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Population: 190,136,221 (July 1990), growth rate 1.8% (1990)

Birth rate: 27 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 75 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 58 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Indonesian(s); adjective--Indonesian

Ethnic divisions: majority of Malay stock comprising 45.0% Javanese, 14.0%
Sundanese, 7.5% Madurese, 7.5% coastal Malays, 26.0% other

Religion: 88% Muslim, 6% Protestant, 3% Roman Catholic, 2% Hindu, 1%
other

Language: Bahasa Indonesia (modified form of Malay; official); English
and Dutch leading foreign languages; local dialects, the most widely spoken
of which is Javanese

Literacy: 62%

Labor force: 67,000,000; 55% agriculture, 10% manufacturing,
4% construction, 3% transport and communications (1985 est.)

Organized labor: 3,000,000 members (claimed); about 5% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Indonesia

Type: republic

Capital: Jakarta

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (propinsi-propinsi,
singular--propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa,
singular--daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district**
(daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Bengkulu, Irian Jaya, Jakarta Raya**,
Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat,
Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Lampung, Maluku,
Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan,
Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat,
Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Timor Timur, Yogyakarta*

Independence: 17 August 1945 (from Netherlands; formerly Netherlands
or Dutch East Indies)

Constitution: August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949
and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959

Legal system: based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 17 August (1945)

Executive branch: president, vice president, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral House of Representatives
(Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR); note--the People's Consultative Assembly
(Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the DPR plus 500 indirectly
elected members who meet every five years to elect the president and
vice president and, theoretically, to determine national policy

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Mahkamah Agung)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Gen. (Ret.)
SOEHARTO (since 27 March 1968); Vice President Lt. Gen. (Ret.) SUDHARMONO
(since 11 March 1983)

Political parties and leaders: GOLKAR (quasi-official party based on
functional groups), Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Wahono, general chairman; Indonesia
Democracy Party (PDI--federation of former Nationalist and Christian
Parties), Soeryadi, chairman; Development Unity Party (PPP, federation
of former Islamic parties), Ismail Hasan Metareum, chairman

Suffrage: universal at age 17 and married persons regardless of age

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held on 23 April 1987
(next to be held 23 April 1992);
results--Golkar 73%, UDP 16%, PDI 11%;
seats--(500 total--400 elected, 100 appointed) Golkar 299, UDP 61, PDI 40

Communists: Communist Party (PKI) was officially banned in March 1966;
current strength about 1,000-3,000, with less than 10% engaged in organized
activity; pre-October 1965 hardcore membership about 1.5 million

Member of: ADB, ANRPC, ASEAN, Association of Tin Producing Countries,
CCC, CIPEC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, IRC, ISO, ITC, ITU, NAM, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Abdul Rachman RAMLY;
Chancery at 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20036;
telephone (202) 775-5200; there are Indonesian Consulates General in Houston,
New York, and Los Angeles, and Consulates in Chicago and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador John C. MONJO; Embassy at Medan Merdeka Selatan 5,
Jakarta (mailing address is APO San Francisco 96356);
telephone p62o (21) 360-360; there are US Consulates in Medan and Surabaya

Flag: two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the
flag of Monaco which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland which is
white (top) and red

- Economy
Overview: Indonesia is a mixed economy with many socialist institutions
and central planning but with a recent emphasis on deregulation and private
enterprise. Indonesia has extensive natural wealth but, with a large and
rapidly increasing population, it remains a poor country. GNP growth in 1985-89
averaged about 4%, somewhat short of the 5% rate needed to absorb the 2.3
million workers annually entering the labor force. Agriculture, including
forestry and fishing, is the most important sector, accounting for 21% of GDP
and over 50% of the labor force. The staple crop is rice. Once the world's
largest rice importer, Indonesia is now nearly self-sufficient.
Plantation crops--rubber and palm oil--are being encouraged for both
export and job generation. The diverse natural resources include crude
oil, natural gas, timber, metals, and coal. Of these, the oil sector
dominates the external economy, generating more than 20% of the
government's revenues and 40% of export earnings in 1989.
Japan is Indonesia's most important customer and supplier of aid.

GNP: $80 billion, per capita $430; real growth rate 5.7% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.5% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 3.1% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $20.9 billion; expenditures $20.9 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7.5 billion (FY89)

Exports: $21.0 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--petroleum
and liquefied natural gas 40%, timber 15%, textiles 7%, rubber 5%, coffee 3%;
partners--Japan 42%, US 16%, Singapore 9%, EC 11% (1988)

Imports: $13.2 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--machinery
39%, chemical products 19%, manufactured goods 16%;
partners--Japan 26%, EC 19%, US 13%, Singapore 7% (1988)

External debt: $55.0 billion, medium and long-term (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 4.8% (1988 est.)

Electricity: 11,600,000 kW capacity; 38,000 million kWh produced,
200 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, textiles, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer
production, timber, food, rubber

Agriculture: subsistence food production; small-holder and plantation
production for export; rice, cassava, peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, copra,
other tropical products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international
drug trade, but not a major player; government actively eradicating
plantings and prosecuting traffickers

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $4.2 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $19.8 billion;
OPEC bilateral aid (1979-89), $213 million; Communist countries (1970-88),
$175 million

Currency: Indonesian rupiah (plural--rupiahs);
1 Indonesian rupiah (Rp) = 100 sen (sen no longer used)

Exchange rates: Indonesian rupiahs (Rp) per US$1--1,804.9 (January 1990),
1,770.1 (1989), 1,685.7 (1988), 1,643.8 (1987), 1,282.6 (1986), 1,110.6 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 6,964 km total; 6,389 km 1.067-meter gauge, 497 km 0.750-meter
gauge, 78 km 0.600-meter gauge; 211 km double track; 101 km electrified; all
government owned

Highways: 119,500 km total; 11,812 km state, 34,180 km provincial,
and 73,508 km district roads

Inland waterways: 21,579 km total; Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura
820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Celebes 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km

Pipelines: crude oil, 2,505 km; refined products, 456 km; natural gas,
1,703 km (1989)

Ports: Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Palembang, Ujungpandang,
Semarang, Surabaya

Merchant marine: 313 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,480,912
GRT/2,245,233 DWT; includes 5 short-sea passenger, 13 passenger-cargo,
173 cargo, 6 container, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 2 vehicle carrier,
77 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker,
2 liquefied gas, 6 specialized tanker, 1 livestock carrier, 24 bulk

Civil air: about 216 commercial transport aircraft

Airports: 468 total, 435 usable; 106 with permanent-surface runways; 1
with runways over 3,659 m; 12 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 62 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: interisland microwave system and HF police net;
domestic service fair, international service good; radiobroadcast coverage
good; 763,000 telephones (1986); stations--618 AM, 38 FM, 9 TV; satellite earth
stations--1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station and 1 Pacific Ocean INTELSAT
earth station; and 1 domestic satellite communications system

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, National Police

Military manpower: males 15-49, 49,283,496; 29,137,291 fit for military
service; 2,098,169 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.1% of GNP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Iran
- Geography
Total area: 1,648,000 km2; land area: 1,636,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Alaska

Land boundaries: 5,492 km total; Afghanistan 936 km, Iraq 1,458 km,
Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, USSR 1,690 km

Coastline: 3,180 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Exclusive fishing zone: 50 nm in the Sea of Oman, median-line
boundaries in the Persian Gulf;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Iran began formal UN peace negotiations with Iraq in August
1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980--troop withdrawal,
freedom of navigation, sovereignty over the Shatt al Arab waterway and
prisoner-of-war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish
question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; occupies three
islands in the Persian Gulf claimed by UAE (Jazireh-ye Abu Musa
or Abu Musa, Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Bozorg or Greater Tunb,
and Jazireh-ye Tonb-e Kuchek or Lesser Tunb); periodic disputes with
Afghanistan over Helmand water rights; Boluch question with Afghanistan
and Pakistan

Climate: mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

Terrain: rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts,
mountains; small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper,
iron ore, lead, manganese, zinc, sulfur

Land use: 8% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 27% meadows and
pastures; 11% forest and woodland; 54% other; includes 2% irrigated

Environment: deforestation; overgrazing; desertification

- People
Population: 55,647,001 (July 1990), growth rate 3.1% (1990)

Birth rate: 45 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 5 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 91 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 62 years male, 63 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Iranian(s); adjective--Iranian

Ethnic divisions: 51% Persian, 25% Azerbaijani, 9% Kurd, 8% Gilaki
and Mazandarani, 2% Lur, 1% Baloch, 1% Arab, 3% other

Religion: 95% Shia Muslim, 4% Sunni Muslim, 2% Zoroastrian, Jewish,
Christian, and Bahai

Language: 58% Persian and Persian dialects, 26% Turkic and Turkic
dialects, 9% Kurdish, 2% Luri, 1% Baloch, 1% Arabic, 1% Turkish, 2% other

Literacy: 48% (est.)

Labor force: 15,400,000; 33% agriculture, 21% manufacturing; shortage of
skilled labor (1988 est.)

Organized labor: none

- Government
Long-form name: Islamic Republic of Iran

Type: theocratic republic

Capital: Tehran

Administrative divisions: 24 provinces (ostanha, singular--ostan);
Azarbayjan-e Bakhtari, Azarbayjan-e Khavari,
Bakhtaran, Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari,
Esfahan, Fars, Gilan, Hamadan, Hormozgan, Ilam,
Kerman, Khorasan, Khuzestan,
Kohkiluyeh va Buyer Ahmadi, Kordestan,
Lorestan, Markazi, Mazandaran, Semnan,
Sistan va Baluchestan, Tehran, Yazd, Zanjan

Independence: 1 April 1979, Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed

Constitution: 2-3 December 1979; revised 1989 to expand powers of
the presidency

Legal system: the new Constitution codifies Islamic principles of
government

National holiday: Islamic Republic Day, 1 April (1979)

Executive branch: cleric (faqih), president, Council of Cabinet Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral Islamic Consultative Assembly
(Majlis-e-Shura-e-Islami)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Cleric and functional Chief of State--Leader of the Islamic
Revolution Ayatollah Ali Hoseini-KHAMENEI (since 3 June 1989);

Head of Government--President Ali Akbar RAFSANJANI (since 3 August
1989);

Political parties and leaders: there are at least seven licensed
parties; the two most important are--Militant Clerics Association, Mehdi
Mahdavi-Karubi and Mohammad Asqar Musavi-Khoinima; Fedaiyin Islam
Organization, Sadeq Khalkhali

Suffrage: universal at age 15

Elections:
President--last held NA July 1989 (next to be held April 1993);
results--Ali Akbar Rafsanjani was elected with only token opposition;

Islamic Consultative Assembly--last held 8 April and 13 May
1988 (next to be held April 1992); results--percent of vote by party
NA;
seats--(270 seats total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: 1,000 to 2,000 est. hardcore; 15,000 to 20,000 est.
sympathizers; crackdown in 1983 crippled the party; trials of captured leaders
began in late 1983 and remain incomplete

Other political or pressure groups: groups that generally
support the Islamic Republic include Hizballah,
Hojjatiyeh Society, Mojahedin of the Islamic Revolution, Muslim Students
Following the Line of the Imam, and Tehran Militant Clergy Association;
Mojahedin Khalq Organization (MKO), People's Fedayeen, and Kurdish Democratic
Party are armed political groups that have been almost completely repressed by
the government


Member of: CCC, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, IDA, IDB, IFC,
ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, IPU, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UNICEF, UNIDO,
WHO

Diplomatic representation: none; protecting power in the US is
Algeria--Iranian Interests Section, 2209 Wisconsin Avenue NW,
Washington DC 20007; telephone (202) 965-4990;
US--protecting power in Iran is Switzerland

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of green (top), white, and red; the
national emblem (a stylized representation of the word Allah) in red is centered
in the white band; Allah Akbar (God is Great) in white Arabic script is
repeated 11 times along the bottom edge of the green band and 11 times along the
top edge of the red band

- Economy
Overview: Since the 1979 revolution, the banks, petroleum industry,
transportation, utilities, and mining have been nationalized, but the
new five-year plan--the first since the revolution--passed in January
1990, calls for the transfer of many government-controlled enterprises
to the private sector. War-related disruptions, massive corruption,
mismanagement, demographic pressures, and ideological rigidities have kept
economic growth at depressed levels. Oil accounts for 90% of export
revenues. A combination of war damage and low oil prices brought a 2%
drop in GNP in 1988. GNP probably rose slightly in 1989, considerably
short of the 3.4% population growth rate in 1989. Heating oil and gasoline
are rationed. Agriculture has suffered from the war, land reform, and shortages
of equipment and materials. The five-year plan seeks to reinvigorate the
economy by increasing the role of the private sector, boosting nonoil
income, and securing foreign loans. The plan is overly ambitious but
probably will generate some short-term relief.

GNP: $97.6 billion, per capita $1,800; real growth rate 0-1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 50-80% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 30% (1989)

Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $55.1 billion, including capital
expenditures of $11.5 billion (FY88 est.)

Exports: $12.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--petroleum 90%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides;
partners--Japan, Turkey, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, France, FRG

Imports: $12.0 billion (c.i.f., 1988); commodities--machinery,
military supplies, metal works, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, technical services,
refined oil products; partners--FRG, Japan, Turkey, UK, Italy

External debt: $4-5 billion (1989)

Industrial production: growth rate NA%

Electricity: 14,579,000 kW capacity; 40,000 million kWh produced,
740 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and other building
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil
production), metal fabricating (steel and copper)

Agriculture: principal products--rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits,
nuts, cotton, dairy products, wool, caviar; not self-sufficient in food

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of opium poppy for the domestic and
international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $1.0 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $1.5 billion;
Communist countries (1970-88), $976 million; note--aid fell sharply
following the 1979 revolution

Currency: Iranian rial (plural--rials); 1 Iranian rial (IR) = 100 dinars;
note--domestic figures are generally referred to in terms of the toman
(plural--tomans), which equals 10 rials

Exchange rates: Iranian rials (IR) per US$1--70.019 (January 1990),
72.015 (1989), 68.683 (1988), 71.460 (1987), 78.760 (1986), 91.052 (1985)

Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

- Communications
Railroads: 4,601 km total; 4,509 km 1.432-meter gauge, 92 km 1.676-meter
gauge; 730 km under construction from Bafq to Bandar Abbas

Highways: 140,072 km total; 46,866 km gravel and crushed stone; 49,440 km
improved earth; 42,566 km bituminous and bituminous-treated surfaces;
1,200 km (est.) of rural road network

Inland waterways: 904 km; the Shatt al Arab is usually navigable by
maritime traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because
of Iran-Iraq war

Pipelines: crude oil, 5,900 km; refined products, 3,900 km; natural gas,
3,300 km

Ports: Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war),
Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e Abbas, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni,
Bandar-e Shahid Rajai, Khorramshahr (largely destroyed in fighting
during 1980-88 war)

Merchant marine: 133 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,631,836
GRT/8,662,454 DWT; includes 36 cargo, 6 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 33 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 4 chemical tanker, 3 refrigerated cargo,
49 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 42 major transport aircraft

Airports: 201 total, 175 usable; 82 with permanent-surface runways; 17
with runways over 3,659 m; 17 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 68 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: radio relay extends throughout country; system
centered in Tehran; 2,143,000 telephones; stations--62 AM, 30 FM, 250 TV;
satellite earth stations--2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT;
HF and microwave to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, and USSR

- Defense Forces
Branches: Islamic Republic of Iran Ground Forces, Navy, Air Force,
and Revolutionary Guard Corps (includes Basij militia and own ground, air, and
naval forces), Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 12,302,967; 7,332,614 fit for military
service; 569,647 reach military age (21) annually

Defense expenditures: 8% of GNP, or $7.8 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Iraq
- Geography
Total area: 434,920 km2; land area: 433,970 km2

Comparative area: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

Land boundaries: 3,454 km total; Iran 1,458 km, Iraq - Saudi Arabia
Neutral Zone 191 km, Jordan 134 km, Kuwait 240 km, Saudi Arabia 495 km,
Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

Coastline: 58 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: not specific;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: Iraq began formal UN peace negotiations with Iran in August
1988 to end the war that began on 22 September 1980--sovereignty over the Shatt
al Arab waterway, troop withdrawal, freedom of navigation, and
prisoner of war exchange are the major issues for negotiation; Kurdish
question among Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, and the USSR; shares Neutral Zone with
Saudi Arabia--in July 1975, Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement
to divide the zone between them, but the agreement must be ratified
before it becomes effective; disputes Kuwaiti ownership of Warbah and
Bubiyan islands; periodic disputes with upstream riparian
Syria over Euphrates water rights; potential dispute over water
development plans by Turkey for the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

Climate: desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers

Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes in southeast; mountains
along borders with Iran and Turkey

Natural resources: crude oil, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

Land use: 12% arable land; 1% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
3% forest and woodland; 75% other; includes 4% irrigated

Environment: development of Tigris-Euphrates river systems contingent
upon agreements with upstream riparians (Syria, Turkey); air and water
pollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

- People
Population: 18,781,770 (July 1990), growth rate 3.9% (1990)

Birth rate: 46 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 7 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 67 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 66 years male, 68 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 7.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Iraqi(s); adjective--Iraqi

Ethnic divisions: 75-80% Arab, 15-20% Kurdish, 5% Turkoman, Assyrian
or other

Religion: 97% Muslim (60-65% Shia, 32-37% Sunni), 3% Christian or other

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions),
Assyrian, Armenian

Literacy: 55-65% (1989 est.)

Labor force: 3,400,000 (1984); 39% services, 33% agriculture, 28%
industry, severe labor shortage (1987); expatriate labor force about
1,000,000 (1989)

Organized labor: less than 10% of the labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Iraq

Type: republic

Capital: Baghdad

Administrative divisions: 18 provinces (muhafazat,
singular--muhafazah); Al Anbar, Al Basrah, Al Muthanna,
Al Qadisiyah, An Najaf, As Sulaymaniyah, At Tamim, Babil,
Baghdad, Dahuk, Dhi Qar, Diyala, Arbil, Karbala,
Maysan, Ninawa, Salah ad Din, Wasit

Independence: 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under
British administration)

Constitution: 22 September 1968, effective 16 July 1970 (interim
Constitution); new constitution now in final stages of drafting

Legal system: based on Islamic law in special religious courts, civil law
system elsewhere; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 17 July (1968)

Executive branch: president, vice president, chairman of the Revolutionary
Command Council, vice chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council,
prime minister, first deputy prime minister, Council of Ministers

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Majlis al Umma)

Judicial branch: Court of Cassation

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Saddam HUSAYN
(since 16 July 1979); Vice President Taha Muhyi al-Din MARUF
(since 21 April 1974)

Political parties: National Progressive Front is a coalition of the
Arab Bath Socialist Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, and Kurdistan
Revolutionary Party

Suffrage: universal adult at age 18

Elections:
National Assembly--last held on 1 April 1989 (next to be held NA);
results--Shia Arabs 30%, Kurds 15%, Sunni Arabs 53%, Christians 2% est.;
seats--(250 total) number of seats by party NA

Communists: about 1,500 hardcore members

Other political or pressure groups: political parties and activity
severely restricted; possibly some opposition to regime from disaffected
members of the regime, Army officers, and religious and ethnic dissidents

Member of: ACC, Arab League, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Islamic Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OIC, OPEC, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO,
WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Dr. Mohamed Sadiq AL-MASHAT;
Chancery at 1801 P Street NW, Washington DC 20036; telephone (202) 483-7500;
US--Ambassador April C. GLASPIE; Embassy in Masbah Quarter (opposite the
Foreign Ministry Club), Baghdad (mailing address is P. O. Box 2447 Alwiyah,
Baghdad); telephone p964o (1) 719-6138 or 719-6139, 718-1840, 719-3791

Flag: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with
three green five-pointed stars in a horizontal line centered in the white band;
similar to the flags of the YAR which has one star and Syria which has two stars
(in a horizontal line centered in the white band)--all green and five-pointed;
also similar to the flag of Egypt which has a symbolic eagle centered in the
white band

- Economy
Overview: The Bathist regime engages in extensive central planning
and management of industrial production and foreign trade while leaving
some small-scale industry and services and most agriculture to
private enterprise. The economy is dominated by the oil sector, which provides
about 95% of foreign exchange earnings. Since the early 1980s financial
problems, caused by war expenditures and damage to oil export facilities by
Iran, have led the government to implement austerity measures and to reschedule
foreign debt payments. Oil exports have gradually increased with the
construction of new pipelines. Agricultural development remains hampered by
labor shortages, salinization, and dislocations caused by previous land reform
and collectivization programs. The industrial sector, although accorded high
priority by the government, is under financial constraints. New investment funds
are generally allocated only to projects that result in import substitution or
foreign exchange earnings.

GNP: $35 billion, per capita $1,940; real growth rate 5%
(1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 30-40% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: less than 5% (1989 est.)

Budget: revenues $NA billion; expenditures $35 billion,
including capital expenditures of NA (1989)

Exports: $12.5 billion (f.o.b., 1988);
commodities--crude oil and refined products, machinery, chemicals, dates;
partners--US, Brazil, USSR, Italy, Turkey, France, Japan, Yugoslavia
(1988)

Imports: $10.2 billion (c.i.f., 1988);
commodities--manufactures, food;
partners--Turkey, US, FRG, UK, France, Japan, Romania, Yugoslavia,
Brazil (1988)

External debt: $40 billion (1988 est.), excluding debt to Persian
Gulf Arab states

Industrial production: NA%

Electricity: 9,902,000 kW capacity; 20,000 million kWh produced,
1,110 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: petroleum, chemicals, textiles, construction materials, food
processing

Agriculture: accounts for less than 10% of GNP but 33% of labor force;
principal products--wheat, barley, rice, vegetables, dates, other fruit,
cotton, wool; livestock--cattle, sheep; not self-sufficient in food output

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-80), $3 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $607
million; OPEC bilateral aid (1980-89), $37.2 billion; Communist countries
(1970-88), $3.9 billion

Currency: Iraqi dinar (plural--dinars); 1 Iraqi dinar (ID) = 1,000 fils

Exchange rates: Iraqi dinars (ID) per US$1--0.3109 (fixed rate since 1982)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 2,962 km total; 2,457 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 505 km
1.000-meter gauge

Highways: 25,479 km total; 8,290 km paved, 5,534 km improved earth,
11,655 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 1,015 km; Shatt al Arab usually navigable by maritime
traffic for about 130 km, but closed since September 1980 because of Iran-Iraq
war; Tigris and Euphrates navigable by shallow-draft steamers (of little
importance); Shatt al Basrah canal navigable in sections by
shallow-draft vessels

Ports: Umm Qasr, Khawr az Zubayr

Merchant marine: 44 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 947,721
GRT/1,703,988 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 passenger-cargo, 18 cargo,
1 refrigerated cargo, 3 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 19 petroleum, oils, and
lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 chemical tanker

Pipelines: crude oil, 4,350 km; 725 km refined products; 1,360 km natural
gas

Civil air: 64 major transport aircraft (including 30 IL-76s
used by the Iraq Air Force)

Airports: 111 total, 101 usable; 72 with permanent-surface runways; 8 with
runways over 3,659 m; 53 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 14 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: good network consists of coaxial cables, radio relay
links, and radiocommunication stations; 632,000 telephones; stations--9
AM, 1 FM, 81 TV; satellite earth stations--1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT,
1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT, 1 GORIZONT Atlantic Ocean in the Intersputnik
system; coaxial cable and radio relay to Kuwait, Jordan, Syria, and Turkey

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Border Guard Force, mobile
police force, Republican Guard

Military manpower: males 15-49, 4,097,190; 2,284,417 fit for military
service; 219,701 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: NA
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Iraq - Saudi Arabia Neutral Zone
- Geography
Total area: 3,520 km2; land area: 3,520 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than Rhode Island

Land boundaries: 389 km total; 191 km Iraq, 198 km Saudi Arabia

Coastline: none--landlocked

Maritime claims: none--landlocked

Climate: harsh, dry desert

Terrain: sandy desert

Natural resources: none

Land use: 0% arable land; 0% permanent crops; 0% meadows and pastures;
0% forest and woodland; 100% other (sandy desert)

Environment: harsh, inhospitable

Note: landlocked; located west of quadripoint with Iraq, Kuwait, and
Saudi Arabia

- People
Population: uninhabited

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: joint administration by Iraq and Saudi Arabia; in July 1975,
Iraq and Saudi Arabia signed an agreement to divide the zone between
them, but the agreement must be ratified, however, before it becomes
effective.

- Economy
Overview: no economic activity

- Communications
Highways: none; some secondary roads

- Defense Forces
Note: defense is the joint responsibility of Iraq and Saudi Arabia
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Ireland
- Geography
Total area: 70,280 km2; land area: 68,890 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than West Virginia

Land boundary: 360 km with UK

Coastline: 1,448 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: no precise definition;

Exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: maritime boundary with the UK; Northern Ireland question with
the UK; Rockall continental shelf dispute involving Denmark, Iceland, and the UK
(Ireland and the UK have signed a boundary agreement in the Rockall area)

Climate: temperate maritime; modified by North Atlantic Current;
mild winters, cool summers; consistently humid; overcast about half the time

Terrain: mostly level to rolling interior plain surrounded by rugged
hills and low mountains; sea cliffs on west coast

Natural resources: zinc, lead, natural gas, crude oil, barite,
copper, gypsum, limestone, dolomite, peat, silver

Land use: 14% arable land; NEGL% permanent crops; 71% meadows and
pastures; 5% forest and woodland; 10% other

Environment: deforestation

- People
Population: 3,500,212 (July 1990), growth rate -0.4% (1990)

Birth rate: 15 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 72 years male, 78 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.1 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Irishman(men), Irish (collective pl.); adjective--Irish

Ethnic divisions: Celtic, with English minority

Religion: 94% Roman Catholic, 4% Anglican, 2% other

Language: Irish (Gaelic) and English; English is the language generally
used, with Gaelic spoken in a few areas, mostly along the western seaboard

Literacy: 99%

Labor force: 1,310,000; 57.3% services, 19.1% manufacturing and
construction, 14.8% agriculture, forestry, and fishing (1988)

Organized labor: 36% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of Ireland

Type: republic

Capital: Dublin

Administrative divisions: 26 counties; Carlow, Cavan, Clare, Cork,
Donegal, Dublin, Galway, Kerry, Kildare, Kilkenny, Laois, Leitrim, Limerick,
Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Offaly, Roscommon, Sligo, Tipperary,
Waterford, Westmeath, Wexford, Wicklow

Independence: 6 December 1921 (from UK)

Constitution: 29 December 1937; adopted 1937

Legal system: based on English common law, substantially modified by
indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in Supreme Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: St. Patrick's Day, 17 March

Executive branch: president, prime minister, deputy prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Oireachtas) consists of an
upper house or Senate (Seanad Eireann) and a lower house or House of
Representatives (Dail Eireann)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Dr. Patrick J. HILLERY (since 3 December
1976);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Charles J. HAUGHEY (since 12 July
1989, the fourth time elected as prime minister)

Political parties and leaders: Fianna Fail, Charles Haughey;
Labor Party, Richard Spring; Fine Gael, Alan Dukes; Communist Party
of Ireland, Michael O'Riordan; Workers' Party, Proinsias DeRossa;
Sinn Fein, Gerry Adams; Progressive Democrats, Desmond O'Malley;
note--Prime Minister Haughey heads a coalition consisting of the
Fianna Fail and the Progressive Democrats

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 21 October 1983 (next to be held October
1990); results--Dr. Patrick Hillery reelected;

Senate--last held on 17 February 1987 (next to be held February
1992);
results--percent of vote by party NA;
seats--(60 total, 49 elected) Fianna Fail 30, Fine Gael 16, Labor 3,
Independents 11;

House of Representatives--last held on 12 July 1989 (next to be held
NA June 1994);
results--Fianna Fail 44.0%, Fine Gael 29.4%, Labor Party 9.3%,
Progressive Democrats 5.4%, Workers' Party 4.9%, Sinn Fein 1.1%,
independents 5.9%;
seats--(166 total) Fianna Fail 77, Fine Gael 55, Labor Party 15,
Workers' Party 7, Progressive Democrats 6, independents 6

Communists: under 500

Member of: CCC, Council of Europe, EC, EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD,
ICAO, ICES, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IPU, ISO, ITC, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Padraic N. MACKERNAN; Chancery at
2234 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 462-3939;
there are Irish Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, New York, and
San Francisco;
US--Ambassador Richard A. MOORE; Embassy at 42 Elgin Road,
Ballsbridge, Dublin; telephone p353o (1) 688777

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and orange;
similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which is shorter and has the colors
reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green; also similar to the flag of
Italy which is shorter and has colors of green (hoist side), white, and red

- Economy
Overview: The economy is small, open, and trade dependent. Agriculture,
once the most important sector, is now dwarfed by industry, which accounts for
35% of GNP and about 80% of exports and employs 20% of the labor force. The
government has successfully reduced the rate of inflation from double-digit
figures in the late 1970s to about 4% in 1989. In 1987, after years of deficits,
the balance of payments was brought into the black. Unemployment, however,
is a serious problem. A 1989 unemployment rate of 17.7% placed Ireland
along with Spain as the countries with the worst jobless records in
Western Europe.

GDP: $31.4 billion, per capita $8,900; real growth rate 4.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.2% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 17.7% (1989)

Budget: revenues $10.9 billion; expenditures $11.2 billion, including
capital expenditures of $1.5 billion (1989)

Exports: $20.3 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--live animals,
animal products, chemicals, data processing equipment, industrial machinery;
partners--EC 74% (UK 35%, FRG 11%, France 9%), US 8%

Imports: $17.3 billion (c.i.f., 1989); commodities--food, animal
feed, chemicals, petroleum and petroleum products, machinery, textiles,
clothing; partners--EC 66% (UK 42%, FRG 9%, France 4%), US 16%

External debt: $16.1 billion (1988)

Industrial production: growth rate 9.5% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 4,957,000 kW capacity; 14,480 million kWh produced,
4,080 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food products, brewing, textiles, clothing, chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, machinery, transportation equipment, glass and crystal

Agriculture: accounts for 11% of GNP and 14.8% of the labor force;
principal crops--turnips, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat;
livestock--meat and dairy products; 85% self-sufficient in food; food
shortages include bread grain, fruits, vegetables

Aid: NA

Currency: Irish pound (plural--pounds); 1 Irish pound (LIr) = 100 pence

Exchange rates: Irish pounds (LIr) per US$1--0.6399 (January 1990),
0.7047 (1989), 0.6553 (1988), 0.6720 (1987), 0.7454 (1986), 0.9384 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: Irish National Railways (CIE) operates 1,947 km 1.602-meter
gauge, government owned; 485 km double track; 38 km electrified

Highways: 92,294 km total; 87,422 km surfaced, 4,872 km gravel or crushed
stone

Inland waterways: limited for commercial traffic

Pipelines: natural gas, 225 km

Ports: Cork, Dublin, Shannon Estuary, Waterford

Merchant marine: 67 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 113,569 GRT/139,681
DWT; includes 3 short-sea passenger, 29 cargo, 2 refrigerated cargo,
2 container, 23 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 1 specialized
tanker, 2 chemical tanker, 5 bulk

Civil air: 23 major transport aircraft

Airports: 40 total, 37 usable; 18 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 5 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: small, modern system using cable and radio relay
circuits; 900,000 telephones; stations--45 AM, 16 (29 relays) FM, 18
(68 relays) TV; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth
stations

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Naval Service, Army Air Corps

Military manpower: males 15-49, 870,161; 705,765 fit for military service;
33,259 reach military age (17) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.6% of GDP, or $500 million (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Israel
(also see separate Gaza Strip and West Bank entries)
Note: The Arab territories occupied by Israel since the 1967 war are not
included in the data below. As stated in the 1978 Camp David Accords and
reaffirmed by President Reagan's 1 September 1982 peace initiative, the final
status of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, their relationship with their neighbors,
and a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan are to be negotiated among the
concerned parties. The Camp David Accords further specify that these
negotiations will resolve the location of the respective boundaries. Pending the
completion of this process, it is US policy that the final status of the West
Bank and Gaza Strip has yet to be determined (see West Bank and Gaza Strip
entries). On 25 April 1982 Israel relinquished control of the Sinai to Egypt.
Statistics for the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights are included in the Syria
entry.

- Geography
Total area: 20,770 km2; land area: 20,330 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Jersey

Land boundaries: 1,006 km total; Egypt 255 km, Jordan 238 km,
Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307, Gaza Strip 51 km

Coastline: 273 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 6 nm

Disputes: separated from Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank by the
1949 Armistice Line; differences with Jordan over the location
of the 1949 Armistice Line which separates the two countries;
West Bank and Gaza Strip are Israeli occupied with status
to be determined; Golan Heights is Israeli occupied; Israeli troops in southern
Lebanon since June 1982; water-sharing issues with Jordan

Climate: temperate; hot and dry in desert areas

Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains;
Jordan Rift Valley

Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand,
sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

Land use: 17% arable land; 5% permanent crops; 40% meadows and pastures;
6% forest and woodland; 32% other; includes 11% irrigated

Environment: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer; limited
arable land and natural water resources pose serious constraints; deforestation;

Note: there are 173 Jewish settlements in the West Bank, 35 in the
Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 18 in the Gaza Strip, and 14 Israeli-built
Jewish neighborhoods in East Jerusalem

- People
Population: 4,409,218 (July 1990), growth rate 1.5% (1989); includes
70,000 Jewish settlers in the West Bank, 10,500 in the Israeli-occupied
Golan Heights, 2,500 in the Gaza Strip, and 110,000 in East Jerusalem
(1989 est.)

Birth rate: 22 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 6 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 9 deaths/1,000 live births (July 1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 76 years male, 79 years female (July 1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Israeli(s); adjective--Israeli

Ethnic divisions: 83% Jewish, 17% non-Jewish (mostly Arab)

Religion: 83% Judaism, 13.1% Islam (mostly Sunni Muslim), 2.3% Christian,
1.6% Druze

Language: Hebrew (official); Arabic used officially for Arab minority;
English most commonly used foreign language

Literacy: 88% Jews, 70% Arabs

Labor force: 1,400,000 (1984 est.); 29.5% public services; 22.8% industry,
mining, and manufacturing; 12.8% commerce; 9.5% finance and business;
6.8% transport, storage, and communications; 6.5% construction and public works;
5.5% agriculture, forestry, and fishing; 5.8% personal and other services;
1.0% electricity and water (1983)

Organized labor: 90% of labor force

- Government
Long-form name: State of Israel

Type: republic

Capital: Israel proclaimed Jerusalem its capital in 1950, but the US,
like nearly all other countries, maintains its Embassy in Tel Aviv

Administrative divisions: 6 districts (mehozot, singular--mehoz); Central,
Haifa, Jerusalem, Northern, Southern, Tel Aviv

Independence: 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British
administration)

Constitution: no formal constitution; some of the functions of a
constitution are filled by the Declaration of Establishment (1948), the basic
laws of the Parliament (Knesset), and the Israeli citizenship law

Legal system: mixture of English common law, British Mandate
regulations, and, in personal matters, Jewish, Christian, and Muslim legal
systems; in December 1985 Israel informed the UN Secretariat that it would
no longer accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day, 10 May 1989; Israel declared
independence on 14 May 1948, but the Jewish calendar is lunar and the holiday
may occur in April or May

Executive branch: president, prime minister, vice prime minister, Cabinet

Legislative branch: unicameral Knesset

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Gen. Chaim HERZOG (since 5 May 1983);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Yitzhak SHAMIR (since 20 October 1986);
Vice Prime Minister Shimon PERES (Prime Minister from 13 September 1984 to
20 October 1986, when he rotated to Vice Prime Minister)

Political parties and leaders: Israel currently has a national unity
government comprising five parties that hold 95 of the Knesset's
120 seats; Members of the unity government--Likud bloc, Prime
Minister Yitzhak Shamir; Labor Party, Vice Prime Minister and Finance
Minister Shimon Peres; Sephardic Torah Guardians (SHAS), Minister of
Immigrant Absorption Yitzhak Peretz; National Religious Party, Minister of
Religious Affairs Zevulun Hammer; Agudat Yisrael, Deputy Minister
of Labor and Social Welfare Moshe Zeev Feldman;

Opposition parties--Tehiya Party, Yuval Ne'eman; Tzomet Party,
Rafael Eytan; Moledet Party, Rehavam Ze'evi; Degel HaTorah, Avraham
Ravitz; Citizens' Rights Movement, Shulamit Aloni; United Workers' Party
(MAPAM), Yair Tzaban; Center Movement-Shinui, Amnon Rubenstein; New
Communist Party of Israel (RAKAH), Meir Wilner; Progressive List for
Peace, Muhammad Mi'ari; Arab Democratic Party, Abd Al Wahab Darawshah

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
President--last held 23 February 1988 (next to be held February
1994); results--Gen. Chaim Herzog reelected by Knesset;

Parliament--last held 1 November 1988 (next to be held by
November 1992);
seats--(120 total) Likud bloc 40, Labor Party 39, SHAS 6, National Religious
Party 5, Agudat Yisrael 5, Citizens' Rights Movement 5, RAKAH 4,
Tehiya Party 3, MAPAM 3, Tzomet Party 2, Moledet Party 2, Degel HaTorah 2,
Center Movement-Shinui 2, Progressive List for Peace 1, Arab Democratic Party 1

Communists: Hadash (predominantly Arab but with Jews in its leadership)
has some 1,500 members

Other political or pressure groups: Gush Emunim, Jewish nationalists
advocating Jewish settlement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip; Peace Now,
critical of government's West Bank/Gaza Strip and Lebanon policies

Member of: CCC, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, IDA,
IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO, IOOC, INTELSAT,
INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, IWC--International Wheat Council, OAS (observer), UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WSG, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Moshe ARAD; Chancery at
3514 International Drive NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 364-5500;
there are Israeli Consulates General in Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston,
Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, and San Francisco;
US--Ambassador William A. BROWN; Embassy at 71 Hayarkon Street,
Tel Aviv (mailing address is APO New York 09672); telephone p972o (3) 654338;
there is a US Consulate General in Jerusalem

Flag: white with a blue hexagram (six-pointed linear star) known as the
Magen David (Shield of David) centered between two equal horizontal blue bands
near the top and bottom edges of the flag

- Economy
Overview: Israel has a market economy with substantial government
participation. It depends on imports for crude oil, food, grains, raw materials,
and military equipment. Despite limited natural resources, Israel has developed
its agriculture and industry sectors on an intensive scale over the past 20
years. Industry accounts for about 23% of the labor force, agriculture for 6%,
and services for most of the balance. Diamonds, high-technology
machinery, and agricultural products (fruits and vegetables) are the
biggest export earners. The balance of payments has traditionally
been negative, but is offset by large transfer payments and foreign loans.
Nearly two-thirds of Israel's $16 billion external debt is owed to
the US, which is its major source for economic and military aid.
To earn needed foreign exchange, Israel must continue to exploit
high-technology niches in the international market, such as medical
scanning equipment. In 1987 the economy showed a 5.2% growth in real GNP, the
best gain in nearly a decade; in 1988-89 the gain was only 1% annually,
largely because of the economic impact of the Palestinian uprising
(intifadah). Inflation dropped from an annual rate of over 400%
in 1984 to about 16% in 1987-88 without any major increase in
unemployment.

GNP: $38 billion, per capita $8,700; real growth rate 1% (1989)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 9% (December 1989)

Budget: revenues $24.2 billion; expenditures $26.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $7 billion (FY89 est.)

Exports: $10.4 billion (f.o.b., 1989 est.); commodities--polished
diamonds, citrus and other fruits, textiles and clothing, processed foods,
fertilizer and chemical products, military hardware, electronics;
partners--US, UK, FRG, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, Italy

Imports: $12.4 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--military
equipment, rough diamonds, oil, chemicals, machinery, iron and steel, cereals,
textiles, vehicles, ships, aircraft; partners--US, FRG, UK, Switzerland,
Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

External debt: $16.4 billion (March 1989)

Industrial production: growth rate - 1.5% (1989)

Electricity: 4,392,000 kW capacity; 17,500 million kWh produced,
4,000 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: food processing, diamond cutting and polishing, textiles,
clothing, chemicals, metal products, military equipment, transport equipment,
electrical equipment, miscellaneous machinery, potash mining, high-technology
electronics, tourism

Agriculture: accounts for 5% of GNP; largely self-sufficient in food
production, except for bread grains; principal products--citrus and other
fruits, vegetables, cotton; livestock products--beef, dairy, and poultry

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-88), $15.8 billion; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $2.2 billion

Currency: new Israeli shekel (plural--shekels);
1 new Israeli shekel (NIS) = 100 new agorot

Exchange rates: new Israeli shekels (NIS) per US$1--1.9450
(January 1990), 1.9164 (1989), 1.5989 (1988), 1.5946 (1987), 1.4878 (1986),
1.1788 (1985)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

- Communications
Railroads: 594 km 1.435-meter gauge, single track; diesel operated

Highways: 4,500 km; majority is bituminous surfaced

Pipelines: crude oil, 708 km; refined products, 290 km; natural gas, 89 km

Ports: Ashdod, Haifa, Elat

Merchant marine: 31 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 483,424
GRT/560,085 DWT; includes 9 cargo, 20 container, 2 roll-on/roll-off cargo

Civil air: 27 major transport aircraft

Airports: 55 total, 52 usable; 26 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 6 with runways 2,440-3,659 m;
11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: most highly developed in the Middle East though not
the largest; good system of coaxial cable and radio relay; 1,800,000 telephones;
stations--11 AM, 24 FM, 54 TV; 2 submarine cables; satellite earth stations--2
Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT and 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT

- Defense Forces
Branches: Israel Defense Forces; historically there have been no separate
Israeli military services; ground, air, and naval components are branches of
Israel Defense Forces

Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 2,159,462; of the 1,089,346 males
15-49, 898,272 are fit for military service; of the 1,070,116 females 15-49,
878,954 are fit for military service; 43,644 males and 41,516 females reach
military age (18) annually; both sexes are liable for military service

Defense expenditures: 8.5% of GNP, or $3.2 billion (1989 est.);
note--does not include an estimated $1.8 billion in US military aid
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Italy
- Geography
Total area: 301,230 km2; land area: 294,020 km2; includes Sardinia
and Sicily

Comparative area: slightly larger than Arizona

Land boundaries: 1,902.2 km total; Austria 430 km, France 488 km,
San Marino 39 km, Switzerland 740 km, Vatican City 3.2 km, Yugoslavia
202 km

Coastline: 4,996 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m or to depth of exploitation;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Disputes: South Tyrol question with Austria

Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; Alpine in far north; hot, dry
in south

Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands

Natural resources: mercury, potash, marble, sulfur, dwindling
natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, coal

Land use: 32% arable land; 10% permanent crops; 17% meadows and pastures;
22% forest and woodland; 19% other; includes 10% irrigated

Environment: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, snowslides,
earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding, pollution; land sinkage in Venice

Note: strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as
well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe

- People
Population: 57,664,405 (July 1990), growth rate 0.2% (1990)

Birth rate: 10 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 9 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 1 migrant/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 6 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 74 years male, 81 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 1.4 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Italian(s); adjective--Italian

Ethnic divisions: primarily Italian but population includes small clusters
of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians
in the south; Sicilians; Sardinians

Religion: almost 100% nominally Roman Catholic

Language: Italian; parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly
German speaking; significant French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region;
Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area

Literacy: 93%

Labor force: 23,670,000; 56.7% services, 37.9% industry, 5.4% agriculture
(1987)

Organized labor: 40-45% of labor force (est.)

- Government
Long-form name: Italian Republic

Type: republic

Capital: Rome

Administrative divisions: 20 regions (regioni, singular--regione);
Abruzzi, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Friuli-Venezia Giulia,
Lazio, Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte, Puglia, Sardegna, Sicilia,
Toscana, Trentino-Alto Adige, Umbria, Valle d'Aosta, Veneto

Independence: 17 March 1861, Kingdom of Italy proclaimed

Constitution: 1 January 1948

Legal system: based on civil law system, with ecclesiastical law
influence; judicial review under certain conditions in Constitutional Court;
has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: Anniversary of the Republic, 2 June (1946)

Executive branch: president, prime minister,

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament (Parlamento) consists of
an upper chamber or Senate (Senato) and a lower chamber or Chamber of Deputies
(Camera dei Deputati)

Judicial branch: Constitutional Court (Corte Costituzionale)

Leaders:
Chief of State--President Francesco COSSIGA (since 3 July 1985);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Giulio ANDREOTTI (since 22 July 1989,
heads the government for the sixth time); Deputy Prime Minister Claudio
MARTELLI (since 23 July 1989)

Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Party (DC), Arnaldo
Forlani (general secretary), Ciriaco De Mita (president); Communist Party
(PCI), Achille Occhetto (secretary general); Socialist Party (PSI), Bettino
Craxi (party secretary); Social Democratic Party (PSDI), Antonio Cariglia (party
secretary); Liberal Party (PLI), Renato Altissimo (secretary general); Italian
Social Movement (MSI), Giuseppe (Pino) Rauti (national secretary); Republican
Party (PRI), Giorgio La Malfa (political secretary); Italy's 49th postwar
government was formed on 23 July 1989, with Prime Minister Andreotti,
a Christian Democrat, presiding over a five-party coalition consisting of the
Christian Democrats, Socialists, Social Democrats, Republicans, and Liberals

Suffrage: universal at age 18 (except in senatorial elections, where
minimum age is 25)

Elections:
Senate--last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by June 1992);
results--DC 33.9%, PCI 28.3%, PSI 10.7%, others 27.1%;
seats--(320 total, 315 elected) DC 125, PCI 100, PSI 36, others 54;

Chamber of Deputies--last held 14-15 June 1987 (next to be held by
June 1992);
results--DC 34.3%, PCI 26.6%, PSI 14.3%, MSI 5.9%, PRI 3.7%, PSDI 3.0%,
Radicals 2.6%, Greens 2.5%, PLI 2.1%, Proletarian Democrats 1.7%,
others 3.3%;
seats--(630 total) DC 234, PCI 177, PSI 94, MSI 35, PRI 21, PSDI 17,
Radicals 13, Greens 13, PLI 11, Proletarian Democrats 8, others 7

Communists: 1,673,751 members (1983)

Other political or pressure groups: Vatican City; three major
trade union confederations (CGIL--Communist dominated, CISL--Christian
Democratic, and UIL--Social Democratic, Socialist, and Republican);
Italian manufacturers association (Confindustria); organized farm groups
(Confcoltivatori, Confagricoltura)

Member of: ADB, ASSIMER, CCC, Council of Europe, DAC, EC, ECOWAS, EIB,
EMS, ESA, FAO, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAC, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IDB--Inter-American
Development Bank, IFAD, IEA, IFC, IHO, ILO, ILZSG, IMF, IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL,
IOOC, IPU, IRC, ITC, ITU, NATO, OAS (observer), OECD, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WEU, WHO,
WIPO, WMO, WSG

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Rinaldo PETRIGNANI; Chancery at
1601 Fuller Street NW, Washington DC 20009; telephone (202) 328-5500;
there are Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Houston, New Orleans,
Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco, and Consulates in Detroit and
Newark (New Jersey);
US--Ambassador Peter F. SECCHIA; Embassy at Via Veneto 119/A, 00187-Rome
(mailing address is APO New York 09794); telephone p39o (6) 46741; there are
US Consulates General in Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, and Palermo (Sicily)

Flag: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red;
similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and is green (hoist side), white,
and orange; also similar to the flag of the Ivory Coast which has the colors
reversed--orange (hoist side), white, and green

- Economy
Overview: Since World War II the economy has changed from one based on
agriculture into a ranking industrial economy, with approximately the same total
and per capita output as France and the UK. The country is still divided into a
developed industrial north, dominated by large private companies and state
enterprises and an undeveloped agricultural south. Services account for 58% of
GDP, industry 37%, and agriculture 5%. Most raw materials needed by industry and
over 75% of energy requirements must be imported. The economic recovery that
began in mid-1983 has continued through 1989, with the economy growing at an
annual average rate of 3%. For the 1990s, Italy faces the problems of
refurbishing a tottering communications system, curbing the increasing
pollution in major industrial centers, and adjusting to the new
competitive forces accompanying the ongoing economic integration of the
European Community.

GDP: $803.3 billion, per capita $14,000; real growth rate 3.3% (1989 est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.6% (1989 est.)

Unemployment rate: 11.9% (1989)

Budget: revenues $355 billion; expenditures $448 billion,
including capital expenditures of $NA (1989)

Exports: $141.6 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--textiles,
wearing apparel, metals, transportation equipment, chemicals;
partners--EC 57%, US 9%, OPEC 4%

Imports: $143.1 billion (f.o.b., 1989); commodities--petroleum,
industrial machinery, chemicals, metals, food, agricultural products;
partners--EC 57%, OPEC 6%, US 6%

External debt: NA

Industrial production: growth rate 2.9% (1989)

Electricity: 56,022,000 kW capacity; 201,400 million kWh produced,
3,500 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: machinery and transportation equipment, iron and steel,
chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles

Agriculture: accounts for about 5% of GNP and 5% of the
work force; self-sufficient in foods other than meat and dairy products;
principal crops--fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets,
soybeans, grain, olives; fish catch of 554,000 metric tons in 1987

Aid: donor--ODA and OOF commitments (1970-87), $18.7 billion

Currency: Italian lira (plural--lire); 1 Italian lira (Lit) = 100
centesimi

Exchange rates: Italian lire (Lit) per US$1--1,262.5 (January 1990),
1,372.1 (1989), 1,301.6 (1988), 1,296.1 (1987), 1,490.8 (1986), 1,909.4 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 20,011 km total; 16,066 km 1.435-meter government-owned
standard gauge (8,999 km electrified); 3,945 km privately owned--2,100 km
1.435-meter standard gauge (1,155 km electrified) and 1,845 km 0.950-meter
narrow gauge (380 km electrified)

Highways: 294,410 km total; autostrada 5,900 km, state highways 45,170
km, provincial highways 101,680 km, communal highways 141,660 km; 260,500 km
concrete, bituminous, or stone block, 26,900 km gravel and crushed stone,
7,010 km earth

Inland waterways: 2,400 km for various types of commercial
traffic, although of limited overall value

Pipelines: crude oil, 1,703 km; refined products, 2,148 km; natural gas,
19,400 km

Ports: Cagliari (Sardinia), Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno, Naples,
Palermo (Sicily), Taranto, Trieste, Venice

Merchant marine: 547 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 6,871,505
GRT/10,805,368 DWT; includes 6 passenger, 41 short-sea passenger, 100 cargo,
5 refrigerated cargo, 22 container, 72 roll-on/roll-off cargo, 4 vehicle
carrier, 1 multifunction large-load carrier, 2 livestock carrier, 147 petroleum,
oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker, 37 chemical tanker, 29 liquefied gas, 8
specialized tanker, 16 combination ore/oil, 55 bulk, 2 combination bulk

Civil air: 132 major transport aircraft

Airports: 143 total, 138 usable; 88 with permanent-surface runways; 2
with runways over 3,659 m; 35 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 42 with runways
1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: well engineered, constructed, and operated;
28,000,000 telephones; stations--144 AM, 54 (over 1,800 repeaters) FM,
135 (over 1,300 repeaters) TV; 22 submarine cables; communication satellite
earth stations operating in INTELSAT 3 Atlantic Ocean and 2 Indian Ocean,
INMARSAT, and EUTELSAT systems

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force

Military manpower: males 15-49, 14,721,704; 12,855,022 fit for military
service; 430,782 reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 2.4% of GDP, or $19 billion (1989 est.)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Ivory Coast
(also known as Cote d'Ivoire)
- Geography
Total area: 322,460 km2; land area: 318,000 km2

Comparative area: slightly larger than New Mexico

Land boundaries: 3,110 km total; Burkina 584 km, Ghana 668 km, Guinea
610 km, Liberia 716 km, Mali 532 km

Coastline: 515 km

Maritime claims:

Continental shelf: 200 m;

Extended economic zone: 200 nm;

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical along coast, semiarid in far north; three
seasons--warm and dry (November to March), hot and dry (March to May),
hot and wet (June to October)

Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plains; mountains in northwest

Natural resources: crude oil, diamonds, manganese, iron ore,
cobalt, bauxite, copper

Land use: 9% arable land; 4% permanent crops; 9% meadows and pastures;
26% forest and woodland; 52% other; includes NEGL% irrigated

Environment: coast has heavy surf and no natural harbors; severe
deforestation

- People
Population: 12,478,024 (July 1990), growth rate 4.0% (1990)

Birth rate: 48 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 13 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: 4 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 100 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 52 years male, 56 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 6.9 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Ivorian(s); adjective--Ivorian

Ethnic divisions: over 60 ethnic groups; most important are the Baoule
23%, Bete 18%, Senoufou 15%, Malinke 11%, and Agni; about 2 million foreign
Africans, mostly Burkinabe; about 130,000 to 330,000 non-Africans
(30,000 French and 100,000 to 300,000 Lebanese)

Religion: 63% indigenous, 25% Muslim, 12% Christian

Language: French (official), over 60 native dialects; Dioula most widely
spoken

Literacy: 42.7%

Labor force: 5,718,000; over 85% of population engaged in agriculture, for
estry,
livestock raising; about 11% of labor force are wage earners, nearly half in
agriculture and the remainder in government, industry, commerce, and
professions; 54% of population of working age (1985)

Organized labor: 20% of wage labor force

- Government
Long-form name: Republic of the Ivory Coast; note--the local official
name is Republique de Cote d'Ivoire

Type: republic; one-party presidential regime established 1960

Capital: Abidjan (capital city changed to Yamoussoukro in March 1983 but
not recognized by US)

Administrative divisions: 49 departments (departements,
singular--(departement); Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville,
Bangolo, Beoumi, Biankouma, Bondoukou, Bongouanou, Bouafle, Bouake, Bouna,
Boundiali, Dabakala, Daloa, Danane, Daoukro, Dimbokro, Divo, Duekoue,
Ferkessedougou, Gagnoa, Grand-Lahou, Guiglo, Issia, Katiola, Korhogo, Lakota,
Man, Mankono, Mbahiakro, Odienne, Oume, Sakassou, San-Pedro, Sassandra,
Seguela, Sinfra, Soubre, Tabou, Tanda, Tengrela, Tiassale, Touba,
Toumodi, Vavoua, Yamoussoukro, Zuenoula

Independence: 7 August 1960 (from France)

Constitution: 3 November 1960

Legal system: based on French civil law system and customary law;
judicial review in the Constitutional Chamber of the Supreme Court; has not
accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

National holiday: National Day, 7 December

Executive branch: president, Council of Ministers (cabinet)

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (Assemblee Nationale)

Judicial branch: Supreme Court (Cour Supreme)

Leaders:
Chief of State and Head of Government--President Dr. Felix
HOUPHOUET-BOIGNY (since 27 November 1960)

Political parties and leaders: only party--Democratic Party of
the Ivory Coast (PDCI), Dr. Felix Houphouet-Boigny

Suffrage: universal at age 21

Elections:
President--last held 27 October 1985 (next to be held October 1990);
results--President Felix Houphouet-Boigny was reelected without
opposition to his fifth consecutive five-year term;

National Assembly--last held 10 November 1985 (next to be held
10 November 1990);
results--PDCI is the only party;
seats--(175 total) PDCI 175

Communists: no Communist party; possibly some sympathizers

Member of: ACP, AfDB, CCC, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, EIB (associate),
Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF, IMO,
INTELSAT, INTERPOL, IPU, ITU, Niger River Commission, NAM, OAU, OCAM, UN,
UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Charles GOMIS; Chancery at
2424 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington DC 20008; telephone (202) 797-0300;
US--Ambassador Kenneth BROWN; Embassy at 5 Rue Jesse Owens, Abidjan
(mailing address is B. P. 1712, Abidjan 01); telephone p225o 32-09-79

Flag: three equal vertical bands of orange (hoist side), white, and green;
similar to the flag of Ireland which is longer and has the colors
reversed--green (hoist side), white, and orange; also similar to the flag of
Italy which is green (hoist side), white, and red; design was based on the flag
of France

- Economy
Overview: The Ivory Coast is among the world's largest producers and
exporters of coffee, cocoa beans, and palm-kernel oil. Consequently, the economy
is highly sensitive to fluctuations in international prices for coffee and cocoa
and to weather conditions. Despite attempts by the government to diversify, the
economy is still largely dependent on agriculture and related industries. The
agricultural sector accounts for over one-third of GDP and about 80% of export
earnings and employs about 85% of the labor force. A collapse of world cocoa and
coffee prices in 1986 threw the economy into a recession, from which the country
had not recovered by 1989.

GDP: $10.0 billion, per capita $900; real growth rate - 6.4% (1988)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.5% (1988)

Unemployment rate: 14% (1985)

Budget: revenues $1.6 billion (1986); expenditures $2.3 billion, including
capital expenditures of $504 million (1988 est.)

Exports: $2.2 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--cocoa 30%,
coffee 20%, tropical woods 11%, cotton, bananas, pineapples, palm oil, cotton;
partners--France, FRG, Netherlands, US, Belgium, Spain (1985)

Imports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1988); commodities--manufactured
goods and semifinished products 50%, consumer goods 40%, raw materials and
fuels 10%; partners--France, other EC, Nigeria, US, Japan (1985)

External debt: $14.7 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 0% (1987)

Electricity: 1,081,000 kW capacity; 2,440 million kWh produced,
210 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: foodstuffs, wood processing, oil refinery, automobile
assembly, textiles, fertilizer, beverage

Agriculture: most important sector, contributing one-third to GDP
and 80% to exports; cash crops include coffee, cocoa beans, timber,
bananas, palm kernels, rubber; food crops--corn, rice, manioc, sweet
potatoes; not selfsufficient in bread grain and dairy products

Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis on a small scale for the
international drug trade

Aid: US commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70-87), $344 million; Western
(non-US) countries, ODA and OOF bilateral commitments (1970-87), $4.6 billion

Currency: Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (plural--francs);
1 CFA franc (CFAF) = 100 centimes

Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (CFAF)
per US$1--287.99 (January 1990), 319.01 (1989), 297.85 (1988), 300.54 (1987),
346.30 (1986), 449.26 (1985)

Fiscal year: calendar year

- Communications
Railroads: 660 km (Burkina border to Abidjan, 1.00-meter gauge,
single track, except 25 km Abidjan-Anyama section is double track)

Highways: 46,600 km total; 3,600 km bituminous and bituminous-treated
surface; 32,000 km gravel, crushed stone, laterite, and improved earth; 11,000
km unimproved

Inland waterways: 980 km navigable rivers, canals, and numerous coastal
lagoons

Ports: Abidjan, San-Pedro

Merchant marine: 7 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 71,945 GRT/
90,684 DWT; includes 5 cargo, 1 petroleum, oils, and lubricants (POL) tanker,
1 chemical tanker

Civil air: 12 major transport aircraft, including multinationally owned
Air Afrique fleet

Airports: 49 total, 42 usable; 7 with permanent-surface runways;
none with runways over 3,659 m; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m; 16 with
runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: system above African average; consists of open-wire
lines and radio relay links; 87,700 telephones; stations--3 AM, 17 FM, 11 TV;
2 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT earth stations; 2 coaxial submarine cables

- Defense Forces
Branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, paramilitary Gendarmerie

Military manpower: males 15-49, 2,874,925; 1,487,909 fit for military
service; 141,193 males reach military age (18) annually

Defense expenditures: 1.9% of GDP (1987)
----------------------------------------------------
Country: Jamaica
- Geography
Total area: 10,990 km2; land area: 10,830 km2

Comparative area: slightly smaller than Connecticut

Land boundaries: none

Coastline: 1,022 km

Maritime claims:

Territorial sea: 12 nm

Climate: tropical; hot, humid; temperate interior

Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow, discontinuous coastal plain

Natural resources: bauxite, gypsum, limestone

Land use: 19% arable land; 6% permanent crops; 18% meadows and pastures;
28% forest and woodland; 29% other; includes 3% irrigated

Environment: subject to hurricanes (especially July to November);
deforestation; water pollution

Note: strategic location between Cayman Trench and Jamaica
Channel, the main sea lanes for Panama Canal

- People
Population: 2,441,396 (July 1990), growth rate 0.6% (1990)

Birth rate: 21 births/1,000 population (1990)

Death rate: 5 deaths/1,000 population (1990)

Net migration rate: - 10 migrants/1,000 population (1990)

Infant mortality rate: 16 deaths/1,000 live births (1990)

Life expectancy at birth: 75 years male, 79 years female (1990)

Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (1990)

Nationality: noun--Jamaican(s); adjective--Jamaican

Ethnic divisions: 76.3% African, 15.1% Afro-European, 3.4% East Indian and
Afro-East Indian, 3.2% white, 1.2% Chinese and Afro-Chinese, 0.8% other

Religion: predominantly Protestant (including Anglican and Baptist), some
Roman Catholic, some spiritualist cults

Language: English, Creole

Literacy: 74%

Labor force: 728,700; 32% agriculture, 28% industry and commerce,
27% services, 13% government; shortage of technical and managerial personnel
(1984)

Organized labor: 25% of labor force (1989)

- Government
Long-form name: none

Type: parliamentary democracy

Capital: Kingston

Administrative divisions: 14 parishes; Clarendon, Hanover, Kingston,
Manchester, Portland, Saint Andrew, Saint Ann, Saint Catherine, Saint
Elizabeth, Saint James, Saint Mary, Saint Thomas, Trelawny, Westmoreland

Independence: 6 August 1962 (from UK)

Constitution: 6 August 1962

Legal system: based on English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction

National holiday: Independence Day (first Monday in August), 6 August 1990

Executive branch: British monarch, governor general, prime minister,
Cabinet

Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of an upper house
or Senate and a lower house or House of Representatives

Judicial branch: Supreme Court

Leaders:
Chief of State--Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented
by Governor General Sir Florizel A. GLASSPOLE (since 2 March 1973);

Head of Government--Prime Minister Michael MANLEY (since 9 February 1989)

Political parties and leaders: People's National Party (PNP), Michael
Manley; Jamaica Labor Party (JLP), Edward Seaga; Workers' Party of Jamaica
(WPJ), Trevor Munroe

Suffrage: universal at age 18

Elections:
House of Representatives--last held 9 February 1989 (next to be held
by February 1994);
results--PNP 57%, JLP 43%;
seats--(60 total) PNP 45, JLP 15

Communists: Workers' Party of Jamaica (Marxist-Leninist)

Other political or pressure groups:
Rastafarians (black religious/racial cultists, pan-Africanists)

Member of: ACP, CARICOM, CCC, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IAEA,
IBA, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDB--Inter-American Development Bank, IFAD, IFC, ILO, IMF,
IMO, INTELSAT, INTERPOL, ISO, ITU, NAM, OAS, PAHO, SELA, UN, UNESCO, UPU, WFTU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation: Ambassador Keith JOHNSON; Chancery at
Suite 355, 1850 K Street NW, Washington DC 20006; telephone (202) 452-0660;
there are Jamaican Consulates General in Miami and New York;
US--Ambassador Glen HOLDEN; Embassy at 3rd Floor, Jamaica Mutual Life
Center, 2 Oxford Road, Kingston; telephone p809o 929-4850

Flag: diagonal yellow cross divides the flag into four triangles--green
(top and bottom) and black (hoist side and fly side)

- Economy
Overview: The economy is based on sugar, bauxite, and tourism.
In 1985 it suffered a setback with the closure of some facilities in the
bauxite and alumina industry, a major source of hard currency earnings. Since
1986 an economic recovery has been under way. In 1987 conditions began to
improve for the bauxite and alumina industry because of increases in world metal
prices. The recovery has also been supported by growth in the manufacturing and
tourism sectors. In September 1988, Hurricane Gilbert inflicted severe
damage on crops and the electric power system, a sharp but temporary
setback to the economy. By October 1989 the economic recovery from the
hurricane was largely complete and real growth was up about 3% for 1989.

GDP: $3.8 billion, per capita $1,529; real growth rate 3.0% (1989
est.)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 15% (1989)

Unemployment rate: 18.7% (1988)

Budget: revenues $1.1 billion; expenditures $1.5 billion, including
capital expenditures of $NA (FY88 est.)

Exports: $948 million (f.o.b., 1989 est.);
commodities--bauxite, alumina, sugar, bananas;
partners--US 40%, UK, Canada, Trinidad and Tobago, Norway

Imports: $1.6 billion (c.i.f., 1989 est.); commodities--petroleum,
machinery, food, consumer goods, construction goods; partners--US 46%,
UK, Venezuela, Canada, Japan, Trinidad and Tobago

External debt: $4.4 billion (1989 est.)

Industrial production: growth rate 3% (1989 est.)

Electricity: 1,437,000 kW capacity; 2,390 million kWh produced,
960 kWh per capita (1989)

Industries: tourism, bauxite mining, textiles, food processing,
light manufactures

Agriculture: accounts for about 9% of GDP, one-third of work force, and
17% of exports; commercial crops--sugarcane, bananas, coffee, citrus, potatoes,

Book of the day: