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and vegetables; livestock and livestock products include poultry, goats, milk;
not self-sufficient in grain, meat, and dairy products

Illicit drugs: illicit cultivation of cannabis has decreased, with
production shifting from large to small plots and nurseries to evade
aerial detection and eradication

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.1 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.2 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $27 million; Communist countries (1974-88),
$349 million

Currency: Jamaican dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Jamaican dollar (J$) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Jamaican dollars (J$) per US$1--6.5013 (January 1990),
5.7446 (1989), 5.4886 (1988), 5.4867 (1987), 5.4778 (1986), 5.5586 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 370 km, all 1.435-meter standard gauge, single track

Highways: 18,200 km total; 12,600 km paved, 3,200 km gravel, 2,400 km
improved earth

Pipelines: refined products, 10 km

Ports: Kingston, Montego Bay

Merchant marine: 5 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 13,048 GRT/21,412
DWT; includes 1 cargo, 1 container, 1 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 1 petroleum, oils,
and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 bulk

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airports: 41 total, 25 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 2 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: fully automatic domestic telephone network;
127,000 telephones; stations--10 AM, 17 FM, 8 TV; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT
earth stations; 3 coaxial submarine cables

- Defense Forces
Branches: Jamaica Defense Force (includes Coast Guard and Air Wing)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 620,400; 440,967 fit for military service;
no conscription; 27,014 reach minimum volunteer age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.1% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Jan Mayen
(territory of Norway)
- Geography
Total area: 373 km2; land area: 373 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 124.1 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 10 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 4 nm

Disputes: Denmark has challenged Norway's maritime claims beween
Greenland and Jan Mayen

Climate: arctic maritime with frequent storms and persistent fog

Terrain: volcanic island, partly covered by glaciers; Beerenberg is the
highest peak, with an elevation of 2,277 meters

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: barren volcanic island with some moss and grass;
volcanic activity resumed in 1970

Note: located 590 km north-northwest of Iceland between
the Greenland Sea and the Norwegian Sea north of the Arctic Circle

- People
Population: no permanent inhabitants

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: territory of Norway

Note: administered by a governor (sysselmann) resident in Longyearbyen
(Svalbard)

- Economy
Overview: Jan Mayen is a volcanic island with no exploitable
natural resources. Economic activity is limited to providing services
for employees of Norway's radio and meteorological stations located on
the island.

Electricity: 15,000 kW capacity; 40 million kWh produced,
NA kWh per capita (1989)

- Communications
Airports: 1 with runway 1,220 to 2,439 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Telecommunications: radio and meteorological station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of Norway
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Japan
- Geography
Total area: 377,835 km2; land area: 374,744 km2; includes Bonin Islands
(Ogasawara-gunto), Daito-shoto, Minami-jima, Okinotori-shima,
Ryukyu Islands (Nansei-shoto), and Volcano Islands (Kazan-retto)

Comparative area: slightly smaller than California

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 29,751 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in international straits--La Perouse or
Soya, Tsugaru, Osumi, and Eastern and Western channels of the Korea or
Tsushima Strait)

Disputes: Habomai Islands, Etorofu, Kunashiri, and Shikotan Islands
occupied by Soviet Union since 1945, claimed by Japan; Kuril Islands
administered by Soviet Union; Liancourt Rocks disputed with South Korea;
Senkaku-shoto (Senkaku Islands) claimed by China and Taiwan

Climate: varies from tropical in south to cool temperate in north

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous

Natural resources: negligible mineral resources, fish

Land use: 13% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 18% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: many dormant and some active volcanoes; about 1,500 seismic
occurrences (mostly tremors) every year; subject to tsunamis

Note: strategic location in northeast Asia

- People
Population: 123,642,461 (July 1990), growth rate 0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 11 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 5 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 82 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Japanese (sing., pl.); adjective--Japanese

Ethnic divisions: 99.4% Japanese, 0.6% other (mostly Korean)

Religion: most Japanese observe both Shinto and Buddhist rites; about 16%
belong to other faiths, including 0.8% Christian

Language: Japanese

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 63,330,000; 54% trade and services; 33% manufacturing,
mining, and construction; 7% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 3% government
(1988)

Organized labor: about 29% of employed workers; 76.4% public service,
57.9% transportation and telecommunications, 48.7% mining, 33.7% manufacturing,
18.2% services, 9.3% wholesale, retail, and restaurant

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Tokyo

Administrative divisions: 47 prefectures (fuken, singular and plural);
Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima, Gifu, Gumma,
Hiroshima, Hokkaido, Hyogo, Ibaraki, Ishikawa, Iwate, Kagawa, Kagoshima,
Kanagawa, Kochi, Kumamoto, Kyoto, Mie, Miyagi, Miyazaki, Nagano, Nagasaki,
Nara, Niigata, Oita, Okayama, Okinawa, Osaka, Saga, Saitama, Shiga,
Shimane, Shizuoka, Tochigi, Tokushima, Tokyo, Tottori, Toyama, Wakayama,
Yamagata, Yamaguchi, Yamanashi

Independence: 660 BC, traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu;
3 May 1947, constitutional monarchy established

Constitution: 3 May 1947

Legal system: civil law system with English-American influence;
judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; accepts compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

National holiday: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 December (1933)

Executive branch: emperor, prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Diet (Kokkai) consists of an upper house or
House of Councillors (Sangi-in) and a lower house or House of Representatives
(Shugi-in)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Emperor AKIHITO (since 7 January 1989);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Toshiki KAIFU (since 9 August 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Liberal Democratic Party (LDP),
Toshiki Kaifu, president; Japan Socialist Party (JSP), T. Doi, chairman;
Democratic Socialist Party (DSP), Keigo Ouchi, chairman; Japan
Communist Party (JCP), K. Miyamoto, Presidium chairman; Komeito (Clean
Government Party, CGP), Koshiro Ishida, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
House of Councillors--last held on 23 July 1989 (next to be held
23 July 1992); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(252 total, 100 elected) LDP 109, JSP 67, CGP 21, JCP 14,
others 33;

House of Representatives--last held on 18 February 1990
(next to be held by February 1993);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(512 total) LDP 275, JSP 136, CGP 45, JCP 16, JDSP 14,
other parties 5, independents 21; note--nine independents are expected
to join the LDP, five the JSP

Communists: about 470,000 registered Communist party members

Member of: ADB, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, DAC, ESCAP, FAO, GATT, IAEA,
IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IEA, IFAD,
IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU,
IWC--International Whaling Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, OECD,
UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Nobuo MATSUNAGA; Chancery at
2520 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-6700;
there are Japanese Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta,
Boston, Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Kansas City (Missouri), Los Angeles,
New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Seattle, and Portland (Oregon),
and a Consulate in Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands);
US--Ambassador Michael H. ARMACOST; Embassy at 10-1, Akasaka 1-chome,
Minato-ku (107), Tokyo (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96503); telephone
p81o (3) 224-5000; there are US Consulates General in Naha, Osaka-Kobe, and
Sapporo and a Consulate in Fukuoka

Flag: white with a large red disk (representing the sun without rays)
in the center

- Economy
Overview: Although Japan has few natural resources, since 1971 it has
become the world's third-largest industrial economy, ranking behind only the US
and the USSR. Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, and a
comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan advance rapidly,
notably in high-technology fields. Industry, the most important sector of the
economy, is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels.
Self-sufficent in rice, Japan must import 50% of its requirements for other
grain and fodder crops. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing
fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the total global catch. Overall
economic growth has been spectacular: a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5%
average in the 1970s and 1980s. In 1989 strong investment and
consumption spending helped maintain growth at nearly 5%. Inflation
remains low at 2.1% despite high oil prices and a somewhat weaker yen.
Japan continues to run a huge trade surplus, $60 billion in 1989, which
supports extensive investment in foreign properties.

GNP: $1,914.1 billion, per capita $15,600; real growth rate 4.8%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.1% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 2.3% (1989)

Budget: revenues $392 billion; expenditures $464 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY89)

Exports: $270 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--manufactures
97% (including machinery 38%, motor vehicles 17%, consumer electronics
10%); partners--US 34%, Southeast Asia 22%, Western Europe 21%, Communist
countries 5%, Middle East 5%

Imports: $210 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--manufactures
42%, fossil fuels 30%, foodstuffs 15%, nonfuel raw materials 13%;
partners--Southeast Asia 23%, US 23%, Middle East 15%, Western Europe 16%,
Communist countries 7%

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate 9.0% (1989)

Electricity: 191,000,000 kW capacity; 700,000 million kWh produced,
5,680 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: metallurgy, engineering, electrical and electronic, textiles,
chemicals, automobiles, fishing

Agriculture: accounts for 3% of GNP; highly subsidized and protected
sector, with crop yields among highest in world; principal crops--rice, sugar
beets, vegetables, fruit; animal products include pork, poultry, dairy and eggs;
about 50% self-sufficient in food production; shortages of wheat, corn,
soybeans; world's largest fish catch of 11.8 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $57.5 billion

Currency: yen (plural--yen); 1 yen (Y) = 100 sen

Exchange rates: yen (Y) per US$1--145.09 (January 1990), 137.96 (1989),
128.15 (1988), 144.64 (1987), 168.52 (1986), 238.54 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 27,327 km total; 2,012 km 1.435-meter standard gauge
and 25,315 km predominantly 1.067-meter narrow gauge; 5,724 km doubletrack and
multitrack sections, 9,038 km 1.067-meter narrow-gauge electrified, 2,012
km 1.435-meter standard-gauge electrified (1987)

Highways: 1,098,900 km total; 718,700 km paved, 380,200 km gravel,
crushed stone, or unpaved; 3,900 km national expressways, 46,544 km national
highways, 43,907 km principal local roads, 86,930 km prefectural roads,
and 917,619 other (1987)

Inland waterways: about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland
seas

Pipelines: crude oil, 84 km; refined products, 322 km; natural gas,
1,800 km

Ports: Chiba, Muroran, Kitakyushu, Kobe, Tomakomai, Nagoya, Osaka, Tokyo,
Yokkaichi, Yokohama, Kawasaki, Niigata, Fushiki-Toyama, Shimizu, Himeji,
Wakayama-Shimozu, Shimonoseki, Tokuyama-Shimomatsu

Merchant marine: 1,088 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 23,597,688
GRT/36,655,266 DWT; includes 7 passenger, 57 short-sea passenger, 4 passenger
cargo, 108 cargo, 44 container, 27 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 135 refrigerated
cargo, 117 vehicle carrier, 237 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
21 chemical tanker, 42 liquefied gas, 12 combination ore/oil, 3 specialized
tanker, 272 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 341 major transport aircraft

Airports: 165 total, 156 usable; 128 with permanent-surface runways;
2 with runways over 3,659 m; 27 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 55 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international service;
64,000,000 telephones; stations--318 AM, 58 FM, 12,350 TV (196 major--1 kw or
greater); satellite earth stations--4 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean
INTELSAT; submarine cables to US (via Guam), Philippines, China, and USSR

- Defense Forces
Branches: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (army), Japan Maritime
Self-Defense Force (navy), Japan Air Self-Defense Force (air force), Maritime
Safety Agency (coast guard)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 32,181,866; 27,695,890 fit for military
service; 1,004,052 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.0% of GNP at market prices (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Jarvis Island
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 4.5 km2; land area: 4.5 km2

Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 8 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; scant rainfall, constant wind, burning sun

Terrain: sandy, coral island surrounded by a narrow fringing reef

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until late 1800s)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: sparse bunch grass, prostrate vines, and low-growing
shrubs; lacks fresh water; primarily a nesting, roosting, and foraging
habitat for seabirds, shorebirds, and marine wildlife; feral cats

Note: 2,090 km south of Honolulu in the South Pacific Ocean, just south
of the Equator, about halfway between Hawaii and the Cook Islands

- People
Population: uninhabited

Note: Millersville settlement on western side of island occasionally used
as a weather station from 1935 until World War II, when it was abandoned;
reoccupied in 1957 during the International Geophysical Year by scientists who
left in 1958; public entry is by special-use permit only and generally
restricted to scientists and educators

- Government
Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the Fish
and Wildlife Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the
National Wildlife Refuge System

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Ports: none; offshore anchorage only--one boat landing area in the
middle of the west coast and another near the southwest corner of the island

Note: there is a day beacon near the middle of the west coast

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US; visited annually
by the US Coast Guard
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Jersey
(British crown dependency)
- Geography
Total area: 117 km2; land area: 117 km2

Comparative area: about 0.7 times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 70 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Climate: temperate; mild winters and cool summers

Terrain: gently rolling plain with low, rugged hills along north coast

Natural resources: agricultural land

Land use: NA% arable land; NA% permanent crops; NA% meadows and pastures;
NA% forest and woodland; NA% other; about 58% of land under cultivation

Environment: about 30% of population concentrated in Saint Helier

Note: largest and southernmost of Channel Islands; 27 km
from France

- People
Population: 83,609 (July 1990), growth rate 0.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 12 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 7 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Channel Islander(s); adjective--Channel Islander

Ethnic divisions: UK and Norman-French descent

Religion: Anglican, Roman Catholic, Baptist, Congregational New Church,
Methodist, Presbyterian

Language: English and French (official), with the Norman-French dialect
spoken in country districts

Literacy: NA%, but probably high

Labor force: NA

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: Bailiwick of Jersey

Type: British crown dependency

Capital: Saint Helier

Administrative divisions: none (British crown dependency)

Independence: none (British crown dependency)

Constitution: unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and
practice

Legal system: English law and local statute

National holiday: Liberation Day, 9 May (1945)

Executive branch: British monarch, lieutenant governor, bailiff

Legislative branch: unicameral Assembly of the States

Judicial branch: Royal Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952);

Head of Government--Lieutenant Governor Adm. Sir William PILLAR
(since NA 1985); Bailiff Peter CRILL (since NA)

Political parties and leaders: none; all independents

Suffrage: universal adult at age NA

Elections:
Assembly of the States--last held NA (next to be held NA);
results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(56 total, 52 elected) 52 independents

Communists: probably none

Diplomatic representation: none (British crown dependency)

Flag: white with the diagonal red cross of St. Patrick (patron saint
of Ireland) extending to the corners of the flag

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based largely on financial services, agriculture,
and tourism. Potatoes, cauliflower, tomatoes, and especially flowers are
important export crops, shipped mostly to the UK. The Jersey breed of dairy
cattle is known worldwide and represents an important export earner. Milk
products go to the UK and other EC countries. In 1986 the finance sector
overtook tourism as the main contributor to GDP, accounting for 40% of the
island's output. In recent years the government has encouraged light industry
to locate in Jersey, with the result that an electronics industry has developed
alongside the traditional manufacturing of knitwear. All raw material
and energy requirements are imported, as well as a large share of Jersey's food
needs.

GDP: $NA, per capita $NA; real growth rate 8% (1987 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (1988 est.)

Unemployment rate: NA%

Budget: revenues $308.0 million; expenditures $284.4 million, including
capital expenditures of NA (1985)

Exports: $NA; commodities--light industrial and electrical goods,
foodstuffs, textiles; partners--UK

Imports: $NA; commodities--machinery and transport equipment,
manufactured goods, foodstuffs, mineral fuels, chemicals; partners--UK

External debt: $NA

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 50,000 kW standby capacity (1989); power supplied by France

Industries: tourism, banking and finance, dairy

Agriculture: potatoes, cauliflowers, tomatoes; dairy and cattle farming

Aid: none

Currency: Jersey pound (plural--pounds); 1 Jersey pound (LJ) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Jersey pounds (LJ) per US$1--0.6055 (January 1990),
0.6099 (1989), 0.5614 (1988), 0.6102 (1987), 0.6817 (1986), 0.7714 (1985);
the Jersey pound is at par with the British pound

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Ports: Saint Helier, Gorey, St. Aubin

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 1,220-2,439 m (St. Peter)

Telecommunications: 63,700 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, 1
TV; 3 submarine cables

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the UK
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Johnston Atoll
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 2.8 km2; land area: 2.8 km2

Comparative area: about 4.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 10 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but generally dry; consistent northeast trade winds
with little seasonal temperature variation

Terrain: mostly flat with a maximum elevation of 4 meters

Natural resources: guano (deposits worked until about 1890)

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: some low-growing vegetation

Note: strategic location 1,328 km west-southwest of Honolulu in the North
Pacific Ocean, about one-third of the way between Hawaii and the Marshall
Islands; Johnston Island and Sand Island are natural islands; North Island
(Akau) and East Island (Hikina) are manmade islands formed from coral
dredging; closed to the public; former nuclear weapons test site

- People
Population: 1,203 (December 1989); all US government personnel and
contractors

- Government
Long-form name: none (territory of the US)

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Defense
Nuclear Agency (DNA) and managed cooperatively by DNA and the Fish and Wildlife
Service of the US Department of the Interior as part of the National Wildlife
Refuge system

Diplomatic representation: none (territory of the US)

Flag: the flag of the US is used

- Economy
Overview: Economic activity is limited to providing services to
US military personnel and contractors located on the island. All
food and manufactured goods must be imported.

- Communications
Ports: Johnston Island

Airports: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,743 m

Telecommunications: excellent system including 60-channel submarine
cable, Autodin/SRT terminal, digital telephone switch, Military
Affiliated Radio System (MARS station), and a (receive only) commercial
satellite television system

Note: US Coast Guard operates a LORAN transmitting station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Jordan
(see separate West Bank entry)
Note: The war between Israel and the Arab states in June 1967 ended with
Israel in control of the West Bank. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords
and reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the
final status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their
neighbors, and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated
among the concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending the
completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West
Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined.

- Geography
Total area: 91,880 km2; land area: 91,540 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Indiana

Land boundaries: 1,586 km total; Iraq 134 km, Israel 238 km,
Saudi Arabia 742 km, Syria 375 km, West Bank 97 km

Coastline: 26 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 3 nm

Disputes: differences with Israel over the location of the
1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries

Climate: mostly arid desert; rainy season in west (November to April)

Terrain: mostly desert plateau in east, highland area in west;
Great Rift Valley separates East and West Banks of the Jordan River

Natural resources: phosphates, potash, shale oil

Land use: 4% arable land; 0.5% permanent crops; 1% meadows
and pastures; 0.5% forest and woodland; 94% other; includes 0.5% irrigated

Environment: lack of natural water resources; deforestation;
overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

- People
Population: 3,064,508 (July 1990), growth rate 3.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 42 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 55 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 68 years male, 71 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.2 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Jordanian(s); adjective--Jordanian

Ethnic divisions: 98% Arab, 1% Circassian, 1% Armenian

Religion: 92% Sunni Muslim, 8% Christian

Language: Arabic (official); English widely understood among upper and
middle classes

Literacy: 71% (est.)

Labor force: 572,000 (1988); 20% agriculture, 20%
manufacturing and mining (1987 est.)

Organized labor: about 10% of labor force

Note: 1.5-1.7 million Palestinians live on the East Bank (55-60%
of the population), most are Jordanian citizens

- Government
Long-form name: Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Type: constitutional monarchy

Capital: Amman

Administrative divisions: 8 governorates (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Balqa, Al Karak, Al Mafraq, Amman,
At Tafilah, Az Zarqa, Irbid, Maan

Independence: 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration; formerly Trans-Jordan)

Constitution: 8 January 1952

Legal system: based on Islamic law and French codes; judicial review
of legislative acts in a specially provided High Tribunal; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 25 May (1946)

Executive branch: monarch, prime minister, deputy prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly (Majlis al Umma)
consists of an upper house or House of Notables (Majlis al-Ayaan) and a
lower house or House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwwab); note--the House
of Representatives was dissolved by King Hussein on 30 July 1988 as part of
Jordanian disengagement from the West Bank and in November 1989 the
first parliamentary elections in 22 years were held, with no seats going
to Palestinians on the West Bank

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders:
Chief of State--King HUSSEIN Ibn Talal I (since 11 August 1952);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Mudar BADRAN (since 4 December
1989)

Political parties and leaders: none; after 1989 parliamentary
elections, King Hussein promised to allow the formation of political
parties

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held 8 November 1989 (next to be
held NA); results--percent of vote NA;
seats--(80 total) percent of vote NA

Communists: party actively repressed, membership less than 500 (est.)

Member of: ACC, Arab League, CCC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, NAM, OIC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Hussein A. HAMMAMI;
Chancery at 3504 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008;
telephone (202) 966-2664;
US--Ambassador Roscoe S. SUDDARTH; Embassy on Jebel Amman, Amman (mailing
address is P. O. Box 354, Amman, or APO New York 09892);
telephone p962o (6) 644371 through 644376

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), white, and green with a
red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side bearing a small white
seven-pointed star; the seven points on the star represent the seven fundamental
laws of the Koran

- Economy
Overview: Jordan was a secondary beneficiary of the oil boom of
the late 1970s and early 1980s, when its GNP growth averaged 10-12%. Recent
years, however, have witnessed a sharp reduction in cash aid from Arab
oil-producing countries and in worker remittances, with growth averaging
1-2%. Imports--mainly oil, capital goods, consumer durables, and
foodstuffs--have been outstripping exports by roughly $2 billion annually,
the difference being made up by aid, remittances, and borrowing. In 1989
the government pursued policies to encourage private investment, curb
imports of luxury goods, promote exports, reduce the budget deficit, and, in
general, reinvigorate economic growth. Success will depend largely on
exogenous forces, such as the absence of drought and a pickup in outside
support. Down the road, the completion of the proposed Unity Dam on the
Yarmuk is vital to meet rapidly growing requirements for water.

GNP: $5.2 billion, per capita $1,760; real growth rate 0% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 35% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 9-10% (December 1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $0.92 billion; expenditures $1.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $540 million (1989 est.)

Exports: $0.910 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--fruits and
vegetables, phosphates, fertilizers;
partners--Iraq, Saudi Arabia, India, Kuwait, Japan, China,
Yugoslavia, Indonesia

Imports: $1.7 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--crude oil,
textiles, capital goods, motor vehicles, foodstuffs;
partners--EC, US, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Turkey, Romania, China,
Taiwan

External debt: $8.3 billion (December 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 7.8% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 981,000 kW capacity; 3,500 million kWh produced,
1,180 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: phosphate mining, petroleum refining, cement, potash,
light manufacturing

Agriculture: accounts for only 5% of GDP; principal products are wheat,
barley, citrus fruit, tomatoes, melons, olives; livestock--sheep, goats,
poultry; large net importer of food

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $1.7 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.2 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $9.5 billion; Communist countries (1970-88),
$44 million

Currency: Jordanian dinar (plural--dinars);
1 Jordanian dinar (JD) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Jordanian dinars (JD) per US$1--0.6557 (January 1990),
0.5704 (1989), 0.3715 (1988), 0.3387 (1987), 0.3499 (1986), 0.3940 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 619 km 1.050-meter gauge, single track

Highways: 7,500 km; 5,500 km asphalt, 2,000 km gravel and crushed stone

Pipelines: crude oil, 209 km

Ports: Al Aqabah

Merchant marine: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,635 GRT/44,618
DWT; includes 1 short-sea passenger, 2 bulk cargo

Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft

Airports: 19 total, 16 usable; 14 with permanent-surface runways;
1 with runways over 3,659 m; 13 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
none with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate system of radio relay, cable, and radio;
81,500 telephones; stations--4 AM, 3 FM, 24 TV; satellite earth stations--1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT, 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 ARABSAT, 1 domestic TV
receive-only; coaxial cable and radio relay to Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Syria;
radio relay to Lebanon is inactive; a microwave network linking Syria, Egypt,
Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Jordan

- Defense Forces
Branches: Jordan Arab Army, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian
Coast Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 726,736; 519,972 fit for military service;
38,730 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 11% of GNP, or $570 million (1990 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Juan de Nova Island
(French possession)
- Geography
Total area: 4.4 km2; land area: 4.4 km2

Comparative area: about 7.5 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 24.1 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 meters or to depth of exploitation;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: claimed by Madagascar

Climate: tropical

Terrain: undetermined

Natural resources: guano deposits and other fertilizers

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 90% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: subject to periodic cyclones; wildlife sanctuary

Note: located in the central Mozambique Channel about halfway
between Africa and Madagascar

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: French possession administered by Commissioner of the Republic
Daniel CONSTANTIN, resident in Reunion

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Railroads: short line going to a jetty

Airports: 1 with nonpermanent-surface runway less than 1,220 m

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

Note: one weather station

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of France
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Kenya
- Geography
Total area: 582,650 km2; land area: 569,250 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Nevada

Land boundaries: 3,477 km total; Ethiopia 861 km, Somalia 682 km,
Sudan 232 km, Tanzania 769 km, Uganda 933 km

Coastline: 536 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: international boundary and Administrative Boundary with Sudan;
possible claim by Somalia based on unification of ethnic Somalis

Climate: varies from tropical along coast to arid in interior

Terrain: low plains rise to central highlands bisected by Great Rift
Valley; fertile plateau in west

Natural resources: gold, limestone, diotomite, salt barytes, magnesite,
feldspar, sapphires, fluorspar, garnets, wildlife

Land use: 3% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 7% meadows and pastures;
4% forest and woodland; 85% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: unique physiography supports abundant and varied wildlife
of scientific and economic value; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification;
glaciers on Mt. Kenya

Note: Kenyan Highlands one of the most successful agricultural
production regions in Africa

- People
Population: 24,639,261 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 60 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 67 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.5 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Kenyan(s); adjective--Kenyan

Ethnic divisions: 21% Kikuyu, 14% Luhya, 13% Luo, 11% Kalenjin, 11% Kamba,
6% Kisii, 6% Meru, 1% Asian, European, and Arab

Religion: 38% Protestant, 28% Roman Catholic, 26% indigenous beliefs,
6% Muslim

Language: English and Swahili (official); numerous indigenous languages

Literacy: 59.2%

Labor force: 9,003,000; 78% agriculture, 22% nonagriculture
(1987 est.)

Organized labor: 390,000 (est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Kenya

Type: republic

Capital: Nairobi

Administrative divisions: 7 provinces and 1 area*; Central, Coast,
Eastern, Nairobi Area*, North-Eastern, Nyanza, Rift Valley, Western

Independence: 12 December 1963 (from UK; formerly British East Africa)

Constitution: 12 December 1963, amended as a republic 1964;
reissued with amendments 1979, 1983, 1986, and 1988

Legal system: based on English common law, tribal law, and Islamic law;
judicial review in High Court; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with
reservations; constitutional amendment in 1982 made Kenya a de jure one-party
state

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 December (1963)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Daniel Teroitich
arap MOI (since 14 October 1978); Vice President George SAITOTI
(since 10 May 1989)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Kenya African National
Union (KANU), Daniel T. arap Moi, president

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 21 March 1988 (next to be held
February 1993);
results--President Daniel T. arap Moi was reelected;

National Assembly--last held on 21 March 1988
(next to be held March 1993); results--KANU is the only party;
seats--(202 total, 188 elected) KANU 200

Communists: may be a few Communists and sympathizers

Other political or pressure groups: labor unions; exile
opposition--Mwakenya and other groups

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IRC, ISO, ITU,
IWC--International Wheat Council, NAM, OAU, UN, UNDP, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Denis Daudi AFANDE; Chancery at
2249 R Street NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 387-6101; there are
Kenyan Consulates General in Los Angeles and New York;
US--Ambassador Smith HEMPSTONE; Embassy at the corner of Moi Avenue
and Haile Selassie Avenue, Nairobi (mailing address is P. O. Box 30137,
Nairobi or APO New York 09675); telephone p254o (2) 334141; there is a
US Consulate in Mombasa

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and green; the red
band is edged in white; a large warrior's shield covering crossed spears is
superimposed at the center

- Economy
Overview: A serious underlying economic problem is Kenya's 3.8% annual
population growth rate--one of the highest in the world. In the
meantime, GDP growth in the near term has kept slightly ahead of
population--annually averaging 5.2% in the 1986-88 period. Undependable
weather conditions and a shortage of arable land hamper long-term
growth in agriculture, the leading economic sector.

GDP: $8.5 billion, per capita $360; real growth rate 4.9% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.3% (1988)

Unemployment rate: NA%, but there is a high level of unemployment
and underemployment

Budget: revenues $2.3 billion; expenditures $2.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $0.71 billion (FY87)

Exports: $1.0 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--coffee 20%,
tea 18%, manufactures 15%, petroleum products 10% (1987);
partners--Western Europe 45%, Africa 22%, Far East 10%, US 4%, Middle East
3% (1987)

Imports: $1.8 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--machinery
and transportation equipment 36%, raw materials 33%, fuels and lubricants 20%,
food and consumer goods 11% (1987);
partners--Western Europe 49%, Far East 20%, Middle East 19%, US 7% (1987)

External debt: $6.2 billion (December 1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1987 est.)

Electricity: 587,000 kW capacity; 2,250 million kWh produced,
90 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries,
textiles, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural processing, oil refining,
cement, tourism

Agriculture: most important sector, accounting for 30% of GDP,
about 80% of the work force, and over 50% of exports; cash
crops--coffee, tea, sisal, pineapple; food products--corn, wheat,
sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products; food output not keeping
pace with population growth

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis used mostly for
domestic consumption; widespread cultivation of cannabis and qat on
small plots; transit country for heroin and methaqualone en route
from Southwest Asia to West Africa, Western Europe, and the US

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $771 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $6.0 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $74 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$83 million

Currency: Kenyan shilling (plural--shillings);
1 Kenyan shilling (KSh) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Kenyan shillings (KSh) per US$1--21.749 (December 1989),
20.572 (1989), 17.747 (1988), 16.454 (1987), 16.226 (1986), 16.432 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

- Communications
Railroads: 2,040 km 1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 64,590 km total; 7,000 km paved, 4,150 km gravel, remainder
improved earth

Inland waterways: part of Lake Victoria system is within boundaries of
Kenya; principal inland port is at Kisumu

Pipelines: refined products, 483 km

Ports: Mombasa, Lamu

Civil air: 14 major transport aircraft

Airports: 247 total, 211 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 1 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 45 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: in top group of African systems; consists of radio
relay links, open-wire lines, and radiocommunication stations;
260,000 telephones; stations--11 AM, 4 FM, 4 TV; satellite earth stations--1
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTLESAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Kenya Army, Kenya Navy, Air Force; paramilitary General
Service Unit

Military manpower: males 15-49, 5,240,551; 3,235,557 fit for military
service; no conscription

Defense expenditures: 1.0% of GDP, or $100 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Kingman Reef
(territory of the US)
- Geography
Total area: 1 km2; land area: 1 km2

Comparative area: about 1.7 times the size of The Mall in Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 3 km

Maritime claims:

Contiguous zone: 12 nm;

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical, but moderated by prevailing winds

Terrain: low and nearly level with a maximum elevation of about 1 meter

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other

Environment: barren coral atoll with deep interior lagoon; wet or awash
most of the time

Note: located 1,600 km south-southwest of Honolulu in the North Pacific
Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and American Samoa; maximum elevation of
about 1 meter makes this a navigational hazard; closed to the public

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: unincorporated territory of the US administered by the US Navy

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Airports: lagoon was used as a halfway station between Hawaii and
American Samoa by Pan American Airways for flying boats in 1937 and 1938

Ports: none; offshore anchorage only

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the responsibility of the US
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Kiribati
- Geography
Total area: 717 km2; land area: 717 km2; includes three island
groups--Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix Islands

Comparative area: slightly more than four times the size of Washington, DC

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,143 km

Maritime claims:

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; marine, hot and humid, moderated by trade winds

Terrain: mostly low-lying coral atolls surrounded by extensive reefs

Natural resources: phosphate (production discontinued in 1979)

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 51% permanent crops; 0% meadows and
pastures; 3% forest and woodland; 46% other

Environment: typhoons can occur any time, but usually November to March;
20 of the 33 islands are inhabited

Note: Banaba or Ocean Island is one of the three great phosphate rock
islands in the Pacific (the others are Makatea in French Polynesia and Nauru)

- People
Population: 70,012 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 34 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 65 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 57 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 4.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Kiribatian(s); adjective--Kiribati

Ethnic divisions: Micronesian

Religion: 48% Roman Catholic, 45% Protestant (Congregational),
some Seventh-Day Adventist and Baha'i

Language: English (official), Gilbertese

Literacy: 90%

Labor force: 7,870 economically active (1985 est.)

Organized labor: Kiribati Trades Union Congress--2,500 members

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Kiribati

Type: republic

Capital: Tarawa

Administrative divisions: 3 units; Gilbert Islands, Line Islands, Phoenix
Islands; note--a new administrative structure of 6 districts (Banaba, Central
Gilberts, Line Islands, Northern Gilberts, Southern Gilberts, Tarawa) may have
been changed to 20 island councils (one for each of the inhabited islands) named
Abaiang, Abemama, Aranuka, Arorae, Banaba, Beru, Butaritari, Kiritimati, Kuria,
Maiana, Makin, Marakei, Nikunau, Nonouti, Onotoa, Tabiteuea, Tabuaeran, Tamana,
Tarawa, Teraina

Independence: 12 July 1979 (from UK; formerly Gilbert Islands)

Constitution: 12 July 1979

National holiday: Independence Day, 12 July (1979)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Assembly (Maneaba Ni Maungatabu)

Judicial branch: Court of Appeal, High Court

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Ieremia T. TABAI
(since 12 July 1979); Vice President Teatao TEANNAKI (since 20 July 1979)

Political parties and leaders: Gilbertese National Party; Christian
Democratic Party, Teburoro Tito, secretary; essentially not organized
on basis of political parties

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held on 12 May 1987 (next to be held May 1991);
results--Ieremia T. Tabai 50.1%, Tebruroro Tito 42.7%, Tetao
Tannaki 7.2%;

National Assembly--last held on 19 March l987 (next to be held
March 1991); results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(40 total; 39 elected) percent of seats by party NA

Member of: ACP, ADB, Commonwealth, ESCAP (associate member), GATT (de
facto), ICAO, IMF, SPF, WHO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador (vacant) lives in Tarawa (Kiribati);
US--none

Flag: the upper half is red with a yellow frigate bird flying over a
yellow rising sun and the lower half is blue with three horizontal wavy white
stripes to represent the ocean

- Economy
Overview: The country has few national resources. Phosphate deposits were
exhausted at the time of independence in 1979. Copra and fish now represent
the bulk of production and exports. The economy has fluctuated widely in
recent years. Real GDP declined about 8% in 1987, as the fish catch fell
sharply to only one-fourth the level of 1986 and copra production was hampered
by repeated rains. Output rebounded strongly in 1988, with real GDP growing
by 17%. The upturn in economic growth came from an increase in copra production
and a good fish catch. Following the strong surge in output in 1988, GDP
remained about the same in 1989.

GDP: $34 million, per capita $500; real growth rate 0% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.1% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 2% (1985); considerable underemployment

Budget: revenues $22.0 million; expenditures $12.7 million, including
capital expenditures of $9.7 million (1988)

Exports: $5.1 million (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--fish 55%,
copra 42%; partners--EC 20%, Marshall Islands 12%, US 8%, American
Samoa 4% (1985)

Imports: $21.5 million (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--foodstuffs,
fuel, transportation equipment; partners--Australia 39%, Japan 21%,
NZ 6%, UK 6%, US 3% (1985)

External debt: $2.0 million (December 1987 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 5,000 kW capacity; 13 million kWh produced,
190 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: fishing, handicrafts

Agriculture: accounts for 30% of GDP (including fishing); copra and fish
contribute 95% to exports; subsistence farming predominates; food crops--taro,
breadfruit, sweet potatoes, vegetables; not self-sufficient in food

Aid: Western (non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments
(1970-87), $245 million

Currency: Australian dollar (plural--dollars);
1 Australian dollar ($A) = 100 cents

Exchange rates: Australian dollars ($A) per US$1--1.2784 (January 1990),
1.2618 (1989), 1.2752 (1988), 1.4267 (1987), 1.4905 (1986), 1.4269 (1985)

Fiscal year: NA

- Communications
Highways: 640 km of motorable roads

Inland waterways: small network of canals, totaling 5 km, in Line Islands

Ports: Banaba and Betio (Tarawa)

Civil air: 2 Trislanders; no major transport aircraft

Airports: 22 total; 21 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 2,439 m; 5 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 1,400 telephones; stations--1 AM, no FM, no TV;
1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: NA

Military manpower: NA

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Korea, North
- Geography
Total area: 120,540 km2; land area: 120,410 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi

Land boundaries: 1,671 km total; China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km,
USSR 17 km

Coastline: 2,495 km

Maritime claims:

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm;

Military boundary line: 50 nm (all foreign vessels and aircraft
without permission are banned)

Disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite;
Demarcation Line with South Korea

Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys;
coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east

Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite,
iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower

Land use: 18% arable land; 1% permanent crops; NEGL% meadows and
pastures; 74% forest and woodland; 7% other; includes 9% irrigated

Environment: mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible,
and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding

Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and USSR

- People
Population: 21,292,649 (July 1990), growth rate 1.7% (1990)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 27 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 69 years male, 75 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Korean(s); adjective--Korean

Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous

Religion: Buddhism and Confucianism; religious activities now almost
nonexistent

Language: Korean

Literacy: 95% (est.)

Labor force: 9,615,000; 36% agricultural, 64% nonagricultural; shortage
of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.)

Organized labor: 1,600,000 members; single-trade union system coordinated
by the General Federation of Trade Unions of Korea under the Central Committee

- Government
Long-form name: Democratic People's Republic of Korea; abbreviated DPRK

Type: Communist state; one-man rule

Capital: P'yongyang

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
3 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Chagang-do,
Hamgyong-namdo, Hamgyong-bukto, Hwanghae-namdo, Hwanghae-bukto,
Kaesong-si*, Kangwon-do, Namp'o-si*, P'yongan-bukto,
P'yongan-namdo, P'yongyang-si*, Yanggang-do

Independence: 9 September 1948

Constitution: adopted 1948, revised 27 December 1972

Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese influences
and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 9 September (1948)

Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, premier, nine vice
premiers, State Administration Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Choe Ko In
Min Hoe Ui)

Judicial branch: Central Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President KIM Il-song (since 28 December 1972);
Designated Successor KIM Chong-Il (son of President, born 16 February 1942);

Head of Government--Premier YON Hyong-muk (since NA December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Korean Workers' Party
(KWP); Kim Il-song, General Secretary, and his son, Kim Chong-Il,
Secretary, Central Committee

Suffrage: universal at age 17

Elections:
President--last held 29 December 1986 (next to be held December
1990);
results--President Kim Il Song was reelected without opposition;

Supreme People's Assembly--last held on 2 November 1986 (next
to be held November 1990, but the constitutional provision for elections
every four years is not always followed);
results--KWP is the only party;
seats--(655 total) KWP 655; the KWP approves a single list of candidates
who are elected without opposition

Communists: KWP claims membership of about 2 million, or about one-tenth
of population

Member of: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IMO, IPU, ITU, NAM,
UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WTO, UNIDO, WMO; official
observer status at UN

Diplomatic representation: none

Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue;
the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white
disk with a red five-pointed star

- Economy
Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized;
agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of
manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually tight
even for a Communist country because of the small size and homogeneity of
the society and the strict one-man rule of Kim. Economic growth during
the period 1984-89 has averaged approximately 3%. Abundant natural resources
and hydropower form the basis of industrial development. Output of the
extractive industries includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper,
zinc, lead, and precious metals. Manufacturing emphasis is centered on heavy
industry, with light industry lagging far behind. The use of high-yielding
seed varieties, expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers
have enabled North Korea to become largely self-sufficient in food production.
North Korea, however, is far behind South Korea in economic development and
living standards.

GNP: $28 billion, per capita $1,240; real growth rate 3% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA%

Unemployment rate: officially none

Budget: revenues $15.6 billion; expenditures $15.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $2.4 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--minerals,
metallurgical products, agricultural products, manufactures;
partners--USSR, China, Japan, FRG, Hong Kong, Singapore

Imports: $3.1 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--petroleum,
machinery and equipment, coking coal, grain;
partners--USSR, Japan, China, FRG, Hong Kong, Singapore

External debt: $2.5 billion hard currency (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 6,440,000 kW capacity; 40,250 million kWh produced,
1,740 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machine building, military products, electric power,
chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing

Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force;
principal crops--rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock
products--cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain; fish catch
estimated at 1.7 million metric tons in 1987

Aid: Communist countries (1970-88), $1.3 billion

Currency: North Korean won (plural--won);
1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon

Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1--2.3 (December 1989),
2.13 (December 1988), 0.94 (March 1987), NA (1986), NA (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 4,535 km total operating in 1980; 3,870 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 665 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge, 159 km double track; 3,175 km
electrified; government owned

Highways: about 20,280 km (1980); 98.5% gravel, crushed stone, or earth
surface; 1.5% concrete or bituminous

Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only

Pipelines: crude oil, 37 km

Ports: Ch'ongjin, Haeju, Hungnam, Namp'o, Wonsan, Songnim, Najin

Merchant marine: 65 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 437,103
GRT/663,835 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 1 passenger-cargo,
56 cargo, 2 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 3 bulk, 1 combination
bulk

Airports: 50 total, 50 usable; about 30 with permanent-surface
runways; fewer than 5 with runways over 3,659 m; 20 with runways
2,440-3,659 m; 30 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: stations--18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 200,000 TV sets;
3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station

- Defense Forces
Branches: Ministry of People's Armed Forces (consists of the army, navy,
and air force)

Military manpower: males 15-49, 6,054,774; 3,699,088 fit for military
service; 223,087 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 22% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Korea, South
- Geography
Total area: 98,480 km2; land area: 98,190 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Indiana

Land boundary: 238 km with North Korea

Coastline: 2,413 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm (3 nm in the Korea Strait)

Disputes: Demarcation Line with North Korea; Liancourt Rocks claimed
by Japan

Climate: temperate, with rainfall heavier in summer than winter

Terrain: mostly hills and mountains; wide coastal plains in west
and south

Natural resources: coal, tungsten, graphite, molybdenum, lead,
hydropower

Land use: 21% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 1% meadows and pastures;
67% forest and woodland; 10% other; includes 12% irrigated

Environment: occasional typhoons bring high winds and floods; earthquakes
in southwest; air pollution in large cities

Notes: strategic location along the Korea Strait, Sea of Japan, and
Yellow Sea

- People
Population: 43,045,098 (July 1990), growth rate 0.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 20 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 1 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 73 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Korean(s); adjective--Korean

Ethnic divisions: homogeneous; small Chinese minority (about 20,000)

Religion: strong Confucian tradition; vigorous Christian minority (28%
of the total population); Buddhism; pervasive folk religion (Shamanism);
Chondokyo (religion of the heavenly way), eclectic religion with nationalist
overtones founded in 19th century, claims about 1.5 million adherents

Language: Korean; English widely taught in high school

Literacy: over 90%

Labor force: 16,900,000; 52% services and other; 27% mining and
manufacturing; 21% agriculture, fishing, forestry (1987)

Organized labor: about 10% of nonagricultural labor force in
government-sanctioned unions

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Korea; abbreviated ROK

Type: republic

Capital: Seoul

Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and
6 special cities* (jikhalsi, singular and plural); Cheju-do,
Cholla-bukto, Cholla-namdo, Ch'ungch'ong-bukto,
Ch'ungch'ong-namdo, Inch'on-jikhalsi*, Kangwon-do,
Kwangju-jikhalsi, Kyonggi-do, Kyongsang-bukto,
Kyongsang-namdo, Pusan-jikhalsi*, Soul-t'ukpyolsi*,
Taegu-jikhalsi*, Taejon-jikhalsi

Independence: 15 August 1948

Constitution: 25 February 1988

Legal system: combines elements of continental European civil law systems,
Anglo-American law, and Chinese classical thought; has not accepted compulsory
ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 15 August (1948)

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
State Council (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President ROH Tae Woo (since 25 February 1988);

Head of Government--Prime Minister KANG Young Hoon (since 5 December
1988); Deputy Prime Minister CHO Soon (since 5 December 1988)

Political parties and leaders: major party is government's Democratic
Justice Party (DJP), Roh Tae Woo, president, and Park Tae Chun, chairman;
opposition parties are Peace and Democracy Party (PPD), Kim Dae Jung; Korea
Reunification Democratic Party (RPD), Kim Young Sam; New Democratic Republican
Party (NDRP), Kim Jong Pil; several smaller parties

Suffrage: universal at age 20

Elections:
President--last held on 16 December 1987 (next to be held December 1992);
results--Roh Tae Woo (DJP) 35.9%, Kim Young Sam (RDP) 27.5%,
Kim Dae Jung (PPD) 26.5%, other 10.1%;

National Assembly--last held on 26 April 1988 (next to be held
April 1992);
results--DJP 34%, RPD 24%, PPD 19%, NDRP 15%, others 8%;
seats--(299 total) DJP 125, PPD 71, RPD 59, NDRP 35, others 9

Communists: Communist party activity banned by government

Other political or pressure groups: Korean National Council of Churches;
large, potentially volatile student population concentrated in Seoul; Federation
of Korean Trade Unions; Korean Veterans' Association; Federation of Korean
Industries; Korean Traders Association

Member of: ADB, AfDB, ASPAC, CCC, Colombo Plan, ESCAP, FAO, G-77,
GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IHO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ITU, IWC--International Whaling
Commission, IWC--International Wheat Council, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNESCO,
UNICEF, UNIDO, UN Special Fund, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO;
official observer status at UN

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Tong-Jin PARK; Chancery at
2320 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 939-5600;
there are Korean Consulates General in Agana (Guam), Anchorage, Atlanta,
Chicago, Honolulu, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle;
US--Ambassador Donald GREGG; Embassy at 82 Sejong-Ro,
Chongro-ku, Seoul (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96301); telephone p82o
(2) 732-2601 through 2618; there is a US Consulate in Pusan

Flag: white with a red (top) and blue yin-yang symbol in the center; there
is a different black trigram from the ancient I Ching (Book of Changes)
in each corner of the white field

- Economy
Overview: The driving force behind the economy's dynamic growth
has been the planned development of an export-oriented economy in a
vigorously entrepreneurial society. GNP increased almost 13% in both
1986 and 1987 and 12% in 1988 before slowing to 6.5% in 1989. Such a
rapid rate of growth was achieved with an inflation rate of only 3% in the
period 1986-87, rising to 7% in 1988 and 5% in 1989. Unemployment is
also low, and some labor bottlenecks have appeared in several processing
industries. While the South Korean economy is expected to grow at more
than 5% annually during the 1990s, labor unrest--which led to
substantial wage hikes in 1987-89--threatens to undermine
noninflationary growth.

GNP: $200 billion, per capita $4,600; real growth rate 6.5% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3% (1989)

Budget: revenues $33.6 billion; expenditures $33.6 billion, including
capital expenditures of NA (1990)

Exports: $62.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--textiles,
clothing, electronic and electrical equipment, footwear, machinery, steel,
automobiles, ships, fish; partners--US 33%, Japan 21%

Imports: $61.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989);
commodities--machinery, electronics and electronic equipment, oil,
steel, transport equipment, textiles, organic chemicals, grains;
partners--Japan 28%, US 25% (1990)

External debt: $30.5 billion (September 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate 3.5% (1989)

Electricity: 20,500,000 kW capacity; 80,000 million kWh produced,
1,850 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: textiles, clothing, footwear, food processing, chemicals,
steel, electronics, automobile production, ship building

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and employs 21% of work force
(including fishing and forestry); principal crops--rice, root crops, barley,
vegetables, fruit; livestock and livestock products--cattle, hogs, chickens,
milk, eggs; self-sufficient in food, except for wheat; fish catch of 2.9
million metric tons, seventh-largest in world

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-85), $3.9 billion

Currency: South Korean won (plural--won);
1 South Korean won (W) = 100 chon (theoretical)

Exchange rates: South Korean won (W) per US$1--683.43 (January 1990),
671.46 (1989), 731.47 (1988), 822.57 (1987), 881.45 (1986), 870.02 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 3,106 km operating in 1983; 3,059 km 1.435-meter standard
gauge, 47 km 0.610-meter narrow gauge, 712 km double track, 418 km
electrified; government owned

Highways: 62,936 km total (1982); 13,476 km national highway, 49,460 km
provincial and local roads

Inland waterways: 1,609 km; use restricted to small native craft

Pipelines: 294 km refined products

Ports: Pusan, Inchon, Kunsan, Mokpo, Ulsan

Merchant marine: 423 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 7,006,481
GRT/11,658,104 DWT; includes 2 short-sea passenger, 130 cargo, 41 container,
11 refrigerated cargo, 11 vehicle carrier, 49 petroleum, oils, and lubricants
(POL) tanker, 8 chemical tanker, 10 liquefied gas, 10 combination ore/oil,
143 bulk, 7 combination bulk, 1 multifunction large-load carrier

Civil air: 93 major transport aircraft

Airports: 112 total, 105 usable; 61 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 17 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: adequate domestic and international services;
4,800,000 telephones; stations--79 AM, 46 FM, 256 TV (57 of 1 kW or greater);
satellite earth stations--2 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,792,426; 8,260,886 fit for military
service; 445,320 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 5% of GNP, or $10 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Kuwait
- Geography
Total area: 17,820 km2; land area: 17,820 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 462 km total; Iraq 240 km, Saudi Arabia 222 km

Coastline: 499 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: ownership of Warbah and Bubiyan islands disputed
by Iraq; ownership of Qaruh and Umm al Maradim Islands disputed by
Saudi Arabia

Climate: dry desert; intensely hot summers; short, cool winters

Terrain: flat to slightly undulating desert plain

Natural resources: petroleum, fish, shrimp, natural gas

Land use: NEGL% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 8% meadows and
pastures; NEGL% forest and woodland; 92% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: some of world's largest and most sophisticated desalination
facilities provide most of water; air and water pollution; desertification

Note: strategic location at head of Persian Gulf

- People
Population: 2,123,711 (July 1990), growth rate 3.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 29 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 2 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

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