 1985 (next to be held 15 October
1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(26 total) NDPL 21, LAP 3, UP 1, LUP 1;

House of Representatives--last held on 15 October 1985 (next
to be held October 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(64 total) NDPL 51, LAP 8, UP 3, LUP 2

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, ECA, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO,
IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, Mano River Union, NAM,
OAU, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Eugenia A. WORDSWORTH-STEVENSON;
Chancery at 5201 16th Street NW, Washington DC 20011; telephone (202) 723-0437
through 0440; there is a Liberian Consulate General in New York;
US--Ambassador James K. BISHOP; Embassy at 111 United Nations Drive,
Monrovia (mailing address is P. O. Box 98, Monrovia, or APO New York 09155);
telephone p231o 222991 through 222994

Flag: 11 equal horizontal stripes of red (top and bottom) alternating with
white; there is a white five-pointed star on a blue square in the upper
hoist-side corner; the design was based on the US flag

- Economy
Overview: In 1988 and 1989 the Liberian economy posted its best two years
in a decade, thanks to a resurgence of the rubber industry and rapid growth
in exports of forest products. Richly endowed with water, mineral resources,
forests, and a climate favorable to agriculture, Liberia is a producer and
exporter of basic products. Local manufacturing, mainly foreign owned, is
small in scope. Liberia imports primarily machinery and parts, transportation
equipment, petroleum products, and foodstuffs. Persistent budget deficits,
the flight of capital, and deterioration of transport and other infrastructure
continue to hold back economic progress.

GDP: $988 million, per capita $395; real growth rate 1.5% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 43% urban (1988)

Budget: revenues $242.1 million; expenditures $435.4 million, including
capital expenditures of $29.5 million (1989)

Exports: $550 million (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--iron ore 61%,
rubber 20%, timber 11%, coffee; partners--US, EC, Netherlands

Imports: $335 million (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--rice, mineral
fuels, chemicals, machinery, transportation equipment, other foodstuffs;
partners--US, EC, Japan, China, Netherlands, ECOWAS

External debt: $1.7 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 1.5% in
manufacturing (1987)

Electricity: 400,000 kW capacity; 730 million kWh produced,
290 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: rubber processing, food processing, construction
materials, furniture, palm oil processing, mining (iron ore, diamonds)

Agriculture: accounts for about 40% of GDP (including fishing and
forestry); principal products--rubber, timber, coffee, cocoa, rice, cassava,
palm oil, sugarcane, bananas, sheep, and goats; not self-sufficient in food,
imports 25% of rice consumption

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $634 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $793 million;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $25 million; Communist countries (1970-88), $77
million

Currency: Liberian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Liberian dollar (L$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Liberian dollars (L$) per US$1--1.00 (fixed rate since
1940); unofficial parallel exchange rate of L$2.5 = US$1, January 1989

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 480 km total; 328 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 152 km
1.067-meter narrow gauge; all lines single track; rail systems owned and
operated by foreign steel and financial interests in conjunction with Liberian
Government

Highways: 10,087 km total; 603 km bituminous treated, 2,848 km
all weather, 4,313 km dry weather; there are also 2,323 km of private,
laterite-surfaced roads open to public use, owned by rubber and timber
companies

Ports: Monrovia, Buchanan, Greenville, Harper (or Cape Palmas)

Merchant marine: 1,379 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 48,655,666 DWT/
90,005,898 DWT; includes 11 passenger, 148 cargo, 26 refrigerated cargo, 18
roll-on/roll-off cargo, 42 vehicle carrier, 42 container, 4 barge
carrier, 436 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 100 chemical,
63 combination ore/oil, 41 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 413
bulk, 2 multifunction large-load carrier, 26 combination bulk; note--a
flag of convenience registry; all ships are foreign owned; the top
four owning flags are US 17%, Hong Kong 13%, Japan 10%, and Greece 10%;
China owns at least 20 ships and Vietnam owns 1

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airports: 76 total, 60 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 4 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: telephone and telegraph service via radio relay
network; main center is Monrovia; 8,500 telephones; stations--3 AM, 4 FM, 5 TV;
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Armed Forces of Liberia, Liberia National Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 627,519; 335,063 fit for military service;
no conscription

Defense expenditures: 2.4% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Libya
- Geography
Total area: 1,759,540 km2; land area: 1,759,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 4,383 km total; Algeria 982 km, Chad 1,055 km, Egypt
1,150 km, Niger 354 km, Sudan 383 km, Tunisia 459 km

Coastline: 1,770 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Gulf of Sidra closing line: 32o 30' N

Disputes: claims and occupies a small portion of the Aozou Strip in
northern Chad; maritime boundary dispute with Tunisia; Libya claims about 19,400
km2 in northern Niger; Libya claims about 19,400 km2 in southeastern Algeria

Climate: Mediterranean along coast; dry, extreme desert interior

Terrain: mostly barren, flat to undulating plains, plateaus, depressions

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, gypsum

Land use: 1% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 91% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: hot, dry, dust-laden ghibli is a southern wind lasting
one to four days in spring and fall; desertification; sparse natural
surface-water resources

Note: the Great Manmade River Project, the largest water
development scheme in the world, is being built to bring water from large
aquifers under the Sahara to coastal cities

- People
Population: 4,221,141 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 37 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 64 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 70 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 5.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Libyan(s); adjective--Libyan

Ethnic divisions: 97% Berber and Arab; some Greeks, Maltese, Italians,
Egyptians, Pakistanis, Turks, Indians, and Tunisians

Religion: 97% Sunni Muslim

Language: Arabic; Italian and English widely understood in major cities

Literacy: 50-60%

Labor force: 1,000,000, includes about 280,000 resident
foreigners; 31% industry, 27% services, 24% government, 18% agriculture

Organized labor: National Trade Unions' Federation, 275,000 members;
General Union for Oil and Petrochemicals; Pan-Africa Federation of Petroleum
Energy and Allied Workers

- Government
Long-form name: Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Type: Jamahiriya (a state of the masses); in theory, governed by
the populace through local councils; in fact, a military dictatorship

Capital: Tripoli

Administrative divisions: 46 municipalities (baladiyat,
singular--baladiyah); Ajdabiya, Al Abyar, Al Aziziyah,
Al Bayda, Al Jufrah, Al Jumayl, Al Khums, Al Kufrah, Al Marj,
Al Qarabulli, Al Qubbah, Al Ujaylat, Ash Shati,
Awbari, Az Zahra, Az Zawiyah, Banghazi, Bani Walid,
Bin Jawwad, Darnah, Ghadamis, Gharyan, Ghat, Jadu, Jalu,
Janzur, Masallatah, Misratah, Mizdah, Murzuq, Nalut,
Qaminis, Qasr Bin Ghashir, Sabha, Sabratah, Shahhat,
Surman, Surt, Tajura, Tarabulus, Tarhunah, Tubruq,
Tukrah, Yafran, Zlitan, Zuwarah; note--the number of municipalities may
have been reduced to 13 named Al Jabal al-Akhdar, Al Jabal al-Gharbi,
Al Jabal al-Khums, Al Batnam, Al Kufrah, Al Marqab, Al Marzuq, Az Zawiyah,
Banghazi, Khalij Surt, Sabha, Tripoli, Wadi al-Hayat

Independence: 24 December 1951 (from Italy)

Constitution: 11 December 1969, amended 2 March 1977

Legal system: based on Italian civil law system and Islamic law; separate
religious courts; no constitutional provision for judicial review of legislative
acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Revolution Day, 1 September (1969)

Executive branch: revolutionary leader, chairman of the General
People's Committee, General People's Committee (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral General People's Congress

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Revolutionary Leader Col. Muammar Abu Minyar al-QADHAFI
(since 1 September 1969);

Head of Government--Chairman of the General People's Committee (Premier)
Umar Mustafa al-MUNTASIR (since 1 March 1987)

Political parties and leaders: none

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections: national elections are indirect through a hierarchy of
revolutionary committees

Flag: plain green; green is the traditional color of Islam (the state
religion)

- Economy
Overview: The socialist-oriented economy depends primarily upon revenues
from the oil sector, which contributes virtually all export earnings and over
50% to GNP. Since 1980, however, the sharp drop in oil prices and resulting
decline in export revenues has adversely affected economic development. In 1986
per capita GNP was the highest in Africa at $5,410, but it had been $2,000
higher in 1982. Severe cutbacks in imports over the past five years have
led to shortages of basic goods and foodstuffs, although the reopening
of the Libyan-Tunisian border in April 1988 and the Libyan-Egyptian
border in December 1989 have somewhat eased shortages. Austerity
budgets and a lack of trained technicians have undermined the government's
ability to implement a number of planned infrastructure development
projects. The nonoil industrial and construction sectors, which
account for about 15% of GNP, have expanded from processing
mostly agricultural products to include petrochemicals, iron, steel,
and aluminum. Although agriculture accounts for less than 5% of GNP, it employs
20% of the labor force. Climatic conditions and poor soils severely limit farm
output, requiring Libya to import about 75% of its food requirements.

GNP: $20 billion, per capita $5,410; real growth rate 0% (1988 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1988 est.)

Budget: revenues $6.4 billion; expenditures $11.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $3.6 billion (1986 est.)

Exports: $6.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--petroleum,
peanuts, hides; partners--Italy, USSR, FRG, Spain, France,
Belgium/Luxembourg, Turkey

Imports: $5.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988 est.); commodities--machinery,
transport equipment, food, manufactured goods; partners--Italy, USSR,
FRG, UK, Japan

External debt: $2.1 billion, excluding military debt (December 1988)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 4,580,000 kW capacity; 13,360 million kWh produced,
3,270 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, handicrafts, cement

Agriculture: 5% of GNP; cash crops--wheat, barley, olives, dates,
citrus fruits, peanuts; 75% of food is imported

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $242 million

Currency: Libyan dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Libyan dinar (LD) = 1,000 dirhams

Exchange rates: Libyan dinars (LD) per US$1--0.2896 (January 1990),
0.2922 (1989), 0.2853 (1988), 0.2706 (1987), 0.3139 (1986), 0.2961 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 32,500 km total; 24,000 km bituminous and bituminous treated,
8,500 km gravel, crushed stone and earth

Pipelines: crude oil 4,383 km; natural gas 1,947 km; refined products
443 km (includes 256 km liquid petroleum gas)

Ports: Tobruk, Tripoli, Banghazi, Misratah, Marsa el Brega

Merchant marine: 30 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 816,546
GRT/1,454,874 DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 11 cargo, 4 roll-on/roll-off
cargo, 11 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Civil air: 59 major transport aircraft

Airports: 130 total, 122 usable; 53 with permanent-surface runways;
7 with runways over 3,659 m; 30 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 44 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: modern telecommunications system using radio relay,
coaxial cable, tropospheric scatter, and domestic satellite stations;
370,000 telephones; stations--18 AM, 3 FM, 13 TV; satellite earth stations--
1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, and 14 domestic;
submarine cables to France and Italy; radio relay to Tunisia; tropospheric
scatter to Greece; planned ARABSAT and Intersputnik satellite stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahariya includes
People's Defense (Army), Arab Air Force and Air Defense Command, Arab
Navy

Military manpower: males 15-49, 991,368; 584,512 fit for military service;
50,379 reach military age (17) annually; conscription now being implemented

Defense expenditures: 11.1% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Liechtenstein
- Geography
Total area: 160 km2; land area: 160 km2

Comparative area: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: 78 km total; Austria 37 km, Switzerland 41 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain;
cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers

Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third

Natural resources: hydroelectric potential

Land use: 25% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 38% meadows and
pastures; 19% forest and woodland; 18% other

Environment: variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 28,292 (July 1990), growth rate 0.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 13 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 73 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Liechtensteiner(s); adjective--Liechtenstein

Ethnic divisions: 95% Alemannic, 5% Italian and other

Religion: 82.7% Roman Catholic, 7.1% Protestant, 10.2% other

Language: German (official), Alemannic dialect

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 12,258; 5,078 foreign workers (mostly from Switzerland and
Austria); 54.4% industry, trade, and building; 41.6% services; 4.0% agriculture,
fishing, forestry, and horticulture

Organized labor: NA

- Government
Long-form name: Principality of Liechtenstein

Type: hereditary constitutional monarchy

Capital: Vaduz

Administrative divisions: 11 communes (gemeinden, singular--gemeinde);
Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg,
Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz

Independence: 23 January 1719, Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein
established

Constitution: 5 October 1921

Legal system: local civil and penal codes; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: St. Joseph's Day, 19 March

Executive branch: reigning prince, hereditary prince, prime
minister, deputy prime minister

Legislative branch: unicameral Diet (Landtag)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Oberster Gerichtshof) for criminal
cases and Superior Court (Obergericht) for civil cases

Leaders:
Chief of State--Prince HANS ADAM von und zu Liechtenstein
(since 13 November 1989; assumed executive powers 26 August 1984);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Hans BRUNHART (since 26 April 1978);
Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Herbert WILLE (since 2 February 1986)

Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (VU), Dr. Otto Hasler;
Progressive Citizens' Party (FBP), Dr. Herbert Batliner; Christian Social Party,
Fritz Kaiser

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Diet--last held on 5 March 1989 (next to be held by March 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(25 total) VU 13, FBP 12

Communists: none

Member of: Council of Europe, EFTA, IAEA, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ITU, UNCTAD,
UNIDO, UNICEF, UPU, WIPO; considering UN membership; has consultative status in
the EC

Diplomatic representation: in routine diplomatic matters, Liechtenstein
is represented in the US by the Swiss Embassy;
US--the US has no diplomatic or consular mission in Liechtenstein, but the
US Consul General at Zurich (Switzerland) has consular accreditation at Vaduz

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of blue (top) and red with a gold crown
on the hoist side of the blue band

- Economy
Overview: The prosperous economy is based primarily on small-scale light
industry and some farming. Industry accounts for 54% of total employment,
the service sector 42% (mostly based on tourism), and agriculture and
forestry 4%. The sale of postage stamps to collectors is estimated at $10
million annually and accounts for 10% of revenues. Low business taxes (the
maximum tax rate is 20%) and easy incorporation rules have induced about 25,000
holding or so-called letter box companies to establish nominal offices in
Liechtenstein. Such companies, incorporated solely for tax purposes, provide an
additional 30% of state revenues. The economy is tied closely to that of
Switzerland in a customs union, and incomes and living standards parallel those
of the more prosperous Swiss groups.

GNP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate NA%

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (1987 est.)

Unemployment rate: 0.1% (December 1986)

Budget: revenues $171 million; expenditures $189 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1986)

Exports: $807 million;
commodities--small specialty machinery, dental products, stamps,
hardware, pottery;
partners--EC 40%, EFTA 26% (Switzerland 19%) (1986)

Imports: $NA; commodities--machinery, metal goods, textiles,
foodstuffs, motor vehicles;
partners--NA

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 23,000 kW capacity; 150 million kWh produced,
5,340 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, textiles, ceramics,
pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism

Agriculture: livestock, vegetables, corn, wheat, potatoes, grapes

Aid: none

Currency: Swiss franc, franken, or franco (plural--francs, franken,
or franchi); 1 Swiss franc, franken, or franco (SwF) = 100 centimes, rappen,
or centesimi

Exchange rates: Swiss francs, franken, or franchi (SwF) per US$1--1.5150
(January 1990), 1.6359 (1989), 1.4633 (1988), 1.4912 (1987), 1.7989 (1986),
2.4571 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 18.5 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, electrified; owned,
operated, and included in statistics of Austrian Federal Railways

Highways: 130.66 km main roads, 192.27 km byroads

Civil air: no transport aircraft

Airports: none

Telecommunications: automatic telephone system; 25,400 telephones;
stations--no AM, no FM, no TV

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is responsibility of Switzerland
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Luxembourg
- Geography
Total area: 2,586 km2; land area: 2,586 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 359 km total; Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, FRG 138 km

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: modified continental with mild winters, cool summers

Terrain: mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys;
uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle
floodplain in the southeast

Natural resources: iron ore (no longer exploited)

Land use: 24% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 20% meadows and
pastures; 21% forest and woodland; 34% other

Environment: deforestation

Note: landlocked

- People
Population: 383,813 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1989)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 9 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 80 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Luxembourger(s); adjective--Luxembourg

Ethnic divisions: Celtic base, with French and German blend; also guest
and worker residents from Portugal, Italy, and European countries

Religion: 97% Roman Catholic, 3% Protestant and Jewish

Language: Luxembourgish, German, French; many also speak English

Literacy: 100%

Labor force: 161,000; one-third of labor force is foreign workers, mostly
from Portugal, Italy, France, Belgium, and FRG; 48.9% services, 24.7% industry,
13.2% government, 8.8% construction, 4.4% agriculture (1984)

Organized labor: 100,000 (est.) members of four confederated trade unions

- Government
Long-form name: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Luxembourg

Administrative divisions: 3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg

Independence: 1839

Constitution: 17 October 1868, occasional revisions

Legal system: based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day (public celebration of the Grand Duke's
birthday), 23 June (1921)

Executive branch: grand duke, prime minister, vice prime minister,
Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies (Chambre des
Deputes); note--the Council of State (Conseil d'Etat) is an advisory
body whose views are considered by the Chamber of Deputies

Judicial branch: Superior Court of Justice (Cour Superieure de
de Justice)

Leaders:
Chief of State--Grand Duke JEAN (since 12 November 1964);
Heir Apparent Prince HENRI (son of Grand Duke Jean, born 16 April 1955);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Jacques SANTER (since 21 July 1984);
Deputy Prime Minister Jacques F. POOS (since 21 July 1984)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Social Party (CSV),
Jacques Santer; Socialist Workers Party (LSAP), Jacques Poos; Liberal (DP),
Colette Flesch; Communist (KPL), Rene Urbany; Green Alternative (GAP),
Jean Huss

Suffrage: universal and compulsory at age 18

Elections:
Chamber of Deputies--last held on 18 June 1989 (next to be held
by June 1994);
results--CSV 31.7%, LSAP 27.2%, DP 16.2%, Greens 8.4%, PAC 7.3%, KPL 5.1%,
others 4%;
seats--(60 total) CSV 22, LSAP 18, DP 11, Greens 4, PAC 4, KPL 1, others 4

Communists: 500 party members (1982)

Other political or pressure groups: group of steel industries representing
iron and steel industry, Centrale Paysanne representing agricultural producers;
Christian and Socialist labor unions; Federation of Industrialists; Artisans and
Shopkeepers Federation

Member of: Benelux, BLEU, CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EIB, EMS, FAO, GATT,
IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IOOC, IPU,
ITU, NATO, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Andre PHILIPPE; Chancery at
2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 265-4171;
there are Luxembourg Consulates General in New York and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Jean B. S. GERARD; Embassy at 22 Boulevard
Emmanuel-Servais, 2535 Luxembourg City (mailing address is APO New York 09132);
telephone p352o 460123

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue;
similar to the flag of the Netherlands which uses a darker blue and is shorter;
design was based on the flag of France

- Economy
Overview: The stable economy features moderate growth, low
inflation, and negligible unemployment. Agriculture is based on small but
highly productive family-owned farms. The industrial sector, until
recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified,
particularly toward high-technology firms. During the past decade growth
in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in
steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion
of the economy. Luxembourg participates in an economic union with
Belgium on trade and most financial matters and is also closely connected
economically with the Netherlands.

GDP: $6.3 billion, per capita $17,200; real growth rate 4% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.0% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 1.6% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $2.5 billion; expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (1988)

Exports: $4.7 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--finished
steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass, aluminum, other industrial
products; partners--EC 75%, US 6%

Imports: $5.9 billion (c.i.f., 1988 est.); commodities--minerals,
metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods; partners--FRG 40%,
Belgium 35%, France 15%, US 3%

External debt: $131.6 million (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,500,000 kW capacity; 1,163 million kWh produced,
3,170 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: banking, iron and steel, food processing, chemicals,
metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum

Agriculture: accounts for less than 3% of GDP (including forestry);
principal products--barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits, wine grapes;
cattle raising widespread

Aid: none

Currency: Luxembourg franc (plural--francs);
1 Luxembourg franc (LuxF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Luxembourg francs (LuxF) per US$1--35.468 (January 1990),
39.404 (1989), 36.768 (1988), 37.334 (1987), 44.672 (1986), 59.378 (1985);
note--the Luxembourg franc is at par with the Belgian franc, which circulates
freely in Luxembourg

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: Luxembourg National Railways (CFL) operates 270 km 1.435-meter
standard gauge; 162 km double track; 162 km electrified

Highways: 5,108 km total; 4,995 km paved, 57 km gravel, 56 km earth; about
80 km limited access divided highway

Inland waterways: 37 km; Moselle River

Pipelines: refined products, 48 km

Ports: Mertert (river port)

Merchant marine: 4 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,138 GRT/9,373 DWT;
includes 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 2 chemical tanker

Civil air: 13 major transport aircraft

Airports: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways less than 1,220 m; 1 with runways over 3,659 m

Telecommunications: adequate and efficient system, mainly buried cables;
230,000 telephones; stations--2 AM, 4 FM, 6 TV; 2 communication satellite
earth stations operating in EUTELSAT and domestic systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army

Military manpower: males 15-49, 99,734; 83,237 fit for military service;
2,368 reach military age (19) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.2% of GDP, or $76 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Macau
(overseas territory of Portugal)
- Geography
Total area: 16 km2; land area: 16 km2

Comparative area: about 0.1 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundary: 0.34 km with China

Coastline: 40 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: scheduled to become a Special Administrative Region of China
in 1999

Climate: subtropical; marine with cool winters, warm summers

Terrain: generally flat

Natural resources: negligible

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: essentially urban; one causeway and one bridge connect
the two islands to the peninsula on mainland

Note: 27 km west southwest of Hong Kong on the southeast coast of
China

- People
Population: 441,691 (July 1990), growth rate 1.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 7 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Macanese (sing. and pl.); adjective--Macau

Ethnic divisions: 95% Chinese, 3% Portuguese, 2% other

Religion: mainly Buddhist; 17,000 Roman Catholics, of whom about half are
Chinese

Language: Portuguese (official); Cantonese is the language of
commerce

Literacy: almost 100% among Portuguese and Macanese; no data on Chinese
population

Labor force: 180,000 (1986)

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: overseas territory of Portugal; scheduled to revert to China
in 1999

Capital: Macau

Administrative divisions: 2 districts (concelhos, singular--concelho);
Ilhas, Macau

Independence: none (territory of Portugal); Portugal signed an agreement
with China on 13 April 1987 to return Macau to China on 20 December 1999; in the
joint declaration, China promises to respect Macau's existing social and
economic systems and lifestyle for 50 years after transition

Constitution: 17 February 1976, Organic Law of Macau

Legal system: Portuguese civil law system

National holiday: Day of Portugal, 10 June

Executive branch: president of Portugal, governor, Consultative Council,
(cabinet)

Legislative branch: Legislative Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President (of Portugal) Mario Alberto SOARES (since
9 March 1986);

Head of Government--Governor Carlos MELANCIA (since 3 July 1987)

Political parties and leaders: Association to Defend the Interests of
Macau; Macau Democratic Center; Group to Study the Development of Macau; Macau
Independent Group

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
Legislative Assembly--last held on 9 November 1988 (next to be
held November 1991);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(17 total; 6 elected by universal suffrage, 6 by indirect
suffrage) number of seats by party NA

Other political or pressure groups: wealthy Macanese and Chinese
representing local interests, wealthy pro-Communist merchants representing
China's interests; in January 1967 the Macau Government acceded to Chinese
demands that gave China veto power over administration

Member of: Multifiber Agreement

Diplomatic representation: as Chinese territory under Portuguese
administration, Macanese interests in the US are represented by Portugal;
US--the US has no offices in Macau and US interests are monitored
by the US Consulate General in Hong Kong

Flag: the flag of Portugal is used

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based largely on tourism (including
gambling), and textile and fireworks manufacturing. Efforts to diversify have
spawned other small industries--toys, artificial flowers, and electronics.
The tourist sector has accounted for roughly 25% of GDP, and the clothing
industry has provided about two-thirds of export earnings. Macau depends on
China for most of its food, fresh water, and energy imports. Japan and Hong Kong
are the main suppliers of raw materials and capital goods.

GDP: $2.7 billion, per capita $6,300; real growth rate 5% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $305 million; expenditures $298 million, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $1.7 billion (1989 est.); commodities--textiles, clothing,
toys;
partners--US 33%, Hong Kong 15%, FRG 12%, France 10% (1987)

Imports: $1.6 billion (1989 est.); commodities--raw materials,
foodstuffs, capital goods;
partners--Hong Kong 39%, China 21%, Japan 10% (1987)

External debt: $91 million (1985)

Industrial production: NA

Electricity: 179,000 kW capacity; 485 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: clothing, textiles, toys, plastic products, furniture, tourism

Agriculture: rice, vegetables; food shortages--rice, vegetables, meat;
depends mostly on imports for food requirements

Aid: none

Currency: pataca (plural--patacas); 1 pataca (P) = 100 avos

Exchange rates: patacas (P) per US$1--8.03 (1989), 8.044 (1988),
7.993 (1987), 8.029 (1986), 8.045 (1985); note--linked to the Hong Kong dollar
at the rate of 1.03 patacas per Hong Kong dollar

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Highways: 42 km paved

Ports: Macau

Civil air: no major transport aircraft

Airports: none; 1 seaplane station

Telecommunications: fairly modern communication facilities maintained for
domestic and international services; 52,000 telephones; stations--4 AM, 3 FM,
no TV; 75,000 radio receivers (est.); international high-frequency radio
communication facility; access to international communications carriers provided
via Hong Kong and China; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Military manpower: males 15-49, 166,956; 93,221 fit for military service

Note: defense is responsibility of Portugal
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Madagascar
- Geography
Total area: 587,040 km2; land area: 581,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 4,828 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 150 nm;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands,
Juan de Nova Island, and Tromelin Island (all administered by France)

Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt,
quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish

Land use: 4% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 58% meadows and
pastures; 26% forest and woodland; 11% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; deforestation; overgrazing;
soil erosion; desertification

Note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location

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