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Buck∂ie (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A large spiral marine shell, esp. the common whelk. See Buccinum. [Scot.]
Deil's buckie, a perverse, refractory youngster. [Slang]
Buck∂ing, n. 1. The act or process of soaking or boiling cloth in an alkaline liquid in the operation of bleaching; also, the liquid used.
Tomlinson.
2. A washing.
3. The processˇof breaking up or pulverizing ores.
Bucking iron (Mining), a broad–faced hammer, used in bucking or breaking up ores. – Bucking kier (Manuf.), a large circular boiler, or kier, used in bleaching. – Bucking stool, a washing block.
Buck∂ish, a. Dandified; foppish.
Buc∂kle (?), n. [OE. bocleˇbuckle, boss of a shield, OF. bocle, F. boucle, boss of a shield, ring, fr. L. buccula a little cheek or mouth, dim. of bucca cheek; this boss or knob resembling a cheek.] 1. A device, usually of metal, consisting of a frame with one more movable tongues or catches, used for fastening things together, as parts of dress or harness, by means of a strap passing through the frame and pierced by the tongue.
2. A distortion bulge, bend, or kink, as in a saw blade or a plate of sheet metal.
Knight.
3. A curl of hair, esp. a kind of crisp curl formerly worn; also, the state of being curled.
Earlocks in tight buckles on each side of a lantern face.
W.Irving.
Lets his wig lie in buckle for a whole half year.
Addison.
4. A contorted expression, as of the face. [R.]
'Gainst nature armed by gravity,
His features too in buckle see.
Churchill.
Buc∂kle (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buckled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buckling.] [OE. boclen, F. boucler. See Buckle, n.] 1. To fasten or confine with a buckle or buckles; as, to buckle a harness.
2. To bend; to cause to kink, or to become distorted.
3. To prepare for action; to apply with vigor and earnestness; – generally used reflexively<-- buckle down -->.
Cartwright buckled himself to the employment.
Fuller.
4. To join in marriage. [Scot.]
Sir W.Scott.

<-- p. 188 -->

Buc∂kle (?), v.i. 1. To bend permanently; to become distorted; to bow; to curl; to kink.
Buckled with the heat of the fire like parchment.
Pepys.
2. To bend out of a true vertical plane, as a wall.
3. To yield; to give way; to cease opposing. [Obs.]
The Dutch, as high as they seem, do begin to buckle.
Pepys.
4. To enter upon some labor or contest; to join in close fight; to struggle; to contend.
The bishop was as able and ready to buckle with the Lord Protector as he was with him.
Latimer.
In single combat thou shalt buckle with me.
Shak.
To buckle to, to bend to; to engage with zeal.
To make our sturdy humor buckle thereto.
Barrow.
Before buckling to my winter's work.
J.D.Forbes.
Buc∂kler (?), n. [OE. bocler, OF. bocler, F. bouclier, a shield with a boss, from OF. bocle, boucle, boss. See Buckle, n.] 1. A kind of shield, of various shapes and sizes, worn on one of the arms (usually the left) for protecting the front of the body.
Ķ In the sword and buckler play of the Middle Ages in England, the buckler was a small shield, used, not to cover the body, but to stop or parry blows.
2. (ZoĒl.) (a) One of the large, bony, external plates found on many ganoid fishes. (b) The anterior segment of the shell of trilobites.
3. (Naut.) A block of wood or plate of iron made to fit a hawse hole, or the circular opening in a half–port, to prevent water from entering when the vessel pitches.
Blind bucklerˇ(Naut.), a solid buckler. – Buckler mustardˇ(Bot.), a genus of plants (Biscutella) with small bright yellow flowers. The seed vessel on bursting resembles two bucklers or shields. – Buckler thorn, a plant with seed vessels shaped like a buckler. See Christ's thorn. – Riding bucklerˇ(Naut.), a buckler with a hole for the passage of a cable.
Buc∂kler, v.t. To shield; to defend. [Obs.]
Can Oxford, that did ever fence the right,
Now buckler falsehood with a pedigree?
Shak.
Buc∂kler–head∑ed (?), a. Having a head like a buckler.
Buc∂kling (?), a. Wavy; curling, as hair.
Latham.
Buck∂ra (?), n. [In the languageˇof the Calabar coast, buckra means Ĺdemon, a powerful and superior being.ł J.L.Wilson.] A white man; – a term used by negroes of the African coast, West Indies, etc.
Buck∂ra, a. White; white man's; strong; good; as, buckra yam, a white yam.
Buck∂ram (?), n. [OE. bokeram, bougeren, OF. boqueran, F. bougran, MHG. buckeram, LL. buchiranus, boquerannus, fr. MHG. boc, G. bock, goat (as being made of goat's hair), or fr. F. bouracan, by transposing the letter r. See Buck, Barracan.] 1. A coarse cloth of linen or hemp, stiffened with size or glue, used in garments to keep them in the form intended, and for wrappers to cover merchandise.
Ķ Buckram was formerly a very different material from that now known by the name. It was used for wearingˇapparel, etc.
Beck (Draper's Dict.).
2. (Bot.) A plant. See Ramson.
Dr. Prior.
Buck∂ram, a. 1. Made of buckram; as, a buckram suit.
2. Stiff; precise. ĹBuckram dames.ł
Brooke.
Buck∂ram, v.t. To strengthen with buckram; to make stiff.
Cowper.
Buck's∂–horn∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A plant with leaves branched somewhat like a buck's horn (Plantago Coronopus); also, Lobelia coronopifolia.
Buck∂shot∑ (?), n. A coarse leaden shot, larger than swan shot, used in hunting deer and large game.
Buck∂skin∑ (?), n. 1. The skin of a buck.
2. A soft strong leather, usually yellowish or grayish in color, made of deerskin.
3. A person clothed in buckskin, particularly an American soldier of the Revolutionary war.
Cornwallis fought as lang's he dought,
An' did the buckskins claw, man.
Burns.
4. pl. Breeches made of buckskin.
I have alluded to his buckskin.
Thackeray.
Buck∂stall∑ (?), n. A toil or net to take deer.
Buck∂thorn∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A genus (Rhamnus) of shrubs or trees. The shorter branches of some species terminate in long spines or thorns. See Rhamnus.
Sea buckthorn, a plant of the genus HippophaČ.
Buck∂tooth∑ (?), n. Any tooth that juts out.
When he laughed, two white buckteeth protruded.
Thackeray.
Buck∂wheat∑ (?), n. [Buck a beech tree + wheat; akin to D. boekweit, G. buchweizen.] 1. (Bot.) A plant (Fagopyrum esculentum) of the Polygonum family, the seed of which is used for food.
2. The triangular seed used, when ground, for griddle cakes, etc.
BuŌcol∂ic (?), a. [L. bucolicus, Gr. ?, fr. ? cowherd, herdsman; ? ox + (perh.) ? race horse; cf. Skr. kalˇto drive: cf. F. bucolique. See Cow the animal.] Of or pertaining to the life and occupation of a shepherd; pastoral; rustic.
BuŌcol∂ic, n. [L. Bucolicďn poČma.] A pastoral poem, representing rural affairs, and the life, manners, and occupation of shepherds; as, the Bucolics of Theocritus and Virgil.
Dryden.
BuŌcol∂icŌal (?), a. Bucolic.
ōBuŌcra∂niŌum (?), n.; pl. L. Bucrania (?). [L., fr. Gr. ? ox head.] A sculptured ornament, representing an ox skull adorned with wreaths, etc.
Bud (?), n. [OE. budde; cf. D. bot, G. butze, butz, the core of a fruit, bud, LG. butte in hagebutte, hainbutte, a hip of the dog–rose, or OF. boton, F. bouton, bud, button, OF. boter to bud, push; all akin to E. beat. See Button.] 1. (Bot.) A small protuberance on the stem or branches of a plant, containing the rudiments of future leaves, flowers, or stems; an undeveloped branchˇor flower.
2. (Biol.) A small protuberance on certain low forms of animals and vegetables which develops into a new organism, either free or attached. See Hydra.
Bud moth (ZoĒl.), a lepidopterous insect of several species, which destroys the buds of fruit trees; esp. Tmetocera ocellanaˇand Eccopsis malana on the apple tree.
Bud, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Budded; p.pr. & vb.n. Budding.] 1. To put forth or produce buds, as a plant; to grow, as a bud does, into a flower or shoot.
2. To begin to grow, or to issue from a stock in the manner of a bud, as a horn.
3. To be like a bud in respect to youth and freshness,ˇor growth and promise; as, a budding virgin.
Shak.
Syn. - To sprout; germinate; blossom.
Bud, v.t. To graft, as a plant with another or into another, by inserting a bud from the one into an opening in the bark of the other, in order to raise, upon the budded stock, fruit different from that which it would naturally bear.
The apricot and the nectarine may be, and usually are, budded upon the peach; the plum and the peach are budded on each other.
Farm. Dict.
Bud∂dha (?), n. [Skr. buddha wise, sage, fr. budhˇto know.] The title of an incarnation of self–abnegation, virtue, and wisdom, or a deified religious teacher of the Buddhists, esp. Gautama Siddartha or Sakya Sinha (or Muni), the founder of Buddhism.
Bud∂dhism (?), n. The religion based upon the doctrine originally taught by the Hindoo sage Gautama Siddartha, surnamed Buddha, Ĺthe awakened or enlightened,ł in the sixth century b.c., and adopted as a religion by the greater part of the inhabitants of Central and Eastern Asia and the Indian Islands. Buddha's teaching is believed to have been atheistic; yet it was characterized by elevated humanity and morality. It presents release from existence (a beatific enfranchisement, NirvÉna) as the greatest good. Buddhists believe in transmigration of souls through all phases and forms of life. Their number was estimated in 1881 at 470,000,000.
Bud∂dhist (?), n. One who accepts the teachings of Buddhism.
Bud∂dhist, a. Of or pertaining to Buddha, Buddhism, or the Buddhists.
BudŌdhis∂tic (?), a. Same as Buddhist, a.
Bud∂ding (?), n. 1. The act or process of producing buds.
2. (Biol.) A processˇof asexual reproduction, in which a new organism or cell is formed by a protrusion of a portion of the animal or vegetable organism, the bud thus formed sometimes remaining attached to the parent stalk or cell, at other times becoming free; gemmation. See Hydroidea.
3. The act or processˇof ingrafting one kind of plant upon another stock by inserting a bud under the bark.
Bud∂dle (?), n. [Prov. E., to cleanse ore, also a vessel for this purpose; cf. G. buttelnˇto shake.] (Mining) An apparatus, especially an inclined trough or vat, in which stamped ore is concentrated by subjecting it to the action of rynning water so as to wash out the lighter and less valuable portions.
Bud∂dle, v.i. (Mining) To wash ore in a buddle.
Bude∂ burn∑er (?). [See Bude light.] A burner consisting of two or more concentric Argand burnes (the inner rising aboveˇthe outer) and a central tube by which oxygen gas or common air is supplied.
Bude∂ light∑ (?). [From Bude, in Cornwall, the residence of Sir G.Gurney, the inventor.] A light in which high illuminating power is obtained by introducing a jet of oxygen gas or of common air into the center of a flame fed with coal gas or with oil.
Budge (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Budged (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Budging.] [F. bouger to stir, move (akin to Pr. bojar, bolegar, to stir, move, It. bulicare to boil, bubble), fr. L. bullire. See Boil, v.i.] To move off; to stir; to walk away.
I'll not budge an inch, boy.
Shak.
The mouse ne'er shunned the cat as they did budge
From rascals worse than they.
Shak.
Budge, a. [See Budge, v.] Brisk; stirring; jocund. [Obs.]
South.
Budge, n. [OE. bouge bag, OF. boge, bouge, fr. L. bulga a leathern bag or knapsack; a Gallic word; cf. OIr. bolc, Gael. bolg. Cf. Budge, n.] A kind of fur prepared from lambskin dressed with the wool on; – used formerly as an edging and ornament, esp. of scholastic habits.
Budge, a. 1. Lined with budge; hence, scholastic. ĹBudge gowns.ł
Milton.
2. Austere or stiff, like scholastics.
Those budge doctors of the stoic fur.
Milton.
Budge bachelor, one of a company of men clothed in long gowns lined with budge, who formerly accompanied the lord mayor of London in his inaugural procession. – Budge barrel (Mil.), a small copper–hooped barrel with only one head, the other end being closed by a piece of leather, which is drawn togetherˇwith strings like a purse. It is used for carrying powder from the magazine to the battery, in siege or seacoast service.
Budge∂ness (?), n. Sternness; severity. [Obs.]
A Sara for goodness, a great Bellona for budgeness.
Stanyhurst.
Budg∂er (?), n. One who budges.
Shak.
ōbudg∂eŌrow (?), n. [Hindi bajrĺ.] A large and commodious, but generally cumbrous and sluggish boat, used for journeys on the Ganges.
Budg∂et (?), n. [OE. bogett, bouget, F. bougette bag, wallet, dim. of OF. boge, bouge, leather bag. See Budge, n., and cf. Bouget.] 1. A bag or sack with its contents; hence, a stock or store; an accumulation; as, a budget of inventions.
2. The annual financial statement which the British chancellor of the exchequer makes in the House of Commons. It comprehends a general view of the finances of the country, with the proposed plan of taxation for the ensuing year. The term is sometimes applied to a similar statement in other countries.
To open the budget, to lay before a legislative body the financial estimates and plans of the executive government.
Budg∂y, a. [From Budge, n.] Consisting of fur. [Obs.]
Bud∂let (?), n. [Bud + Ōlet.] A little bud springing from a parent bud.
We have a criterion to distinguish one bud from another,ˇor the parent bud from the numerous budlets which are its offspring.
E.Darwin.
Buff (?), n. [OE. buff, buffe, buff, buffalo, F. buffleˇbuffalo. See Buffalo.] 1. A sort of leather, prepared from the skin of the buffalo, dressed with oil, like chamois; also, the skins of oxen, elks, and other animals, dressed in like manner. ĹA suit of buff.ł
Shak.
2. The color to buff; a light yellow, shading toward pink, gray, or brown.
A visage rough,
Deformed, unfeatured, and a skin of buff.
Dryden.
3. A military coat, made of buff leather.
Shak.
4. (Med.)ˇThe grayish viscid substance constituting the buffy coat. See Buffy coat, under Buffy, a.
5. (Mech.) A wheel covered with buff leather, and used in polishing cutlery, spoons, etc.
6. The bare skin; as, to strip to the buff. [Colloq.]
To be in buff is equivalent to being naked.
Wright.
Buff, a. 1. Made of buff leather.
Goldsmith.
2. Of the color of buff.
Buff coat, a close, military outer garment, with short sleeves, and laced tightly over the chest, made of buffalo skin, or other thick and elastic material, worn by soldiers in the 17th century as a defensive covering. – Buff jerkin, originally, a leather waistcoat; afterward, one of cloth of a buff color. [Obs.] Nares. – Buff stick (Mech.), a strip of wood covered with buff leather, used in polishing.
Buff, v.t. To polish with a buff. See Buff, n., 5.
Buff, v.t. [OF. bufer to cuff, buffet. See Buffet a blow.] To strike. [Obs.]
B.Jonson.
Buff, n. [See Buffet.] A buffet; a blow; – obsolete except in the phrase ĹBlindman's buff.ł
Nathless so sore a buff to him it lent
That made him reel.
Spenser.
Buff, a. [Of uncertain etymol.] Firm; sturdy.
And for the good old cause stood buff,
'Gainst many a bitter kick and cuff.
Hudibras.
ōBuf∂fa (?), n.fem. (Mus.) [It. See Buffoon.] The comic actress in an opera. – a. Comic, farcical.
Aria buffa, a droll or comic air. – Opera buffa, a comic opera. See Opera bouffe.
Buf∂faŌlo (?), n.; pl. Buffaloes (?). [Sp. bufalo (cf. It. bufalo, F. buffle), fr. L. bubalus, bufalus, a kind of African stag or gazelle; also, the buffalo or wild ox, fr. Gr. ? buffalo, prob. fr. ? ox. See Cow the animal, and cf. Buff the color, and Bubale.] 1. (ZoĒl.) A species of the genus Bos or Bubalus (B. bubalus), originallyˇfrom India, but now found in most of the warmer countries of the eastern continent. It is larger and less docile than the common ox, and is fond of marshy places and rivers.
2. (ZoĒl.) A very large and savage species of the same genus (B. Caffer) found in South Africa; – called also Cape buffalo.
3. (ZoĒl.) Any speciesˇof wild ox.
4. (ZoĒl.) The bison of North America.
5. A buffalo robe. See Buffalo robe, below.
6. (ZoĒl.) The buffalo fish. See Buffalo fish, below.
Buffalo berryˇ(Bot.), a shrub of the Upper Missouri (Sherherdia argentea) with acid edible red berries. – Buffalo bird (ZoĒl.), an African bird of the genus Buphaga, of two species. These birds perch upon buffaloes and cattle, in search of parasites. – Buffalo bug, the carpet beetle. See under Carpet. – Buffalo chips, dry dung of the buffalo, or bison, used for fuel. [U.S.] – Buffalo cloverˇ(Bot.), a kind of clover (Trifolium reflexum and T.soloniferum) found in the ancient grazing grounds of the American bison. – Buffalo cod (ZoĒl.), a large, edible, marine fish (Ophiodon elongatus) of the northern Pacific coast; – called also blue cod, and cultus cod. – Buffalo fish (ZoĒl.), one of several large fresh–water fishes of the family CatostomidĎ, of the Mississippi valley. The red–mouthed or brown (Ictiobus bubalus), the big–mouthed or black (Bubalichthys urus), and the small–mouthed (B. altus), are among the more important species used as food. – Buffalo fly, or Buffalo gnat (ZoĒl.), a small dipterous insect of the genus Simulium, allied to the black fly of the North. It is often extremely abundant in the lower part of the Mississippi valley and does great injury to domestic animals, often killing large numbers of cattle and horses. In Europe the Columbatz fly is a species with similar habits. – Buffalo grassˇ(Bot.), a species of short, sweet grass (BuchloČ dactyloides), from two to four inches high, covering the prairies on which the buffaloes, or bisons, feed. [U.S.] – Buffalo nut (Bot.), the oily and drupelike fruit of an American shrub (Pyrularia oleifera); also, the shrub itself; oilnut. – Buffalo robe, the skin of the bison of North America, prepared with the hair on; – much used as a lap robe in sleighs.

<-- p. 189 -->

Buf∂fel duck (?). [See Buffalo.] (ZoĒl.) A small duck (Charitonetta albeola); the spirit duck, or butterball. The head of the male is covered with numerous elongated feathers, and thus appears large. Called also bufflehead.
Buff∂er (?), n. [Prop a striker. See Buffet a blow.] 1. (Mech.) (a) An elastic apparatus or fender, for deadening the jar caused by the collision of bodies; as, a buffer at the end of a railroad car. (b) A pad or cushion forming the end of a fender, which recieves the blow; – sometimes called buffing apparatus.
2. One who polishes with a buff.
3. A wheel for buffing; a buff.
4. A good–humored, slow–witted fellow; – usually said of an elderly man. [Colloq.]
Dickens.
Buff∂erŌhead∑ (?), n. The head of a buffer, which recieves the concussion, in railroad carriages.
BufŌfet∂ (?), n. [F. buffet, LL. bufetum; of uncertain origin; perh. fr. the same source as E. buffet a blow, the root meaningˇto puff, hence (cf. puffed up) the idea of ostentation or display.] 1. A cupboard or set of shelves, either movable or fixed at one side of a room, for the display of plate, china, etc., a sideboard.
Not when a gilt buffet's reflected pride
Turns you from sound philosophy aside.
Pope.
2. A counter for refreshments; a restaurant at a railroad station, or place of public gathering.
Buf∂fet (?), n. [OE. buffet, boffet, OF. buffet a slap in the face, a pair of bellows, fr. buffe blow, cf. F. bouffer to blow, puff; prob. akin to E. puff. For the meaning slap, blow, cf. F. soufflet a slap, souffler to blow. See Puff, v.i., and cf. Buffet sidebroad, Buffoon] 1. A blow with the hand; a slap on the face; a cuff.
When on his cheek a buffet fell.
Sir W.Scott.
2. A blow from any source, or that which affects like a blow, as the violence of winds or waves; a stroke; an adverse action; an affliction; a trial; adversity.
Those planks of tough and hardy oak that used for yeas to brave the buffets of the Bay of Biscay.
Burke.
Fortune's buffets and rewards.
Shak.
3. A small stool; a stool for a buffet or counter.
Go fetch us a light buffet.
Townely Myst.
Buf∂fet, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buffeted; p.pr. & vb.n. Buffeting.] [OE. buffeten, OF. buffeter. See the preceding noun.] 1. To strike with the hand or fist; to box; to beat; to cuff; to slap.
They spit in his face and buffeted him.
Matt.xxvi.67.
2. To affect as with blows; to strike repeatedly; to strive with or contend against; as, to buffet the billows.
The sudden hurricane in thunder roars,
Buffets the bark, and whirls it from the shores.
Broome.
You are lucky fellows who can live in a dreamland of your own, instead of being buffeted about the world.
W.Black.
3. [Cf. Buffer.] To deaden the sound of (bells) by muffling the clapper.
Buf∂fet, v.i. 1. To exercise or play at boxing; to strike; to smite; to strive; to contend.
If I might buffet for my love, or bound my horse for her favors, I could lay on like a butcher.
Shak.
2. To make one's way by blows or struggling.
Strove to buffet to land in vain.
Tennyson.
Buf∂fetŌer (?), n. One who buffets; a boxer.
Jonson.
Buf∂fetŌing, n. 1. A striking with the hand.
2. A succession of blows; continued violence, as of winds or waves; afflictions; adversity.
He seems to have been a plant of slow growth, but ... fitted to endure the buffeting on the rudest storm.
Wirt.
Buf∂fin (?), n. [So called from resembling buff ?eather.] A sort of coarse stuff; as, buffin gowns. [Obs.]
Buff∂ing ap∑paŌra∂tus (?). See Buffer, 1.
Buf∂fle (?), n. [OE., from F. buffle. See Buffalo.] The buffalo. [Obs.]
Sir T.Herbert.
Buf∂fle, v.i. To puzzle; to be at a loss. [Obs.]
Swift.
Buf∂fleŌhead∑ (?), n. [Buffle + head.] 1. One who has a large head; a heavy, stupid fellow. [Obs.]
What makes you stare so, bufflehead?
Plautus (trans. 1694).
2. (ZoĒl.) The buffel duck. See Buffel duck.
Buf∂fle–head∑ed, a. Having a large head, like a buffalo; dull; stupid; blundering. [Obs.]
So fell this buffle–headed giant.
Gayton.
ōBuf∂fo (?), n.masc. [It. See Buffoon.] (Mus.) The comic actor in an opera.
BufŌfoon∂ (?), n. [F. bouffon (cf. It. buffone, buffo, buffa, puff of wind, vanity, nonsense, trick), fr. bouffer to puff out, because the buffoons puffed out their cheeks for the amusement of the spectators. See Buffet a blow.] A man who makes a practice of amusing others by low tricks, antic gestures, etc.; a droll; a mimic; a harlequin; a clown; a merry–andrew.
BufŌfoon∂ (?), a. Characteristic of, or like, a buffoon. ĹBuffoon stories.ł
Macaulay.
To divert the audience with buffoon postures and antic dances.
Melmoth.
BufŌfoon∂, v.i. To act the part of a buffoon. [R.]
BufŌfoon∂, v.t. To treat with buffoonery.
Glanwill.
BufŌfoon∂erŌy (?), n.; pl. Buffooneries (?). [F. bouffonnerie.] The arts and practices of a buffoon, as low jests, ridiculous pranks, vulgar tricks and postures.
Nor that it will ever constitute a wit to conclude a tart piece of buffoonery with a ĹWhat makes you blush?ł
Spectator.
BufŌfoon∂ish, a. Like a buffoon; consisting in low?jests or gestures.
Blair.
BufŌfoon∂ism (?), n. The practices of a buffoon; buffoonery.
BufŌfoon∂ly, a. Low; vulgar. [R.]
Apish tricks and buffoonly discourse.
Goodman.
Buff∂y (?), a. (Med.)ˇResembling, or characterized by, buff.
Buffy coat, the coagulated plasma of blood when the red corpuscles have so settled out that the coagulum appears nearky colorless. This is common in diseased conditions where the corpuscles run together more rapidly and in denser masses than usual.
Huxley.
ōBu∂fo (?), n. [L. bufo a toad.] (ZoĒl.) A genus of Amphibia including various species of toads.
Bu∂fonŌite (?), n. [L. bufo toad: cf. F. bufonite.] (Paleon.) An old name for a fossil consisting of the petrified teeth and palatal bones of fishes belonging to the family of Pycnodonts (thick teeth), whose remains occur in the oĒlite and chalk formations; toadstone; – so named from a notion that it was originally formed in the head of a toad.
Bug (?), n. [OE. bugge, fr. W. bwg, bwgan, hobgoblin, scarecrow, bugbear. Cf. Bogey, Boggle.] 1. A bugbear; anything which terrifies. [Obs.]
Sir, spare your threats:
The bug which you would fright me with I seek.
Shak.
2. (ZoĒl.) A general name applied to various insects belonging to the Hemiptera; as, the squash bug; the chinch bug, etc.
3. (ZoĒl.) An insect of the genus Cimex, especially the bedbug (C. lectularius). See Bedbug.
4. (ZoĒl.) One of various species of Coleoptera; as, the ladybug; potato bug, etc.; loosely, any beetle.
5. (ZoĒl.) One of certain kinds of Crustacea; as, the sow bug; pill bug; bait bug; salve bug, etc.
Ķ According to present popular usage in England, and among housekeepers in America, bug, when not joined with some qualifying word, is used specifically for bedbug. As a general term it is used very loosely in America, and was formerly used still more loosely in England. ĹGod's rare workmanshipˇin the ant, the poorest bug that creeps.ł Rogers (Naaman). ĹThis bug with gilded wings.ł Pope.
Bait bug. See under Bait. – Bug word, swaggering or threatening language. [Obs.]
Beau. & Fl.
Bug∑aŌboo∂ (?), Bug∂bear∑ (?), n. [See Bug.] Something frightful, as a specter; anything imaginary that causes needless fright; something used to excite needless fear; also, something really dangerous, used to frighten children, etc. ĹBugaboos to fright ye.ł
Lloyd.
But, to the world no bugbear is so great
As want of figure and a small estate.
Pope.
The bugaboo of the liberals is the church pray.
S.B.Griffin.
The great bugaboo of the birds is the owl.
J.Burroughs.
Syn. - Hobgoblin; goblin; specter; ogre; scarecrow.
Bug∂bane∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A perennial white–flowered herb of the order RanunculaceĎ and genus Cimiciguga; bugwort. There are several species.
Bug∂bear∑ (?), n. Same as Bugaboo. – a. Causing needless fright.
Locke.
Bug∂bear∑, v.t. To alarm with idle phantoms.
Bug∂fish∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The menhaden. [U.S.]
Bug∂ger (?), n. [F. bougre, fr. LL. Bulgarus, a Bulgarian, and also a heretic; because the inhabitants of Bulgaria were infected with heresy. Those guilty of the crime of buggery were called heretics, because in the eyes of their adversaries there was nothing more heinous than heresy, and it was therefore thought that the origin of such a vice could only be owing to heretics.] 1. One guilty of buggery or unnatural vice; a sodomite.
2. A wretch; – sometimes used humorously or in playful disparagement. [Low]
Bug∂gerŌy (?), n. [OF. bougrerie, bogrerie, heresy. See Bugger.] Unnatural sexual intercourse; sodomy.
Bug∂giŌness (?), n. [From Buggy, a.] The state of being infested with bugs.
Bug∂gy (?), a. [From Bug.] Infested or abounding with bugs.
Bug∂gy, n.; pl. Buggies. 1. A light one horse two–wheeled vehicle. [Eng.]
Villebeck prevailed upon Flora to drive with him to the race in a buggy.
Beaconsfield.
2. A light, four–wheeled vehicle, usually with one seat, and with or without a calash top. [U.S.]
Buggy cultivator, a cultivator with a seat for the driver. – Buggy plow, a plow, or set of plows, having a seat for the driver; – called also sulky plow.
Bu∂gle (?), n. [OE. bugle buffalo, buffalo's horn, OF. bugle, fr. L. buculus a young bullock, steer, dim. of bos ox. See Cow the animal.] A sort of wild ox; a buffalo.
E.Phillips.
Bu∂gle, n. [See Bugle a wild ox.] 1. A horn used by hunters.
2. (Mus.) A copper instrument of the horn quality of tone, shorter and more conical that the trumpet, sometimes keyed; formerly much used in military bands, very rarely in the orchestra; now superseded by the cornet; – called also the Kent bugle.
Bu∂gle, n. [LL. bugulus a woman's ornament: cf. G. bĀgel a bent piece of metal or wood, fr. the same root as G. biegenˇto bend, E. bow to bend.] An elingated glass bead, of various colors, though commonly black.
Bu∂gle, a. [From Bugle a bead.] Jet black. ĹBugle eyeballs.ł
Shak.
Bu∂gle, n. [F. bugle; cf. It. bugola, L. bugillo.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Ajuga of the Mint family, a native of the Old World.
Yellow bugle, the Ajuga chamĎpitys.
Bu∂gled (?), a. Ornamented with bugles.
Bu∂gle horn∑ (?). 1. A bugle.
One blast upon his bugle horn
Were worth a thousand men.
Sir W.Scott.
2. A drinking vessel made of horn. [Obs.]
And drinketh of his bugle horn the wine.
Chaucer.
Bu∂gler (?), n. One who plays on a bugle.
Bu∂gleŌweed∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A plant of the Mint family and genus Lycopus; esp. L. Virginicus, which has mild narcotic and astringent properties, and is sometimes used as a remedy for hemorrhage.
Bu∂gloss (?), n.; pl. Buglosses (?). [F. buglosse, L. buglossa, buglossus, fr. Gr. ? oxtongue ? ox + ? tongue.] (Bot.) A plant of the genus Anchusa, and especially the A. officinalis, sometimes called alkanet; oxtongue.
Small wild bugloss, the Asperugo procumbensˇand the Lycopsis arvensis. – Viper's bugloss, a species of Echium.
Bug∂wort∑ (?), n. (Bot.) Bugbane.
Buhl (?), Buhl∂work (?), n. [From A.Ch.Boule, a French carver in wood.] Decorative woodwork in which tortoise shell, yellow metal, white metal, etc., are inlaid, forming scrolls, cartouches, etc. [Written also boule, boulework.]
Buhl∂buhl (?), n. (ZoĒl.) See Bulbul.
Buhr∂stone∑ (?), n. [OE. bur a whetstone for scythes.] (Min.) A cellular, flinty rock, used for mill stones. [Written also burrstone.]
Build (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Built (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Building. The regular imp. & p.p. Builded is antiquated.] [OE. bulden, bilden, AS. byldanˇto build, fr. bold house; cf. Icel. b”l farm, abode, Dan. bol small farm, OSw. bol, bĒle, house, dwelling, fr. root of Icel. b?a to dwell; akin to E. be, bower, boor. Ż97.] 1. To erect or construct, as an edifice or fabric of any kind; to form by uniting materials into a regular structure; to fabricate; to make; to raise.
Nor aught availed him now
To have built in heaven high towers.
Milton.
2. To raise or place on a foundation; to form, establish, or produce by using appropriate means.
Who builds his hopes in air of your good looks.
Shak.
3. To increase and strengthen; to increase the power and stability of; to settle, or establish, and preserve; – frequently with up; as, to build up one's constitution.
I commend you to God, and to the word of his grace, which is able to build you up.
Acts xx.32.
Syn. - To erect; construct; raise; found; frame.
Build (?), v.i. 1. To exercise the art, or practice the business, of building.
2. To rest or depend, as on a foundation; to ground one's self or one's hopes or opinions upon something deemed reliable; to rely; as, to build on the opinions or advice of others.
Build, n. Form or mode of construction; general figure; make; as, the build of a ship.
Build∂er (?), n. One who builds; one whose occupation is to build, as a carpenter, a shipwright, or a mason.
In the practice of civil architecture, the builder comes between the architect who designs the work and the artisans who execute it.
Eng. Cyc.
Build∂ing, n. 1. The act of constructing, erecting, or establishing.
Hence it is that the building of our Sion rises no faster.
Bp. Hall.
2. The art of constructing edifices, or the practice of civil architecture.
The execution of works of architecture necessarily includes building; but building is frequently employed when the result is not architectural.
Hosking.
3. That which is built; a fabric or edifice constructed, as a house, a church, etc.
Thy sumptuous buildings and thy wife's attire
Have cost a mass of public treasury.
Shak.
Built (?), n. Shape; build; form of structure; as, the built of a ship. [Obs.]
Dryden.
Built, a. Formed; shaped; constructed; made; – often used in composition and preceded by the word denotingˇthe form; as, frigate–built, clipper–built, etc.
Like the generality of Genoese countrywomen, strongly built.
Landor.
Buke∂ mus∂lin (?). See Book muslin.
ōBuk∂shish (?), n. See Backsheesh.
ōBu∂lau (?), n. [Native name.] (ZoĒl.) An East Indian insectivorous mammal (Gymnura Rafflesii), somewhat like a rat in appearance, but allied to the hedgehog.

<-- p. 190 -->

Bulb (?), n. [L. bulbus, Gr. ?: cf. F. bulbe.] 1. (Bot.) A spheroidal body growing from a plant either above or below the ground (usually below), which is strictly a bud, consisting of a cluster of partially developed leaves, and producing, as it grows, a stem above, and roots below, as in the onion, tulip, etc. It differs from a corm in not being solid.
2. (Anat.) A name given to some parts that resemble in shape certain bulbous roots; as, the bulb of the aorta.
Bulb of the eye, the eyeball. – Bulb of a hair, the Ĺroot,ł or part whence the hair originates. – Bulb of the spinal cord, the medulla oblongata, often called simply bulb. – Bulb of a tooth, the vascular and nervous papilla contained in the cavity of the tooth.
3. An expansion or protuberance on a stem or tube, as the bulb of a thermometer, which may be of any form, as spherical, cylindrical, curved, etc.
Tomlinson.
Bulb, v.i. To take the shape of a bulb; to swell.
BulŌba∂ceous (?), a. [L. bulbaceus. See Bulb, n.] Bulbous.
Jonson.
Bulb∂ar (?), a. Of or pertaining to bulb; especially, in medicine, pertaining to the bulb of the spinal cord, or medulla oblongata; as, bulbar paralysis.
Bulbed (?), a. Having a bulb; round–headed.
Bulb∂el (?), n. [Dim., fr. bulb, n.] (Bot.) A separable bulb formed on some flowering plants.
BulŌbif∂erŌous (?), a. [Bulb, n. + Ōferous: cf. F. bulbifäre.] (Bot.) Producing bulbs.
Bulb∂let (?), n. [Bulb, n. + Ōlet.] (Bot.) A small bulb, either produced on a larger bulb, or on some aČrial part of a plant, as in the axils of leaves in the tiger lily, or replacing the flowers in some kinds of onion.
BulŌbose∂ (?), a. Bulbous.
Bul∂bo–tu∑ber (?), n. [Bulb, n. + tuber.] (Bot.) A corm.
Bulb∂ous (?), a. [L. bulbosus: cf. F. bulbeux. See Bulb, n.] Having or containing bulbs, or a bulb; growing from bulbs; bulblike in shape or structure.
ōBul∂bul (?), n. [Per.] (ZoĒl.) The Persian nightingale (Pycnonotus jocosus). The name is also applied to several other Asiatic singing birds, of the family TimaliidĎ. The green bulbuls belong to the Chloropsis and allied genera. [Written also buhlbuhl.]
Bul∂bule (?), n. [L. bulbulus, dim. of bulbus. See Bulb, n.] A small bulb; a bulblet.
Bul∂chin (?), n. [Dim. of bull.] A little bull.
Bulge (?), n. [OE. bulge a swelling; cf. AS. belganˇto swell, OSw. bulgja, Icel. b”lginn swollen, OHG. belganˇto swell, G. bulge leathern sack, Skr. b?hˇto be large, strong;ˇthe root meaning to swell. Cf. Bilge, Belly, Billow, Bouge, n.] 1. The bilge or protuberant part of a cask.
2. A swelling, protuberant part; a bending outward, esp. when caused by pressure; as, a bulge in a wall.
3. (Naut.) The bilge of a vessel. See Bilge, 2.
Bulge ways. (Naut.) See Bilge ways.
Bulge, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bulged (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bulging.] 1. Toˇswell or jut out; to bend outward, as a wall when it yields to pressure; to be protuberant; as, the wall bulges.
2. To bilge, as a ship; to founder.
And scattered navies bulge on distant shores.
Broome.
Bul∂gy (?), a. Bulged; bulging; bending, or tending to bend, outward. [Colloq.]
ōBuŌlim∂iŌa (?), Bu∂liŌmy (?), } n. [NL. bulimia, fr. Gr. ?, lit., ox–hunger; ? ox + ? hunger: cf. F. boulimie.] (Med.) A disease in which there is a perpetual and insatiable appetite for food; a diseased and voracious appetite.
ōBuŌli∂mus (?), n. [L. bulimusˇhunger. See Bulimy.] (ZoĒl.) A genus of land snails having an elongated spiral shell, often of large size. The species are numerous ingabundant in tropical America.
Bulk (?), n. [OE. bulke, bolke, heap; cf. Dan. bulk lump, clod, OSw. bolk crowd, mass, Icel. b?lkast to be bulky. Cf. Boll, n., Bile a boil, Bulge, n.] 1. Magnitude of material substance; dimensions; mass; size; as, an ox or ship of great bulk.
Against these forces there were prepared near one hundred ships; not so great of bulk indeed, but of a more nimble motion, and more serviceable.
Bacon.
2. The main mass or body; the largest or principal portion; the majority; as, the bulk of a debt.
The bulk of the people must labor, Burke told them, Ĺto obtain what by labor can be obtained.ł
J.Morley.
3. (Naut.) The cargo of a vessel when stowed.
4. The body. [Obs.]
Shak.
My liver leaped within my bulk.
Turbervile.
Barrel bulk. See under Barrel. – To break bulk (Naut.), to begin to unload or more the cargo. – In bulk, in a mass; loose; not inclosed in separate packages or divided into separate parts; in such shape that any desired quantity may be taken or sold. – Laden in bulk, Stowed in bulk, having the cargo loose in the hold or not inclosed in boxes, bales, or casks. – Sale by bulk, a sale of goods as they are, without weight or measure.
Syn. - Size; magnitude; dimension; volume; bigness; largeness; massiveness.
Bulk (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bulked (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bulking.] To appear or seem to be, as to bulk or extent; to swell.
The fame of Warburton possibly bulked larger for the moment.
Leslie Stephen.
Bulk, n. [Icel. bĺlkr a beam, partition. Cf. Balk, n. & v.] A projecting part of a building. [Obs.]
Here, stand behind this bulk.
Shak.
Bulk∂er (?), n. (Naut.) A person employed to ascertain the bulk or size of goods, in order to fix the amount of freight or dues payable on them.
Bulk∂head∑ (?), n. [See Bulk part of a building.] 1. (Naut.) A partition in a vessel, to separate apartments on the same deck.
2. A structure of wood or stone, to resist the pressure of earth or water; a partition wall or structure, as in a mine; the limiting wall along a water front.
Bulked line, a line beyond which a wharf must not project; – usually, the harbor line.
Bulk∂iŌness (?), n. Greatness in bulk; size.
Bulk∂y (?), a. Of great bulk or dimensions; of great size; large; thick; massive; as, bulky volumes.
A bulky digest of the revenue laws.
Hawthorne.
Bull (?), n. [OE. bule, bul, bole; akin to D. bul, G. bulle, Icel. boli, Lith. bullus, Lett. bollis, Russ. vol'; prob. fr. the root of AS. bellan, E. bellow.] 1. (ZoĒl.) The male of any species of cattle (BovidĎ); hence,ˇthe male of any large quadruped, as the elephant; also, the male of the whale.
Ķ The wild bullˇof the Old Testament is thought to be the oryx, a large speciesˇof antelope.
2. One who, or that which, resembles a bull in character or action.
Ps.xxii.12.
3. (Astron.) (a) Taurus, the second of the twelve signs of the zodiac. (b) A constellation of the zodiac between Aries and Gemini. It contains the Pleiades.
At last from Aries rolls the bounteous sun,
And the bright Bull receives him.
Thomson.
4. (Stock Exchange) One who operates in expectation of a rise in the price of stocks, or in order to effect such a rise. See 4th Bear, n., 5.
Bull baiting, the practice of baiting bulls, or rendering them furious, as by setting dogs to attack them. – John Bull, a humorous name for the English, collectively; also, an Englishman. ĹGood–looking young John Bull.ł W.D.Howells. – To take the bullˇby the horns, to grapple with a difficulty instead of avoiding it.
Bull, a. Of or pertaining to a bull; resembling a bull; male; large; fierce.
Bull batˇ(ZoĒl.), the night hawk; – so called from the loud noise it makes while feeding on the wing, in the evening. – Bull calf. (a) A stupid fellow. – Bull mackerel (ZoĒl.), the chub mackerel. – Bull pump (Mining), a direct single–acting pumping engine, in which the steam cylinder is placedˇaboveˇthe pump. – Bull snakeˇ(ZoĒl.), the pine snake of the United States. – Bull stag, a castrated bull. See Stag. – Bull wheel, a wheel, or drum, on which a rope is woundˇfor lifting heavy articles, as logs, the tools in well boring, etc.
Bull, v.i. To be in heat; to manifest sexual desire as cows do. [Colloq.]
Bull, v.t. (Stock Exchange) To endeavor to raise the market price of; as, to bull railroad bonds; to bull stocks; to bull Lake Shore; to endeavor to raise prices in; as, to bull the market. See 1st Bull, n., 4.
Bull, n. [OE. bulle, fr. L. bulla bubble, stud, knob, LL., a seal or stamp: cf. F. bulle. Cf. Bull a writing, Bowl a ball, Boil, v.i.] 1. A seal. See Bulla.
2. A letter, edict, or respect, of the pope, written in Gothic characters on rough parchment, sealed with a bulla, and dated Ĺa die Incarnationis,ł i.e., Ĺfrom the day of the Incarnation.ł See Apostolical brief, under Brief.
A fresh bull of Leo's had declared how inflexible the court of Rome was in the point of abuses.
Atterbury.
3. A grotesque blunder in language; an apparent congruity, but real incongruity, of ideas, contained in a form of expression; so called, perhaps, from the apparent incongruity between the dictatorial nature of the pope's bulls and his professions of humility.
And whereas the papist boasts himself to be a Roman Catholic, it is a mere contradiction, one of the pope's bulls, as if he should say universal particular; a Catholic schimatic.
Milton.
The Golden Bull, an edict or imperial constitution made by the emperor Charles IV. (1356), containing what became the fundamental law of the German empire; – so called from its golden seal.
Syn. - See Blunder.
ōBul∂la (?), n.; pl. BullĎ (?). [L. bulla bubble. See Bull an edict.] 1. (Med.) A bleb; a vesicle, or an elevation of the cuticle, containing a transparent watery fluid.
2. (Anat.) The ovoid prominence below the opening of the ear in the skulls of many animals; as, the tympanic or auditory bulla.
3. A leaden seal for a document; esp. the round leaden seal attached to the papal bulls, which has on one side a representation of St. Peter and St. Paul, and on the other the name of the pope who uses it.
4. (ZoĒl.) A genus of marine shells. See Bubble shell.
Bul∂lace (?), n. [OE. bolas, bolace, OF. beloce; of Celtic origin; cf. Arm. bolos, polos, Gael. bulaistear.] (Bot.) (a) A small European plum (Prunus communis, var. insitita). See Plum. (b) The bully tree.
BulŌlan∂tic (?), a. [See Bull an edict.] Pertaining to, or used in, papal bulls.
Fry.
Bullantic letters, Gothic letters used in papal bulls.
Bul∂laŌry (?), n. [LL. bullarium: cf. F. bullairie. See Bull an edict.] A collection of papal bulls.
Bul∂laŌry, n.; pl. Bullaries (?). [Cf. Boilary.] A place for boiling or preparating salt; a boilery.
Crabb.
And certain salt fats or bullaries.
Bills in Chancery.
Bul∂late (?), a. [L. bullatus, fr. bulla bubble.] (Biol.) Appearing as if blistered; inflated; puckered.
Bullate leafˇ(Bot.), a leaf, the membranous part of which rises between the veins puckered elevations convex on one side and concave on the other.
Bull∂beg∑gar (?), n. Something used or suggested to produce terror, as in children or persons of weak mind; a bugbear.
And being an ill–looked fellow, he has a pension from the church wardens for being bullbeggar to all the forward children in the parish.
Mountfort (1691).
Bull∂ bri∑er (?). (Bot.) A speciesˇof Smilax (S. Pseudo–China) growing from New Jersey to the Gulf of Mexico, which has very large tuberous and farinaceous rootstocks, formerly used by the Indians for a sort of bread, and by the negroes as an ingredient in making beer; – called also bamboo brier and China brier.
Bull∂combŌer (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A scaraboid beetle; esp. the TyphĎus vulgarisˇof Europe.
Bull∂dog∑ (?), n. 1. (ZoĒl.) A variety of dog, of remarkable ferocity, courage, and tenacity of grip; – so named, probably, from being formerly employed in baiting bulls.
2. (Metal.) A refractory material used as a furnace lining, obtained by calcining the cinder or slag from the puddling furnace of a rolling mill.
Bull∂dog∑, a. Characteristic of, or like, a bulldog; stubborn; as, bulldog courage; bulldog tenacity.
Bulldog batˇ(ZoĒl.), a bat of the genus Nyctinomus; – so called from the shape of its face.
Bull∂doze∑ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bulldozed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bulldozing.] To intimidate; to restrain or coerce by intimidation or violence; – used originally of the intimidation of negro voters, in Louisiana. [Slang, U.S.]
Bull∂do∑zer (?), n. One who bulldozes. [Slang]
Bulled (?), a. [Cf. Boln.] Swollen. [Obs.]
ōBul∂len–bul∂len (?), n. [Native Australian name, from its cry.] (ZoĒl.) The lyre bird.
Bul∂len–nail∑ (?), n. [Bull large, having a large head + nail.] A nail with a round head and short shank, tinned and lacquered.
Bul∂let (?), n. [F. boulet, dim. of boule ball. See Bull an edict, and cf. Boulet.] 1. A small ball.
2. A missile, usually of lead, and round or elongated in form, to be discharged from a rifle, musket, pistol, or other small firearm.
3. A cannon ball. [Obs.]
A ship before Greenwich ... shot off her ordnance, one piece being charged with a bullet of stone.
Stow.
4. The fetlock of a horse. [See Illust. under Horse.]
Bul∂let–proof∑ (?), a. Capable of resisting the force of a bullet.
Bullet tree. See Bully tree. – Bullet wood, the wood of the bullet tree.
Bul∂leŌtin (?), n. [F. bulletin, fr. It. bullettino, dim. of bulletta, dim. of bulla, bolla, an edict of the pope, from L. bulla bubble. See Bull an edict.] 1. A brief statement of facts respecting some passing event, as military operations or the health of some distinguished personage, issued by authority for the information of the public.
2. Any public notice or announcement, especiallyˇof news recently received.
3. A periodical publication, especially one containing the proceeding of a society.
Bulletin board, a board on which announcements are put, particularly at newsrooms, newspaper offices, etc.
Bull∂faced∑ (?), a. Having a large face.
Bull∂feast∑ (?), n. See Bullfight. [Obs.]
Bull∂fight∑ (?), Bull∂fight∑ing, n. A barbarous sport, of great antiquity, in which men torment, and fight with, a bull or bulls in an arena, for public amusement, – still popular in Spain. – Bull∂fight∑er (?), n.
Bull∂finch∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A bird of the genus Pyrrhula and other related genera, especially the P. vulgaris or rubicilla, a bird of Europe allied to the grosbeak, having the breast, cheeks, and neck, red.
Ķ As a cage bird it is highly valued for its remarkable power of learning to whistle correctly various musical airs.
Crimson–fronted bullfinch. (ZoĒl.) See Burion. – Pine bullfinch, the pine finch.
Bull∂fist (?), Bull∂fice (?), n. [Cf. G. bofist, AS. wulfes fist puffball, E. fizz, foist.] (Bot.) A kind of fungus. See Puffball.
Bull∂ fly∑or Bull∂fly∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) Any large fly troublesome to cattle, as the gadflies and breeze flies.
Bull∂frog∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A very large species of frog (Rana Catesbiana), found in North America; – so named from its loud bellowing in spring.
Bull∂head∑ (?), n. 1. (ZoĒl.) (a) A fresh–water fish of many species, of the genus Uranidea, esp. U. gobioˇof Europe, and U. Richardsoni of the United States; – called also miller's thumb. (b) In America, several species of Amiurus; – called also catfish, horned pout, and bullpout. (c) A marine fish of the genus Cottus; the sculpin.
2. (ZoĒl.) (a) The black–bellied plover (Squatarola helvetica); – called also beetlehead. (b) The golden plover.
3. A stupid fellow; a lubber. [Colloq.]
Jonson.
4. (ZoĒl.) A small black water insect.
E.Phillips.
Bullhead whiting (ZoĒl.), the kingfish of Florida (Menticirrus alburnus).

<-- p. 191 -->

Bull∂head∑ed (?), a. Having a head like that of a bull. Fig.: Headstrong; obstinate; dogged.
Bul∂lion (?), n. [Cf. OE. bullyon a hook used for fastening the dress, a button, stud, an embossed ornament of various kinds, e.g., on the cover of a book, on bridles or poitrels, for purses, for breeches and doublets, LL. bullio the swelling of boiling water, a mass of gold or silver, fr. L. bulla boss, stud, bubble (see Bull an edict), or perh. corrupted fr. ?. billon base coin, LL. billioˇbullion. Cf. Billon, Billet a stick.] 1. Uncoined gold or silver in the mass.
Ķ Properly, the precious metals are called bullion, when smelted and not perfectly refined, or when refined, but in bars, ingots or in any form uncoined, as in plate. The word is often often used to denote gold and silver, both coined and uncoined, when reckoned by weight and in mass, including especially foreign, or uncurrent, coin.
2. Base or uncurrent coin. [Obs.]
And those which eld's strict doom did disallow,
And damm for bullion, go for current now.
Sylvester.
3. Showy metallic ornament, as of gold, silver, or copper, on bridles, saddles, etc. [Obs.]
The clasps and bullions were worth a thousand pound.
Skelton.
4. Heavy twisted fringe, made of fine gold or silver wire and used for epaulets; also, any heavy twisted fringe whose cords are prominent.
Bul∂lionŌist, n. An advocate for a metallic currency, or a paper currency always convertible into gold.
Bul∂liŌrag (?), v.t. [Cf. bully, n. & v., and rag to scold, rail. Cf. Ballarag.] To intimidate by bullying; to rally contemptuously; to badger. [Low]
Bull∂ish (?), a. Partaking of the nature of a bull, or a blunder.
Let me inform you, a toothless satire is as improper as a toothed sleek stone, and as bullish.
Milton.
Bull∂ist, n. [F. bulliste. See Bull an edict.] A writer or drawer up of papal bulls. [R.]
Harmar.
BulŌli∂tion (?), n. [L. bullire, bullitum, to boil. See Boil, v.i.] The action of boiling; boiling. [Obs.] See Ebullition.
Bacon.
Bull∂–necked∑ (?), a. Having a short and thick neck like that of a bull.
Sir W.Scott.
Bul∂lock (?), n. [AS. bulluc a young bull. See Bull.] 1. A young bull, or any male of the ox kind.
Take thy father's young bullock, even the second bullock of seven years old.
Judges vi.25.
2. An ox, steer, or stag.
Bul∂lock, v.t. To bully. [Obs.]
She shan't think to bullock and domineer over me.
Foote.
Bul∂lock's–eye∑ (?), n. See Bull's–eye, 3.
ōBul∂lon (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A West Indian fish (Scarus Croicensis).
Bull∂pout∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) See Bullhead, 1 (b).
Bull's∂–eye∑ (?), n. 1. (Naut.) A small circular or oval wooden block without sheaves, having a groove around it and a hole through it, used for connecting rigging.
2. A small round cloud, with a ruddy center, supposed by sailors to portend a storm.
3. A small thick disk of glass inserted in a deck, roof, floor, ship's side, etc., to let in light.
4. A circular or oval opening for air or light.
5. A lantern, with a thick glass lens on one side for concentrating the light on any object; also, the lens itself.
Dickens.
6. (Astron.) Aldebaran, a bright star in the eye of Taurus or the Bull.
7. (Archery & Gun.) The center of a target.
8. A thick knob or protuberance left on glass by the end of the pipe through which it was blown.
9. A small and thick old–fashioned watch. [Colloq.]
Bull's∂–nose∑ (?), n. (Arch.) An external angle when obtuse or rounded.
Bull∂ ter∂riŌer (?). (ZoĒl.) A b?eed of dogs obtained by crossing the bulldog and the terrier.
Bull∂ trout∑ (?). (ZoĒl.) (a) In England, a large salmon trout of ??? species, as Salmo ??? and S. Cambricus, which ascend rivers; – called also sea trout. (b) Salvelinus malma of California and Oregon; – called also Dolly Varden troutˇand red–spotted trout. (c) The huso or salmon of the Danube.
Bull∂weed∑ (?), n. [Bole a stem + weed.] (Bot.) Knapweed.
Prior.
Bull∂wort∑ (?), n. (Bot.) See Bishop's–weed.
Bul∂ly (?), n.; pl. Bullies (?). [Cf. LG. bullerjaan, bullerbĄk, bullerbrook, a blusterer, D. bulderaar a bluster, bulderen to bluster; prob. of imitative origin; or cf. MHG. buole lover, G. buhle.] 1. A noisy, blustering fellow, more insolent than courageous; one who is threatening and quarrelsome; an insolent, tyrannical fellow.
Bullies seldom execute the threats they deal in.
Palmerston.
2. A brisk, dashing fellow. [Slang Obs.]
Shak.
Bul∂ly (?), a. 1. Jovial and blustering; dashing. [Slang] ĹBless thee, bully doctor.ł
Shak.
2. Fine; excellent; as, a bully horse. [Slang, U.S.]
Bul∂ly, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bullied (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bullying.] To intimidate with threats and by an overbearing, swaggering demeanor; to act the part of a bully toward.
For the last fortnight there have been prodigious shoals of voluntrees gone over to bully the French, upon hearing the peace was just singing.
Tatler.
Syn. - To bluster; swagger; hector; domineer.
Bul∂ly, v.i. To act as a bully.
Bul∂lyŌrag (?), v.t. Same as Bullirag.
Bul∂lyŌrock∑ (?), n. A bully. [Slang Obs.]
Shak.
Bul∂ly tree∑ (?). (Bot.) The name of several West Indian trees of the order SapotaceĎ, as Dipholis nigraˇand species of Sapotaˇand Mimusops. Most of them yield a substance closely resembling gutta–percha.
Bul∂rush∑ (?), n. [OE. bulrysche, bolroysche; of uncertain origin, perh. fr. bole stem + rush.] (Bot.) A kind of large rush, growing in wet land or in water.
Ķ The name bulrush is applied in England especially to the cat–tail (Typha latifolia and T. angustifolia) and to the lake club–rush (Scirpus lacustris); in America, to the Juncus effusus, and also to species of Scirpus or club–rush.
ōBulse (?), n. A purse or bag in which to carry or measure diamonds, etc. [India]
Macaulay.
Bul∂tel (?), n. [LL. bultellus. See Bolt to sift.] A bolter or bolting cloth; also, bran. [Obs.]
Bul∂ti (?), n. (ZoĒl.) Same as Bolty.
Bul∂tow∑ (?), n. A trawl; a boulter; the mod? of fishing with a boulter or spiller.
Bul∂wark (?), n. [Akin to D. bolwerk, G. bollwerk, Sw. bolwerk, Dan. bolvĄrk, bulvĄrk, rampart; akin to G. bohle plank, and werk work, defense. See Bole stem, and Work, n., and cf. Boulevard.] 1. (Fort.) A rampart; a fortification; a bastion or outwork.
2. That which secures against an enemy, or defends from attack; any means of defense or protection.
The royal navy of England hath ever been its greatest defense, ... the floating bulwark of our island.
Blackstone.
3. pl. (Naut.) The sides of a ship above the upper deck.
Syn. - See Rampart.
Bul∂wark, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bulwarked (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bulwarking.] To fortify with, or as with, a rampart or wall; to secure by fortification; to protect.
Of some proud city, bulwarked round and armed
With rising towers.
Glover.
Bum (?), n. [Contr. fr. bottom in this sense.] The buttock. [Low]
Shak.
Bum, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bummed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bumming (?).] [See Boom, v.i., to roar.] To make murmuring or humming sound.
Jamieson.
Bum, n. A humming noise.
Halliwell.
Bum∂bail∂iff (?), n. [A corruption of bound bailiff.] [Low, Eng.] See Bound bailiff, under Bound, a.
Bum∂bard (?). See Bombard.ˇ[Obs.]
Bum∂barge∑ (?), n. See Bumboat.
Carlyle.
Bum∂bast (?). See Bombast. [Obs.]
Bum∂beŌlo (?), n.; pl. Bumbeloes (?). [It. bombola.] A glass used in subliming camphor. [Spelled also bombolo and bumbolo.]
Bum∂ble (?), n. [See Bumpˇto boom.] (ZoĒl.) The bittern. [Local, Eng.]
Bum∂ble, v.i. To make a hollow or humming noise, like that of a bumblebee; to cry as a bittern.
As a bittern bumbleth in the mire.
Chaucer.
Bum∂bleŌbee∑ (?), n. [OE. bumblen to make a humming noise (dim. of bum, v.i.) + bee. Cf. Humblebee.] (ZoĒl.) A large bee of the genus Bombus, sometimes called humblebee; – so named from its sound.
Ķ There are many species. All gather honey, and store it in the empty cocoons after the young have come out.
Bum∂boat∑ (?), n. [From bum the buttocks, on account of its clumsy form; or fr. D. bun a box for holding fish in a boat.] (Naut.) A clumsy boat, used for conveying provisions, fruit, etc., for sale, to vessels lying in port or off shore.
Bum∂kin (?), n. [Boom a beam + Ōkin. See Bumpkin.] (Naut.) A projecting beam or boom; as: (a) One projecting from each bow of a vessel, to haul the fore tack to, called a tack bumpkin. (b) Onr from each quarter, for the main–brace blocks, and called brace bumpkin. (c) A small outrigger over the stern of a boat, to extend the mizzen. [Written also boomkin.]
ōBum∂maŌlo (?), n. [Native name.] (ZoĒl.) A small marine Asiatic fish (Saurus ophidon) used in India as a relish; – called also Bombay duck.
Bum∂mer (?), n. An idle, worthless fellow, who is without any visible means of support; a dissipated sponger. [Slang, U.S.]
Bum∂meŌry (?), n. See Bottomery. [Obs.]
There was a scivener of Wapping brought to hearing for relief against a bummery bond.
R.North.
Bump (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bumped (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bumping.] [Cf. W. pwmp round mass, pwmpiaw to thump, bang, and E. bum, v.i., boom to roar.] To strike, as with or against anything large or solid; to thump; as, to bump the head against a wall.
Bump, v.i. To come in violent contact with something; to thump. ĹBumping and jumping.ł
Southey.
Bump (?), n. [From Bump to strike, to thump.] 1. A thump; a heavy blow.
2. A swelling or prominence, resulting from a bump or blow; a protuberance.
It had upon its brow
A bump as big as a young cockerel's stone.
Shak.
3. (Phren.) One of the protuberances on the cranium which are associated with distinct faculties or affections of the mind; as, the bump of Ĺveneration;ł the bump of Ĺacquisitiveness.ł [Colloq.]
4. The act of striking the stern of the boat in advance with the prow of the boat following. [Eng.]
Bump, v.i. [See Boom to roar.] To make a loud, heavy, or hollow noise, as the bittern; to boom.
As a bittern bumps within a reed.
Dryden.
Bump, n. The noise made by the bittern.
Bum∂per (?), n. [A corruption of bumbard, bombard, a large drinking vessel.] 1. A cup or glass filled to the brim, or till the liquor runs over, particularly in drinking a health or toast.
He frothed his bumpers to the brim.
Tennyson.
2. A covered house at a theater, etc., in honor of some favorite performer. [Cant]
Bump∂er (?), n. 1. That which bumps or causes a bump.
2. Anything which resists or deadens a bump or shock; a buffer.
Bump∂kin (?), n. [The same word as bumkin, which Cotgrave defines thus: ĹBumkin, Fr. chicambault, the luffe–block, a long and thick piece of wood, whereunto the fore–sayle and sprit–sayle are fastened, when a ship goes by the winde.ł Hence, a clumsy man may easily have been compared to such a block of wood; cf. OD. boomken a little tree. See Boom a pole.] An awkward, heavy country fellow; a clown; a country lout. ĹBashful country bumpkins.ł
W.Irving.
Bump∂tious (?), a. Self–conceited; forward; pushing. [Colloq.]
Halliwell.
Bump∂tiousŌness, n. Conceitedness. [Colloq.]
Bun, Bunn (?), n. [Scot. bun, bunn, OE. bunne, bonne; fr. Celtic; cf. Ir. bunna, Gael. bonnach, or OF. bugne tumor, Prov. F. bugne a kind of pancake; akin to OHG. bungo bulb, MHG. bunge, Prov. E. bung heap, cluster, bunny a small swelling.] A slightly sweetened raised cake or bisquit with a glazing of sugar and milk on the top crust.
Bunch (?), n. [Akin to OSw. & Dan. bunke heap, Icel. bunki heap, pile, bunga tumor, protuberance; cf. W. pwng cluster. Cf. Bunk.] 1. A protuberance; a hunch; a knob or lump; a hump.
They will carry ... their treasures upon the bunches of camels.
Isa.xxx.6.
2. A collection, cluster, or tuft, properly of things of the same kind, growing or fastened together; as, a bunch of grapes; a bunch of keys.
3. (Mining) A small isolated mass of ore, as distinguished from a continuous vein.
Page.
Bunch, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bunched (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bunching.] To swell out into a bunch or protuberance; to be protuberant or round.
Bunching out into a large round knob at one end.
Woodward.
Bunch, v.t. To form into a bunch or bunches.
Bunch∂–backed∑ (?), a. Having a bunch on the back; crooked. ĹBunch–backed toad.ł
Shak.
Bunch∂ber∑ry (?), n. (Bot.) The dwarf cornel (Cornus Canadensis), which bears a dense cluster of bright red, edible berries.
Bunch∂ grass∑ (?). (Bot.) A grass growing in bunches and affording pasture. In California, Atropis tenuifolia, Festuca scabrella, and several kinds of Stipa are favorite bunch grasses. In Utah, Eriocoma cuspidata is a good bunch grass.
Bunch∂iŌness (?), n. The quality or condition of being bunchy; knobbiness.
Bunch∂y (?), a. 1. Swelling out in bunches.
An unshapen, bunchy spear, with bark unpiled.
Phaer.
2. Growing in bunches, or resembling a bunch; having tufts; as, the bird's bunchy tail.
3. (Mining) Yielding irregularly; sometimes rich, sometimes poor; as, a bunchy mine.
Page.
Bun∂combe, Bun∂kum (?), n. [Buncombe a country of North Carolina.] Speech–making for the gratification of constituents, or to gain public applause; flattering talk for a selfish purpose; anything said for mere show. [Cant or Slang, U.S.]
All that flourish about right of search was bunkum – all that brag about hanging your Canada sheriff was bunkum ... slavery speeches are all bunkum.
Haliburton.
To speak for Buncombe, to speak for mere show, or popularly.
Ķ ĹThe phrase originated near the close of the debate on the famous 'Missouri Question,' in the 16th Congress. It was then used by Felix Walker – a načve old mountaineer, who resided at Waynesville, in Haywood, the most western country of North Carolina, near the border of the adjacent country of Buncombe, which formed part of his district. The old man rose to speak, while the house was impatiently calling for the 'Question,' and several members gathered round him, begging him to desist. He preserved, however, for a while, declaring that the people of his district expected it, and that he was bound to 'make a speech for Buncombe.'ł
W.Darlington.
ōBund (?), n. [G.] League; confederacy; esp. the confederation of German states.
ōBund (?), n. [Hindi band.] An embankment against inundation. [India]
S. Wells Williams.
ōBun∂der (?), n. [Pers. bandar a landing place, pier.] A boat or raft used in the East Indies in the landing of passengers and goods.

<-- p. 192 -->

ōBun∂desŌrath∑ (?), n. [G., from bund (akin to E. bond) confederacy + rath council, prob. akin to E. read.] The federal council of the German Empire. In the Bundesrath and the Reichstag are vested the legislative functions. The federal council of Switzerland is also so called.
Ķ The Bundesrath of the German empire is presided over by a chancellor, and is composed of sixty–two members, who represent the different states of the empire, being appointed for each session by their respective governments.
By this united congress, the highest tribunal of Switzerland, – the Bundesrath – is chosen, and the head of this is a president.
J.P.Peters (Trans.MĀller's Pol. Hist.).
Bun∂dle (?), n. [OE. bundel, AS. byndel; akin to D. bondel, bundel, G. bĀndel, dim. of bund bundle, fr. the root of E. bind. See Bind.] A number of things bound together, as by a cord or envelope, into a mass or package convenient for handling or conveyance; a loose package; a roll; as, a bundle of straw or of paper; a bundle of old clothes.
The fable of the rods, which, when united in a bundle, no strength could bend.
Goldsmith.
Bundle pillar (Arch.), a column or pier, with others of small dimensions attached to it.
Weale.
Bun∂dle, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bundled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bundling (?).] 1. To tie or bind in a bundle or roll.
2. To send off abruptly or without ceremony.
They unmercifully bundled me and my gallant second into our own hackney coach.
T.Hook.
To bundle off, to send off in a hurry, or without ceremony. – To bundle one's self up, to wrap one's self up warmly or cumbrously.
Bun∂dle, v.i. 1. To prepare for departure; to set off in a hurry or without ceremony.
2. To sleep on the same bed without undressing; – applied to the custom of a man and woman, especially lovers, thus sleeping.
Bartlett.
Van Corlear stopped occasionally in the villages of eat pumpkin pies, dance at country frolics, and bundle with the Yankee lasses.
W.Irving.
Bung (?), n. [Cf. W. bwng orfice, bunghole, Ir. buinne tap, spout, OGeal. buine.] 1. The large spotter of the orfice in the bilge of a cask.
2. The orfice in the bilge of a cask through which it is filled; bunghole.
3. A sharper or pickpocket. [Obs. & Low]
You gilthy bung, away.
Shak.
Bung, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bunged (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bunging (?).] To stop, as the orfice in the bilge of a cask, with a bung; to close; – with up.
To bung up, to use up, as by bruising or over exertion; to exhaust or incapacitate for action. [Low]
He had bunged up his mouth that he should not have spoken these three years.
Shelton (Trans. Don Quixote).
Bun∂gaŌlow (?), n. [Bengalee bĺnglĺ] A thatched or tiled house or cottage, of a single story, usually surrounded by a veranda. [India]
ōBun∂gaŌrum (?), n. [Bungar, the native name.] (ZoĒl.) A venomous snake of India, of the genus Bungarus, allied to the cobras, but without a hood.
Bung∂hole∑ (?), n. See Bung, n., 2.
Shak.
Bun∂gle (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bungled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bungling (?).] [Prob. a diminutive from, akin to bang; cf. Prov. G. bungen to beat, bang, OSw. bunga.ˇSee Bang.] The act or work in a clumsy, awkward manner.
Bun∂gle, v.t. To make or mend clumsily; to manage awkwardly; to botch; – sometimes with up.
I always had an idea that it would be bungled.
Byron.
Bun∂gle (?), n. A clumsy or awkward performance; a botch; a gross blunder.
Those errors and bungles which are committed.
Cudworth.
Bun∂gler (?), n. A clumsy, awkward workman; one who bungles.
If to be a dunce or a bungler in any profession be shameful, how much more ignominious and infamous to a scholar to be such!
Barrow.
Bun∂gling (?), a. Unskillful; awkward; clumsy; as, a bungling workman.
Swift.
They make but bungling work.
Dryden.
Bun∂glingŌly, adv. Clumsily; awkwardly.
Bun∂go (?), n. (Naut.) A kind of canoe used in Central and South America; also, a kind of boat used in the Southern United States.
Bartlett.
Bun∂ion (?), n. (Med.) Same as Bunyon.
Bunk (?), n. [Cf. OSw. bunke heap, also boaring, flooring. Cf. Bunch.] 1. A wooden case or box, which serves for a seat in the daytime and for a bed at night. [U.S.]
2. One of a series of berths or bed places in tiers.
3. A piece of wood placed on a lumberman's sled to sustain the end of heavy timbers. [Local, U.S.]
Bunk, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bunked (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bunking.] To go to bed in a bunk; – sometimes with in. [Colloq. U.S.]
Bartlett.
Bun∂ker (?), n. [Scot. bunker, bunkart, a bench, or low chest, serving for a seat. Cf. Bunk, Bank, Bench.] 1. A sort of chest or box, as in a window, the lid of which serves for a seat. [Scot.]
Jamieson.
2. A large bin or similar receptacle; as, a coal bunker.
Bun∂ko (?), n. [Sf. Sp. banco bank, banca a sort of game at cards. Cf. Bank (in the commercial sense).] A kind of swindling game or scheme, by means of cards or by a sham lottery. [Written also bunco.]
Bunko steerer, a person employed as a decoy in bunko. [Slang, U.S.]
Bun∂kum (?), n. See Buncombe.
Bunn (?), n. See Bun.
Bun∂nian (?), n. See Bunyon.
Bun∂ny (?), n. (Mining) A great collection of ore without any vein coming into it or going out from it.
Bun∂ny, n. A pet name for a rabbit or a squirrel.
ōBu∑noŌdon∂ta (?), Bu∂noŌdonts (?), } n. pl. [NL. bunodonta, fr. Gr. ? hill, heap + ?, ?, a tooth.] (ZoĒl.) A division of the herbivorous mammals including the hogs and hippopotami; – so called because the teeth are tuberculated.
Bun∂sen's bat∂terŌy (?), Bun∂sen's burn∑er (?). See under Battery, and Burner.
Bunt (?), n. (Bot.) A fungus (Ustilago f“tida) which affects the ear of cereals, filling the grains with a fetid dust; – also called pepperbrand.
Bunt, n. [Cf. Sw. bunt bundle, Dan. bundt, G. bund, E. bundle.] (Naut.) The middle part, cavity, or belly of a sail; the part of a furled sail which is at the center of the yard.
Totten.
Bunt, v.i. (Naut.) To swell out; as, the sail bunts.
Bunt, v.t. & i. To strike or push with the horns or head; to butt; as, the ram bunted the boy.
Bun∂ter (?), n. A woman who picks up rags in the streets; hence, a low, vulgar woman. [Cant]
Her ... daughters, like bunters in stuff gowns.
Goldsmith.
Bun∂ting (?), n. [Scot. buntlin, corn–buntlin, OE. bunting, buntyle; of unknown origin.] (ZoĒl.) A birdˇof the genus Emberiza, or of an allied genus, related to the finches and sparrows (family FringillidĎ).
Ķ Among European species are the common or corn bunting (Emberiza miliaria); the ortolan (E. hortulana); the cirl (E. cirlus); and the black–headed (Granitivora melanocephala). American species are the bay–winged or grass (PoĒcĎtes or Po“cetes gramineus); the black–throated (Spiza Americana); the towhee bunting or chewink (Pipilo); the snow bunting (Plectrophanax nivalis); the rice bunting or bobolink, and others. See Ortolan, Chewick, Snow bunting, Lark bunting.
Bun∂ting, Bun∂tine (?), n. [Prov. E. bunting sifting flour, OE. bontenˇto sift, hence prob. the material used for that purpose.] A thin woolen stuff, used chiefly for flags, colors, and ships' signals.
Bunt∂line (?), n. [2d bunt + line.] (Naut.) One of the ropes toggled to the footrope of a sail, used to haul up to the yard the body of the sail when taking it in.
Totten.
Bun∂yon, Bun∂ion (?), n. [Cf. Prov. E. bunny a small swelling, fr. OF. bugne, It. bugna, bugnone. See Bun.] (Med.) An enlargement and inflammation of a small membranous sac (one of the bursĎ muscosĎ), usually occurring on the first joint of the great toe.
Buoy (?), n. [D. boei buoy, fetter, fr. OF. boie, buie, chain, fetter, F. bouāe a buoy, from L. boia. ĹBoiae genus vinculorum tam ferreae quam ligneae.ł Festus. So called because chained to its place.] (Naut.) A float; esp. a floating object moored to the bottom, to mark a channel or to point out the position of something beneath the water, as an anchor, shoal, rock, etc.
Anchor buoy, aˇbuoy attached to, or marking the position of, an anchor. – Bell buoy, a large buoy on which a bell is mounted, to be rung by the motion of the waves. – Breeches buoy. See under Breeches. – Cable buoy, an empty cask employed to buoy up the cable in rocky anchorage. – Can buoy, a hollow buoy made of sheet or boiler iron, usually conical or pear–shaped. – Life buoy, a float intended to support persons who have fallen into the water, until a boat can be dispatched to save them. – Nut or Nun buoy, a buoy large in the middle, and tapering nearly to a point at each end. – To stream the buoy, to let the anchor buoy fall by the ship's side into the water, before letting go the anchor. – Whistling buoy, aˇbuoy fitted with a whistle that is blown by the action of the waves.
Buoy, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buoyed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buoying.] 1. To keep from sinking in a fluid, as in water or air; to keep afloat; – with up.
2. To support or sustain; to preserve from sinking into ruin or despondency.
Those old prejudices, which buoy up the ponderous mass of his nobility, wealth, and title.
Burke.
3. To fix buoys to; to mark by a buoy or by buoys; as, to buoy an anchor; to buoy or buoy off a channel.
Not one rock near the surface was discovered which was not buoyed by this floating weed.
Darwin.
Buoy, v.i. To float; to rise like a buoy. ĹRising merit will buoy up at last.ł
Pope.
Buoy∂age (?), n. Buoys, taken collectively; a series of buoys, as for the guidance of vessels into or out of port; the providing of buoys.
Buoy∂ance (?), n. Buoyancy. [R.]
Buoy∂anŌcy (?), n.; pl. Buoyancies (?). 1. The property of floating on the surfaceˇof a liquid, or in a fluid, as in the atmosphere; specific lightness, which is inversely as the weight compared with that of an equal volume of water.
2. (Physics) The upward pressure exerted upon a floating body by a fluid, which is equal to the weight of the body; hence, also, the weight of a floating body, as measured by the volume of fluid displaced.
Such are buoyancies or displacements of the different classes of her majesty's ships.
Eng. Cyc.
3. Cheerfulness; vivacity; liveliness; sprightliness; – the opposite of heaviness; as, buoyancy of spirits.
Buoy∂ant (?), a. [From Buoy, v.t. & i.] 1. Having the quality of rising or floating in a fluid; tending to rise or float; as, iron is buoyant in mercury. ĹBuoyant on the flood.ł
Pope.
2. Bearing up, as a fluid; sustaining another body by being specifically heavier.
The water under me was buoyant.
Dryden.
3. Light–hearted; vivacious; cheerful; as, a buoyant disposition; buoyant spirits. – Buoy∂antŌly, adv.
BuŌpres∂tiŌdan (?), n. [L. buprestis, Gr. ?, a poisonous beetle, which, being eaten by cattle in the grass, caused them to swell up and and die; ? ox, cow + ? to blow up, swell out.] (ZoĒl.) One of a tribe of beetles, of the genus Buprestis and allied genera, usually with brilliant metallic colors. The larvĎ are usually bores in timber, or beneath bark, and are often very destructive to trees.
Bur, Burr (?), n. [OE. burre burdock; cf. Dan. borre, OSw. borra, burdock, thistle; perh. akin to E. bristle (burrŌ for burzŌ), or perh. to F. bourre hair, wool, stuff; also, according to Cotgrave, Ĺthe downe, or hairie coat, wherewith divers herbes, fruits, and flowers, are covered,ł fr. L. burrae trifles, LL. reburrus rough.] 1. (Bot.) Any rough or prickly envelope of the seeds of plants, whether a pericarp, a persistent calyx, or an involucre, as of the chestnut and burdock. Also, any weed which bears burs.
Amongst rude burs and thistles.
Milton.
Bur and brake and brier.
Tennyson.
2. The thin ridge left by a tool in cutting or shaping metal. See Burr, n., 2.
3. A ring of iron on a lance or spear. See Burr, n., 4.
4. The lobe of the ear. See Burr, n., 5.
5. The sweetbread.
6. A clinker; a partially vitrified brick.
7. (Mech.) (a) A small circular saw. (b) A triangular chisel. (c) A drill with a serrated head larger than the shank; – used by dentists.
8. [Cf. Gael. borr, borra, a knob, bunch.] (ZoĒl.) The round knob of an antler next to a deer's head. [Commonly written burr.]
Bur oakˇ(Bot.), a useful and ornamental species of oak (Quercus macrocarpa) with ovoid acorns inclosed in deep cups imbricated with pointed scales. It grows in the Middle and Western United States, and its wood is tough, close–grained, and durable. – Bur reed (Bot.), a plant of the genus Sparganium, having long ribbonlike leaves.
Bur∂bolt∑ (?), n. A birdbolt. [Obs.]
Ford.
Bur∂bot (?), n. [F. barbote, fr. barbe beard. See 1st Barb.] (ZoĒl.) A fresh–water fish of the genus Lota, having on the nose two very small barbels, and a larger one on the chin. [Written also burbolt.]
Ķ The fish is also called an eelpout or ling, and is allied to the codfish. The Lota vulgaris is a common European species. An American species (L. maculosa) is found in New England, the Great Lakes, and farther north.
Bur∑deŌlais∂ (?), n. [F. bourdelais, prob. fr. bordelais. See Bordelais.] A sort of grape.
Jonson.
Bur∂den (?), n. [Written also burthen.] [OE. burden, burthen, birthen, birden, AS. byr$en; akin to Icel. byr?i, Dan. byrde, Sw. bĒrda, G. bĀrde, OHG. burdi, Goth. ba£r?ei, fr. the root of E. bear, AS. beran, Goth. bairan. Ż92. See 1st Bear.] 1. That which is borne or carried; a load.
Plants with goodly burden bowing.
Shak.
2. That which is borne with labor or difficulty; that which is grievous, wearisome, or oppressive.
Deaf, giddy, helpless, left alone,
To all my friends a burden grown.
Swift.
3. The capacity of a vessel, or the weight of cargo that she will carry; as, a shipˇof a hundred tons burden.
4. (Mining) The tops or heads of stream–work which lie over the stream of tin.
5. (Metal.) The proportion of ore and flux to fuel, in the charge of a blast furnace.
Raymond.
6. A fixed quantity of certain commodities; as, a burden of gad steel, 120 pounds.
7. A birth. [Obs. & R.]
Shak.
Beast of burden, an animal employed in carrying burdens. – Burden of proof [L. onus probandi] (Law), the duty of proving a particular position in a court of law, a failure in the performance of which duty calls for judgment against the party on whom the duty is imposed.
Syn. - Burden, Load. A burden is, in the literal sense, a weight to be borne; a load is something laid upon us to be carried. Hence, when used figuratively, there is usually a difference between the two words. Our burdens may be of such a nature that we feel bound to bear them cheerfully or without complaint. They may arise from the nature of our situation; they may be allotments of Providence; they may be the consequences of our errors. What is upon us, as a load, we commonly carry with greater reluctance or sense of oppression. Men often find the charge of their own families to be a burden; but if to this be added a load of care for others, the pressure is usually serve and irksome.
Bur∂den, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burdened (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burdening (?).] 1. To encumber with weight (literal or figurative); to lay a heavy load upon; to load.
I mean not that other men be eased, and ye burdened.
2 Cor.viii.13.
2. To oppress with anything grievous or trying; to overload; as, to burden a nation with taxes.
My burdened heart would break.
Shak.
3. To impose, as a load or burden; to lay or place as a burden (something heavy or objectionable). [R.]
It is absurd to burden this act on Cromwell.
Coleridge.
Syn. - To load; encumber; overload; oppress.

<-- p. 193 -->

Bur∂den (?), n. [OE. burdoun the bass in music, F. bourdon; cf. LL. burdo drone, a long organ pipe, a staff, a mule. Prob. of imitative origin. Cf. Bourdon.] 1. The verse repeated in a song, or the return of the theme at the end of each stanza; the chorus; refrain. Hence: That which is often repeated or which is dwelt upon; the main topic; as, the burden of a prayer.
I would sing my song without a burden.
Shak.
2. The drone of a bagpipe.
Ruddiman.
Bur∂den, n. [See Burdon.] A club. [Obs.]
Spenser.
Bur∂denŌer (?), n. One who loads; a oppressor.
Bur∂denŌous (?), a. Burdensome. [Obs.] ĹBurdenous taxations.ł
Shak.
Bur∂denŌsome (?), a. Grievous to be borne; causing uneasiness or fatigue; oppressive.
The debt immense of endless gratitude
So burdensome.
Milton.
Syn. - Heavy; weighty; cumbersome; onerous; grievous; oppressive; troublesome.
– Bur∂denŌsomeŌly, adv. – Bur∂denŌsomeŌness, n.
Bur∂dock (?), n. [Bur + dock the plant.] (Bot.) A genus of coarse biennial herbs (Lappa), bearing small burs which adhere tenaciously to clothes, or to the fur or wool of animals.
Ķ The common burdock is the Lappa officinalis.
Bur∂don (?), n. [See Bourdon.] A pilgrim's staff. [Written also burden.]
Rom. of R.
Bu∂reau (?), n.; pl. E. Bureaus (?), F. Bureaux (?). [F. bureau a writing table, desk, office, OF., drugget, with which a writing table was often covered, equiv. to F. bure, and fr. OF. buire dark brown, the stuff being named from its color, fr. L. burrus red, fr. Gr. ? flame–colored, prob. fr. ? fire. See Fire, n., and cf. Borel, n.] 1. Originally, a desk or writing table with drawers for papers.
Swift.
2. The place where such a bureau is used; an office where business requiring writing is transacted.
3. Hence: A department of public business requiring a force of clerks; the body of officials in a department who labor under the direction of a chief.
Ķ On the continent of Europe, the highest departments, in most countries, have the name of bureaux; as, the Bureau of the Minister of Foreign Affairs. In Englandˇand America, the term is confined to inferior and subordinate departments; as, the ĹPension Bureau,ł a subdepartment of the Department of the Interior. [Obs.] In Spanish, bureo denotes a court of justice for the trial of persons belonging to the king's household.
4. A chest of drawers for clothes, especially when made as an ornamental piece of furniture. [U.S.]
Bureau system. See Bureaucracy. – Bureau Veritas, an institution, in the interest of maritime underwriters, for the survey and rating of vessels all over the world. It was founded in Belgium in 1828, removed to Paris in 1830, and reČstablished in Brussels in 1870.
BuŌreau∂craŌcy (?), n. [Bureau + Gr. ? to be strong, to govern, ? strength: cf. F. bureaucratie.] 1. A system of carrying on the business of government by means of departments or bureaus, each under the control of a chief, in contradiction to a system in which the officers of government have an associated authority and responsibility; also, government conducted on this system.
2. Government officials, collectively.
BuŌreau∂crat (?), n. An official of a bureau; esp. an official confirmed in a narrow and arbitrary routine.
C.Kingsley.
Bu∑reauŌcrat∂ic (?), Bu∑reauŌcrat∂icŌal (?), } a. [Cf. F. bureaucratique.] Of, relating to, or resembling, a bureaucracy.
BuŌreau∂craŌtist (?), n. An advocate for , or supporter of, bureaucracy.
Bur∂el (?), n. & a. Same as Borrel.
ōBuŌrette∂ (?), n. [F., can, cruet, dim. of buire flagon.] (Chem.) An apparatus for delivering measured quantities of liquid or for measuring the quantity of liquid or gas received or discharged. It consists essentially of a graduated glass tube, usually furnished with a small aperture and stopcock.
Bur∂ fish∑ (?). (ZoĒl.) A spinose, plectognath fish of the Allantic coast of the United States (esp. Chilo mycterus geometricus) having the power of distending its body with water or air, so as to resemble a chestnut bur; – called also ball fish, balloon fish, and swellfish.
Burg (?), n. [AS. burh, burg, cf. LL. burgus. See 1st Borough.] 1. A fortified town. [Obs.]
2. A borough. [Eng.] See 1st Borough.
Burg∂age (?), n. [From Burg: cf. F. bourgage, LL. burgagium.] (Eng. Law) A tenure by which houses or lands are held of the king or other lord of a borough or city; at a certain yearly rent, or by services relating to trade or handicraft.
Burrill.
Bur∂gall (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A small marine fish; – also called cunner.
Bur∂gaŌmot (?), n. See Bergamot.
Bur∂gaŌnet (?), n. See Burgonet.
Bur∂gee (?), n. 1. A kind of small coat.
2. (Naut.) A swallow–tailed flag; a distinguishing pen?ant, used by cutters, yachts, and merchant vessels.
BurŌgeois∂ (?), n. (Print.) See 1st Bourgeous.
ōBurŌgeois∂ (?), n. A burgess; a citizen. See 2d Bourgeois. [R.]
Addison.
Bur∂geon (?), v.i. To bud. See Bourgeon.
Bur∂gess (?), n. [OE. burgeis, OF. burgeis, fr. burcfortified town, town, F. bourg village, fr. LL. burgus fort, city; from the German; cf. MHG. burc, G. burg. See 1st Borough, and cf. 2d Bourgeois.] 1. An inhabitant of a borough or walled town, or one who possesses a tenement therein; a citizen or freeman of a borough.
Blackstone.
Ķ ĹA burgess of a borough corresponds with a citizen of a city.ł
Burrill.
2. One who represents a borough in Parliament.
3. A magistrate of a borough.
4. An inhabitant of a Scotch burgh qualified to vote for municipal officers.
Ķ Before the Revolution, the representatives in the popular branchˇof the legislature of Virginia were called burgesses; they are now called delegates.
Burgess oath. See Burgher, 2.
Bur∂gess–ship (?), n. The state of privilege of a burgess.
South.
Burg∂grave (?), n. [G. burggraf; burg fortress + graf count: cf. D. burggraaf, F. burgrave. See Margrave.] (Gremany) Originally, one appointed to the command of a burg (fortress or castle); but the title afterward became hereditary, with a domain attached.
Burgh (?), n. [OE. See Burg.] A borough or incorporated town, especially, one in Scotland. See Borough.
Burgh∂al (?), a. Belonging of a burgh.
Burgh∂bote∑ (?), n. [Burgh + bote.] (Old Law) A contribution toward the building or repairing of castles or walls for the defense of a city or town.
Burgh∂brech∑ (?), n. [Burgh + F. bräche, equiv. to E. breach.] (AS. Law) The offense of violating the pledge given by every inhabitant of a tithing to keep the peace; breach of the peace.
Burrill.
Burgh∂er (?), n. [From burgh; akin to D. burger, G. bĀrger, Dan. borger, Sw. borgare. See Burgh.] 1. A freeman of a burgh or borough, entitled to enjoy the privileges of the place; any inhabitant of a borough.
2. (Eccl. Hist.) A member of that party, among the Scotch seceders, which asserted the lawfulness of the burgess oath (in which burgesses profess Ĺthe true religion professed within the realmł), the opposite party being called antiburghers.
Ķ These parties arose among the Presbyterians of Scotland, in 1747, and in 1820 reunited under the name of the ĹUnited Associate Synod of the Secession Church.ł
Burgh∂erŌmas∑ter (?), n. See Burgomaster.
Burgh∂erŌship (?), n. The state or privileges of a burgher.
Burgh∂mas∑ter (?), n. 1. Aˇburgomaster.
2. (Mining) An officer who directs and lays out the meres or boundaries for the workmen; – called also bailiff, and barmaster. [Eng.]
Burgh∂mote∑ (?), n. (AS. Law) [Burgh + mote meeting.] A court or meeting of a burgh or borough; a borough court held three times yearly.
Bur∂glar (?), n. [OE. burg town, F. bourg, fr. LL. burgus (of German origin) + OF. lere thief, fr. L. latro. See Borough, and Larceny.] (Law) One guilty of the crime of burglary.
Burglar alarm, a device for giving alarm if a door or window is opened from without.
Bur∂glarŌer (?), n. A burglar. [Obs.]
BurŌgla∂riŌous (?), a. Pertaining to burglary; constituting the crime of burglary.
To come down a chimney is held a burglarious entry.
Blackstone.
BurŌgla∂riŌousŌly, adv. With an intent to commit burglary; in the manner of a burglar.
Blackstone.
Bur∂glaŌry (?), n.; pl. Burglaries (?). [Fr. Burglar; cf. LL. burglaria.] (Law) Breaking and entering the dwelling house of another, in the nighttime, with intent to commit a felony therein, whether the felonious purpose be accomplished or not.
Wharton. Burrill.
Ķ By statute law in some of the United States, burglary includes the breaking with felonious intent into a house by day as well as by night, and into other buildings than dwelling houses. Various degrees of the crime are established.
Bur∂goŌmas∑ter (?), n. [D. burgemeester; burgˇborough + meester master; akin to G. burgemeister, bĀrgermeister. See 1st Borough, and Master.] 1. A chief magistrate of a municipal town in Holland, Flanders, and Germany, corresponding to mayor in Englandˇand the United States; a burghmaster.
2. (ZoĒl.) An aquatic bird, the glaucous gull (Larus glaucus), common in arctic regions.
Bur∂goŌnet (?), n. [F. bouruignotte, because the Burgundians, F. Bouruignons, first used it.] A kind of helmet. [Written also burganet.]
Shak.
Bur∂goo (?), n. [Prov. E. burgood yeast, perh. fr. W. burym yeast + cawl cabbage, gruel.] A kind of oatmeal pudding, or thick gruel, used by seamen. [Written also burgout.]
Bur∂grass∑ (?), n. (Bot.) Grass of the genus Cenchrus, growing in sand, and having burs for fruit.
Bur∂grave (?), n. [F.] See Burggrave.
Bur∂gunŌdy (?), n. 1. An old province of France (in the eastern central part).
2. A richly flavored wine, mostly red, made in Burgundy, France.
Burgundy pitch, a resinous substance prepared from the exudation of the Norway spruce (Abies excelsa) by melting in hot water and straining through cloth. The genuine Burgundy pitch, supposed to have been first prepared in Burgundy, is rare, but there are many imitations. It has a yellowish brown color, is translucent and hard, but viscous. It is used in medicinal plasters.
Burh (?), n. See Burg. [Obs.]
Bur∂hel, Burr∂hel } (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The wild Himalayan, or blue, sheep (Ovis burrhel).
Bur∂iŌal (?), n. [OE. buriel, buriels, grave, tomb, AS. byrgels, fr. byrgan to bury, and akin to OS. burgisli sepulcher.] 1. A grave; a tomb; a place of sepulture. [Obs.]
The ert?e schook, and stoones weren cloven, and biriels weren opened.
Wycliff [Matt.xxvii.51, 52].
2. The act of burying; depositing a dead body in the earth, in a tomb or vault, or in the water, usually with attendant ceremonies; sepulture; interment. ĹTo give a public burial.ł
Shak.
Now to glorious burial slowly borne.
Tennyson.
Burial case, a form of coffin, usually of iron, made to close air–tight, for the preservation of a dead body. – Burial ground, a piece of ground selected and set apart for a placeˇof buriials, and consecrated to such use by religious ceremonies. – Burial place, any place where burials are made. – Burial service. (a) The religious service performed at the interment of the dead; a funeral service. (b) That portion of a liturgy which is read at an interment; as, the English burial service.
Syn. - Sepulture; interment; inhumation.
Bur∂iŌer (?), n. One who, or that which, buries.
Till the buriers have buried it.
Ezek.xxxix.15.
And darkness be the burier of the dead.
Shak.
Bu∂rin (?), n. [F. burin, cf. It. burino, bulino; prob. from OHG. bora borer, bor”n to bore, G. bohren. See 1st Bore.] 1. The cutting tool of an engraver on metal, used in line engraving. It is made of tempered steel, one end being ground off obliquely so as to produce a sharp point, and the other end inserted in a handle; a graver; also, the similarly shaped tool used by workers in marble.
2. The manner or style of execution of an engraver; as, a soft burin; a brilliant burin.
Bu∂rinŌist, n. One who works with the burin.
For. Quart. Rev.
Bu∂riŌon (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The red–breasted house sparrow of California (Carpodacus frontalis); – called also crimson–fronted bullfinch. [Written also burrion.]
Burke (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burked (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burking.] [From one Burke of Edinburgh, who committed the crime in 1829.] 1. To murder by suffocation, or so as to produce few marks of violence, for the purpose of obtaining a body to be sold for dessection.
2. To dispose of quietly or indirectly; to suppress; to smother; to shelve; as, to burke a parliamentary question.
The court could not burke an inquiry, supported by such a mass of a affidavits.
C.Reade.
Burk∂ism (?), n. The practice of killing persons for the purpose of selling their bodies for dissection.
Burl (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burling.] [OE. burle stuffing, or a knot in cloth; cf. F. bourlet, bourrelet, OF. bourel, a wreath or a roll of cloth, linen, or leather, stuffed with flocks, etc., dim. of bourre. Ż92. See Bur.] To dress or finish up (cloth); to pick knots, burs, loose threads, etc., from, as in finishing cloth.
Burling iron, a peculiar kind of nippers or tweezers used in burling woolen cloth.
Burl, n. 1. A knot or lump in thread or cloth.
2. An overgrown knot, or an excrescence, on a tree; also, veneer made from such excrescences.
Bur∂lap (?), n. A coarse fabric, made of jute or hemp, used for bagging; also, a finer variety of similar material, used for curtains, etc. [Written also burlaps.]
Burl∂er (?), n. One who burls or dresses cloth.
BurŌlesque∂ (?), a. [F. burlesque, fr. It. burlesco, fr. burla jest, mockery, perh. for burrula, dim. of L. burrae trifles. See Bur.] Tending to excite laughter or contempt by extravagant images, or by a contrast between the subject and the manner of treating it, as when a trifling subject is treated with mock gravity; jocular; ironical.
It is a dispute among the critics, whether burlesque poetry runs best in heroic verse, like that of the Dispensary, or in doggerel, like that of Hudibras.
Addison.
BurŌlesque∂ (?), n. 1. Ludicrous representation; exaggerated parody; grotesque satire.
Burlesque is therefore of two kinds; the first represents mean persons in the accouterments of heroes, the other describes great persons acting and speaking like the basest among the people.
Addison.
2. An ironical or satirical composition intended to excite laughter, or to ridicule anything.
The dull burlesque appeared with impudence,
And pleased by novelty in spite of sense.
Dryden.
3. A ludicrous imitation; a caricature; a travesty; a gross perversion.
Who is it that admires, and from the heart is attached to, national representative assemblies, but must turn with horror and disgust from such a profane burlesque and abominable perversion of that sacred institute?
Burke.
Syn. - Mockery; farce; travesty; mimicry.
BurŌlesque∂ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burlesqued (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burlesquing (?).] To ridicule, or to make ludicrous by grotesque representation in action or in language.
They burlesqued the prophet Jeremiah's words, and turned the expression he used into ridicule.
Stillingfleet.
BurŌlesque∂, v.i. To employ burlesque.
BurŌles∂quer (?), n. One who burlesques.

<-- p. 194 -->

ōBurŌlet∂ta (?), n. [It., dim. of burla mockery. See Burlesque, a.] (Mus.) A comic operetta; a music farce.
Byron.
Bur∂liŌness (?), n. Quality of being burly.
Bur∂ly (?), a. [OE. burlichˇstrong, excellent; perh. orig. fit for a lady's bower, hence handsome, manly, stout. Cf. Bower.] 1. Having a large, strong, or gross body; stout; lusty; – now used chiefly of human beings, but formerly of animals, in the sense of stately or beautiful, and of inanimate things that were huge and bulky. ĹBurly sacks.ł
Drayton.
In his latter days, with overliberal diet, [he was] somewhat corpulent and burly.
Sir T.More.
Burly and big, and studious of his ease.
Cowper.
2. Coarse and rough; boisterous.
It was the orator's own burly way of nonsense.
Cowley.
Bur∂man (?), n.; pl. Burmans (?). [ĹThe softened modern M'yan–ma, M'yan–ma [native name], is the source of the European corruption Burma.ł Balfour.] (Ethnol.) A member of the Burman family, one of the four great families Burmah; also, sometimes, any inhabitant of Burmah; a Burmese. – a. Of or pertaining to the Burmans or to Burmah.
Bur∂ mar∂iŌgold (?). See Beggar's ticks.
Bur∑mese∂ (?), a. Of or pertaining to Burmah, or its inhabitants. – n.sing. & pl. A native or the natives of Burmah. Also (sing.), the languageˇof the Burmans.
Burn (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burned (?) or Burnt (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burning.] [OE. bernen, brennen, v.t., early confused with beornen, birnen, v.i., AS. bĎrnan, bernan, v.t., birnan, v.i.; akin to OS. brinnan, OFries. barna, berna, OHG. brinnan, brennan, G. brennen, OD. bernen, D. branden, Dan. brĎnde, Sw. brĄnna, brinna, Icel. brenna, Goth. brinnan, brannjan (in comp.), and possibly to E. fervent.] 1. To consume with fire; to reduce to ashes by the action of heat or fire; – frequently intensified by up: as, to burn up wood. ĹWe'll burn his body in the holy place.ł
Shak.
2. To injure by fire or heat; to change destructively some property or properties of, by undue exposure to fire or heat; to scorch; to scald; to blister; to singe; to char; to sear; as, to burn steel in forging; to burn one's face in the sun; the sun burns the grass.
3. To perfect or improve by fire or heat; to submit to the action of fire or heat for some economic purpose; to destroy or change some property or properties of, by exposure to fire or heat in due degree for obtaining a desired residuum, product, or effect; to bake; as, to burn clay in making bricks or pottery; to burn wood so as to produce charcoal; to burn limestone for the lime.
4. To make or produce, as an effect or result, by the application of fire or heat; as, to burn a hole; to burn charcoal; to burn letters into a block.
5. To consume, injure, or change the condition of, as if by action of fire or heat; to affect as fire or heat does; as, to burn the mouth with pepper.
This tyrant fever burns me up.
Shak.
This dry sorrow burns up all my tears.
Dryden.
When the cold north wind bloweth, ... it devoureth the mountains, and burneth the wilderness, and consumeth the ??ass as fire.
Ecclus.xliii.20, 21.
6. (Surg.) To apply a cautery to; to cauterize.
7. (Chem.) To cause to combine with oxygen or other active agent, with evolution of heat; to consume; to oxidize; as, a man burns a certain amount of carbon at each respiration; to burn iron in oxygen.
To burn, To burn together, as two surfaces of metal (Engin.), to fuse and unite them by pouring over them a quantity of the same metal in a liquid state. – To burn a bowl (Game of Bowls), to displace it accidentally, the bowl so displaced being said to be burned. – To burn daylight, to light candles before it is dark; to waste time; to perform superfluous actions. Shak. – To burn one's fingers, to get one's self into unexpected trouble, as by interfering the concerns of others, speculation, etc. – To burn out, to destroy or obliterate by burning. ĹMust you with hot irons burn out mine eyes?ł Shak. – To be burned out, to suffer loss by fire, as the burning of one's house, store, or shop, with the contents. – To burn up, To burn down, to burn entirely.
Burn, v.i. 1. To be of fire; to flame. ĹThe mount burned with fire.ł
Deut.ix.15.
2. To suffer from, or be scorched by, an excess of heat.
Your meat doth burn, quoth I.
Shak.
3. To have a condition, quality, appearance, sensation, or emotion, as if on fire or excessively heated; to act or rage with destructive violence; to be in a state of lively emotion or strong desire; as, the face burns; to burn with fever.
Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way?
Luke xxiv.32.
The barge she sat in, like a burnished throne,
Burned on the water.
Shak.
Burning with high hope.
Byron.

The groan still deepens, and the combat burns.
Pope.
The parching air
Burns frore, and cold performs the effect of fire.
Milton.
4. (Chem.) To combine energetically, with evolution of heat; as, copper burns in chlorine.
5. In certain games, to approach near to a concealed object which is sought. [Colloq.]
To burn out, to burn till the fuel is exhausted. – To burn up, To burn down, to be entirely consumed.
Burn, n. 1. A hurt, injury, or effect caused by fire or excessive or intense heat.
2. The operation or result of burning or baking, as in brickmaking; as, they have a good burn.
3. A disease in vegetables. See Brand, n., 6.
Burn, n. [See 1st Bourn.] A small stream. [Scot.]
Burn∂aŌble (?), a. Combustible.
Cotgrave.
Burned (?), p.p. & a. See Burnt.
Burned (?), p.p. Burnished. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
Burn∂er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, burns or sets fire to anything.
2. The part of a lamp, gas fixture, etc., where the flame is produced.
Bunsen's burnerˇ(Chem.), a kind of burner, invented by Professor Bunsen of Heidelberg, consisting of a straight tube, four or five inches in length, having small holes for the entrance of air at the bottom. Illuminating gas being also admitted at the bottom, a mixture of gas and air is formed which burns at the top with a feebly luminous but intensely hot flame. – Argand burner, Rose burner, etc. See under Argand, Rose, etc.
Bur∂net (?), n. [OE. burnet burnet; also, brownish (the plant perh. being named from its color), fr. F. brunet, dim. of brun brown; cf. OF. brunete a sort of flower. See Brunette.] (Bot.) A genus of perennial herbs (Poterium); especially, P.Sanguisorba, the common, or garden, burnet.
Burnet moth (ZoĒl.), in England, a handsome moth (ZygĎna filipendula), with crimson spots on the wings. – Burnet saxifrage. (Bot.) See Saxifrage. – Canadian burnet, a marsh plant (Poterium Canadensis). – Great burnet, Wild burnet, Poterium (or Sanguisorba) oficinalis.
Bur∂nettŌize (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burnettized (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burnettizing.] (Manuf.) To subject (wood, fabrics, etc.) to a process of saturation in a solution of chloride of zinc, to prevent decay; – a process invented by Sir William Burnett.
Burn∂ie (?), n. [See 4th Burn.] A small brook. [Scot.]
Burns.
Bur∂nieŌbee∑ (?), n. The ladybird. [Prov. Eng.]
Burn∂ing, a. 1. That burns; being on fire; excessively hot; fiery.
2. Consuming; intense; inflaming; exciting; vehement; powerful; as, burning zeal.
Like a young hound upon a burning scent.
Dryden.
Burning bush (Bot.), an ornamental shrub (Eunoymus atropurpureus), bearing a crimson berry.
Burn∂ing, n. The act of consuming by fire or heat, or of subjecting to the effect of fire or heat; the state of being on fire or excessively heated.
Burning fluid, any volatile illuminating oil, as the lighter petroleums (naphtha, benzine), or oil of turpentine (camphine), but esp. a mixture of the latter with alcohol. – Burning glass, a conxex lens of considerable size, used for producing an intense heat by converging the sun's rays to a focus. – Burning houseˇ(Metal.), the furnace in which tin ores are calcined, to sublime the sulphur and arsenic from the pyrites. Weale. – Burning mirror, a concave mirror, or a combination of plane mirrors, used for the same purpose as a burning glass.
Syn. - Combustion; fire; conflagration; flame; blaze.
Bur∂nish (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Burnished (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burnishing.] [OE. burnischen, burnissen, burnen, OF. burnir, brunir, to make brown, polish, F. brunir, fr. F. brun brown, fr. OHG. br?n; cf. MHG. briunen 8make brown, polish. See Brown, a.] To cause to shine; to make smooth and bright; to polish; specifically, to polish by rubbing with something hard and smooth; as, to burnish brass or paper.
The frame of burnished steel, that east a glare
From far, and seemed to thaw the freezing air.
Dryden.
Now the village windows blaze,
Burnished by the setting sun.
Cunningham.
Burnishing machine, a machine for smoothing and polishing by compression, as in making paper collars.
Bur∂nish, v.i. To shine forth; to brighten; to become smooth and glossy, as from swelling or filling out; hence, to grow large.
A slender poet must have time to grow,
And spread and burnish as his brothers do.
Dryden.
My thoughts began to burnish, sprout, and swell.
Herbert.
Bur∂nish, n. The effect of burnishing; gloss; brightness; luster.
Crashaw.
Bur∂nishŌer (?), n. 1. One who burnishes.
2. A tool with a hard, smooth, rounded end or surface, as of steel, ivory, or agate, used in smoothing or polishing by rubbing. It has a variety of forms adapted to special uses.
Bur∂noose, Bur∂nous (?), n. [Ar. burnus a kind of high–crowned cap: cf. F. bournous, burnous, Sp. al–bornoz, a sort of upper garment, with a hood attached.] 1. A cloaklike garment and hood woven in one piece, worn by Arabs.
2. A combination cloak and hood worn by women. [Variously written bournous, bernouse, bornous, etc.]
Burn∂stic∑kle (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A stickle?back (Gasterosteus aculeatus).
Burnt (?), p.p. & a. Consumed with, or as with, fire; scorched or dried, as with fire or heat; baked or hardened in the fire or the sun.
Burnt ear, a black, powdery fungus which destroys grain. See Smut. – Burnt offering, something offered and burnt on an altar, as an atonement for sin; a sacrifice. The offerings of the Jews were a clean animal, as an ox, a calf, a goat, or a sheep; or some vegetable substance, as bread, or ears of wheat or barley. Called also burnt sacrifice. [2 Sam.xxiv.22.]
Burr (?), n. [See Bur.] (Bot.) 1. A prickly seed vessel. See Bur, 1.
2. The thin edge or ridge left by a tool in cutting or shaping metal, as in turning, engraving, pressing, etc.; also, the rough neck left on a bullet in casting.
The graver, in plowing furrows in the surface of the copper, raises corresponding ridges or burrs.
Tomlinson.
3. A thin flat piece of metal, formed from a sheet by punching; a small washer put on the end of a rivet before it is swaged down.
4. A broad iron ring on a tilting lance just below the gripe, to prevent the hand from slipping.
5. The lobe or lap of the ear.
6. [Probably of imitative origin.] A guttural pronounciation of the letter r, produced by trilling the extremity of the soft palate against the back part of the tongue; rotacism; – often called the Newcastle, Northumberland, or Tweedside, burr.
7. The knot at the bottom of an antler. See Bur, n., 8.
Burr (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Burred (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burring.] To speak with burr; to make a hoarse or guttural murmur.
Mrs. Browning.
Bur∂rel (?), n. [Cf. OF. burel reddish (cf. Borel, n.), or F. beurrā butter pear, fr. beurre butter. Cf. Butter.] A sort of pear, called also the red butter pear, its smooth, delicious, soft pulp.
Bur∂rel, n. Same as Borrel.
Bur∂rel fly∑ (?). [From its reddish color. See 1st Burrel.] (ZoĒl.) The botfly or gadfly of cattle (Hypoderma bovis). See Gadfly.
Bur∂rel shot∑ (?). [Either from annoying the enemy like a burrel fly, or, less probably, fr. F. bourrelerˇto sting, torture.] (Gun.) A mixture of shot, nails, stones, pieces of old iron, etc., fired from a cannon at short range, in an emergency. [R.]
Burr∂ing maŌchine∂ (?). A machine for cleansing wool of burs, seeds, and otherˇsubstances.
Burr∂ mill∂stone∑ (?). See Buhrstone.
Bur∂ro (?), n. [Sp., an ass.] (ZoĒl.) A donkey. [Southern U.S.]
Bur∂rock (?), n. [Perh. from AS. burg, burh, hill + Ōock.] A small weir or dam in a river to direct the stream to gaps where fish traps are placed.
Knight.
Bur∂row (?), n. [See 1st Borough.] 1. An incorporated town. See 1st Borough.
2. A shelter; esp. a hole in the ground made by certain animals, as rabbits, for shelter and habitation.
3. (Mining) A heap or heaps of rubbish or refuse.
4. A mound. See 3d Barrow, and Camp, n., 5.
Bur∂row, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Burrowed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burrowing.] 1. To excavate a hole to lodge in, as in the earth; to lodge in a hole excavated in the earth, as conies or rabbits.
2. To lodge, or take refuge, in any deep or concealed place; to hide.
Sir, this vermin of court reporters, when they are forced into day upon one point, are sure to burrow in another.
Burke.
Burrowing owlˇ(ZoĒl.), a small owl of the western part of North America (Speotyto cunicularia), which lives in holes, often in company with the prairie dog.
Bur∂rowŌer (?), n. One who, or that which, burrows; an animal that makes a hole under groundˇand lives in it.
Burr∂stone∑, n. See Buhrstone.
Burr∂y (?), a. Abounding in burs, or containing burs; resembling burs; as, burry wool.
ōBur∂sa (?), n.; pl. BursĎ (?). [L. See Burse.] (Anat.) Any sac or saclike cavity; especially, one of the synovial sacs, or small spaces, often lined with synovial membrane, interposed between tendons and bony prominences.
Bur∂sal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to a bursa or to bursĎ.
Bur∂sar (?), n. [LL. bursarius, fr. bursa purse. See Burse, and cf. Purser.] 1. A treasurer, or cash keeper; a purser; as, the bursar of a college, or of a monastery.
2. A student to whom a stipend or bursary is paid for his complete or partial support.
Bur∂sarŌship, n. The office of a bursar.
Bur∂saŌry (?), n.; pl. Ōries (?). [LL. bursaria. See Bursar.] 1. The treasury of a college or monastery.
2. A scholarship or charitable foundation in a university, as in scotland; a sum given to enable a student to pursue his studies. ĹNo woman of rank or fortune but would have a bursary in her gift.ł
Southey.
ōBursch (?), n.; pl. Burschen (?). [G., ultimately fr. LL. bursa. See Burse.] A youth; especially, a student in a german university.
Burse (?), n. [LL. bursa, or F. bourse. See Bourse, and cf. Bursch, Purse.] 1. A purse; also, a vesicle; a pod; a hull. [Obs.]
Holland.
2. A fund or foundation for the maintenance of needy scholars in their studies; also, the sum given to the beneficiaries. [Scot.]
3. (Eccl.) An ornamental case of hold the corporal when not in use.
Shipley.
4. An exchange, for merchants and bankers, in the cities of continental Europe. Same as Bourse.
5. A kind of bazaar. [Obs.]
She says she went to the burse for patterns.
Old Play.
BurŌsic∂uŌlate (?), a. [See Burse.] (Bot.) Bursiform.
Bur∂siŌform (?), a. [LL. bursa purse + Ōform.] Shaped like a purse.
ōBurŌsi∂tis (?), n. [NL., fr. E. bursa + Ōitis.] (Med.) Inflammation of a bursa.
Burst (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Burst; p.pr. & vb.n. Bursting. The past participle bursten is obsolete.] [OE. bersten, bresten, AS. berstan (pers. sing. berste, imp. sing. bĎrst, imp. pl. burston, p.p. borsten); akin to D. bersten, G. bersten, OHG. brestan, OS. brestan, Icel. bresta, Sw. brista, Dan. briste. Cf. Brast, Break.] 1. To fly apart or in pieces; of break open; to yield to force or pressure, especiallyˇto a sudden and violent exertion of force, or to pressure from within; to explode; as, the boiler had burst; the buds will burst in spring.
From the egg that soon
Bursting with kindly rupture, forth disclosed
Their callow young.
Milton.
Often used figuratively, as of the heart, in reference to a surcharge of passion, grief, desire, etc.
No, no, my heart will burst, an if I speak:
And I will speak, that so my heart may burst.
Shak.
2. To exert force or pressure by which something is made suddenly to give way; to break through obstacles or limitations; hence, to appear suddenly and unexpecedly or unaccountably, or to depart in such manner; – usually with some qualifying adverb or preposition, as forth, out, away, into, upon, through, etc.
Tears, such as angels weep, burst forth.
Milton.
And now you burst (ah cruel!) from my arms.
Pope.
A resolved villain
Whose bowels suddenly burst out.
Shak.
We were the first that ever burst
Into that silent sea.
Coleridge.
To burst upon him like an earthquake.
Goldsmith.

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Burst (?), v.t. 1. To break or rend by violence, as by an overcharge or by strain or pressure, esp. from within; to force open suddenly; as, to burst a cannon; to burst a blood vessel; to burst open the doors.
My breast I'll burst with straining of my courage.
Shak.
2. To break. [Obs.]
You will not pay for the glasses you have burst?
Shak.
He burst his lance against the sand below.
Fairfax (Tasso).
3. To produce as an effect of bursting; as, to burst a hole through the wall.
Bursting charge. See under Charge.
Burst, n. 1. A sudden breaking forth; a violent rending; an explosion; as, a burst of thunder; a burst of applause; a burst of passion; a burst of inspiration.
Bursts of fox–hunting melody.
W.Irving.
2. Any brief, violent evertion or effort; a spurt; as, a burst of speed.
3. A sudden opening, as of landscape; a stretch; an expanse. [R.] ĹA fine burst of country.ł
Jane Austen.
4. A rupture of hernia; a breach.
Burst∂en (?), p.p. of Burst, v.i. [Obs.]
Burst∂er (?), n. One that bursts.
Burst∂wort∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A plant (Herniaria glabra) supposed to be valuable for the cure of hernia or rupture.
Burt (?), n. (ZoĒl.) See Birt. [Prov. Eng.]
Bur∂then (?), n. & v.t. See Burden. [Archaic]
Bur∂ton (?), n. [Cf. OE. & Prov. E. bortˇto press or indent anything.] (Naut.) A peculiar tackle, formed of two or more blocks, or pulleys, the weight being suspended of a hook block in the bight of the running part.
Bur∂y (?), n. [See 1st Borough.] 1. A borough; a manor; as, the Bury of St. Edmond's; – used as a termination of names of places; as, Canterbury, Shrewsbury.
2. A manor house; a castle. [Prov. Eng.]
To this very day, the chief house of a manor, or the lord's seat, is called bury, in some parts of England.
Miege.
Bur∂y (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buried (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Burying (?).] [OE. burien, birien, berien, AS. byrgan; akin to beorgan to protect, OHG. bergan, G. bergen, Icel. bjarga, Sw. berga, Dan. bierge, Goth. ba°rgan. Ż95. Cf. Burrow.] 1. To cover out of sight, either by heaping something over, or by placing within something, as earth, etc.; to conceal by covering; to hide; as, to bury coals in ashes; to bury the face in the hands.
And all their confidence
Under the weight of mountains buried deep.
Milton.
2. Specifically: To cover out of sight, as the body of a deceased person, in a grave, a tomb, or the ocean; to deposit (a corpse) in its resting place,ˇwith funeral ceremonies; to inter; to inhume.
Lord, suffer me first to go and bury my father.
Matt.viii.21.
I'll bury thee in a triumphant grave.
Shak.
3. To hide in oblivion; to put away finally; to abandon; as, to bury strife.
Give me a bowl of wine
In this I bury all unkindness, Cassius.
Shak.
Burying beetleˇ(ZoĒl.), the general name of many species of beetles, of the tribe Necrophaga; the sexton beetle; – so called from their habit of burying small dead animals by digging away the earth beneath them. The larvĎ frrd upon decaying flesh, and are useful scavengers. – To bury the hatchet, to lay aside the instruments of war, and make peace; – a phrase used in allusion to the custom observed by the North American Indians, of burying a tomahawk when they conclude a peace.
Syn. - To intomb; inter; inhume; inurn; hide; cover; conceal; overwhelm; repress.
Bur∂yŌing ground∑, Bur∂yŌing place. The ground or place for burying the dead; burial place.
Bus (?), n. [Abbreviated from omnibus.] An omnibus. [Colloq.]
Bus∂by (?), n.; pl. Busbies (?). (Mil.) A military headdress or cap, used in the British army. It is of fur, with a bag, of the same color as the facings of the regiment, hanging from the top over the right shoulder.
ōBus∂con (?), n. [Sp., a searcher, fr. buscar to search.] One who searches for ores; a prospector. [U.S.]
Bush (?), n. [OE. bosch, busch, buysch, bosk, busk; akin to D. bosch, OHG. busc, G. busch, Icel. b?skr, b?ski, Dan. busk, Sw. buske, and also to LL. boscus, buscus, Pr. bosc, It. bosco, Sp. & Pg. bosque, F. bois, OF. bos. Whether the LL. or G. form i? the original is uncertain; if the LL., it is perh. from the same source as E. box a case. Cf. Ambush, Boscage, Bouquet, Box a case.] 1. A thicket, or place abounding in trees or shrubs; a wild forest.
Ķ This was the original sense of the word, as in the Dutch bosch, a wood, and was so used by Chaucer. In this sense it is extensively used in the British colonies, especially at the Cape of Good Hope, and also in Australia and Canada; as, to live or settle in the bush.
2. A shrub; esp., a shrub with branches rising from or near the root; a thick shrub or a cluster of shrubs.
To bind a bush of thorns among sweet–smelling flowers.
Gascoigne.
3. A shrub cut off, or a shrublike branch of a tree; as, bushes to support pea vines.
4. A shrub or branch, properly, a branchˇof ivy (as sacred to Bacchus), hung out at vintners' doors, or as a tavern sign; hence, a tavern sign, and symbolically, the tavern itself.
If it be true that good wine needs no bush, 't is true that a good play needs no epilogue.
Shak.
5. (Hunting) The tail, or brush, of a fox.
To beat about the bush, to approach anything in a round–about manner, instead of coming directly to it; – a metaphor taken from hunting. – Bush beanˇ(Bot.), a variety of bean which is low and requires no support (Phaseolus vulgaris, variety nanus). See Bean, 1. – Bush buck, or Bush goat (ZoĒl.), a beautiful South African antelope (Tragelaphus sylvaticus); – so called because found mainly in wooden localities. The name is also applied to otherˇspecies. – Bush cat (ZoĒl.), the serval. See Serval. – Bush chat (ZoĒl.), a bird of the genus Pratincola, of the Thrush family. – Bush dog. (ZoĒl.) See Potto. – Bush hammer. See Bushhammer in the Vocabulary. – Bush harrow (Agric.) See under Harrow. – Bush hog (ZoĒl.), a South African wild hog (Potamoch“rus Africanus); – called also bush pig, and water hog. – Bush master (ZoĒl.), a venomous snake (Lachesis mutus) of Guinea; – called also surucucu. – Bush pea (Bot.), a variety of pea that needs to be bushed. – Bush shrike (ZoĒl.), a bird of the genus Thamnophilus, and allied genera; – called also batarg. Many species inhabit tropical America. – Bush titˇ(ZoĒl.), a small bird of the genus Psaltriparus, allied to the titmouse. P. minimus inhabits California.
Bush (?), v.i. To branch thickly in the manner of a bush. ĹThe bushing alders.ł
Pope.
Bush, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bushed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bushing.] 1. To set bushes for; to support with bushes; as, to bush peas.
2. To use a bush harrow on (land), for covering seeds sown; to harrow with a bush; as, to bush a piece of land; to bush seeds into the ground.
Bush, n. [D. bus a box, akin to E. box; or F. boucher to plug.] 1. (Mech.) A lining for a hole to make it smaller; a thimble or ring of metal or wood inserted in a plate or other part of machinery to receive the wear of a pivot or arbor.
Knight.
Ķ In the larger machines, such a piece is called a box, particularly in the United States.
2. (Gun.) A piece of ??pper, screwed into a gun, through which the venthole is bored.
Farrow.
Bush, v.t. To furnish with a bush, or lining; as, to bush a pivot hole.
Bush∂boy (?), n. See Bushman.
Bush∂el (?), n. [OE. buschel, boischel, OF. boissel, bussel, boistel, F. boisseau, LL. bustellus; dim. of bustia, buxida (OF. boiste), fr. pyxida, acc. of L. pyxis box, Gr. ?. Cf. Box.] 1. A dry measure, containing four pecks, eight gallons, or thirty–two quarts.
Ķ The Winchester bushel, formerly used in England, contained 2150.42 cubic inches, being the volume of a cylinder 18? inches in internal diameter and eight inches in depth. The standard bushel measures, prepared by the United States Government and distributed to the States, hold each 77.6274 pounds of distilled water, at 39.8Ý Fahr. and 30 inches atmospheric pressure, being the equivalent of the Winchester bushel. The imperial bushel now in use in England is larger than the Winchester bushel, containing 2218.2 cubic inches, or 80 pounds of water at 62Ý Fahr.
2. A vessel of the capacity of a bushel, used in measuring; a bushel measure.
Is a candle brought to be put under a bushel, or under a bed, and not to be set on a candlestick?
Mark iv.21.
3. A quantity that fills a bushel measure; as, a heap containing ten bushels of apples.
Ķ In the United States a large number of articles, bought and sold by the bushel, are measured by weighing, the number of pounds that make a bushel being determined by State law or by local custom. For some articles, as apples, potatoes, etc., heaped measure is required in measuring a bushel.
4. A large indefinite quantity. [Colloq.]
The worthies of antiquity bought the rarest pictures with bushels of gold, without counting the weight or the number of the pieces.
Dryden.
5. The iron lining in the nave of a wheel. [Eng.] In the United States it is called a box. See 4th Bush.
Bush∂elŌage (?), n. A duty payable on commodities by the bushel. [Eng.]
Bush∂elŌman (?), n. A tailor's assistant for repairing garments; – called also busheler. [Local, U.S.]
Bush∂et (?), n. [See Bosket.] A small bush.
Bush∂fight∑er (?), n. One accustomed to bushfighting.
Parkman.
Bush∂fight∑ing (?), n. Fighting in the bush, or from behind bushes, trees, or thickets.
Bush∂ham∑mer (?), n. A hammer with a head formed of a bundle of square bars, with pyramidal points, arranged in rows, or a solid head with a face cut into a number of rows of such points; – used for dressing stone.
Bush∂ham∑mer, v.t. To dress with bushhammer; as, to bushhammer a block of granite.
Bush∂iŌness (?), n. The condition or quality of being bushy.
Bush∂ing, n. [See 4th Bush.] 1. The operation of fitting bushes, or linings, into holes or places where wear is to be received, or friction diminished, as pivot holes, etc.
2. (Mech.) A bush or lining; – sometimes called ? thimble. See 4th Bush.
Bush∂less (?), a. Free from bushes; bare.
O'er the long backs of the bushless downs.
Tennyson.
Bush∂man (?), n.; pl. Bushmen (?). [Cf. D. boschman, boschjesman. See 1st Bush.] 1. A woodsman; a settler in the bush.
2. (Ethnol.) One of a race of South African nomads, living principally in the deserts, and not classified as allied in race or language to any other people.
Bush∂ment (?), n. [OE. busshement ambush, fr. bush.] 1. A thicket; a cluster of bushes. [Obs.]
Raleigh.
2. An ambuscade. [Obs.]
Sir T.More.
Bush∂ran∑ger (?), n. One who roams, or hides, among the bushes; especially, in Australia, an escaped criminal living in the bush.
Bush∂whack∑er (?), n. 1. One accustomed to beat about, or travel through, bushes. [U.S.]
They were gallant bushwhackers, and hunters of raccoons by moonlight.
W.Irving.
2. A guerrilla; a marauding assassin; one who pretends to be a peaceful citizen, but secretly harasses a hostile force or its sympathizers. [U.S.]
Farrow.
Bush∂whack∑ing, n. 1. Traveling, or working a way, through bushes; pulling by the bushes, as in hauling a boat along the bushy margin of a stream. [U.S.]
T.Flint.
2. The crimes or warfare of bushwhackers. [U.S.]
Bush∂y (?), a. [From 1st Bush.] 1. Thick and spreading, like a bush. ĹBushy eyebrows.ł
Irving.
2. Full of bushes; overgrowing with shrubs.
Dingle, or bushy dell, of this wild wood.
Milton.
Bus∂iŌly (?), adv. In a busy manner.
Busi∂ness (?), n.; pl. Businesses (?). [From Busy.] 1. That which busies one, or that which engages the time, attention, or labor of any one, as his principal concern or interest, whether for a longer or shorter time; constant employment; regular occupation; as, the business of life; business before pleasure.
Wist ye not that I must be about my Father's business?
Luke ii.49.
2. Any particular occupation or employment engaged in for livelihood or gain, as agriculture, trade, art, or a profession. ĹThe business of instruction.ł
Prescott.
3. Financial dealings; buying and selling; traffic in general; mercantile transactions.
It seldom happens that men of a studious turn acquire any degree of reputation for their knowledge of business.
Bp. Popteus.
4. That which one has to do or should do; special service, duty, or mission.
The daughter of the King of France,
On serious business, craving quick despatch,
Importunes personal conference.
Shak.
What business has the tortoise among the clouds?
L'Estrange.
5. Affair; concern; matter; – used in an indefinite sense, and modified by the connected words.
It was a gentle business, and becoming
The action of good women.
Shak.
Bestow
Your needful counsel to our business.
Shak.
6. (Drama) The position, distribution, and order of persons and properties on the stage of a theater, as determined by the stage manager in rehearsal.
7. Care; anxiety; diligence. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
To do one's business, to ruin one. [Colloq.] Wycherley. – To make (a thing) one's business, to occupy one's self with a thing as a special charge or duty. [Colloq.] – To mean business, to be earnest. [Colloq.]
Syn. - Affairs; concern; transaction; matter; engagement; employment; calling; occupation; trade; profession; vocation; office; duty.
Busi∂nessŌlike∑ (?), a. In the manner of one transacting business wisely and by right methods.
Busk (?), n. [F. busc, perh. fr. the hypothetical older form of E. bois wood, because the first busks were made of wood. See Bush, and cf. OF. busche, F. bĖche, a piece or log of wood, fr. the same root.] A thin, elastic strip of metal, whalebone, wood, or other material, worn in the front of a corset.
Her long slit sleeves, stiff busk, puff verdingall,
Is all that makes her thus angelical.
Marston.
Busk, v.t. & i. [imp. & p.p. Busked (?).] [OE. busken, fr. Icel. b?ask to make one's self ready, rexlexive of b?a to prepare, dwell. Cf. 8th Bound.] 1. To prepare; to make ready; to array; to dress. [Scot. & Old Eng.]
Busk you, busk you, my bonny, bonny bride.
Hamilton.
2. To go; to direct one's course. [Obs.]
Ye might have busked you to Huntly banks.
Skelton.
Busked (?), a. Wearing a busk.
Pollok.
Bus∂ket (?), n. [See Bosket, Bouquet.] 1. A small bush; also, a sprig or bouquet. [Obs.]
Spenser.
2. A part of a garden devoted to shrubs. [R.]
Bus∂kin (?), n. [Prob. from OF. brossequin, or D. broosken. See Brodekin.] 1. A strong, protecting covering for the foot, coming some distance up the leg.
The hunted red deer's undressed hide
Their hairy buskins well supplied.
Sir W.Scott.
2. A similar covering for the foot and leg, made with very thick soles, to give an appearance of elevation to the stature; – worn by tragic actors in ancient Greece and Rome. Used as a symbol of tragedy, or the tragic drama, as distinguished from comedy.
Great Fletcher never treads in buskins here,
No greater Jonson dares in socks appear.
Dryden.
Bus∂kined (?), a. 1. Wearing buskins.
Her buskined virgins traced the dewy lawn.
Pope.
2. Trodden by buskins; pertaining to tragedy. ĹThe buskined stage.ł
Milton.
Bus∂ky (?), a. See Bosky, and 1st Bush, n.
Shak.
Buss (?), n. [OE. basse, fr. L. basium; cf. G. bus (Luther), Prov. G. busserl, dim. of bus kiss, bussen to kiss, Sw. puss kiss, pussa to kiss, W. & Gael. bus lip, mouth.] A kiss; a rude or playful kiss; a smack.
Shak.

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Buss (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bussed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bussing.] To kiss; esp. to kiss with a snŌmack, or rudely. ĹNor bussed the milking maid.ł
Tennyson.
Kissing and bussing differ both in this,
We buss our wantons, but our wives we kiss.
Herrick.
Buss, n. [Cf. OF. busse, Pr. bus, LL. bussa, busa, G. bĀse, D. buis.] (Naut.) A small strong vessel with two masts and two cabins; – used in the herring fishery.
The Dutch whalers and herring busses.
Macaulay.
Bust (?), n. [F. buste, fr. It. busto; cf. LL. busta, bustula, box, of the same origin as E. box a case; cf., for the change of meaning, E. chest. See Bushel.] 1. A piece of sculpture representing the upper part of the human figure, including the head, shoulders, and breast.
Ambition sighed: she found it vain to trust
The faithless column, and the crumbling bust.
Pope.
2. The portion of the human figure included between the head and waist, whether in statuary or in the person; the chest or thorax; the upper part of the trunk of the body.
Bus∂tard (?), n. [OF. & Prov. F. bistarde, F. outarde, from L. avis tarda, lit., slow bird. Plin. 10, 22; ĹproximĎ its sunt, quas Hispania aves tardas appellat, GrĎcia ?.ł] (ZoĒl.) A birdˇof the genus Otis.
Ķ The great or bearded bustard (Otis tarda) is the largest game bird in Europe. It inhabits the temperate regions of Europe and Asia, and was formerly common in Great Britain. The little bustard (O. tetrax) inhabits eastern Europe and Morocco. Many otherˇspecies are known in Asia and Africa.
Bus∂ter (?), n. Something huge; a roistering blade; also, a spree. [Slang, U.S.]
Bartlett.
Bus∂tle (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bustled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bustling (?).] [Cf. OE. buskle, perh. fr. AS. bysig busy, bysg–ianˇto busy + the verbal termination Ōle; or Icel. bustla to splash, bustle.] To move noisily; to be rudely active; to move in a way to cause agitation or disturbance; as, to bustle through a crowd.
And leave the world for me to bustle in.
Shak.
Bus∂tle, n. Great stir; agitation; tumult from stirring or excitement.
A strange bustle and disturbance in the world.
South.
Bus∂tle, n. A kind of pad or cushion worn on the back below the waist, by women, to give fullness to the skirts; – called also bishop, and tournure.
Bus∂tler (?), n. An active, stirring person.
Bus∂tling (?), a. Agitated; noisy; tumultuous; characterized by confused activity; as, a bustling crowd. ĹA bustling wharf.ł
Hawthorne.
ōBus∂to (?), n.; pl. Bustoes (?). [It.] A bust; a statue.
With some antick bustoes in the niches.
Ashmole.
Bus∂y (?), a. [OE. busi, bisi, AS. bysig; akin to D. bezig, LG. besig; cf. Skr. bh?shˇto be active, busy.] 1. Engaged in some business; hard at work (either habitually or only for the time being); occupied with serious affairs; not idle nor at leisure; as, a busy merchant.
Sir, my mistress sends you word
THat she is busy, and she can not come.
Shak.
2. Constantly at work; diligent; active.
Busy hammers closing rivets up.
Shak.
Religious motives ... are so busy in the heart.
Addison.
3. Crowded with business or activities; – said of places and times; as, a busy street.
To–morrow is a busy day.
Shak.
4. Officious; meddling; foolish active.
On meddling monkey, or on busy ape.
Shak.
5. Careful; anxious. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
Syn. - Diligent; industrious; assiduous; active; occupied; engaged.
Bus∂y (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Busied (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Busying.] [AS. bysgian.] To make or keep busy; to employ; to engage or keep engaged; to occupy; as, to busy one's self with books.
Be it thy course to busy giddy minds
With foreign quarrels.
Shak.
Bus∂yŌbod∑y (?), n.; pl. Busybodies (?). One who officiously concerns himself with the affairs of others; a meddling person.
And not only idle, but tattlers also and busybodies, speaking things which they ought not.
1 Tim.v.13.
But (?), prep., adv. & conj. [OE. bute, buten, AS. b?tan, without, on the outside, except, besides; pref. beŌ + ?tan outward, without, fr. ?t out. Primarily, b?tan, as well as ?t, is an adverb. Ż198. See By, Out; cf. About.] 1. Except with; unless with; without. [Obs.]
So insolent that he could not go but either spurning equals or ?ampling on his inferiors.
Fuller.
Touch not the cat but a glove.
Motto of the Mackintoshes.
2. Except; besides; save.
Who can it be, ye gods! but perjured Lycon?
E.Smith.
Ķ In this sense, but is often used with other particles, as, but for, without, had it not been for. ĹUncre?ted but for love divine.ł
Young.
3. Excepting or excluding the fact that; save that; were it not that; unless; – elliptical, for but that.
And but my noble Moor is true of mind ... it were enough to put him to ill thinking.
Shak.
4. Otherwise than that; that not; – commonly, after a negative, with that.
It cannot be but nature hatj some director, of infinite power, to guide her in all her ways.
Hooker.
There is no question but the king of Spain will reform most of the abuses.
Addison.
5. Only; solely; merely.
Observe but how their own principles combat one another.
Milton.
If they kill us, we shall but die.
2 Kings vii.4.
A formidable man but to his friends.
Dryden.
6. On the contrary; on the other hand; only; yet; still; however; nevertheless; more; further; – as connective of sentences or clauses of a sentence, in a sense more or less exceptive or adversative; as, the House of Representatives passed the bill, but the Senate dissented; our wants are many, but quite of another kind.
Now abideth faith hope, charity, these three; but the greatest of these is charity.
1 Cor.xiii.13.
When pride cometh, then cometh shame; but with the lowly is wisdom.
Prov.xi.2.
All but. See under All. – But and if, but if; an attempt on the part of King James's translators of the Bible to express the conjunctive and adversative force of the Greek ?.
But and if that servant say in his heart, My lord delayeth his coming; ... the lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him.
Luke xii.45, 46.
– But if, unless. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
But this I read, that but if remedy
Thou her afford, full shortly I her dead shall see.
Spenser.
Syn. - But, However, Still. These conjunctions mark opposition in passing from one thought or topic to another. But marks the opposition with a medium degree of strength; as, this is not winter, but it is almost as cold; he requested my assistance, but I shall not aid him at present. However is weaker, and throws the opposition (as it were) into the background; as, this is not winter; it is, however, almost as cold; he required my assistance; at present, however, I shall not afford him aid. The plan, however, is still under consideration, and may yet be adopted. Still is stronger than but, and marks the opposition more emphatically; as, your arguments are weighty; still they do not convince me. See Except, However.
Ķ ĹThe chief error with but is to use it where and is enough; an error springing from the tendency to use strong words without sufficient occasio,.ł
Bain.
But (?), n. [Cf. But, prep., adv. & conj.] The outer apartment or kitchen of a two–roomed house; – opposed to ben, the inner room. [Scot.]
But, n. [See 1st But.] 1. A limit; a boundary.
2. The end; esp. the larger or thicker end, or the blunt, in distinction from the sharp, end. See 1st Butt.
But end, the larger or thicker end; as, the but end of a log; the but end of a musket. See Butt, n.
But, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Butted; p.pr. & vb.n. Butting.] See Butt, v., and Abut, v.
Bu∂tane (?), n. [L. butyrum butter. See Butter.] (Chem.) An inflammable gaseous hydrocarbon, C?H?, of the marsh gas, or paraffin, series.
Butch∂er (?), n. [OE. bochere, bochier, OF. bochier, F. boucher, orig., slaughterer of buck goats, fr. OF. boc, F. bouc, a buck goat; of German or Celtic origin. See Buck the animal.] 1. One who slaughters animals, or dresses their flesh for market; one whose occupation it is to kill animals for food.
2. A slaughterer; one who kills in large numbers, or with unusual cruelty; one who causes needless loss of life, as in battle. ĹButcher of an innocent child.ł
Shak.
Butcher bird (ZoĒl.), a species of shrike of the genus Lanius.
Ķ The Lanius excubitor is the common butcher birdˇof Europe. In England, the bearded tit is sometimes called the lesser butcher bird. The American species are L.borealis, or northernbutcher bird, and L. Ludovicianus or loggerhead shrike. The name butcher birdis derived from its habit of suspending its prey impaled upon thorns, after killing it.
– Butcher's meat, such flesh of animals slaughtered for food as is sold for that purpose by butchers, as beef, mutton, lamb, and pork.
Butch∂er, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Butchered (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Butchering.] 1. To kill or slaughter (animals) for food, or for market; as, to butcher hogs.
2. To murder, or kill, especially in an unusually bloody or barbarous manner.
Macaulay.
[Ithocles] was murdered, rather butchered.
Ford.
Butch∂erŌing, n. 1. The business of a butcher.
2. The act of slaughtering; the act of killing cruelly and needlessly.
That dreadful butchering of one another.
Addison.
Butch∂erŌliŌness (?), n. Butchery quality.
Butch∂erŌly, a. Like a butcher; without compunction; savage; bloody; inhuman; fell. ĹThe victim of a butcherly murder.ł
D.Webster.
What stratagems, how fell, how butcherly,
This deadly quarrel daily doth beget!
Shak.
Butch∂er's broom∑ (?). (Bot.) A genus of plants (Ruscus); esp. R. aculeatus, which has large red berries and leaflike branches. See Cladophyll.
Butch∂erŌy (?), n. [OE. bocherie shambles, fr. F. boucherie. See Butcher, n.] 1. The business of a butcher. [Obs.]
2. Murder or manslaughter, esp. when committed with unusual barbarity; great or cruel slaughter.
Shak.
The perpetration of human butchery.
Prescott.
3. A slaughterhouse; the shambles; a place where blood is shed. [Obs.]
Like as an ox is hanged in the butchery.
Fabyan.
Syn. - Murder; slaughter; carnage. See Massacre.
But∂ler (?), n. [OE. boteler, F. bouteillier a bottle–bearer, a cupbearer, fr. LL. buticularius, fr. buticula bottle. See Bottle a hollow vessel.] An officer in a king's or a nobleman's household, whose principal business it is to take charge of the liquors, plate, etc.; the head servant in a large house.
The butler and the baker of the king of Egypt.
Gen.xl.5.
Your wine locked up, your butler strolled abroad.
Pope.
But∂lerŌage (?), n. (O. Eng. Law) A duty of two shillings on every tun of wine imported into England by merchant strangers; – so called because paid to the king's butler for the king.
Blackstone.
But∂lerŌship, n. The office of a butler.
But∂ment (?), n. [Abbreviation of Abutment.] 1. (Arch.) A buttress of an arch; the supporter, or that part which joins it to the upright pier.
2. (Masonry) The mass of stone or solid work at the end of a bridge, by which the extreme arches are sustained, or by which the end of a bridge without arches is supported.
Butment cheek (Carp.), the part of a mortised timber surrounding the mortise, and against which the shoulders of the tenon bear.
Knight.
Butt, But (?), n. [F. but butt, aim (cf. butte knoll), or bout, OF. bot, end, extremity, fr. boter, buter, to push, butt, strike, F. bouter;ˇof German origin; cf. OHG. b”zan, akin to E. beat. See Beat, v.t.] 1. A limit; a bound; a goal; the extreme bound; the end.
Here is my journey's end, here my butt
And very sea mark of my utmost sail.
Shak.
Ķ As applied to land, the word is nearly synonymous with mete, and signifies properly the end line or boundary; the abuttal.
2. The thicker end of anything. See But.
3. A mark to be shot at; a target.
Sir W.Scott.
The groom his fellow groom at butts defies,
And bends his bow, and levels with his eyes.
Dryden.
4. A person at whom ridicule, jest, or contempt is directed; as, the butt of the company.
I played a sentence or two at my butt, which I thought very smart.
Addison.
5. A push, thrust, or sudden blow, given by the head of an animal; as, the butt of a ram.
6. A thrust in fencing.
To prove who gave the fairer butt,
John shows the chalk on Robert's coat.
Prior.
7. A piece of land left unplowed at the end of a field.
The hay was growing upon headlands and butts in cornfields.
Burrill.
8. (Mech.) (a) A joint where the ends of two objects come squarely together without scrafing or chamfering; – also called butt joint. (b) The end of a connecting rod or other like piece, to which the boxing is attached by the strap, cotter, and gib. (c) The portion of a half?coupling fastened to the end of a hose.
9. (Shipbuilding) The joint where two planks in a strake meet.
10. (Carp.) A kind of hinge used in hanging doors, etc.; – so named because fastened on the edge of the door, which butts against the casing, instead of on its face, like the strap hinge; also called butt hinge.
11. (Leather Trade) The thickest and stoutest part of tanned oxhides, used for soles of boots, harness, trunks.
12. The hut or shelter of the person who attends to the targets in rifle practice.
Butt chain (Saddlery), a short chain attached to the end of a tug. – Butt end. The thicker end of anything. See Butt end, under 2d But.
Amen; and make me die a good old man!
That's the butt end of a mother's blessing.
Shak.
A butt's length, the ordinary distance from the placeˇof shooting to the butt, or mark. – Butts and bounds (COnveyancing), abuttals and boundaries. In lands of the ordinary rectangular shape, butts are the lines at the ends (F. bouts), and bounds are those on the sides, or sidings, as they were formerly termed. Burrill. – Bead and butt. See under Bead. – Butt and butt, joining end to end without overlapping, as planks. – Butt weld (Mech.), a butt joint, made by welding together the flat ends, or edges, of a piece of iron or steel, or of separate pieces, without having them overlap. See Weld. – Full butt, headfirst with full force. [Colloq.] ĹThe corporal ... ran full butt at the lieutenant.ł Marryat.
Butt, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Butted; p.pr. & vb.n. Butting.] [OE. butten, OF. boterˇto push, F. bouter. See Butt an end, and cf. Boutade.] 1. To join at the butt, end, or outward extremity; to terminate; to be bounded; to abut. [Written also but.]
And Barnsdale there doth butt on Don's well–watered ground.
Drayton.
2. To thrust the head forward; to strike by thrusting the head forward, as an ox or a ram. [See Butt, n.]
A snow–white steer before thine altar led,
Butts with his threatening brows.
Dryden.
Butt, v.t. To strike by thrusting the head against; to strike with the head.
Two harmless lambs are butting one the other.
Sir H.Wotton.
Butt, n. [F. botte, boute, LL. butta. Cf. Bottle a hollow vessel.] A large cask or vessel for wine or beer. It contains two hogsheads.
Ķ A wine butt contains 126 wine gallons (= 105 imperial gallons, nearly); a beer butt 108 ale gallons (= about 110 imperial gallons).
Butt, n. (ZoĒl.) The common English flounder.
ōButte (?), n. [F. See Butt a bound.] A detached low mountain, or high rising abruptly from the general level of the surrounding plain; – applied to peculiar elevations in the Rocky Mountain region.
The creek ... passes by two remarkable buttes of red conglomerate.
Ruxton.

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But∂ter (?), n. [OE. botere, butter, AS. butere, fr. L. butyrum, Gr. ?; either fr. ? ox, cow + ? cheese; or, perhaps, of Scythian origin. Cf. Cow.] 1. An oily, unctuous substance obtained from cream or milk by churning.
2. Any substance resembling butter in degree of consistence, or other qualities, especially, in old chemistry, the chloridess, as butter of antimony, sesquichloride of antimony; also, certain concrete fat oils remaining nearly solid at ordinary temperatures, as butter of cacao, vegetable butter, shea butter.
Butter and eggs (Bot.), a name given to several plants having flowers of two shades of yellow, as Narcissus incomparabilis, and in the United States to the toadflax (Linaria vulgaris). – Butter boat, a small vessel for holding melted butter at table. – Butter flower, the buttercup, a yellow flower. – Butter print, a piece of carved wood used to mark pats of butter; – called also butter stamp. Locke. – Butter tooth, either of the two middle incisors of the upper jaw. – Butter treeˇ(Bot.), a tree of the genus Bassia, the seeds of which yield a substance closely resembling butter. The butter tree of India is the B. butyracea; that of Africa is the Shea tree (B. Parkii). See Shea tree. – Butter trier, a tool used in sampling butter. – Butter wife, a woman who makes or sells butter; – called also butter woman. [Obs. or Archaic]
But∂ter, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buttered (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buttering.] 1. To cover or spread with butter.
I know what's what. I know on which side
My bread is buttered.
Ford.
2. To increase, as stakes, at every throw or every game. [Cant]
Johnson.
Butt∂er (?), n. One who, or that which, butts.
But∂terŌball∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The buffel duck.
But∂terŌbird∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The rice bunting or bobolink; – so called in the island of Jamaica.
But∂terŌbump∑ (?), n. [OE. butturˇthe bittern + 5th bump.] (ZoĒl.) The European bittern.
Johnson.
But∂terŌbur∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A broad–leaved plant (Petasites vulgaris) of the Composite family, said to have been used in England for wrapping up pats of butter.
But∂terŌcup∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Ranunculus, or crowfoot, particularly R. bulbosus, with bright yellow flowers; – called also butterflower, golden cup, and kingcup. It is the cuckoobud of Shakespeare.
But∂ter–fin∑gered (?), a. Apt to let things fall, or to let them slip away; slippery; careless.
But∂terŌfish∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A name given to several different fishes, in allusion to their slippery coating of mucus, as the Stromateus triacanthus of the Atlantic coast, the Epinephelus punctatus of the southern coast, the rock eel, and the kelpfish of New Zealand.
But∂terŌfly∑ (?), n.; pl. Butterflies (?). [Perh. from the color of a yellow species. AS. buter–fl«ge, buttor–fleĘge; cf. G. butterfliege, D. botervlieg. See Butter, and Fly.] (ZoĒl.) A general name for the numerous species of diurnal Lepidoptera. [ See Illust. under Aphrodite.]
Asclepias butterfly. See under Asclepias. – Butterfly fishˇ(ZoĒl.), the ocellated blenny (Blennius ocellaris) of Europe. See Blenny. The term is also applied to the flying gurnard. – Butterfly shellˇ(ZoĒl.), a shell of the genus Voluta. – Butterfly valve (Mech.), a kind of double clack valve, consisting of two semicircular clappers or wings hinged to a cross rib in the pump bucket. When open it somewhat resembles a butterfly in shape.
But∂terŌine (?), n. A substance prepared from animal fat with some other ingredients intermixed, as an imitation of butter.
The manufacturers ship large quantities of oleomargarine to England, Holland, and other countries, to be manufactured into butter, which is sold as butterine or suine.
Johnson's Cyc.
But∂terŌis (?), n. [The same word as buttress, noun, in a different application, F. bouter to push.] (Far.) A steel cutting instrument, with a long bent shank set in a handle which rests against the shoulder of the operator. It is operated by a thrust movement, and used in paring the hoofs of horses.
But∂terŌman∑ (?), n.; pl. Buttermen (?). A man who makes or sells butter.
But∂terŌmilk∑ (?), n. The milk that mains after the butter is separated from the cream.
But∂terŌnut∑ (?), n. 1. (Bot.) An American tree (Juglans cinerea) of the Walnut family, and its edible fruit; – so called from the oil contained in the latter. Sometimes called oil nutˇand white walnut.
2. (Bot.) The nut of the Caryocar butyrosumˇand C. nuciferum, of S. America; – called also Souari nut.
But∂ter–scotch∑ (?), n. A kind of candy, mainly composed of sugar and butter. [Colloq.]
Dickens.
But∂terŌweed∑ (?), n. (Bot.) An annual composite plant of the Mississippi valley (Senecio lobatus).
But∂terŌweight∑ (?), n. Over weight.
Swift.
Ķ Formerly it was a custom to give 18 ounces of butter for a pound.
But∂terŌwort∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A genus of low herbs (Pinguicula) having simple leaves which secrete from their glandular upper surface a viscid fluid, to which insects adhere, after which the margin infolds and the insects are digested by the plant. The species are found mostly in the North Temperate zone.
But∂terŌy (?), a. Having the qualities, consistence, or appearance, of butter.
But∂terŌy, n.; pl. Butteries (?). [OE. botery, botry; cf. LL. botaria wine vessel; also OE. botelerie, fr. F. bouteillerie, fr. boutellie bottle. Not derived from butter. See Bottle a hollow vessel, Butt a cask.] 1. An apartment in a house where butter, milk and other provisions are kept.
All that need a cool and fresh temper, as cellars, pantries, and butteries, to the north.
Sir H.Wotton.
2. A room in some English colleges where liquors, fruit, and refreshments are kept for sale to the students.
And the major Oxford kept the buttery bar.
E.Hall.
3. A cellar in which butts of wine are kept.
Weale.
Buttery hatch, a half door between the buttery or kitchen and the hall, in old mansions, over which provisions were passed.
Wright.
Butt∂ hinge∑ (?). See 1st Butt, 10.
But∂–thorn∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The common European starfish (Asterias rubens).
But∂ting (?), n. An abuttal; a boundary.
Without buttings or boundings on any side.
Bp. Beveridge.
But∂ting joint∑. A joint between two pieces of timber or wood, at the end of one or both, and either at right angles or oblique to the grain, as the joints which the struts and braces form with the truss posts; – sometimes called abutting joint.
Butt∂ joint∑ (?). A joint in which the edges or ends of the pieces united come squarely together instead of overlapping. See 1st Butt, 8.
But∂tock (?), n. [From Butt an end.] 1. The part at the back of the hip, which, in man, forms one of the rounded protuberances on which he sits; the rump.
2. (Naut.) The convexity of a ship behind, under the stern.
Mar. Dict.
But∂ton (?), n. [OE. boton, botoun, F. bouton button, bud, prop. something pushing out, fr. bouterˇto push. See Butt an end.] 1. A knob; a small ball; a small, roundish mass.
2. A catch, of various forms and materials, used to fasten together the different parts of dress, by being attached to one part, and passing through a slit, called a buttonhole, in the other; – used also for ornament.
3. A bud; a germ of a plant.
Shak.
4. A piece of wood or metal, usually flat and elongated, turning on a nail or screw, to fasten something, as a door.
5. A globule of metal remaining onan assay cupel or in a crucible, after fusion.
Button hook, a hook for catching a button and drawing it through a buttonhole, as in buttoning boots and gloves. – Button shellˇ(ZoĒl.), a small, univalve marine shell of the genus Rotella. – Button snakeroot. (Bot.) (a) The American composite genus Liatris, having rounded buttonlike heads of flowers. (b) An American umbelliferous plant with rigid, narrow leaves, and flowers in dense heads. – Button tree (Bot.), a genus of trees (Conocarpus), furnishing durable timber, mostly natives of the West Indies. – To hold by the button, to detain in conversation to weariness; to bore; to buttonhole.
But∂ton, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buttoned (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buttoning (?).] [OE. botonen, OF. botoner, F. boutonner. See Button, n.] 1. To fasten with a button or buttons; to inclose or make secure with buttons; – often followed by up.
He was a tall, fat, long–bodied man, buttoned up to the throat in a tight green coat.
Dickens.
2. To dress or clothe. [Obs.]
Shak.
But∂ton, v.i. To be fastened by a button or buttons; as, the coat will not button.
But∂tonŌball∑ (?), n. (Bot.) See Buttonwood.
But∂tonŌbush∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A shrub (Cephalanthus occidentalis) growing by the waterside; – so called from its globular head of flowers. See Capitulum.
But∂tonŌhole∑ (?), n. The hole or loop in which a button is caught.
But∂tonŌhole∑, v.t. To hold at the button or buttonhole; to detain in conversation to werariness; to bore; as, he buttonholed me a quarter of an hour.
But∂tonŌmold∑ (?), n. A disk of bone, wood, or other material, which is made into a button by covering it with cloth. [Written also buttonmould.]
Fossil buttonmolds, joints of encrinites. See Encrinite.
But∂tons (?), n. A boy servant, or page, – in allusion to the buttons on his livry. [Colloq.]
Dickens.
But∂tonŌweed∑ (?), n. (Bot.) The name of several plants of the genera Spermacoce and Diodia, of the Madder family.
But∂tonŌwood∑ (?), n. (Bot.) The Platanus occidentalis, or American plane tree, a large tree, producing rough balls, from which it is named; – called also buttonball tree, and, in some parts of the United States, sycamore. The California buttonwood is P. racemosa.
But∂tonŌy (?), a. Ornamented with a large number of buttons. ĹThe buttony boy.ł Thackeray. ĹMy coat so blue and buttony.ł
W.S.Gilbert.
But∂tress (?), n. [OE. butrasse, boterace, fr. F. bouterˇto push; cf. OF. bouteret (nom. sing. and acc. pl. bouterez) buttress. See Butt an end, and cf. Butteris.] 1. (Arch.) A projecting mass of masonry, used for resisting the thrust of an arch, or for ornament and symmetry.
Ķ When an external projection is used merely to stiffen a wall, it is a pier.
2. Anything which supports or strengthens. ĹThe ground pillar and buttress of the good old cause of nonconformity.ł
South.
Flying buttress. See Flying buttress.
But∂tress (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Buttressed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buttressing.] To support with a buttress; to prop; to brace firmly.
To set it upright again, and to prop and buttress it up for duration.
Burke.
Butt∂ shaft∑ (?) An arrow without a barb, for shooting at butts; an arrow. [Also but shaft.]
Shak.
Butt∂ weld∑ (?). See Butt weld, under Butt.
Butt∂weld∑, v.t. To unite by a butt weld.
But∂ty (?), n. (Mining) One who mines by contract, at so much per ton of coal or ore.
Bu∂tyl (?), n. [L. butyrum butter + Ōyl. See Butter.] (Chem.) A compound radical, regarded as butane, less one atom of hydrogen.
Bu∂tyŌlene (?), n. [From Butyl.] (Chem.) Any one of three metameric hydrocarbons, C?H?, of the ethylene series. They are gaseous or easily liquefiable.
Bu∑tyŌra∂ceous (?), a. [L. butyrum butter. See Butter.] Having the qualities of butter; resembling butter.
Bu∂tyŌrate (?), n. (Chem.) A salt of butyric acid.
BuŌtyr∂ic (?), a. (Chem.) Pertaining to, or derived from, butter.
Butyric acid, C?H?.CO?H, an acid found in butter; an oily, limpid fluid, having the smell of rancid butter, and an acrid taste, with a sweetish aftertaste, like that of ether. There are two metameric butyric acids, called in distinction the normalŌ and iso–butyric acid. The normal butyric acid is the one common in rancid butter.
Bu∂tyŌrin (?), n. (Physiol. Chem.) A butyrate of glycerin; a fat contained in small quantity in milk, which helps to give to butter its peculiar flavor.
Bu∑tyŌrom∂eŌter (?), n. [L. butyrum butter + Ōmeter.] An instrument for determining the amount of fatty matter or butter contained in a sample of milk.
Bu∂tyŌrone (?), n. [Butyric + Ōone.] (Chem.) A liquid ketone obtained by heating calcium butyrate.
Bu∂tyŌrous (?), a. Butyraceous.
Bux∂eŌous (?), a. [L. buxeus, fr. buxusˇthe box tree.] Belonging to the box tree.
Bux∂ine (?), n. (Chem.) An alkaloid obtained from the Buxus sempervirens, or common box tree. It is identical with bebeerine; – called also buxina.
Bux∂om (?), a. [OE. buxum, boxom, buhsum, pliable, obedient, AS. b”csum, b?hsum (akin to D. buigzaam blexible, G. biegsam); b?gan to bow, bend + Ōsum, E. Ōsome. See Bowˇto bend, and Ōsome.] 1. Yielding; pliable or compliant; ready to obey; obedient; tractable; docile; meek; humble. [Obs.]
So wild a beast, so tame ytaught to be,
And buxom to his bands, is joy to see.
Spenser.
I submit myself unto this holy church of Christ, to be ever buxom and obedient to the ordinance of it.
Foxe.
2. Having the characteristics of health, vigor, and comeliness, combined with a gay, lively manner? stout and rosy; jolly; frolicsome.
A daughter fair,
So buxom, blithe, and debonair.
Milton.
A parcel of buxom bonny dames, that were laughing, singing, dancing, and as merry as the day was long.
Tatler.
– Bux∂omŌly, adv. – Bux∂omŌness, n.
Buy (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bought (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buying (?).] [OE. buggen, buggen, bien, AS. bycgan, akin to OS. buggean, Goth. bugjan.] 1. To acquire the ownership of (property) by giving an accepted price or consideration therefor, or by agreeing to do so; to acquire by the payment of a price or value; to purchase; – opposed to sell.
Buy what thou hast no need of, and ere long thou wilt sell thy necessaries.
B.Franklin.
2. To acquire or procure by something given or done in exchange, literally or figuratively; to get, at a cost or sacrifice; to buy pleasure with pain.
Buy the truth and sell it not; also wisdom, and instruction, and understanding.
Prov.xxiii.23.
To buy again. See Againbuy. [Obs.] Chaucer.– To buy off. (a) To influence to compliance; to cause to bend or yield by some consideration; as, to buy off conscience. (b) To detach by a consideration given; as, to buy off one from a party. – To buy out. (a) To buy off, or detach from. Shak. (b) To purchase the share or shares of in a stock, fund, or partnership, by which the seller is separated from the company, and the purchaser takes his place; as, A buys out B. (c) To purchase the entire stock in trade and the good will of a business. – To buy in, to purchase stock in any fund or partnership. – To buy on credit, to purchase, on a promise, in fact or in law, to make payment at a future day. – To buy the refusal (of anything), to give a consideration for the right of purchasing, at a fixed price, at a future time.
Buy, v.i. To negotiate or treat about a purchase.
I will buy with you, sell with you.
Shak.
Buy∂er (?), n. One who buys; a purchaser.
Buz (?), v. & n. See Buzz. [Obs.]
Buzz (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Buzzed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Buzzing.] [An onomatop“ia.] To make a low, continuous, humming or sibilant sound, like that made by bees with their wings. Hence: To utter a murmuring sound; to speak with a low, humming voice.
Like a wasp is buzzed, and stung him.
Longfellow.
However these disturbers of our peace
Buzz in the people's ears.
Shak.
Buzz, v.t. 1. To sound forth by buzzing.
Shak.
2. To whisper; to communicate, as tales, in an under tone; to spread, as report, by whispers, or secretly.
I will buzz abroad such prophecies
That Edward shall be fearful of his life.
Shak.
3. To talk to incessantly or confidentially in a low humming voice. [Colloq.]
4. (Phonetics) To sound with a Ĺbuzzł.
H.Sweet.
Buzz, n. 1. A continuous, humming noise, as of bees; a confused murmur, as of general conversation in low

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tones, or of a general expression of surprise or approbation. ĹThe constant buzz of a fly.ł
Macaulay.
I found the whole room in a buzz of politics.
Addison.
There is a buzz all around regarding the sermon.
Thackeray.
2. A whisper; a report spread secretly or cautiously.
There's a certain buzz
Of a stolen marriage.
Massinger.
3. (Phonetics) The audible friction of voice consonants.
H. Sweet.
Buz∂zard(?),n.[O.E.busard,bosard,F. busard, fr. buse, L.buteo, a kind of falcon or hawk.]
1. (ZoĒl.) A bird of prey of the Hawk family, belonging to the genus Buteo and related genera.
Ķ The Buteo vulgaris is the common buzzard of Europe. The American species (of which the most common are B.borealis, B.Pennsylvanicus, and B.lineatus) are usually called hen hawks.– The rough–legged buzzard, or bee hawk, of Europe (Pernis apivorus) feeds on bees and their larvĎ, with other insects, and reptiles.– The moor buzzard of Europe is Circus Ďruginosus. See Turkey buzzard, and Carrion buzzard.
Bald buzzard, the fishhawk or osprey. See Fishhawk.
2. A blockhead; a dunce.
It is common, to a proverb, to call one who can not be taught, or who continues obstinately ignorant, a buzzard.
Goldsmith.
Buz∂zard, a. Senseless; stupid. [R.& Obs.]
Milton.
Buz∂zardŌet∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A hawk resembling the buzzard, but with legs relatively longer.
Buzz∂er (?), n. One who, or that which, buzzes; a whisperer; a talebearer.
And wants not buzzers to infect his ear
With pestilent speeches of his father's death.
Shak.
Buzz∂ingŌly (?), adv. In a buzzing manner; with a buzzing sound.
Buzz∂saw∑ (?) A circular saw; – so called from the buzzing it makes when running at full speed.
By (?), prep. [ OE. bi, AS. b∆, big, near to, by, of, from, after, according to; akin to OS.& OFries. bi, be, D. bij, OHG. b∆, G. bie, Goth. bi, and perh. Gr.?. E. prefix be– is orig.the same word. ? See pref. Be–.]
1. In the neighborhood of; near or next to; not far from; close to; along with; as, come and sit by me.
By foundation or by shady rivulet
He sought them both.
Milton.
2. On; along; in traversing. Compare 5.
Long labors both by sea and land he bore.
Dryden.
By land, by water, they renew the charge.
Pope.
3. Near to, while passing; hence, from one to the other side of; past; as, to go by a church.
4. Used in specifying adjacent dimensions; as, a cabin twenty feet by forty.
5. Against. [Obs.]
Tyndale [1.Cor.iv.4]?
6. With, as means, way, process, etc.; through means of; with aid of; through; through the act or agency of; as, a city is destroyed by fire; profit is made by commerce; to take by force.
To the meaning of by, as denoting means or agency, belong, more or less closely, most of the following uses of the word: (a) It points out the author and producer; as, ĹWaverleył, a novel by Sir W.Scott; a statue by Canova; a sonata by Beethoven. (b) In an oath or adjuration, it indicates the being or thing appealed to as sanction; as, I affirm to you by all that is sacred; he swears by his faith as a Christian; no, by Heaven. (c) According to; by direction, authority, or example of; after; – in such phrases as, it appears by his account; ten o'clock by my watch; to live by rule; a model to build by. (d) At the rate of; according to the ratio or proportion of; in the measure or quantity of; as, to sell cloth by the yard, milk by the quart, eggs by the dozen, meat by the pound; to board by the year. (e) In comparison, it denotes the measure of excess or deficiency; when anything is increased or diminished, it indicates the measure of increase or diminution; as, larger by a half; older by five years; to lessen by a third. (f) It expresses continuance or duration; during the course of; within the period of; as, by day, by night. (g) As soon as; not later than; near or at; – used in expressions of time; as, by this time the sun had risen; he will be here by two o'clock.
In boxing the compass, by indicates a pint nearer to, or towards, the next cardinal point; as, north by east, i.e., a point towards the east from the north; northeast by east, i.e., on point nearer the east than northeast is.
Ķ With is used instead of by before the instrument with which anything is done; as, to beat one with a stick; the board was fastened by the carpenter with nails. But there are many words which may be regarded as means or processes, or, figuratively, as instruments; and whether with or by shall be used with them is a matter of arbitrary, and often, of unsettled usage; as, to a reduce a town by famine; to consume stubble with fire; he gained his purpose by flattery; he entertained them with a story; he distressed us with or by a recital of his sufferings. see With.
By all means, most assuredly; without fail; certainly.
–By and by. (a) Close together (of place).[Obs.] ĹTwo yonge knightes liggyng [lying] by and by.ł Chaucer. (b) Immediately; at once. [Obs.] ĹWhen ... persecution ariseth because of the word, by and by he is offended.ł Matt. xiii.21. (c) Presently; pretty soon; before long. In this phrase, by seems to be used in the sense of nearness in time, and to be repeated for the sake of emphasis, and thus to be equivalent to łsoon, and soon,ł that is instantly; hence, – less emphatically, – pretty soon, presently. – By one's self, with only one's self near; alone; solitary.– By the bye. See under Bye. – By the head (Naut.), having the bows lower than the stern; –said of a vessel when her head is lower in the water than her stern. If her stern is lower, she is by the stern.– By the lee, the situation of a vessel, going free, when she has fallen off so much as to bring the wind round her stern, and to take her sails aback on the other side. – By the run, to let go by the run, to let go altogether, instead of slacking off. – By the way, by the bye; – used to introduce an incidental or secondary remark or subject. –Day by day, One by one, Piece by piece, etc., each day, each one, each piece, etc., by itself singly or separately; each severally. – To come by, to get possession of; to obtain.– To do by, to treat, to behave toward. – To set by, to value, to esteem. – To stand by, to aid, to support.
Ķ The common phrase good–by is equivalent to farewell, and would be better written good–bye, as it is a corruption of God be with you (b'w'ye).
By (?), adv. 1. Near; in the neighborhood; present; as, there was no person by at the time.
2. Passing near; going past; past; beyond; as, the procession has gone by; a bird flew by.
3. Aside; as, to lay by; to put by.
By (?), a. Out of the common path; aside; – used in composition, giving the meaning of something aside, secondary, or incidental, or collateral matter, a thing private or avoiding notice; as, by–line, by–place, by–play, by–street. It was formerly more freely used in composition than it is now; as, by–business, by–concernment, by–design, by–interest, etc.
By∂ard (?), n. A piece of leather crossing the breast, used by the men who drag sledges in coal mines.
By∂Ōbid∑der (?), n. One who bids at an auction in behalf of the auctioneer or owner, for the purpose of running up the price of articles. [U.S.]
By∂Ōblow∑ (?), n. 1. A side or incidental blow; an accidental blow.
With their by–blows they did split the very stones in pieces.
Bunyan.
2. An illegitimate child; a bastard.
The Aga speedily ... brought her [his disgraced slave] to court, together with her pretty by–blow, the present Padre Ottomano.
Evelyn.
By∂Ōcor∑ner (?), n. A private corner.
Britain being a by–corner, out of the road of the world.
Fuller.
By∂ŌdeŌpend∑ence (?), n. An appendage; that which depends on something else, or is distinct from the main dependence; an accessory.
Shak.
By∂Ōdrink∑ing, n. A drinking between meals. [Obs.]
Bye (?), n. 1. A thing not directly aimed at; something which is a secondary object of regard; an object by the way, etc.; as in on or upon the bye, i.e., in passing; indirectly; by implication. [Obs. except in the phrase by the bye.]
The Synod of Dort condemneth upon the bye even the discipline of the Church of England.
Fuller.
2. (Cricket) A run made upon a missed ball; as, to steal a bye.
T.Hughes.
By the bye, in passing; by way of digression; apropos to the matter in hand. [Written also by the by.]
Bye (?) n. [AS.b?; cf. Icel. byg? dwelling, byggia, b?a, to dwell ? 97.]
1. A dwelling.
Gibson.
2. In certain games, a station or place of an individual player.
Emerson.
By∂ŌeŌlec∂tion (?), n. An election held by itself, not at the time of a general election.
By∂Ōend∑ (?), n. Private end or interest; secret purpose; selfish advantage. [Written also bye–end.]
ĹProfit or some other by–end.ł
L'Estrange.
By∂gone∑ (?), a. Past; gone by.
ĹBygone fooleries.ł
Shak
By∂gone∑ (?), n. Something gone by or past; a past event.
ĹLet old bygones beł
Tennyson.
Let bygones be bygones, let the past be forgotten.
By∂Ōin∑terŌest (?), n. Self–interest; private advantage.
Atterbury.
By∂land(?), n. A peninsula. [Obs.]
By∂landŌer(?), n. See Bilander.[Obs.]
By∂Ōlane∑(?), n. A private lane, or one opening out of the usual road.
By∂Ōlaw∑(?), n. [Cf.Sw.bylag, D.bylov, Icel.b?arlĒg, fr.Sw.& Dan. by town, Icel. bĎr, byr (fr. bĖa to dwell)+the word for law; hence, a law for one town, a special law. Cf.Birlaw and see Law.] 1. A local or subordinate law; a private law or regulation made by a corporation for its own government.
There was likewise a law to restrain the by–laws, or ordinances of corporations.
Bacon.
The law or institution; to which are added two by–laws, as a comment upon the general law.
Addison.
2. A law that is less important than a general law or constitutional provision, and subsidiary to it; a rule relating to a matter of detail; as, civic societies often adopt a constitution and by–laws for the government of their members. In this sense the word has probably been influenced by by, meaning secondary or aside.
By∂Ōname∑(?), n. A nickname.
Camden.
By∂name∑, v.t. To give a nickname to.
Camden.
By∂Ōpass(?), n. (Mech.) A by–passage, for a pipe, or other channel, to divert circulation from the usual course.
By∂Ōpas∑sage (?), n. A passage different from the usual one; a byway.
By∂Ōpast(?), a. Past; gone by ĹBy–past perils.ł
Shak.
By∂path∑(?), n.; pl. Bypaths(?). A private path; an obscure way; indirect means.
God known, my son,
By what bypaths, and indirect crooked ways,
I met this crown.
Shak.
By∂Ōplace∑ (?), n. A retired or private place.
By∂play (?), n. Action carried on aside, and commonly in dumb show, while the main action proceeds.
By∂Ōprod∑uct (?), n. A secondary or additional product; something produced, as in the course of a manufacture, in addition to the principal product.
Byre (?), n. [Cf, Icel. bĀr pantry, Sw. bur cage,Dan. buur, E.bower.] A cow house. [N. of Eng.& Scot.]
By∂ŌreŌspect∑(?), n. Private end or view; by–interest. [Obs.]
Dryden.
By∂road∑(?), n. A private or obscure road. ĹThrough slippery byroadsł
Swift.
By∂Ōron∑ic(?), a. Pertaining to, or in the style of, Lord Byron.
With despair and Byronic misanthropy.
Thackeray
By∂Ōroom∑(?), n. A private room or apartment ĹStand in some by–roomł
Shak.
By∂Ōsmot∑terŌed(?), p.a. [See Besmut.] Bespotted with mud or dirt. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
By∂Ōspeech∑(?), n. An incidental or casual speech, not directly relating to the point. ĹTo quote by–speeches.ł
Hooker.
By∂Ōspell∑(?), n. [AS. bigspell.] A proverb. [Obs.]
Byss (?), n. See Byssus, n.,1.
BysŌsa∂ceous(?), a. [From Byssus.] (Bot.) Byssuslike; consisting of fine fibers or threads, as some very delicate filamentous algĎ.
BysŌsif∂erŌous(?), a. [Byssus + –ferous.] Bearing a byssus or tuft.
Bys∂sin (?), n. See Byssus, n,1.
Bys∂sine (?), a. [L. byssinus made of byssus, Gr.? See Byssus.] Made of silk; having a silky or flaxlike appearance.
Coles.
Bys∂soid(?), a. [Byssus + –oid.] Byssaceous.
Bys∂soŌlite(?), n [Gr.? See flax + –lite.] (Min.) An olive–green fibrous variety of hornblende.
ōBys∂sus(?), n.; pl. E. Byssuses(?); L. Byssi.(?) [L. byssus fine flax, fine linen or cotton, Gr. ? .]
1. A cloth of exceedingly fine texture, used by the ancients. It is disputed whether it was of cotton, linen, or silk. [Written also byss and byssin.]
2.(ZoĒl.) A tuft of long, tough filaments which are formed in a groove of the foot, and issue from between the valves of certain bivalve mollusks, as the Pinna and Mytilus, by which they attach themselves to rocks, etc.
3. (Bot.) An obsolete name for certain fungi composed of slender threads.
4. Asbestus.
By∂stand∑er (?), n. [By + stander, equiv. to stander–by; cf. AS. big–standan to stand by or near.] One who stands near; a spectator; one who has no concern with the business transacting.
He addressed the bystanders and scattered pamphlets among them.
Palfrey.
Syn.–Looker on; spectator; beholder; observer.
By∂Ōstreet∑(?), n. A separate, private, or obscure street; an out of the way or cross street.
He seeks by–streets, and saves the expensive coach.
Gay.
By∂Ōstroke∑(?), n. An accidental or a slyly given stroke.
By∂Ōturn∑ing(?), n. An obscure road; a way turning from the main road.
Sir P.Sidney.
By∂Ōview∑(?), n. A private or selfish view; self–interested aim or purpose.
No by–views of his own shall mislead him.
Atterbury.
By∂Ōwalk∑(?), n. A secluded or private walk.
He moves afterward in by–walks.
Dryden.
By∂Ōwash∑(?), n. ˇThe outlet from a dam or reservoir; also, a cut to divert the flow of water.
By∂way∑(?), n. A secluded, private, or obscure way; a path or road aside from the main one. Ĺ Take no byways.ł
Herbert.
By∂Ōwipe∑(?), n. A secret or side stroke, as of raillery or sarcasm.
Milton.

By∂word∑ (?), n. [AS.bčword; bč, E.by+word.] 1. A common saying; a proverb; a saying that has a general currency.
I knew a wise man that had it for a byword.
Bacon.
2. The object of a contemptuous saying.
Thou makest us a byword among the heathen.
Ps.x?iv.14
By∂work (?), n. Work aside from regular work; subordinate or secondary business.
Byz∂ant(?), Byz∂anŌtine (?) n.} [OE. besant, besaunt, F. besant, fr. LL. Byzantius, Byzantinus, fr. Byzantium.] (Numis.) A gold coin, so called from being coined at Byzantium. See Bezant.
BiŌzan∂tian (?), a.& n. See Byzantine.
ByŌzan∂tine (?), a. Of or pertaining to Byzantium. – n. A native or inhabitant of Byzantium, now Constantinople; sometimes, applied to an inhabitant of the modern city of Constantinople. [ Written also Bizantine.]
Byzantine church, the Eastern or Greek church, as distinguished from the Western or Roman or Latin church.See under Greek.– Byzantine empire, the Eastern Roman or Greek empire from A.D. 364 or A.D. 395 to the capture of Constantinople by the Turks, A.D. 1453. – Byzantine historians, historians and writers (Zonaras, Procopius, etc.) who lived in the Byzantine empire. P.Cyc.
– Byzantine style (Arch.), a style of architecture developed in the Byzantine empire. Its leading forms are the round arch, the dome, the pillar, the circle, and the cross. The capitals of the pillars are the endless variety, and full of invention. The mosque of St.Sophia, Constantinople, and the church of St.Mark, Venice, are prominent examples of Byzantine architecture.

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C. (?) 1. C is the third letter of the English alphabet. It is from the Latin letter C, which in old Laton represend the sounds of k, and g (in go); its original value being the latter. In Anglo–Saxon words, or Old English before the Norman Conques, it always has the sound of k. The Latin C was the same letter as the Greek ?, ?, and came from the Greek alphabet. The Greek got it from the Phoenicians. The English name of C is from the Latin name ce, and was derived, probably, through the French Etymalogically C is related to g, h, k, q, s (and other sibilant sounds). Examples of these relations are in L. acutus, E. acute, aque; E. acrid, eagar; L. cornu, E. horn; E. cat, kitten; E. coy, quiet; L. circare, OF. cerchier, E. search.
See Guide to Pronunciation, ?? 221–228.
2. (Mus.) (a) The keynote of the normal or Ĺnaturalł scale, which has neither flats nor sharps in its signature; also, the third note of the relative minor scale of the same (b) C after the clef is the mark of common time, in which each measure is a semibreve (four fourths or crotchets); for alla breve time it is written ? (c) The ĹC clef,ł a modification of the letter C, placed on any line of the staff, abows that line to be middle C.
3. As a numeral, C stands for Latin centum or 100, CC for 200, etc.
C spring, a spring in the from of the letter C.
ōCaŌa∂ba (?), n. [Ar. ka'ban, let, a square building, fr. ka'b cude] The small and nearly cubical stone building, toward which all Mohammedans must pray. [Written also kaaba.]
ĶThe Caaba is situated in Messa, a city of Arabia, and contains a famous black stone said to have been brought from heaven. Before the time of Mohammed, the Caaba was an idolatrouse temple, but it has since been the chief sanctuary and object of pilgrimage of the Mohammedan world.
Caas (?), n, sing. ? pl. Case [Obs.] Chaucer.
Cab (?), n [Abrev. fr. cabriolet.] 1. A kind of close carriage with two or four wheesl, usually a public vehicle. ĹA cab came clattering up.ł

Thackeray.
Ķ A cab may have two seats at right to the driver's seat, and a door behind; or one seat parallel to the driver's, with the entrance from the side or front.
Hansom cab. See Hansom.
2. The covered part of a locomotive, in which the engineer has his station.
Knight.
Cab (?), n. [Heb. gab, fr. qĺbab to hollow.] A Hebrew dry measure, containing a little over two (2,37) pints.
W.H.Ward. 2 Kings vi. 25.
CaŌbal∂ (?), n. [F. cabale cabal, cabala LL. cabala cabala, fr. Heb. qabbĺl?h reception, tradition, mysterious doctrine, fr. qĺbal to take or receive, in PiČl qibbel to abopt (a doctrine).] 1. Tradition; occult doctrine. See Cabala [Obs.]
Hakewill.
2. A secret. [Obs.] ĹThe measuring of the temple, a cabal found out but lately.ł
B.Jonson.
3. A number of persons united in some close design, usually to pronote their private views and interests in church or state by intrigue; a secret association composed of a few designing persons; a junto.
It so happend, by a whimsical coincidence, thet in 1671 the cabinet consisted of five persons, the initial letters of whose names made up the word cabal; Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale.
Macaulay.
4. The secret artifices or machinations of a few persons united in a close desing; in intrigue.
By cursed cabals of women.
Dryden.
Syn. – Junto; intrigue; plot; combination; conspiracy. – Cabal, Combination, Faction. An association for some purpose considered to be bad is the idea common to these terms. A combination is an organized union of individuals for mutual support, in urging their demands or resisting the clams of others, and may be good or bad according to circumstances; as, a combiviation of workmen or of employers to effect or to prevent a chang in prices. A cabal is a secret association of a few individuals who seek by cunning practices to abtain affice and power. A faction is a larger body that a cabal, employed for selfish purpoeses in agitating the community and working up an excitement with a view to chenge the existing order of things. ĹSelfishness, insubordination, and laxity of morals give rise to combinations, which belong particularly to the lower orders of society. Restlase, jealous, ambitious, and little minds are ever forming cabals. Factions belong especially to free governments, and are raised by busy and turbulent spirits for selfish parposesł.
Crabb.
CaŌbal∂, v. i. [int. & p.p. Caballed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Caballing]. [Cf. F. cabaler.] To unite in a small party to promote private views and interests by intrigue; to intrigue; to plot.
Caballing still against it with the great.
Dryden.
Cab∂a–la (?), n. [LL. See Cabal, n.] 1. A kind of occult theosophy or traditional interpretation of the Scriptures among Jewish rabbis and certain mediaeval Christians, which treats of the nature of god and the mystery of humsn existence. It assumed that every letter, word, number, and accent of Scripture contains a hidden sense; and it teaches the methods of interpretation for ascertaining these occult meanings. The cabalists pretend even to foretell events by this means.
2. Secret science in general; mystic art; mystery.
Cab∂aŌlism (?), n. [Cf. F. cabalisme.]
1. The secret science of the cabalists.
2. A superstitious devotion to the mysteries of the religion which one professes. [R]
Emerson.
Cab∂aŌlist (?), n. [Cf.F. cabaliste.] One versed in the cabala, or the mysteries of Jewish traditions. ĹStudions cabalists.ł
Swift.
Cab∑aŌlis∂tic (?), Cab∑a–lis∂tic–al (?)} a. Of or pertaining to the cabala; containing or conveying an occult meaning; mysic.
The Heptarchus is a cabalistic of the first chapter of Genesia.

Hallam.
Caba∑aŌlis∂ticŌalŌly, adv. In a cabalistic manner.
Cab∂aŌlize (?), v.i. [Cf.F. cabaliser.] To use cabalistic language. [R]

Dr.H.More.
CaŌbal∂ler (?), n. One who cabals.
A close caballer and togue–valiant lord.
Dryden.
Cab∂alŌlineˇ(?), a. [L.caballinus, fr. caballus a nag. Cf. Cavalier.] Of or pertaining to a horse. –n. Caballine aloes.
Caballine aloes, an inferior and impure kind of aloes formerly used in veterinary practice; – called also horse aloes. – Caballine spring, the fountsain of Hippocrene, on Mount Helicon; – fabled to have been formed by a stoke from the foot of the winged horse Pegasus.
Cab∂aŌret (?), n. [F.] A tavern; a house where liquors are retailed. [Obs. as an English word.]
ōCaŌbas∂ (?), n. [F.] A flat basket or for figs, etc.; Hence, a lady's flat workbasket, reticule, or hand bag; – often written caba.
C.Brontā.
ōCaŌbas∂sonˇ(?), n. (ZoĒl.) A speciec of armadillo of the genus Xenurus (X. unicinctusand X. hispidus); the tatouay. [Written also Kabassou.]
Cab∂bage (?), n. [OE. cabage, fr. F. cabus headed (of cabbages), chou cobus headed cabbage, cabbage head; cf. It. capuccio a little head, cappuccio cowl, hood, cabbage, fr. capo head, L. caput, or fr. It. cappa cape. See Chiff, Cape.] (Bot.) 1. An esculent vegetable of many varieties, derived from the wild Brassica oleracea of Europe. The common cabbage has a compact head of leaves. The caulifliwer, Brussels sprouts, etc., are sonaetimes classed as cabbages.
2. The terminal bud of certain palm trees, used, like, cabbage, for food. See Cabbage free, below.
3. The cabbage palmetto. See below.
Cabbage aphis (ZoĒl.), a green plant–louse (Aphis brassic?) which lives upon the leaves of the cabbage. – Cabbage Beetle (ZoĒl.), a small, striped flea–beetle (Phyllotreta viltat) which lives, in the larval state, on the roots, and when adult, on the leaves, of cabbage and other cruciferous plants. – Cabbage butterfly (ZoĒl.), a white butterbly (Pieris rap? of both Europe and America, and the Allied P. oleracea, a native American species) which, in the larval state, devours the leaves of the cabbage and the turnip. See Cabbage worm, below. – Cabbage Fly (ZoĒl.), a small two–winged fly (Anthomyia brassic?), which feeds, in the larval or maggot state roots of the cabbage, often doing much damage to the crop. – Cabbage head, the compact head formed by the leaves of a cabbage; – contemptuously or humorously, and colloquially, a very stupid and silly person; a numskull. – Cabbage palmetto, a spesies of palm tree (Cabal Palmetto) found along the coast from North Carolina to Florida. – Cabbage rose (Bot.), a spesies of rose (Rosa centifolia) haveng large and heavy blossoms. – Cabbage tree, Cabbage palm, a name given to palms having a terminal bud called a cabbag, as the Sabal Palmetto of the United States, and the Euterpe oleracea and Oreodoxa oleracea of the West Indies. – Cabbage worm (ZoĒl.), the larva of several species of moths and butterfies, which attacks cabbages. The most common is usully the larva of a white butterfly. See Cabbage Butterfly, above. The cabbage cutworms, which eat off the stalks oryoung plants during the night, are the larvĎ of several species of moths, of the genus Agrotis. See Cutworm. – Sea cabbage.( Bot.) (a) Sea kale (b). The original Plant (Brassica oleracea), from which the cabbage, cauliflower, , broccoli, etc., have been derived by cultivation. – Thousand–headeu cabbage. See Brussels sprouts.
Cab∂age, v.i. To from a head like that the cabbage; as, to make lettuce cabbage.
Johnson.
Cab∂bage, v.i. [imp. & p.p Cabbaged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabbagingˇ3.] [F.cabasser, fr. OF. cabas theft; cf. F. cabas basket, and OF. cabuser to cheat.] To purloin or embezzle, as the pieces of cloth remaining after cutting out a garment; to pilfer.
Your tailor ... cabbages whole yards of cloth.
Arbuthnot.
Cab∂bage, n. Cloth or clippings cabbaged or purloined by one who cuts out garments.
Cab∂bler (?), n. One who works at cabbling.
Cab∂bling (?), n. (Metal) The process of breaking up the flat measses into which wrought iron is first hammered, in order that the pieces may be reheated and wrought into bar iron.
ōCaŌbe∂?aˇ?, CaŌbesse∂ˇ(?), n. [Pg. cabe?a, F. cabesse.] The finest king of silk received from India.
ōCa∂ber (?), n. [Gael] A pole or beam used in Scottish games for tossing as a trial of strength.
Cab∑eŌzon∂ˇ(?), n. [Sp., properly, big head. Cf. Cavesson.] (ZoĒl.) A California fist (Hemilepidotus spinosus), allied to the sculpin.
Cab∂lŌat (?), n. [Native South American name.] (ZoĒl.) The capybara. See Capybara.
Cab∂in (?), n. [OF. caban, fr. W. caban booth, cabin, dim. of cab cot, tent; or fr. F. cabane, cabine, LL. cabanna, perh. from the Celtic.] 1. A cottage or small house; a hum.
Swift.
A hunting cabin in the west.
E.Everett.
2. A small room; an inclosed plase.
So long in secret cabin there he held
Her captive.
Spenser.
3. A room in ship for officers or passengers.
Cabin boy, a boy whose duty is wait on the officers and passengers in the cabin of a ship.
Cab∂in v. i. [Imp. &p. p. Cabined (–?nd); p. pr. & vb. n. Cabining.] To live in, or as in, a cabin; to lodge.
I'll make you ... cabin in a cave.
Shak.
Cab∂in, v. t. To confine in, or as in, a cabin.
I am cabined, cribbed, confined, dound in
To saucy doubts and fears.
Shak.
Cab∂iŌnetˇ3, n. [F., dim. of cabine or cabane. See Cabin, n.] 1. A hut; a cottage; a small house. [Obs.]
Hearken a while from thy green cabinet,
The rural song of careful Colinet.
Spenser.
2. A small room, or retired apartment; a closet.
3. A private room in which consultations are held.
Philip passed some hours every day in his father's cabinet.
Prescott.
4. The advisory council of the chief executive officer of a nation; a cabinet council.
Ķ In England, the cabinet or cabinet council consista of those privy coucilors who actually transact the immediate business of the government. Mozley & W. – In the United States, the cabinet is composed of the heads of the executive departaments of the government, namely, the Secretary of State, of the Treasury, of War, of the Navy, of the Interior, and of Agiculture, the Postmaster–general ,and the Attorney–general.
5. (a) A set of drawers or a cupboard intended to contain articles of value. Hence: (b) A decorative piece of furniture, whether open like an ātagäre or closed with doors. See Etagere.
6. Any building or room set apart for the safe keeping and exhibition of works of art, etc.; also, the colleotion itself.
Cabinet council. (a) Same as Cabinet, n., 4 (of which bode it was formerly the full title). (b) A meting of the cabinet. – Cabinet councilor, a member of a cabinet council. – Cabinet photograph, a photograph of a size smaller than an imperial, though larger than a carie de visite. – Cabinet picture, a small and generally highly finished picture, suitable for a small room and for close inspection.
Cab∂iŌnet, a. Suitable for a cabinet; small.
Yt [Varnhagen von Ense] is a walking cabinet edition of Goethe.
For. Quar. Rev.
Cab∂iŌnet, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Cabineted; p. pr. & vb. n. Cabineting.] To inclose [R.]
Hewyt.
Cab∂iŌnetŌmak∑erˇ(?), n. One whose occupation is to make cabinets or other choice articles of household furniture, as tables, bedsteads, bureaus, etc.
Cab∂iŌnetŌmak∑ing, n. The art or occupation of making the finer articles of household furniture.
Cab∂iŌnetŌmork∑ (?), n. The art or occupation of working upon wooden furniture requiring nice workmanship; also, such furniture.
Cab∑iŌre∂anˇ3, n. One of the Cabiri.
ōCabŌbi∂riˇ(?), n. pl. [ NL., fr. Gr. ????????.] (Myth) Certain deities originally worshiped with mystical rites by the Pelasgians in Lemnos and Samothrace and afterwards throughout Greece; – also called sons of ephĎstus (or Vulcan), as begin masters of the art ofworking metals. [Written also Cabeiri.]
Liddell & Scott.
CaŌbir∂iŌanˇ(?), a. Same as Cabidic.
CaŌbir∂icˇ3, a. [Cf. F. Cabirique] Of or pertaining to the Cabiri, or to their mystical worship. [Written also Cabiritic.]
Ca∂bleˇ3, n. [F. CÉble,m LL. capulum, caplum, a rope, fr. L. capere to take; cf. D., Dan., & G. rabel, from the French. See Capable.] 1. A large, strong rope or chain, of considerable length, used to retain a vesel at anchor, and for other purposes. It is made of hemp, of steel wire, or of iron links.
2. A rope of steel wire, or copper wire, usually covered with some protecting, or insulating substance; as, the cable of a suspension bridge; a telegraphiccable.
3. (Arch) A nolding, shaft of a column, or any other member of convex, rounded section, made to resemble the spiral twist of a rope; – called also cable molding.
Bower cable, the cable belonging to the bower anchor. – Cable road, a railway on which the cars are moved by a continuously running endless rope operated by a stationary motor. – Cable∂s length, the length of a ship's cable. Cables in the merchant service vary in length from 100 to 140 fathoms or; but as a maritime measure, a cable's length is either 120 fathoms (720 feet), or about 100 fathoms (600 feet, an approximation to one tenth of a nautical mile). – Cable tier. (a) That part of a vessel where the cables are stowed. (b) A coll of a cable. – Street cable, the cable belonging to the sheet anchor. – Stream cable, a hawser or rope, smaller than the bower cables, to moor a ship in a plase sheltered from wind and heavy seas. – Submarina cable .See Telegraph. – To pay out the cable. To vear out the cable, to slacken it, that it may run out of the ship; to let more cable run out of the hawse hole. – To serve the cable, to bind it round with ropes, canvas, etc., to prevent its being, worn or galled in the hawse, et. – To slip the cable, to let go the end on board and let it all run out and go overboard, as when there is not time to weigh anchor. Hence, in sailor's use, to die.

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