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Boot, n. [OE. bote, OF. bote, F. botte, LL. botta; of uncertain origin.] 1. A covering for the foot and lower part of the leg, ordinarily made of leather.
2. An instrument of torture for the leg, formerly used to extort confessions, particularly in Scotland.
So he was put to the torture, which in Scotland they call the boots; for they put a pair of iron boots close on the leg, and drive wedges between them and the leg.
Bp. Burnet.
3. A place at the side of a coach, where attendants rode; also, a low outside place before and behind the body of the coach. [Obs.]
4. A place for baggage at either end of an old–fashioned stagecoach.
5. An apron or cover (of leather or rubber cloth) for the driving seat of a vehicle, to protect from rain and mud.
6. (Plumbing) The metal casing and flange fitted about a pipe where it passes through a roof.
Boot catcher, the person at an inn whose business it was to pull off boots and clean them. [Obs.] Swift. – Boot closer, one who, or that which, sews the uppers of boots. – Boot crimp, a frame or device used by bootmakers for drawing and shaping the body of a boot. – Boot hook, a hook with a handle, used for pulling on boots. – Boots and ?addles (Cavalry Tactics), the trumpet call which is the first signal for mounted drill. – Sly boots. See Slyboots, in the Vocabulary.
Boot, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Booted; p. pr. & vb. n. Booting.] 1. To put boots on, esp. for riding.
Coated and booted for it.
B. Jonson.
2. To punish by kicking with a booted foot. [U. S.]
Boot, v. i. To boot one's self; to put on one's boots.
Boot, n. Booty; spoil. [Obs. or R.]
Boot∂black∑ (?), n. One who blacks boots.
Boot∂ed (?), a. 1. Wearing boots, especially boots with long tops, as for riding; as, a booted squire.
2. (ZoĒl.) Having an undivided, horny, bootlike covering; – said of the tarsus of some birds.
BootŌee∂ (?), n. A half boot or short boot.
ō BoŌĒ∂tes (?), n. [L. Bootes, Gr. ? herdsman, fr. ?, gen. ?, ox, cow.] (Astron.) A northern constellation, containing the bright star Arcturus.
Booth (?), n. [OE. bothe; cf. Icel. b?, Dan. & Sw. bod, MHG. buode, G. bude, baude; from the same root as AS. b?an to dwell, E. boor, bower, be; cf. Bohem. bauda, Pol. buda, Russ. budka, Lith. buda, W. bwth, pl. bythod, Gael. buth, Ir. both.] 1. A house or shed built of boards, boughs, or other slight materials, for temporary occupation.
2. A covered stall or temporary structure in a fair or market, or at a polling place.
Boot∂hale∑ (?), v. t. & i. [Boot, for booty + hale.] To forage for booty; to plunder. [Obs.]
Beau. & Fl.
Boot∂hose∑ (?), n. 1. Stocking hose, or spatterdashes, in lieu of boots.
2. Hose made to be worn with boots, as by travelers on horseback.
Sir W. Scott.
Booth∂y (?), n. See Bothy.
Boot∂iŌkin (?), n. [Boot + Ōkin.] 1. A little boot, legging, or gaiter.
2. A covering for the foot or hand, worn as a cure for the gout.
H. Walpole.
Boot∂ing, n. Advantage; gain; gain by plunder; booty. [Obs.]
Sir. J. Harrington.
Boot∂ing, n. 1. A kind of torture. See Boot, n., 2.
2. A kicking, as with a booted foot. [U. S.]
Boot∂jack∑ (?), n. A device for pulling off boots.
Boot∂less (?), a. [From Boot profit.] Unavailing; unprofitable; useless; without advantage or success.
I'll follow him no more with bootless prayers.
–Boot∂lessŌly, adv. – Boot∂lessŌness, n.
Boot∂lick∑ (?), n. A toady. [Low, U. S.]
Boot∂mak∑er (?), n. One who makes boots. – Boot∂mak∑ing, n.
Boots (?), n. A servant at a hotel or elsewhere, who cleans and blacks the boots and shoes.
Boot∂top∑ping (?), n. 1. (Naut.) The act or process of daubing a vessel's bottom near the surface of the water with a mixture of tallow, sulphur, and resin, as a temporary protection against worms, after the slime, she?ls, etc., have been scraped off.
2. (Naut.) Sheathing a vessel with planking over felt.
Boot∂tree∑ (?), n. [Boot + tree wood, timber.] An instrument to stretch and widen the log of a boot, consisting of two pieces, together shaped like a leg, between which, when put into the boot, a wedge is driven.
The pretty boots trimly stretched on boottrees.
Boo∂ty (?), n. [Cf. Icel. b?ti exchange, barter, Sw. byte barter, booty, Dan. bytte; akin to D. buit booty, G. beute, and fr. Icel. byta, Sw. byta, Dan. bytte, to distribute, exchange. The Scandinavian word was influenced in English by boot profit.] That which is seized by violence or obtained by robbery, especially collective spoil taken in war; plunder; pillage.
To play booty, to play dishonestly, with an intent to lose; to allow one's adversary to win at cards at first, in order to induce him to continue playing and victimize him afterwards. [Obs.]
Booze (?), v. i. [imp. & p.p. Boozed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Boozing.] [D. buizen; akin to G. bausen, and perh. fr. D. buis tube, channel, bus box, jar.] To drink greedily or immoderately, esp. alcoholic liquor; to tipple. [Written also bouse, and boose.]
This is better than boozing in public houses.
H. R. Haweis.
Booze, n. A carouse; a drinking.
Sir W. Scott.
Booz∂er (?), n. One who boozes; a toper; a guzzler of alcoholic liquors; a bouser.
Booz∂y (?), a. A little intoxicated; fuddled; stupid with liquor; bousy. [Colloq.]
C. Kingsley.
BoŌpeep∂ (?), n. [Bo + peep.] The act of looking out suddenly, as from behind a screen, so as to startle some one (as by children in play), or of looking out and drawing suddenly back, as if frightened.
I for sorrow sung,
That such a king should play bopeep,
And go the fools among.
Bor∂aŌble (?), a. Capable of being bored. [R.]
BoŌrach∂te (?), n. [Sp. borracha a leather bottle for wine, borracho drunk, fr. borra a lamb.] A large leather bottle for liquors, etc., made of the skin of a goat or other animal. Hence: A drunkard. [Obs.]
You're an absolute borachio.
BoŌrac∂ic (?), a. [Cf. F. boracique. See Borax.] Pertaining to, or produced from, borax; containing boron; boric; as, boracic acid.
Bo∂raŌcite (?), n. (Min.) A mineral of a white or gray color occurring massive and in isometric crystals; in composition it is a magnesium borate with magnesium chloride.
Bo∂raŌcous (?), a. (Chem.) Relating to, or obtained from, borax; containing borax.
Bor∂age (?), n. [OE. borage (cf. F. bourrache, It. borraggine, borrace, LL. borago, borrago, LGr. ?), fr. LL. borra, F. bourre, hair of beasts, flock; so called from its hairy leaves.] (Bot.) A mucilaginous plant of the genus Borago (B. officinalis), which is used, esp. in France, as a demulcent and diaphoretic.
Bor∂ageŌwort∑ (?), n. Plant of the Borage family.
BoŌrag∑iŌna∂ceous (?), a. (Bot.) Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a family of plants (BoraginaceĎ) which includes the borage, heliotrope, beggar's lice, and many pestiferous plants.
Bor∑aŌgin∂eŌous (?), a. (Bot.) Relating to the Borage tribe; boraginaceous.
Bor∂aŌmez (?), n. See Barometz.
Bo∂rate (?), n. [From Boric.] (Chem.) A salt formed by the combination of boric acid with a base or positive radical.
Bo∂rax (?), n. [OE. boras, fr. F. borax, earlier spelt borras; cf. LL. borax, Sp. borraj; all fr. Ar. b?rag, fr. Pers. b?rah.] A white or gray crystalline salt, with a slight alkaline taste, used as a flux, in soldering metals, making enamels, fixing colors on porcelain, and as a soap. It occurs native in certain mineral springs, and is made from the boric acid of hot springs in Tuscany. It was originally obtained from a lake in Thibet, and was sent to Europe under the name of tincal. Borax is a pyroborate or tetraborate of sodium, Na2B4O7.10H2O.
Borax bead. (Chem.) See Bead, n., 3.
Bor∂boŌrygm (?), n. [F. borborygme, fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? to rumble in the bowels.] (Med.) A rumbling or gurgling noise produced by wind in the bowels.
Bord (?), n. [See Board, n.] 1. A board; a table. [Obs.]
2. (Mining) The face of coal parallel to the natural fissures.
Bord (?), n. See Bourd. [Obs.]
Bord∂age (?), n. [LL. bordagium.] The base or servile tenure by which a bordar held his cottage.
Bord∂ar (?), n. [LL. bordarius, fr. borda a cottage; of uncertain origin.] A villein who rendered menial service for his cottage; a cottier.
The cottar, the bordar, and the laborer were bound to aid in the work of the home farm.
J. R. Green.
BorŌdeaux∂ (?), a. Pertaining to Bordeaux in the south of France. – n. A claret wine from Bordeaux.
Bor∂del (?), BorŌdel∂lo (?), } n. [F. bordel, orig. a little hut, OF. borde hut, cabin, of German origin, and akin to E. board, n. See. Board, n.] A brothel; a bawdyhouse; a house devoted to prostitution. [Obs.]
B. Jonson.
ō Bor∑deŌlais∂ (?), a. [F.] Of or pertaining to Bordeaux, in France, or to the district around Bordeaux.
Bor∂delŌler (?), n. A keeper or a frequenter of a brothel. [Obs.]
Bor∂der (?), n. [OE. bordure, F. bordure, fr. border to border, fr. bord a border; of German origin; cf. MHG. borte border, trimming, G. borte trimming, ribbon; akin to E. board in sense 8. See Board, n., and cf. Bordure.] 1. The outer part or edge of anything, as of a garment, a garden, etc.; margin; verge; brink.
Upon the borders of these solitudes.
In the borders of death.
2. A boundary; a frontier of a state or of the settled part of a country; a frontier district.
3. A strip or stripe arranged along or near the edge of something, as an ornament or finish.
4. A narrow flower bed.
Border land, land on the frontiers of two adjoining countries; debatable land; – often used figuratively; as, the border land of science. – The Border, The Borders, specifically, the frontier districts of Scotland and England which lie adjacent. – Over the border, across the boundary line or frontier.
Syn. – Edge; verge; brink; margin; brim; rim; boundary; confine.
Bor∂der, v. i. [imp. & p.p. Bordered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bordering.] 1. To touch at the edge or boundary; to be contiguous or adjacent; – with on or upon as, Connecticut borders on Massachusetts.
2. To approach; to come near to; to verge.
Wit which borders upon profaneness deserves to be branded as folly.
Abp. Tillotson.
Bor∂der, v. t. 1. To make a border for; to furnish with a border, as for ornament; as, to border a garment or a garden.
2. To be, or to have, contiguous to; to touch, or be touched, as by a border; to be, or to have, near the limits or boundary; as, the region borders a forest, or is bordered on the north by a forest.
The country is bordered by a broad tract called the Ĺhot region.ł
Shebah and Raamah ... border the sea called the Persian gulf.
Sir W. Raleigh.
3. To confine within bounds; to limit. [Obs.]
That nature, which contemns its origin,
Can not be bordered certain in itself.
Bor∂derŌer (?), n. One who dwells on a border, or at the extreme part or confines of a country, region, or tract of land; one who dwells near to a place or region.
Borderers of the Caspian.
Bord∂land∑ (?), n. [Bordar (or perh. bord a board) + land.] (O. Eng. Law) Either land held by a bordar, or the land which a lord kept for the maintenance of his board, or table.
Bord∂lode∑ (?), n. [Bordar (or perh. bord a board) + lode leading.] (O. Eng. Law) The service formerly required of a tenant, to carry timber from the woods to the lord's house.
Bailey. Mozley & W.
Bord∂man (?), n. [Bordar (or perh. bord a board) + man.] A bordar; a tenant in bordage.
Bord∂rag (?), Bord∂ra∑ging (?), } n. [Perh. from OE. bord, for border + raging. Cf. Bodrage.] An incursion upon the borders of a country; a raid. [Obs.]
Bord∂ serv∑ice (?). [Bordar (or perh. bord a board) + service.] (O. Eng. Law) Service due from a bordar; bordage.
Bor∂dure (?), n. [F. bordure. See Border, n.] (Her.) A border one fifth the width of the shield, surrounding the field. It is usually plain, but may be charged.
Bore (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Bored (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Boring.] [OE. borien, AS. borian; akin to Icel. bora, Dan. bore, D. boren, OHG. por?n, G. bohren, L. forare, Gr. ? to plow, Zend bar. ?91.] 1. To perforate or penetrate, as a solid body, by turning an auger, gimlet, drill, or other instrument; to make a round hole in or through; to pierce; as, to bore a plank.
I'll believe as soon this whole earth may be bored.
2. To form or enlarge by means of a boring instrument or apparatus; as, to bore a steam cylinder or a gun barrel; to bore a hole.
Short but very powerful jaws, by means whereof the insect can bore, as with a centerbit, a cylindrical passage through the most solid wood.
T. W. Harris.
3. To make (a passage) by laborious effort, as in boring; as, to bore one's way through a crowd; to force a narrow and difficult passage through. ĹWhat bustling crowds I bored.ł
4. To weary by tedious iteration or by dullness; to tire; to trouble; to vex; to annoy; to pester.
He bores me with some trick.
Used to come and bore me at rare intervals.
5. To befool; to trick. [Obs.]
I am abused, betrayed; I am laughed at, scorned,
Baffled and bored, it seems.
Beau. & Fl.
Bore, v. i. 1. To make a hole or perforation with, or as with, a boring instrument; to cut a circular hole by the rotary motion of a tool; as, to bore for water or oil (i. e., to sink a well by boring for water or oil); to bore with a gimlet; to bore into a tree (as insects).
2. To be pierced or penetrated by an instrument that cuts as it turns; as, this timber does not bore well, or is hard to bore.
3. To push forward in a certain direction with laborious effort.
They take their flight ... boring to the west.

<-- p. 168 -->

4. (Ma??) To shoot out the nose or toss it in the air; ? said of a horse.
Bore (?), n. 1. A hole made by boring; a perforation.
2. The internal cylindrical cavity of a gun, cannon, pistol, or other firearm, or of a pipe or tube.
The bores of wind instruments.
Love's counselor should fill the bores of hearing.
3. The size of a hole; the interior diameter of a tube or gun barrel; the caliber.
4. A tool for making a hole by boring, as an auger.
5. Caliber; importance. [Obs.]
Yet are they much too light for the bore of the matter.
6. A person or thing that wearies by prolixity or dullness; a tiresome person or affair; any person or thing which causes ennui.
It is as great a bore as to hear a poet read his own verses.
Bore, n. [Icel. bĺra wave: cf. G. empor upwards, OHG. bor height, burren to lift, perh. allied to AS. beran, E. 1st bear. ?92.] (Physical Geog.) (a) A tidal flood which regularly or occasionally rushes into certain rivers of peculiar configuration or location, in one or more waves which present a very abrupt front of considerable height, dangerous to shipping, as at the mouth of the Amazon, in South America, the Hoogly and Indus, in India, and the Tsien–tang, in China. (b) Less properly, a very high and rapid tidal flow, when not so abrupt, such as occurs at the Bay of Fundy and in the British Channel.
Bore, imp. of 1st & 2d Bear.
Bo∂reŌal (?), a. [L. borealis: cf. F. borāal. See Boreas.] Northern; pertaining to the north, or to the north wind; as, a boreal bird; a boreal blast.
So from their own clear north in radiant streams,
Bright over Europe bursts the boreal morn.
ō Bo∂reŌas (?), n. [L. boreas, Gr. ?.] The north wind; – usually a personification.
Bore∂cole∑ (?), n. [Cf. D. boerenkool (lit.) husbandman's cabbage.] A brassicaceous plant of many varieties, cultivated for its leaves, which are not formed into a compact head like the cabbage, but are loose, and are generally curled or wrinkled; kale.
Bore∂dom (?), n. 1. The state of being bored, or pestered; a state of ennui.
2. The realm of bores; bores, collectively.
BoŌree∂ (?), n. Same as Bourrźā. [Obs.]
Bor∂el (?), n. See Borrel.
Bor∂eŌle (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The smaller two–horned rhinoceros of South Africa (Atelodus bicornis).
Bor∂er (?), n. 1. One that bores; an instrument for boring.
2. (ZoĒl.) (a) A marine, bivalve mollusk, of the genus Teredo and allies, which burrows in wood. See Teredo. (b) Any bivalve mollusk (Saxicava, Lithodomus, etc.) which bores into limestone and similar substances. (c) One of the larvĎ of many species of insects, which penetrate trees, as the apple, peach, pine, etc. See Apple borer, under Apple. (d) The hagfish (Myxine).
Bo∂ric (?), a. (Chem.) Of, pertaining to, or containing, boron.
Boric acid, a white crystalline substance B(OH)3, easily obtained from its salts, and occurring in solution in the hot lagoons of Tuscany.
Bo∂ride (?), n. (Chem.) A binary compound of boron with a more positive or basic element or radical; – formerly called boruret.
Bor∂ing (?), n. 1. The act or process of one who, or that which, bores; as, the boring of cannon; the boring of piles and ship timbers by certain marine mollusks.
One of the most important applications of boring is in the formation of artesian wells.
2. A hole made by boring.
3. pl. The chips or fragments made by boring.
Boring bar, a revolving or stationary bar, carrying one or more cutting tools for dressing round holes. – Boring tool (Metal Working), a cutting tool placed in a cutter head to dress round holes.
Born (?), p. p. & a. [See Bear, v. t.] 1. Brought forth, as an animal; brought into life; introduced by birth.
No one could be born into slavery in Mexico.
2. Having from birth a certain character; by or from birth; by nature; innate; as, a born liar. ĹA born matchmaker.ł
W. D. Howells.
Born again (Theol.), regenerated; renewed; having received spiritual life. ĹExcept a man be born again, he can not see the kingdom of God.ł John iii. 3. – Born days, days since one was born; lifetime. [Colloq.]
Borne (?), p. p. of Bear. Carried; conveyed;; supported; defrayed. See Bear, v. t.
Bor∂neŌol (?), n. [Borneo + Ōol.] (Chem.) A rare variety of camphor, C10H17.OH, resembling ordinary camphor, from which it can be produced by reduction. It is said to occur in the camphor tree of Borneo and Sumatra (Dryobalanops camphora), but the natural borneol is rarely found in European or American commerce, being in great request by the Chinese. Called also Borneo camphor, Malay camphor, and camphol.
Bor∂nite (?), n. [Named after Von Born, a mineralogist.] (Min.) A valuable ore of copper, containing copper, iron, and sulphur; – also called purple copper ore (or erubescite), in allusion to the colors shown upon the slightly tarnished surface.
Bo∑roŌflu∂orŌide (?), n. [Boron + fluoride.] (Chem.) A double fluoride of boron and hydrogen, or some other positive element, or radical; – called also fluoboride, and formerly fluoborate.
Bo∂roŌglyc∂erŌide (?), n. [Boron + glyceride.] (Chem.) A compound of boric acid and glycerin, used as an antiseptic.
Bo∂ron (?), n. [See Borax.] (Chem.) A nonmetallic element occurring abundantly in borax. It is reduced with difficulty to the free state, when it can be obtained in several different forms; viz., as a substance of a deep olive color, in a semimetallic form, and in colorless quadratic crystals similar to the diamond in hardness and other properties. It occurs in nature also in boracite, datolite, tourmaline, and some other minerals. Atomic weight 10.9. Symbol B.
Bo∂roŌsil∂iŌcate (?), n. [Boron + silicate.] (Chem.) A double salt of boric and silicic acids, as in the natural minerals tourmaline, datolite, etc.
Bor∂ough (?), n. [OE. burgh, burw, boru, port, town, burrow, AS. burh, burg; akin to Icel., Sw., & Dan. borg, OS. & D. burg, OHG. puruc, purc, MHG. burc, G. burg, Goth. ba£rgs; and from the root of AS. beorgan to hide, save, defend, G. bergen; or perh. from that of AS. beorg hill, mountain. ?95. See Bury, v. t., and cf. Burrow, Burg, Bury, n., Burgess, Iceberg, Borrow, Harbor, Hauberk.] 1. In England, an incorporated town that is not a city; also, a town that sends members to parliament; in Scotland, a body corporate, consisting of the inhabitants of a certain district, erected by the sovereign, with a certain jurisdiction; in America, an incorporated town or village, as in Pennsylvania and Connecticut.
Burrill. Erskine.
2. The collective body of citizens or inhabitants of a borough; as, the borough voted to lay a tax.
Close borough, or Pocket borough, a borough having the right of sending a member to Parliament, whose nomination is in the hands of a single person. – Rotten borough, a name given to any borough which, at the time of the passage of the Reform Bill of 1832, contained but few voters, yet retained the privilege of sending a member to Parliament.
Bor∂ough, n. [See Borrow.] (O. Eng. Law) (a) An association of men who gave pledges or sureties to the king for the good behavior of each other. (b) The pledge or surety thus given.
Blackstone. Tomlins.
Bor∂ough–Eng∂lish (?), n. (Eng. Law) A custom, as in some ancient boroughs, by which lands and tenements descend to the youngest son, instead of the eldest; or, if the owner have no issue, to the youngest brother.
Bor∂oughŌhead∑ (?), n. See Headborough. [Obs.]
Bor∂oughŌhold∂er (?), n. A headborough; a borsholder.
Bor∂oughŌmas∂ter (?), n. [Cf. Burgomaster.] The mayor, governor, or bailiff of a borough.
Bor∂oughŌmon∂ger (?), n. One who buys or sells the parliamentary seats of boroughs.
Bor∂oughŌmon∂gerŌing, Bor∂oughŌmon∂gerŌy (?), n. The practices of a boroughmonger.
BorŌrach∂o (?), n. See Borachio. [Obs.]
Bor∂rage (?), n., BorŌrag∑iŌna∂ceous (?), a., etc. See Borage, n., etc.
Bor∂rel (?), n. [OF. burel a kind of coarse woolen cloth, fr. F. bure drugget. See Bureau. Rustic and common people dressed in this cloth, which was prob. so called from its color.] 1. Coarse woolen cloth; hence, coarse clothing; a garment. [Obs.]
2. A kind of light stuff, of silk and wool.
Bor∂rel, a. [Prob. from Borrel, n.] Ignorant, unlearned; belonging to the laity. [Obs.]
Bor∂row (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Borrowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Borrowing.] [OE. borwen, AS. borgian, fr. borg, borh, pledge; akin to D. borg, G. borg; prob. fr. root of AS. beorgan to protect. ?95. See 1st Borough.] 1. To receive from another as a loan, with the implied or expressed intention of returning the identical article or its equivalent in kind; – the opposite of lend.
2. (Arith.) To take (one or more) from the next higher denomination in order to add it to the next lower; – a term of subtraction when the figure of the subtrahend is larger than the corresponding one of the minuend.
3. To copy or imitate; to adopt; as, to borrow the style, manner, or opinions of another.
Rites borrowed from the ancients.
It is not hard for any man, who hath a Bible in his hands, to borrow good words and holy sayings in abundance; but to make them his own is a work of grace only from above.
4. To feign or counterfeit. ĹBorrowed hair.ł
The borrowed majesty of England.
5. To receive; to take; to derive.
Any drop thou borrowedst from thy mother.
To borrow trouble, to be needlessly troubled; to be overapprehensive.
Bor∂row, n. 1. Something deposited as security; a pledge; a surety; a hostage. [Obs.]
Ye may retain as borrows my two priests.
Sir W. Scott.
2. The act of borrowing. [Obs.]
Of your royal presence I'll adventure
The borrow of a week.
Bor∂rowŌer (?), n. One who borrows.
Neither a borrower nor a lender be.
Bors∂hold∑er (?), n. [OE. borsolder; prob. fr. AS. borg, gen. borges, pledge + ealdor elder. See Borrow, and Elder, a.] (Eng. Law) The head or chief of a tithing, or borough (see 2d Borough); the headborough; a parish constable.
Bort (?), n. Imperfectly crystallized or coarse diamonds, or fragments made in cutting good diamonds which are reduced to powder and used in lapidary work.
Bo∂ruŌret (?), n. (Chem.) A boride. [Obs.]
Bor∂we (?), n. Pledge; borrow. [Obs.]
ō Bos (?), n. [L., ox, cow.] (ZoĒl.) A genus of ruminant quadrupeds, including the wild and domestic cattle, distinguished by a stout body, hollow horns, and a large fold of skin hanging from the neck.
ō Bo∂sa (?), n. [Ar. b?za, Pers. b?zah: cf. F. bosan.] A drink, used in the East. See Boza.
Bos∂cage (?), n. [OF. boscage grove, F. bocage, fr. LL. boscus, buscus, thicket, wood. See 1st Bush.] 1. A growth of trees or shrubs; underwood; a thicket; thick foliage; a wooded landscape.
2. (O. Eng. Law) Food or sustenance for cattle, obtained from bushes and trees; also, a tax on wood.
Bosh (?), n. [Cf. G. posse joke, trifle; It. bozzo a rough stone, bozzetto a rough sketch, sŌbozzo a rough draught, sketch.] Figure; outline; show. [Obs.]
Bosh, n. [Turk.] Empty talk; contemptible nonsense; trash; humbug. [Colloq.]
Bosh, n.; pl. Boshes (?). [Cf. G. bĒschung a slope.]
1. One of the sloping sides of the lower part of a blast furnace; also, one of the hollow iron or brick sides of the bed of a puddling or boiling furnace.
2. pl. The lower part of a blast furnace, which slopes inward, or the widest space at the top of this part.
3. In forging and smelting, a trough in which tools and ingots are cooled.
ō Bosh∂bok (?), n. [D. bosch wood + bok buck.] (ZoĒl.) A kind of antelope. See Bush buck.
ō Bosh∂vark (?), n. [D. bosch wood + varken pig.] (ZoĒl.) The bush hog. See under Bush, a thicket.
ō Bos∂jesŌman (?), n.; pl. Bosjesmans. [D. boschjesman.] See Bushman.
Bosk (?), n. [See Bosket.] A thicket; a small wood. ĹThrough bosk and dell.ł
Sir W. Scott.
Bos∂kage (?), n. Same as Boscage.
Thridding the somber boskage of the wood.
Bos∂ket, Bos∂quet (?), n. [F. bosquet a little wood, dim. fr. LL. boscus. See Boscage, and cf. Bouquet.] (Gardening) A grove; a thicket; shrubbery; an inclosure formed by branches of trees, regularly or irregularly disposed.
Bosk∂iŌness (?), n. Boscage; also, the state or quality of being bosky.
Bosk∂y (?), a. [Cf. Bushy.] 1. Woody or bushy; covered with boscage or thickets.
2. Caused by boscage.
Darkened over by long bosky shadows.
H. James.
Bos∂om (?), n. [AS. b?sm; akin to D. bozem, Fries. b?sm, OHG. puosum, G. busen, and prob. E. bough.] 1. The breast of a human being; the part, between the arms, to which anything is pressed when embraced by them.
You must prepare your bosom for his knife.
2. The breast, considered as the seat of the passions, affections, and operations of the mind; consciousness; se??et thoughts.
Tut, I am in their bosoms, and I know
Wherefore they do it.
If I covered my transgressions as Adam, by hiding my iniquity in my bosom.
Job xxxi. 33.
3. Embrace; loving or affectionate inclosure; fold.
Within the bosom of that church.
4. Any thing or place resembling the breast; a supporting surface; an inner recess; the interior; as, the bosom of the earth. ĹThe bosom of the ocean.ł
5. The part of the dress worn upon the breast; an article, or a portion of an article, of dress to be worn upon the breast; as, the bosom of a shirt; a linen bosom.
He put his hand into his bosom: and when he took it out, behold, his hand was leprous as snow.
Ex.iv. 6.
6. Inclination; desire. [Obs.]
7. A depression round the eye of a millstone.
Bos∂om, a. 1. Of or pertaining to the bosom.
2. Intimate; confidential; familiar; trusted; cherished; beloved; as, a bosom friend.
Bos∂om, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Bosomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bosoming.] 1. To inclose or carry in the bosom; to keep with care; to take to heart; to cherish.
Bosom up my counsel,
You'll find it wholesome.
2. To conceal; to hide from view; to embosom.
To happy convents bosomed deep in vines.
Bos∂omed (?), a. Having, or resembling, bosom; kept in the bosom; hidden.
Bos∂omŌy (?), a. Characterized by recesses or sheltered hollows.
Bo∂son (?), n. See Boatswain. [Obs.]
BosŌpo∂riŌan (?), a. [L. Bosporus, G. ?, lit., oxŌford, the ox's or heifer's ford, on account of Io's passage here as a heifer; fr. ? ox, heifer + ? ford.] Of or pertaining to the Thracian or the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The Alans forced the Bosporian kings to pay them tribute and exterminated the Taurians.
Bos∂poŌrus (?), n. [L.] A strait or narrow sea between two seas, or a lake and a seas; as, the Bosporus (formerly the Thracian Bosporus) or Strait of Constantinople, between the Black Sea and Sea of Marmora; the Cimmerian Bosporus, between the Black Sea and Sea of Azof. [Written also Bosphorus.]
Bos∂quet (?), n. See Bosket.
Boss (?), n.; pl. Bosses (?). [OE. boce, bose, boche, OF. boce, boche, bosse, F. bosse, of G. origin; cf. OHG. b”zo tuft, bunch, OHG. b”zan, MHG. bďzen, to beat. See Beat, and cf. Botch a swelling.] 1. Any protuberant part; a round, swelling part or body; a knoblike process; as, a boss of wood.
2. A protuberant ornament on any work, either of different material from that of the work or of the same, as

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upon a buckler or bridle; a stud; a knob; the central projection of a shield. See Umbilicus.
3. (Arch.) A projecting ornament placed at the intersection of the ribs of ceilings, whether vaulted or flat, and in other situations.
4. [Cf. D. bus box, Dan. bĒsse.] A wooden vessel for the mortar used in tiling or masonry, hung by a hook from the laths, or from the rounds of a ladder.
5. (Mech.) (a) The enlarged part of a shaft, on which a wheel is keyed, or at the end, where it is coupled to another. (b) A swage or die used for shaping metals.
6. A head or reservoir of water. [Obs.]
Boss (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Bossed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bossing.] [OE. bocen, fr. OF. bocier. See the preceding word.] To ornament with bosses; to stud.
Boss, n. [D. baas master.] A master workman or superintendent; a director or manager; a political dictator. [Slang, U. S.]
Boss∂age (?), n. [F. bossage, fr. bosse. See Boss a stud.] 1. (Arch.) A stone in a building, left rough and projecting, to be afterward carved into shape.
2. (Arch.) Rustic work, consisting of stones which seem to advance beyond the level of the building, by reason of indentures or channels left in the joinings.
Bossed (?), a. Embossed; also, bossy.
Bos∂set (?), n. [Cf. Boss a stud.] (ZoĒl.) A rudimental antler of a young male of the red deer.
Boss∂ism (?), n. The rule or practices of bosses, esp. political bosses. [Slang, U. S.]
Boss∂y (?), a. Ornamented with bosses; studded.
Bos∂sy, n. [Dim. fr. Prov. E. boss in boss–calf, buss–calf, for boose–calf, prop., a calf kept in the stall. See 1st Boose.] A cor or calf; – familiarly so called. [U. S.]
Bos∂ton (?), n. A game at cards, played by four persons, with two packs of fifty–two cards each; – said to be so called from Boston, Massachusetts, and to have been invented by officers of the French army in America during the Revolutionary war.
BosŌwell∂iŌan (?), a. Relating to, or characteristic of, Boswell, the biographer of Dr. Johnson.
Bos∂wellŌism (?), n. The style of Boswell.
Bot (?), n. (ZoĒl.) See Bots.
BoŌtan∂ic (?), BoŌtan∂icŌal (?), } a. [Cf. F. botanique. See Botany.] Of or pertaining to botany; relating to the study of plants; as, a botanical system, arrangement, textbook, expedition. – Botan∂icŌalŌly, adv.
Botanic garden, a garden devoted to the culture of plants collected for the purpose of illustrating the science of botany. – Botanic physician, a physician whose medicines consist chiefly of herbs and roots.
Bot∂aŌnist (?), n. [Cf. F. botaniste.] One skilled in botany; one versed in the knowledge of plants.
Bot∂aŌnize (?), v. i. [imp. & p.p. Botanized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Botanizing (?).] [Cf. F. botaniser.] To seek after plants for botanical investigation; to study plants.
Bot∂aŌnize, v. t. To explore for botanical purposes.
Bot∂aŌni∑zer (?), n. One who botanizes.
Bot∑aŌnol∂oŌger (?), n. A botanist. [Obs.]
Bot∑aŌnol∂oŌgy (?), n. [Botany + Ōlogy: cf. F. botanologie.] The science of botany. [Obs.]
Bot∂aŌnoŌman∑cy (?), n. [Botany + Ōmancy: cf. F. botanomantie.] An ancient species of divination by means of plants, esp. sage and fig leaves.
Bot∂aŌny (?), n.; pl. Botanies (?). [F. botanique, a. & n., fr. Gr. ? botanic, fr. ? herb, plant, fr. ? to feed, graze.] 1. The science which treats of the structure of plants, the functions of their parts, their places of growth, their classification, and the terms which are employed in their description and denomination. See Plant.
2. A book which treats of the science of botany.
Ķ Botany is divided into various departments; as, Structural Botany, which investigates the structure and organic composition of plants; Physiological Botany, the study of their functions and life; and Systematic Botany, which has to do with their classification, description, nomenclature, etc.
Bot∂aŌny Bay∂ (?). A harbor on the east coast of Australia, and an English convict settlement there; – so called from the number of new plants found on its shore at its discovery by Cook in 1770.
Hence, any place to which desperadoes resort.
Botany Bay kino (Med.), an astringent, reddish substance consisting of the inspissated juice of several Australian species of Eucalyptus. – Botany Bay resin (Med.), a resin of reddish yellow color, resembling gamboge, the product of different Australian species of XanthorrhĎa, esp. the grass three (X. hastilis.)
BoŌtar∂go (?), n. [It. bottarga, bottarica; or Sp. botarga; a kind of large sausages, a sort of wide breeches: cf. F. boutargue.] A sort of cake or sausage, made of the salted roes of the mullet, much used on the coast of the Mediterranean as an incentive to drink.
Botch (?), n.; pl. Botches (?). [Same as Boss a stud. For senses 2 & 3 cf. D. botsen to beat, akin to E. beat.] 1. A swelling on the skin; a large ulcerous affection; a boil; an eruptive disease. [Obs. or Dial.]
Botches and blains must all his flesh emboss.
2. A patch put on, or a part of a garment patched or ?ended in a clumsy manner.
3. Work done in a bungling manner; a clumsy performance; a piece of work, or a place in work, marred in the doing, or not properly finished; a bungle.
To leave no rubs nor botches in the work.
Botch, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Botched (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Botching.] [See Botch, n.] 1. To mark with, or as with, botches.
Young Hylas, botched with stains.
2. To repair; to mend; esp. to patch in a clumsy or imperfect manner, as a garment; – sometimes with up.
Sick bodies ... to be kept and botched up for a time.
Robynson (More's Utopia).
3. To put together unsuitably or unskillfully; to express or perform in a bungling manner; to spoil or mar, as by unskillful work.
For treason botched in rhyme will be thy bane.
Botch∂edŌly (?), adv. In a clumsy manner.
Botch∂er (?), n. 1. One who mends or patches, esp. a tailor or cobbler.
2. A clumsy or careless workman; a bungler.
3. (ZoĒl.) A young salmon; a grilse.
Botch∂erŌly, a. Bungling; awkward. [R.]
Botch∂erŌy (?), n. A botching, or that which is done by botching; clumsy or careless workmanship.
Botch∂y (?), a. Marked with botches; full of botches; poorly done. ĹThis botchy business.ł
Bp. Watson.
Bote (?), n. [Old form of boot; – used in composition. See 1st Boot.] (Law) (a) Compensation; amends; satisfaction; expiation; as, man bote, a compensation or a man slain. (b) Payment of any kind. Bouvier. (c) A privilege or allowance of necessaries.
Ķ This word is still used in composition as equivalent to the French estovers, supplies, necessaries; as, housebote, a sufficiency of wood to repair a house, or for fuel, sometimes called firebote; so plowbote, cartbote, wood for making or repairing instruments of husbandry; haybote or hedgebote, wood for hedges, fences, etc. These were privileges enjoyed by tenants under the feudal system.
Burrill. Bouvier. Blackstone.
Bote∂less, a. Unavailing; in vain. See Bootless.
Bot∂fly∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A dipterous insect of the family ( EstridĎ, of many different species, some of which are particularly troublesome to domestic animals, as the horse, ox, and sheep, on which they deposit their eggs. A common species is one of the botflies of the horse (Gastrophilus equi), the larvĎ of which (bots) are taken into the stomach of the animal, where they live several months and pass through their larval states. In tropical America one species sometimes lives under the human skin, and another in the stomach. See Gadfly.
Both (?), a. or pron. [OE. bothe, ba?e, fr. Icel. bĺ?ir; akin to Dan. baade, Sw. bÜda, Goth. baj??s, OHG. beid?, b?d?, G. & D. beide, also AS. begen, bĺ, b?, Goth. bai, and Gr. ?, L. ambo, Lith. abÖ, OSlav. oba, Skr. ubha. ?310. Cf. Amb–.] The one and the other; the two; the pair, without exception of either.
Ķ It is generally used adjectively with nouns; as, both horses ran away; but with pronouns, and often with nous, it is used substantively, and followed by of.
It frequently stands as a pronoun.
She alone is heir to both of us.
Abraham took sheep and oxen, and gave them unto Abimelech; and both of them made a covenant.
Gen. xxi. 27.
He will not bear the loss of his rank, because he can bear the loss of his estate; but he will bear both, because he is prepared for both.
It is often used in apposition with nouns or pronouns.
Thy weal and woe are both of them extremes.
This said, they both betook them several ways.
Both now always precedes any other attributive words; as, both their armies; both our eyes.
Both of is used before pronouns in the objective case; as, both of us, them, whom, etc.; but before substantives its used is colloquial, both (without of) being the preferred form; as, both the brothers.
Both, conj. As well; not only; equally.
Both precedes the first of two coĒrdinate words or phrases, and is followed by and before the other, both ... and ...; as well the one as the other; not only this, but also that; equally the former and the latter. It is also sometimes followed by more than two coĒrdinate words, connected by and expressed or understood.
To judge both quick and dead.
A masterpiece both for argument and style.
To whom bothe heven and erthe and see is sene.
Both mongrel, puppy, whelp, and hound.
He prayeth well who loveth well
Both man and bird and beast.
Both∂er (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Bothered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bothering.] [Cf. Ir. buaidhirt trouble, buaidhrim I vex.] To annoy; to trouble; to worry; to perplex. See Pother.
Ķ The imperative is sometimes used as an exclamation mildly imprecatory.
Both∂er, v. i. To feel care or anxiety; to make or take trouble; to be troublesome.
Without bothering about it.
H. James.
Both∂er, n. One who, or that which, bothers; state of perplexity or annoyance; embarrassment; worry; disturbance; petty trouble; as, to be in a bother.
Both∑erŌa∂tion (?), n. The act of bothering, or state of being bothered; cause of trouble; perplexity; annoyance; vexation. [Colloq.]
Both∂erŌer (?), n. One who bothers.
Both∂erŌsome (?), a. Vexatious; causing bother; causing trouble or perplexity; troublesome.
Both∂–hands∑ (?), n. A factotum. [R.]
He is his master's both–hands, I assure you.
B. Jonson.
Both∂ie (?), n. Same as Bothy. [Scot.]
Both∂niŌan (?), Both∂nic (?), } a. Of or pertaining to Bothnia, a country of northern Europe, or to a gulf of the same name which forms the northern part of the Baltic sea.
ō BothŌren∂chyŌma (?), n. [Gr. ? pit + ? something poured in. Formed like parenchyma.] (Bot.) Dotted or pitted ducts or vessels forming the pores seen in many kinds of wood.
Both∂y (?) Booth∂y (?) n.; pl. Ōies (?) [Scottish. Cf. Booth.] A wooden hut or humble cot, esp. a rude hut or barrack for unmarried farm servants; a shepherd's or hunter's hut; a booth. [Scot.]
ō Bo∑toŌcu∂dos (?), n. pl. [Pg. botoque stopple. So called because they wear a wooden plug in the pierced lower lip.] A Brazilian tribe of Indians, noted for their use of poisons; – also called Aymborās.
Bo∂ tree∑ (?). (Bot.) The peepul tree; esp., the very ancient tree standing at Anurajahpoora in Ceylon, grown from a slip of the tree under which Gautama is said to have received the heavenly light and so to have become Buddha.
The sacred bo tree of the Buddhists (Ficus religiosa), which is planted close to every temple, and attracts almost as much veneration as the status of the god himself ....It differs from the banyan (Ficus Indica) by sending down no roots from its branches.
Bot∂ryŌoŌgen (?), n. [Gr. ? cluster of grapes + Ōgen.] (Min.) A hydrous sulphate of iron of a deep red color. It often occurs in botryoidal form.
Bot∂ryŌoid (?), Bot∑ryŌoid∂al (?), } a. [Gr. ? cluster of grapes + Ōoid.] Having the form of a bunch of grapes; like a cluster of grapes, as a mineral presenting an aggregation of small spherical or spheroidal prominences.
Bot∂ryŌoŌlite (?), n. [Gr. ? cluster of grapes + Ōlite.] (Min.) A variety of datolite, usually having a botryoidal structure.
Bot∂ryŌose∑ (?), a. (Bot.) (a) Having the form of a cluster of grapes. (b) Of the racemose or acropetal type of inflorescence.
Bots (?), n. pl. [Cf. Gael. botus belly worm, boiteag maggot.] (ZoĒl.) The larvĎ of several species of botfly, especially those larvĎ which infest the stomach, throat, or intestines of the horse, and are supposed to be the cause of various ailments. [Written also botts.] See Illust. of Botfly.
BotŌtine∂ (?), n. [F. See Boot (for the foot.).]
1. A small boot; a lady's boot.
2. An appliance resembling a small boot furnished with straps, buckles, etc., used to correct or prevent distortions in the lower extremities of children.
Bot∂tle (?), n. [OE. bote, botelle, OF. botel, bouteille, F. bouteille, fr. LL. buticula, dim. of butis, buttis, butta, flask. Cf. Butt a cask.] 1. A hollow vessel, usually of glass or earthenware (but formerly of leather), with a narrow neck or mouth, for holding liquids.
2. The contents of a bottle; as much as a bottle contains; as, to drink a bottle of wine.
3. Fig.: Intoxicating liquor; as, to drown one's reason in the bottle.
Ķ Bottle is much used adjectively, or as the first part of a compound.
Bottle ale, bottled ale. [Obs.] Shak. – Bottle brush, a cylindrical brush for cleansing the interior of bottles. – Bottle fish (ZoĒl.), a kind of deep–sea eel (Saccopharynz ampullaceus), remarkable for its baglike gullet, which enables it to swallow fishes two or three times its won size. – Bottle flower. (Bot.) Same as Bluebottle. – Bottle glass, a coarse, green glass, used in the manufacture of bottles. Ure. – Bottle gourd (Bot.), the common gourd or calabash (Lagenaria Vulgaris), whose shell is used for bottles, dippers, etc. – Bottle grass (Bot.), a nutritious fodder grass (Setaria glauca and S. viridis); – called also foxtail, and green foxtail. – Bottle tit (ZoĒl.), the European long–tailed titmouse; – so called from the shape of its nest. – Bottle tree (Bot.), an Australian tree (Sterculia rupestris), with a bottle–shaped, or greatly swollen, trunk. – Feeding bottle, Nursing bottle, a bottle with a rubber nipple (generally with an intervening tubve), used in feeding infants.
Bot∂tle, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Bottled (?) p. pr. & vb. n. Bottling (?).] To put into bottles; to inclose in, or as in, a bottle or bottles; to keep or restrain as in a bottle; as, to bottle wine or porter; to bottle up one's wrath.
Bot∂tle, n. [OE. botel, OF. botel, dim. of F. botte; cf. OHG. bozo bunch. See Boss stud.] A bundle, esp. of hay. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]
Chaucer. Shak.
Bot∂tled (?), a. 1. Put into bottles; inclosed in bottles; pent up in, or as in, a bottle.
2. Having the shape of a bottle; protuberant.
Bot∂tle green∑ (?). A dark shade of green, like that of bottle glass. – Bot∂tle–green∑, a.
Bot∂tleŌhead∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A cetacean allied to the grampus; – called also bottleŌnosed whale<-- bottle-nosed dolphin?-->.
Ķ There are several species so named, as the pilot whales, of the genus Globicephalus, and one or more species of HyperoĒdon (H. bidens, etc.), found on the European coast. See Blackfish, 1.
Bot∂tleŌhold∑er (?), n. 1. One who attends a pugilist in a prize fight; – so called from the bottle of water of which he has charge.
2. One who assists or supports another in a contest; an abettor; a backer. [Colloq.]
Lord Palmerston considered himself the bottleholder of oppressed states.
The London Times.
Bot∂tle–nose∑ (?), a. Having the nose bottleshaped, or large at the end.
Bot∂tler (?), n. One who bottles wine, beer, soda water, etc.
Bot∂tleŌscrew∑ (?) n. A corkscrew.
Bot∂tling (?) n. The act or the process of

<-- p. 170 -->

? anything into bottles (as beer, mineral water, etc.,
and corking the bottles.

Bot∂tom (?), n. [OE. botum, botme, AS. botm; ?akin to OS. bodom, D. bodem, OHG. podam, G. boden, Icel. botn, Sw. botten, Dan. bund (for budn ), L. fundus (for fudnus), Gr.? (for ?), Skr. budhna (for ?hudhna), and Ir. bonn sole of the foot, W. bon stem, ?base. + 257. Cf. 4th Found, Fund, n.]
1. The lowest part of anything; the foot; as, the bottom of a tree or well; the bottom of a hill, a lane, or a page.
Or dive into the bottom of the deep.
2. The part of anything which is beneath the contents and supports them, as the part of a chair on which a person sits, the circular base or lower head of a cask or tub, or the plank floor of a ship's hold; the under surface.
Barrels with the bottom knocked out.
No two chairs were alike; such high backs and low backs and
leather bottoms and worsted bottoms.
3. That upon which anything rests or is founded, in a literal or a figurative sense; foundation; groundwork.
4. The bed of a body of water, as of a river, lake, sea.
5. The fundament; the buttocks.
6. An abyss. [Obs.]
7. Low land formed by alluvial deposits along a river; low–lying ground; a dale; a valley. ĹThe bottoms and the high grounds.ł
8. (Naut.) The part of a ship which is ordinarily under water; hence, the vessel itself; a ship.
My ventures are not in one bottom trusted.
Not to sell the teas, but to return them to London in the
same bottoms in which they were shipped.
Full bottom, a hull of such shape as permits carrying a large amount of merchandise.
9. Power of endurance; as, a horse of a good bottom.
10. Dregs or grounds; lees; sediment.
At bottom, At the bottom, at the foundation or basis; in reality. ĹHe was at the bottom a good man.ł
– To be at the bottom of, to be the cause or originator of; to be the source of. [Usually in an opprobrious sense.]
He was at the bottom of many excellent counsels.
–To go to the bottom, to sink; esp. to be wrecked. – To touch bottom, to reach the lowest point; to find something on which to rest.
Bot∂tom, a. Of or pertaining to the bottom; fundamental; lowest; under; as, bottom rock; the bottom board of a wagon box; bottom prices.
Bottom glade, a low glade or open place; a valley; a dale.
–Bottom grass, grass growing on bottom lands.– Bottom land. See 1st Bottom, n., 7.?
Bot∂tom, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bottomed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bottoming.]
1. To found or build upon; to fix upon as a support; – followed by on or upon.
Action is supposed to be bottomed upon principle.
Those false and deceiving grounds upon which many bottom
their eternal state.
2. To furnish with a bottom; as, to bottom a chair.
3. To reach or get to the bottom of.
Bot∂tom, v. i.
1. To rest, as upon an ultimate support; to be based or grounded; – usually with on or upon.
Find on what foundation any proposition bottoms.
2. To reach or impinge against the bottom, so as to impede free action, as when the point of a cog strikes the bottom of a space between two other cogs, or a piston the end of a cylinder.
Bot∂tom, n. [OE. botme, perh. corrupt. for button. See Button.] A ball or skein of thread; a cocoon. [Obs.]
Silkworms finish their bottoms in ... fifteen days.
Bot∂tom, v. t. To wind round something, as in making a ball of thread. [Obs.]
As you unwind her love from him,
Lest it should ravel and be good to none,
You must provide to bottom it on me.
Bot∂tomed (?), a. Having at the bottom, or as a bottom; resting upon a bottom; grounded; – mostly,? in composition; as, sharp–bottomed; well–bottomed.
Bot∂tomŌless, a. Without a bottom; hence, fathomless; baseless; as, a bottomless abyss. ĹBottomless speculations.ł
But∂tomŌry (?), n. [From 1st Bottom in sense 8: cf.D. bodemerij. Cf. Bummery.] (Mar.Law) A contract in the nature of a mortgage, by which the owner of a ship, or the master as his agent, hypothecates and binds the ship (and sometimes the accruing freight) as security for the repayment of money advanced or lent for the use of the ship, if she terminates her voyage successfully. If the ship is lost by perils of the sea, the lender loses the money; but if the ship arrives safe, he is to receive the money lent, with the interest or premium stipulated, although it may, and usually does, exceed he legal rate of interest. See Hypothecation.
Bot∂tonŌy (?), Bot∂toŌnā (?),} a. [F. boutonnā, fr. boutonner to bud, button.] (Her.) Having a bud or button, or a kind of trefoil, at the end; furnished with knobs or buttons.
Cross bottony (Her.), a cross having each arm
terminating in three rounded lobes, forming a sort of
Botts (?), n. pl. (ZoĒl.) See Bots.
Bot∂uŌliŌform∑ (?), a. [L. botulus sausage + – form.] (Bot.) Having the shape of a sausage.
ōBouche (?), n. [F.] Same as Bush, a lining.
Bouche, v.t. Same as Bush, to line.
ōBouche, Bouch } (?), n. [F. bouche mouth, victuals.]
1. A mouth. [Obs.]
2. An allowance of meat and drink for the tables of inferior officers or servants in a nobleman's palace or at court. [Obs.]
ōBou∑chāes∂ (?), n. pl. [F., morsels, mouthfuls, fr. bouche mouth.] (Cookery) Small patties.
Boud (?), n. A weevil; a worm that breeds in malt, biscuit, etc. [Obs.]
ōBou∂doir∂ (?), n. [F., fr. bouder to pout, be sulky.] A small room, esp. if pleasant, or elegantly furnished, to which a lady may retire to be alone, or to receive intimate friends; a lady's (or sometimes a gentleman's) private room.
ōBouffe (?), n. [F., buffoon.] Comic opera. See Opera Bouffe.
ōBou∑gainŌvilŌlĎ∑a (?), n. [Named from Bougainville, the French navigator.] (Bot.) A genus of plants of the order NyctoginaceĎ, from tropical South America, having the flowers surrounded by large bracts.
Bouge (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bouged (?)] [Variant of bulge. Cf. Bowge.]
1. To swell out. [Obs.]
2. To bilge. [Obs.] ĹTheir ship bouged.ł
Bouge, v. t. To stave in; to bilge. [Obs.]
Bouge, n. [F. bouche mouth, victuals.] Bouche (see Bouche, 2?); food and drink; provisions. [Obs.]
[They] made room for a bombardman that brought bouge for a
country lady or two, that fainted ... with fasting.
Bou∂get (?), n. [Cf. F. bougette sack, bag. Cf. Budget.] (Her.) A charge representing a leather vessel for carrying water; – also called water bouget.
Bough (?), n. [OE. bogh, AS. bĒ?g, bĒh?, bough, shoulder; akin to Icel. bĒ?gr shoulder, bow of a ship, Sw. bog, Dan. bov, OHG. buog, G. bug, and to Gr.? ( for ? )
forearm, Skr. bĄ?hu (for bhĄ?ghu) arm. ?88, 251. Cf. Bow of a ship.]
1. An arm or branch of a tree, esp. a large arm or main branch.
2. A gallows. [Archaic]
Bought (?), n. [Cf. Dan. bugt bend, turning, Icel. bug?a. Cf. Bight, Bout, and see Bow to bend.]
1. A flexure; a bend; a twist; a turn; a coil, as in a rope; as the boughts of a serpent. [Obs.]
The boughts of the fore legs.
Sir T.Browne.
2. The part of a sling that contains the stone. [Obs.]
Bought (?), imp & p.p. of Buy.
Bought, p.a. Purchased; bribed.
Bought∂en (?), a. Purchased; not obtained or produced at home.

Bought∂y (?), a. Bending. [Obs.]
ōBouŌgie∂ (?), n. [F. bougie wax candle, bougie, fr. Bougie, Bugia, a town of North Africa, from which these
candles were first imported into Europe.]
1. (Surg.) A long, flexible instrument, that is
introduced into the urethra, esophagus, etc., to remove
obstructions, or for the other purposes. It was originally
made of waxed linen rolled into cylindrical form.
2. (Pharm.) A long slender rod consisting of gelatin or some other substance that melts at the temperature of the body. It is impregnated with medicine, and designed for introduction into urethra, etc.
ōBou∑illi∂ (?), n. [F., fr. bouillir to boil.]
(Cookery) Boiled or stewed meat; beef boiled with vegetables in water from which its gravy is to be made; beef from which
bouillon or soup has been made.
ōBou∑illon∂ (?), n. [F., fr. bouillir to boil.]
1. A nutritious liquid food made by boiling beef, or other meat, in water; a clear soup or broth.
2. (Far.) An excrescence on a horse's frush or frog.
Bouk (?), n. [AS. bĀc? belly; akin to G. bauch, Icel. bĀ?kr body.]
1. The body. [Obs.]
2. Bulk; volume. [Scot.]
Boul (?), n. A curved handle.
Sir W.Scott.
BouŌlan∂gerŌite (?), n. [From Boulanger, a French
mineralogist.] (Min.) A mineral of a bluish gray color and metallic luster, usually in plumose masses, also compact.It
is sulphide of antimony and lead.
Bul∂der (?), n. Same as Bowlder.
Boul∂derŌy (?), a. Characterized by bowlders.
Boule (?), Boule∂work∑ (?), n. Same as Buhl, Buhlwork.
ōBou∂leŌvard∑ (?), n. [F. boulevard, boulevart, fr. G. bollwerk. See Bulwark.]
1. Originally, a bulwark or rampart of fortification or fortified town.
2. A public walk or street occupying the site of
demolished fortifications. Hence: A broad avenue in or
around a city.
ōBoule∑verse∑ment∂ (?), n. [F., fr. bouleverser to
overthrow.] Complete overthrow; disorder; a turning upside
Buolt (?), n. Corrupted form Bolt.
Boul∂tel (?), Boul∂tin (?), n. (Arch.) (a) A molding, the convexity of which is one fourth of a circle, being a member just below the abacus in the Tuscan and Roman Doric capital; a torus; an ovolo. (b) One of the shafts of a clustered column. [Written also bowtel, boltel, boultell, etc.]
Boul∂ter (?), n. [Etymol. uncertain.] A long, stout fishing line to which many hooks are attached.
Boun (?), a. [See Bound ready.] Ready; prepared; destined; tending. [Obs.]
Boun, v.t. To make or get ready.
Sir W.Scott.
Bounce (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bounced (?); p.pr. & vb. n. Bouncing (?).] [OE. bunsen; cf. D. bonzen to strike, bounce, bons blow, LG. bunsen to knock; all prob. of
imitative origin.]
1. To strike or thump, so as to rebound, or to make a sudden noise; a knock loudly.
Another bounces as hard as he can knock.
Against his bosom bounced his heaving heart.
2. To leap or spring suddenly or unceremoniously; to bound; as, she bounced into the room.
Out bounced the mastiff.
Bounced off his arm+chair.
3. To boast; to talk big; to bluster. [Obs.]
Bounce, v.t.
1. To drive against anything suddenly and violently; to bump; to thump.
2. To cause to bound or rebound; sometimes, to toss.
3. To eject violently, as from a ?room; to discharge unceremoniously, as from employment. [Collog. U. S.]
4. To bully; to scold. [Collog.]
Bounce (?), n.
1. A sudden leap or bound; a rebound.
2. A heavy, sudden, and often noisy, blow or thump.
The bounce burst open the door.
3. An explosion, or the noise of one. [Obs.]
4. Bluster; brag; untruthful boasting; audacious
exaggeration; an impudent lie; a bouncer.
Johnson. De Quincey.?
5. (ZoĒl.) A dogfish of Europe (Scyllium catulus).
Bounce, adv. With a sudden leap; suddenly.
This impudent puppy comes bounce in upon me.
Boun∂cer (?), n.
1. One who bounces; a large, heavy person who makes much noise in moving.
2. A boaster; a bully. [Collog.]
3. A bold lie; also, a liar. [Collog.]
4. Something big; a good stout example of the kind.
The stone must be a bouncer.
De Quincey.
Boun∂cing (?), a.
1. Stout; plump and healthy; lusty; buxom.
Many tall and bouncing young ladies.
2. Excessive; big. ĹA bouncing reckoning.ł
B. & Fl.?
Bouncing Bet (Bot.), the common soapwort (Saponaria officinalis).
Harper's Mag.
Boun∂cingŌly, adv. With a bounce.
Bound (?), n. [OE. bounde, bunne, OF. bonne, bonde, bodne, F. borne, fr. LL. bodina, bodena, bonna; prob. of Celtic origin; cf. Arm. bonn boundary, limit, and boden, bod, a tuft or cluster of trees, by which a boundary or limit could be marked. Cf. Bourne.] The external or limiting
line, either real or imaginary, of any object or space; that
which limits or restrains, or within which something is
limited or restrained; limit; confine; extent; boundary.
He hath compassed the waters with bounds.
Job xxvi. 10.
On earth's remotest bounds.
And mete the bounds of hate and love.
To keep within bounds, not to exceed or pass beyond assigned limits; to act with propriety or discretion.
Syn. – See Boundary.
Bound, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bounded; p.pr. & vb. n. Bounding.]
1. To limit; to terminate; to fix the furthest point of extension of; – said of natural or of moral objects; to lie along, or form, a boundary of; to inclose; to circumscribe; to restrain; to confine.
Where full measure only bounds excess.
Phlegethon . . .
Whose fiery flood the burning empire bounds.
2. To name the boundaries of; as, to bound France.
Bound, v.i. [F. bondir to leap, OF. bondir, bundir, to leap, resound, fr. L. bombitare to buzz, hum?, fr. bombus a humming, buzzing. See Bomb.]
1. To move with a sudden spring or leap, or with a succession of springs or leaps; as the beast bounded from his den; the herd bounded across the plain.
Before his lord the ready spaniel bounds.
And the waves bound beneath me as a steed
That knows his rider.
2. To rebound, as an elastic ball.
Bound, v.t.
1. To make to bound or leap; as, to bound a horse. [R.]
2. To cause to rebound; to throw so that it will
rebound; as, to bound a ball on the floor. [Collog.]
Bound, n.
1. A leap; an elastic spring; a jump.
A bound of graceful hardihood.
2. Rebound; as, the bound of a ball.
3. (Dancing) Spring from one foot to the other.
Bound, imp. & p. p. of Bind.
Bound, p. p. & a.
1. Restrained by a hand, rope, chain, fetters, or the like.
2. Inclosed in a binding or cover; as, a bound volume.
3. Under legal or moral restraint or obligation.
4. Constrained or compelled; destined; certain; – followed by the infinitive; as, he is bound to succeed; he is bound to fail.
5. Resolved; as, I am bound to do it. [Collog. U. S.]
6. Constipated; costive.
Ķ Used also in composition; as, icebound, windbound, hidebound, etc.
Bound bailiff (Eng. Law), a sheriff's officer who serves writs, makes arrests, etc. The sheriff being answerable for the bailiff's misdemeanors, the bailiff is usually under bond for the faithful discharge of his trust.
– Bound up in, entirely devoted to; inseparable from.
Bound, a. [Past p. of OE. bounen to prepare, fr. boun ready, prepared, fr. Icel. bĀ?inn, p. p. of bĀa? to dwell, prepare; akin to E. boor and bower. See Bond, a., and cf. Busk, v.] Ready or intending to go; on the way toward; going; – with to or for, or with an adverb of motion; as, a ship is bound to Cadiz, or for Cadiz. ĹThe mariner bound homeward.ł
Bound∂aŌry (?), n.; pl. Boundaries (?) [From Bound a limit; cf. LL. bonnarium piece of land with fixed limits.]
That which indicates or fixes a limit or extent, or marks a
bound, as of a territory; a bounding or separating line; a
real or imaginary limit.
But still his native country lies
Beyond the boundaries of the skies.
That bright and tranquil stream, the boundary of Louth and
Sensation and reflection are the boundaries of our thoughts.
Syn. – Limit; bound; border; term; termination; barrier; verge; confines; precinct. Bound, Boundary. Boundary, in its original and strictest sense, is a visible object or mark indicating a limit. Bound is the limit itself. But in ordinary usage the two words are made interchangeable.
Bound∂en (?), p.p & a. [Old. p. p. of bind.]
1. Bound; fastened by bonds. [Obs.]

<-- p. 171 -->

2. Under obligation; bound by some favor rendered; obliged; beholden.
This holy word, that teacheth us truly our bounden duty toward our Lord God in every point.
3. Made obligatory; imposed as a duty; binding.
I am much bounden to your majesty.
Bound∂er (?), n. One who, or that which, limits; a boundary.
Sir T.Herbert.
Bound∂ing, a. Moving with a bound or bounds.
The bounding pulse, the languid limb.
Bound∂less, a. Without bounds or confines; illimitable; vast; unlimited. ĹThe boundless sky.ł
ĹThe boundless ocean.ł
ĹBoundless rapacity.ł ĹBoundless prospect of gain.ł
Syn. – Unlimited; unconfined; immeasurable; illimitable; infinite.
– Bound∂lessŌly, adv. – Bound∂less–ness, n.
Boun∂teŌous (?), a. [OE. bountevous, fr. bounte bounty.] Liberal in charity; disposed to give freely; generously liberal; munificent; beneficent; free in bestowing gifts; as, bounteous production.
But O, thou bounteous Giver of all good.
– Boun∂teŌousŌly, adv. – Boun∂teŌousŌness, n.
Boun∂tiŌful (?), a.
1. Free in giving; lib??ral in bestowing gifts and favors.
God, the bountiful Author of our being.
2. Plentiful; abundant; as, a bountiful supply of food.
Syn. – Liberal; munificent; generous; bounteous.
– Boun∂tiŌfulŌly, adv. – Boun∂tiŌfulŌness, n.
Boun∂tiŌhead (?), Boun∂tyŌhood (?), } n. Goodness; generosity. [Obs.]
Boun∂ty, n.; pl. Bounties (?). [OE. bounte goodness, kindness, F. bontā, fr. L. bonitas, fr. bonus good, for older duonus; cf. Skr. duvas honor, respect.]
1. Goodness, kindness; virtue; worth. [Obs.]
Nature set in her at once beauty with bounty.
2. Liberality in bestowing gifts or favors; gracious or liberal giving; generosity; munificence.
My bounty is as boundless as the sea.
3. That which is given generously or liberally. ĹThy morning bounties.ł
4. A premium offered or given to induce men to enlist into the public service; or to encourage any branch of industry, as husbandry or manufactures.
Bounty jumper, one who, during the latter part of the Civil War, enlisted in the United States service, and deserted as soon as possible after receiving the bounty. [Collog.] – Queen Anne's bounty (Eng. Hist.), a provision made in Queen Anne's reign for augmenting poor clerical livings.
Syn. – Munificence; generosity; beneficence.
BouŌquet∂ (?), n. [F. bouquet bunch, bunch of flowers, trees, feathers, for bousquet, bosquet, thicket, a little wood, dim. of LL. boscus. See Bush thicket, and cf. Bosket, Busket.]
1. A nosegay; a bunch of flowers.
2. A perfume; an aroma; as, the bouquet of wine.
ōBou∑queŌtin∂ (?), n. [F.] (ZoĒl.) The ibex.
Bour (?), n. [See Bower a chamber.] A chamber or a cottage. [Obs.]
Bour∂bon (?), n. [From the castle and seigniory of Bourbon in central France.]
1. A member of a family which has occupied several European thrones, and whose descendants still claim throne of France.
2. A politician who is behind the age; a ruler or politician who neither forgets nor learns anything; an obstinate conservative.
Bour∂bonŌism (?), n. The principles of those adhering to the house of Bourbon; obstinate conservatism.
Bour∂bonŌist, n. One who adheres to the house of Bourbon; a legitimist.
Bour∂bon whis∂ky. See under Whisky.
Bourd (?), n. [F. bourde fib, lie, OF. borde, bourde, jest, joke.] A jest. [Obs.]
Bourd (?), v.i. To jest. [Obs.]
Bourd∂er (?), n. A jester. [Obs.]
Bour∂don (?), n. [F., fr. L. burdo mule, esp. one used for carrying litters. Cf. Sp. muleta a young she mule; also, crutch, prop.] A pilgrim's staff.
ōBour∂don∑ (?), n. [F. See Burden a refrain.] (Mus.) (a) A drone bass, as in a bagpipe, or a hurdy–gurdy. See Burden (of a song.) (b) A kind of organ stop.
BourŌgeois∂ (?), n. [From a French type founder named Bourgeois, or fr. F. bourgeois of the middle class; hence applied to an intermediate size of type between brevier and long primer: cf. G. bourgeois, borgis. Cf. Burgess.] (Print.) A size of type between long primer and brevier. See Type.
Ķ This line is printed in bourgeois type.?
ōBourŌgeois∂ (?), n. [F., fr. bourg town; of German origin. See Burgess.] A man of middle rank in society; one of the shopkeeping class. [France.]
–? a. Characteristic of the middle class, as in France.
BourŌgeoiŌsie∂ ?, n. [F.] The French middle class, particularly such as are concerned in, or dependent on, trade.
Bour∂geon (?), v.i. [OE. burjoun a bud, burjounen to bud, F. bourgeon a bud, bourgeonner to bud; cf. OHG. burjan to raise.] To sprout; to put forth buds; to shoot forth, as a branch.
Gayly to bourgeon and broadly to grow.
Sir W.Scott.
ōBou∂ri (?), n. [Native name.] (ZoĒl.) A mullet (Mugil capito) found in the rivers of Southern Europe and in Africa.
Bourn, Bourne } (?), n. [OE. burne, borne, AS. burna; akin to OS. brunno spring, G. born, ? unnen, OHG. prunno, Goth. brunna, Icel. brunn?r and perh. to Gr. ?. The root is prob. that of burn, v., because the source of a stream seems to issue forth bubbling and boiling from the earth. Cf. Torrent, and see Burn, v.] A stream or rivulet; a burn.
My little boat can safely pass this perilous bourn.
Bourn, Bourne } (?), n. [F. borne. See Bound a limit.] A bound; a boundary; a limit. Hence: Point aimed at; goal.
Where the land slopes to its watery bourn.
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn
No traveler returns.
Sole bourn, sole wish, sole object of my song.
To make the doctrine ... their intellectual bourne.
Bourn∂less, a. Without a bourn or limit.
Bour∂nonŌite (?), n. [Named after Count? Bournon, a mineralogist.] (Min.) A mineral of a steelgray to black color and metallic luster, occurring crystallized, often in twin crystals shaped like cogwheels (wheel ore), also massive. It is a sulphide of antimony, lead, and copper.
BourŌnous∂ (?), n. See Burnoose.
ōBourŌrāe (?), n. [F.] (Mus.) An old French dance tune in common time.
ōBourse (?), n. [F. bourse purse, exchange, LL. bursa, fr. Gr.? skin, hide, of which a purse was usually made. Cf. Purse, Burse.] An exchange, or place where merchants, bankers, etc., meet for business at certain hours; esp., the ?Stock Exchange of Paris.?
Bouse (?), v.i. To drink immoderately; to carouse; to booze. See Booze.
Bouse, n. Drink, esp. alcoholic drink; also, a carouse; a booze. ĹA good bouse of liquor.ł
Bous∂er (?), n. A toper; a boozer.
ōBou∑stroŌphe∂don (?), n. [Gr. ? turning like oxen in plowing; ? to turn.] An ancient mode of writing, in alternate directions, one line from left to right, and the next from right to left (as fields are plowed), as in early Greek and Hittite.
BouŌstroph∑eŌdon∂ic (?), a. Relating to the boustrophedon made of writing.
BouŌstorph∂ic (?), a. [Gr. ? ?ox–guiding.] Boustrophedonic.
Bousy (?), a. Drunken; sotted; boozy.
In his cups the bousy poet songs.
Bout (?), n. [A different spelling and application of bought bend.]
1. As much of an action as is performed at one time; a going and returning, as of workmen in reaping, mowing, etc.; a turn; a round.
In notes with many a winding bout
Of linked sweetness long drawn out.
The prince ... has taken me in his train, so that I am in no danger of starving for this bout.
2. A conflict; contest; attempt; trial; a set–to at anything; as, a fencing bout; a drinking bout.
The gentleman will, for his honor's sake, have one bout with you; he can not by the duello avoid it.
BouŌtade∂ (?), n. [F., fr. bouter to thrust. See Butt.] An outbreak; a caprice; a whim. [Obs.]
Boute∂feu (?), n. [F.; bouter to thrust, ?put+feu fire.] An incendiary; an inciter of quarrels. [Obs.]
Animated by ... John Ö Chamber, a very boutefeu, ... they entered into open rebellion.
ōBou∑ton∑niäre∂ (?), n. [F., buttonhole.] A bouquet worn in a buttonhole.
ōBouts∑ŌriŌmās∂ (?), n. pl. [F. bout ?end+rimā rhymed.] Words that rhyme, proposed as the ends of verses, to be filled out by the ingenuity of the person to whom they are offered.
Bo∂vate (?), n. [LL. bovata, fr. bos, bovis, ox.] (O.Eng.Law.) An oxgang, or as much land as an ox can plow in a year; an ancient measure of land, of indefinite quantity, but usually estimated at fifteen acres.
Bo∂vey coal∑ (?). (Min.) A kind of mineral coal, or brown lignite, burning with a weak flame, and generally a disagreeable odor; – found at Bovey Tracey, Devonshire, England. It is of geological age of the oĒlite, and of the true coal era.
Bo∂vid (?), a. [L. bos, bovis, ox, cow.] (ZoĒl.) Relating to that tribe of ruminant mammals of which the genus Bos is the type.
Bo∂viŌform (?), a. [L. bos, bovis, ox +?–form.] Resembling an ox in form; ox–shaped. [R.]
Bo∂vine (?), a. [LL. bovinus, fr.L. bos, bovis, ox, cow: cf. F. bovine. See Cow.]
1. (ZoĒl.) of or pertaining to the genus Bos; relating to, or resembling, the ox or cow; oxlike; as, the bovine genus; a bovine antelope.
2. Having qualities characteristic of oxen or cows; sluggish and patient; dull; as, a bovine temperament.
The bovine gaze of gaping rustics.
Bow (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bowing.] [OE. bowen, bogen, bugen, AS. b?Āgan (generally v.i.); akin to D. buigen, OHG. biogan, G. biegen, beugen, Icel. boginn bent, beygja to bend, Sw. bĒja, Dan. bĒie, bugne, Coth. biugan; also to L. fugere to flee, Gr. ?, and Skr. bhuj to bend. ?88. Cf. Fugitive.]
1. To cause to deviate from straightness; to bend; to inflect; to make crooked or curved.
We bow things the contrary way, to make them come to their natural straightness.
The whole nation bowed their necks to the worst kind of tyranny.
2. To exercise powerful or controlling influence over; to bend, figuratively; to turn; to incline.
Adversities do more bow men's minds to religion.
Not to bow and bias their opinions.
3. To bend or incline, as the head or body, in token of respect, gratitude, assent, homage, or condescension.
They came to meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before him.
2 Kings ii. 15.
4. To cause to bend down; to prostrate; to depress,;? to crush; to subdue.
Whose heavy hand hath bowed you to the grave.
5. To express by bowing; as, to bow one's thanks.
Bow (?), v.i. 1. To bend; to curve. [Obs.]
2. To stop. [Archaic]
They stoop, they bow down together.
3. To bend the head, knee, or body, in token of reverence or submission; – often with down.
O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the Lord our maker.
4. To incline the head in token of salutation, civility, or assent; to make bow.
Admired, adored by all circling crowd,
For wheresoe'er she turned her face, they bowed.
Bow (?), n. An inclination of the head, or a bending of the body, in token of reverence, respect, civility, or submission; an obeisance; as, a bow of deep humility.
Bow (?), n. [OE. bowe, boge, AS. boga, fr. AS. bĀ?gan to bend; akin to D. boog, G. bogen, Icel. bogi. See Bow, v.t.]
1. Anything bent, or in the form of a curve, as the rainbow.
I do set my bow in the cloud.
2. A weapon made of a strip of wood, or other elastic material, with a cord connecting the two ends, by means of which an arrow is propelled.
3. An ornamental knot, with projecting lops, formed by doubling a ribbon or string.
4. The ?U–shaped piece which embraces the neck of an ox and fastens it to the yoke.
5. (Mus.) An appliance consisting of an elastic rod, with a number of horse hairs stretched from end to end of it, used in playing on a stringed instrument.
6. An acrograph.
7. (Mech. & Manuf.) Any instrument consisting of an elastic rod, with ends connected by a string, employed for giving reciprocating motion to a drill, or for preparing and arranging the hair, fur, etc., used by hatters.
8. (Naut.) A rude sort of quadrant formerly used for taking the sun's altitude at sea.
9. (Saddlery) sing. or pl. Two pieces of wood which form the arched forward part of a saddletree.
Bow bearer (O. Eng. Law), an under officer of the forest who looked after trespassers. – Bow drill, a drill worked by a bow and string. – Bow instrument (Mus.), any stringed instrument from which the tones are produced by the bow. – Bow window (Arch.) See Bay window. – To draw a long bow, to lie; to exaggerate. [Collog.]
Bow (?), v. i. [imp. & p. p. Bowed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bowing.] To play (music) with a bow. – v.i. To manage the bow.
Bow (?), n. [Icel. bĒ?gr shoulder, bow of a ship. See Bough.]
1. (Naut.) The bending or rounded part of a ship forward; the stream or prow.
2. (Naut.) One who rows in the forward part of a boat; the bow oar.
Bow chaser (Naut.), a gun in the bow for firing while chasing another vessel.
– Bow piece, a piece of ordnance carried at the bow of a ship. – On the bow (Naut.), on that part of the horizon whithin 45? on either side of the line ahead.
Bow∂aŌble (?), a. Capable of being bowed or bent; flexible; easily influenced; yielding. [Obs.]
Bow∂bell∑ (?), n. One born within hearing distance of Bow–bells; a cockney.
Bow∂Ōbells∑ (?), n. pl. The bells of Bow Church in London; cockneydom.
People born within the sound of Bow–bells are usually called cockneys.
Murray's Handbook of London.
Bow∂bent∑ (??), a. Bent, like a bow.
Bow∂–com∑pass (?), n.; pl. Bow–compasses (?).
1. An arcograph.
2. A small pair of compasses, one leg of which carries a pencil, or a pen, for drawing circles. Its legs are often connected by a bow–shaped spring, instead of by a joint.
3. A pair of compasses, with a bow or arched plats riveted to one of the legs, and passing through the other.
Bow∂el (?), n. [OE. bouel, bouele, OF. boel, boele, F. boyau, fr. L. botellus a small sausage, in LL. also intestine, dim. of L. botulus sausage.]
1. One of the intestines of an animal; an entrail, especially of man; a gut; – generally used in the plural.
He burst asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out.
Acts i.18.
2. pl. Hence, figuratively: The interior part of anything; as, the bowels of the earth.
His soldiers ... cried out amain,
And rushed into the bowels of the battle.
3. pl. The seat of pity or kindness. Hence: Tenderness; compassion. ĹThou thing of no bowels.ł
Bloody Bonner, that corpulent tyrant, full (as one said) of guts, and empty of bowels.
4. pl. Offspring. [Obs.]
Bow∂el, v.t. [imp. & p. p. Boweled or Bowelled (?); p.pr.& vb.n. Boweling or Bowelling.] To take out the bowels of; to eviscerate; to disembowel.
Bow∂eled (?), a. [Written also bowelled.] Having bowels; hollow. ĹThe boweled cavern.ł
Bow∂elŌless, a. Without pity.
Sir T.Browne.
Bow∂enŌite (?), n. [From G.T.Bowen, who analyzed it in 1822.] (Min.) A hard, compact variety of serpentine found in Rhode Island. It is of a ligth green color and resembles jade.
Bo∂wer (?), n. [From Bow, v. & n.]
1. One who bows or bends.
2. (Naut.) An anchor carried at the bow of a ship.
3. A muscle that bends a limb, esp. the arm. [Obs.]
His rawbone arms, whose mighty brawned bowers
Were wont to rive steel plates and helmets hew.
Best bower, Small bower. See the Note under Anchor.

<-- p. 172 -->

Bow∂er (?), n. [G. bauer a peasant. So called from the figure sometimes used for the knave in cards. See Boor.] One of the two highest cards in the pack commonly used in the game of euchre.
Right bower, the knave of the trump suit, the highest card (except the ĹJokerł) in the game. – Left bower, the knave of the other suit of the same color as the trump, being the next to the right bower in value. – Best bower or? Joker, in some forms of euchre and some other games, an extra card sometimes added to the pack, which takes precedence of all others as the highest card.
Bow∂er, n. [OE. bour, bur, room, dwelling, AS. bĀ?r, fr. the root of AS. ?bĀan to dwell; akin to Icel. bĀr? chamber, storehouse, Sw. bĀr? cage, Dan. buur, OHG. pĀr? room, G. bauer cage, bauer a peasant. ?97 Cf.Boor, Byre.]
1. Anciently, a chamber; a lodging room; esp., a lady's private apartment.
Give me my lute in bed now as I lie,
And lock the doors of mine unlucky bower.
2. A rustic cottage or abode; poetically, an attractive abode or retreat.
Shenstone. B.Johnson.
3. A shelter or covered place in a garden, made with boughs of trees or vines, etc., twined together; an arbor; a shady recess.
Bow∂er, v.t. To embowar; to inclose.
Bow∂er, v.i. To lodge. [Obs.]
Bow∂er, n. [From Bough, cf. Brancher.] (Falconry) A young hawk, when it begins to leave thenest. [Obs.]
Bow∂er bird∑ (?). (ZoĒl.) An Australian bird (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus or holosericeus), allied to the starling, which constructs singular bowers or playhouses of twigs and decorates them with brightcolored objects; the satin bird.
Ķ The name is also applied to other related birds of the same region, having similar habits; as, the spotted bower bird ( Chalmydodera maculata), and the regent bird (Sericulus melinus).
Bow∂erŌy (?), a. Shading, like a bower; full of bowers.
A bowery maze that shades the purple streams.
Bow∂erŌy, n.; pl. Boweries (?) [D. bouwerij.] A farm or plantation with its buildings. [U.S.Hist.]
The emigrants [in New York] were scattered on boweries or plantetions; and seeing the evils of this mode of living widely ?apart, they were advised, in 1643 and 1646, by the Dutch authorities, to gather into Ĺvillages, towns, and hamlets, as the English were in the habit of doing.ł
Bow∂erŌy, a. Characteristic of the street called the ?Bowery, in New York city; swaggering; flashy.
Bow∂ess (?), n. (Falconry) Same as Bower. [Obs.]
Bow∂fin∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) A voracious ganoid fish (Amia calva) found in the fresh waters of the United States; the mudfish; – called also Johnny Grindle, and dogfish.
Bowge (?), v. i. To swell out. See Bouge. [Obs.]
Bowge, v. t. To cause to leak. [Obs.] See Bouge.
Bow∂grace∑ (?), n. (Naut.) A frame or fender of rope or junk, laid out at the sides or bows of a vessel to secure it from injury by floating ice.
Bow∂ hand∑ (?). 1. (Archery) The hand that holds the bow, i.e., the left hand.
Surely he shoots wide on the bow hand.
2. (Mus.) The hand that draws the bow, i.e., the right hand.
Bow∂head∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The great Arctic or Greenland whale. (BalĎna mysticetus). See Baleen, and Whale.
Bow∂ie knife∑ (?). A knife with a strong blade from ten to fifteen inches long, and double–edged near the point; – used as a hunting knife, and formerly as a weapon in the southwestern part of the United States. It was named from its inventor, Coolnel James Bowie. Also, by extension, any large sheath knife.
Bow∂ing (?), n. (Mus.) 1. The act or art of managing the bow in playing on stringed instruments.
Bowing constitutes a principal part of the art of the violinist, the violist, etc.
2. In hatmaking, the act or process of separating and distributing the fur or hair by means of a bow, to prepare it for felting.
Bow∂ingŌly (?), adv. In a bending manner.
Bow∂knot∑ (?), n. A knot in which a portion of the string is drawn through in the form of a loop or bow, so as to be readily untied.
Bowl (?), n. [OE. bolle, AS. bolla; akin to Icel. bolli, Dan. bolle, G. bolle, and perh. to E. boil a tumor. Cf. Boll.]
1. A concave vessel of various forms (often approximately hemisherical), to hold liquids, etc.
Brought them food in bowls of basswood.
2. Specifically, a drinking vessel for wine or other spirituous liquors; hence, convival drinking.
3. The contents of a full bowl; what a bowl will hold.
4. The bollow part of a thing; as, the bowl of a spoon.
Bowl (?), n. [F. boule, fr. L. bulla bubble, stud. Cf. Bull an edict, Bill a writing.]
1. A ball of wood or other material used for rolling on a level surface in play; a ball of hard wood having one side heavier than the other, so as to give it a bias when rolled.
2. pl. An ancient game, popular in Great Britain, played with biased balls on a level plat of greensward.
Like an uninstructed bowler, ... who thinks to attain the jack by delivering his bowl straightforward upon it.
Sir W.Scott.
3. pl. The game of tenpins or bowling. [U.S.]
Bowl (?), v.t. [imp. & p. p. Bowledˇ(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bowling.] 1. To roll, as a bowl or cricket ball.
Break all the spokes and fellies from her wheel,
And bowl the round nave down the hill of heaven.
2. To roll or carry smoothly on, or as on, wheels; as, we were bowled rapidly along the road.
3. To pelt or strike with anything rolled.
Alas, I had rather be set quick i' the earth,
And bowled to death with turnips?
To bowl (a player) out ?, in cricket, to put out a striker by knocking down a bail or a stump in bowling.
Bowl, v. i.
1. To play with bowls.
2. To roll a ball on a plane, as at cricket, bowls, etc.
3. To move rapidly, smoothly, and like a ball; as, the carriage bowled along.
Bowl∂der, Boul∂der (?), n. [Cf. Sw. bullra to roar, rattle, Dan. buldre, dial. Sw. bullersteen larger kind of pebbles; perh. akin to E. bellow.]
1. A large stone, worn smooth or rounded by the action of water; a large pebble.
2. (Geol.) A mass of any rock, whether rounded or not, that has been transported by natural agencies from its native bed. See Drift.
Bowlder clay, the unstratified clay deposit of the Glacial or Drift epoch, often containing large numbers of bowlders. – Bowlder wall, a wall constructed of large stones or bowlders.
Bowl∂derŌy (?), a. Characterized by bowlders.
Bow∂leg∑ (?), n. A crooked leg.
Bowl∂–legged∑ (?), a. Having crooked legs, esp. with the kness bent outward.
Bowl∂er (?), n. One who plays at bowls, or who rolls the ball in cricket or any other game.
Bow∂less, a. Destitute of a bow.
Bow∂line (?), n. [Cf. D. boelijn, Icel. bĒglčna?, Dan. bovline; properly the line attached to the shoulder or side of the sail. See Bow (of a ship), and Line.] (Naut.) A rope fastened near the middle of the leech or perpendicular edge of the square sails, by subordinate ropes, called bridles, and used to keep the weather edge of the sail tight forward, when the ship is closehauled.
Bowline bridles, the ropes by which the bowline is fastened to the leech of the sail. – Bowline knot. See Illust. under Knot. – On a bowline, close–hauled or sailing close to the wind; – said of a ship.
Bowl∂ing (?), n. The act of playing at or rolling bowls, or of rolling the ball at cricket; the game of bowls or of tenpins.
Bowling alley, a covered place for playing at bowls or tenpins. – Bowling green, a level piece of greensward or smooth ground for bowling, as the small park in lower Broadway, New York, where the Dutch of New Amsterdam played this game.?
Bowls (?), n. pl. See Bowl, a ball, a game.
Bow∂man (?), n.; pl. Bowmen (?). A man who uses a bow; an archer.
The whole city shall flee for the noise of the horsemen and bowmen.
Bowman's root. (Bot.) See Indian physic, under Indian.
Bow∂man (?), n. (Naut.) The man who rows the foremost oar in a boat; the bow oar.
Bowne (?), v.t. [See Boun.] To make ready; to prepare; to dress. [Obs.]
We will all bowne ourselves for the banquet.
Sir W.Scott.
Bow∂ net∑ (?).
1. A trap for lobsters, being a wickerwork cylinder with a funnel–shaped entrance at one end.
2. A net for catching birds.
Bow∂ oar∑ (?).
1. The oar used by the bowman.
2. One who rows at the bow of a boat.
Bow∂–pen∑ (?), n. Bow–compasses carrying a drawing pen. See Bow–compass.
Bow∂–pen∑cil (?), n. Bow–compasses, one leg of which carries a pencil.
Bow∂–saw∑ (?), n. A saw with a thin or narrow blade set in a strong frame.
Bowse (?), v.i. [See Booze, and Bouse.]
1. To carouse; to bouse; to booze.
De Quincey.
2. (Naut.) To pull or haul; as, to bowse upon a tack; to bowse away, i.e., to pull all together.
Bowse, n. A carouse; a drinking bout; a booze.
Bow∂shot∑ (?), n. The distance traversed by an arrow shot from a bow.
Bow∂sprit∑ (?), n. [Bow + sprit; akin to D.boegspriet; boeg bow of a ship + spriet, E. sprit, also Sw. bogsprĒt, G. bugspriet.] (Naut.) A large boom or spar, which project over the stem of a ship or other vessel, to carry sail forward.
Bows∂sen (?), v.t. To drench; to soak; especially, to immerse (in water believed to have curative properties). [Obs.]
There were many bowssening places, for curing of mad men.
...If there appeared small amendment he was bowssened again and again.
Bow∂string∑ (?), n.
1. The string of a bow.
2. A string used by the Turks for strangling offenders.
Bowstring bridge, a bridge formed of an arch of timber or iron, often braced, the thrust of which is resisted by a tie forming a chord of the arch. – Bowstring girder, an arched beam strengthened by a tie connecting its two ends. – Bowstring hemp (Bot.), the tenacious fiber of the Sanseviera Zeylanica, growing in India and Africa, from which bowstrings are made.
Bow∂string∑ (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p.] Bowstringed (?) or
Bowstrung (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bowstringing.] To strangle with a bowstring.
Bow∂stringed∑ (?), p.a. 1. Furnished with bowstring.
2. Put to death with a bowstring; strangled.
Bow∂tel (?), n. See Boultel.
Bow∂wow∑ (?), n. An onomatopoetic name for a dog or its bark. – a. Onomatopoetic; as, the bowwow theory of language; a bowwow word.
Bow∂yer (?), n. [From Bow, like lawyer from law.]
1. An archer; one who uses bow.
2. One who makes or sells bows.
Box (?), n. [As. box, L. buxus, fr. Gr. ?. See Box a case.] (Bot.) A tree or shrub, flourishing in different parts of the world. The common box (Buxus sempervirens) has two varieties, one of which, the dwaft box (B.suffruticosa), is much used for borders in gardens. The wood of the tree varieties, being very hard and smooth, is extensively used in the arts, as by turners, engravers, mathematical instrument makers, etc.
Box elder, the ash–leaved maple (Negundo aceroides), of North America. – Box holly, the butcher's broom (Russus aculeatus). – Box thorn, a shrub (Lycium barbarum). – Box tree, the tree variety of the common box.
Box, n.pl. Boxes (?) [As. box a small case or vessel with a cover; akin to OHG. buhsa box, G. bĀchse; fr. L. buxus boxwood, anything made of boxwood. See Pyx, and cf. Box a tree, Bushel.]
1. A receptacle or case of any firm material and of various shapes.
2. The quantity that a box contain.
3. A space with a few seats partitioned off in a theater, or other place of public amusement.
Laughed at by the pit, box, galleries, nay, stage.
The boxes and the pit are sovereign judges.
4. A chest or any receptacle for the deposit of money; as, a poor box; a contribution box.
Yet since his neighbors give, the churl unlocks,
Damning the poor, his tripple–bolted box.
5. A small country house. ĹA shooting box.ł
Tight boxes neatly sashed.
6. A boxlike shed for shelter; as, a sentry box.
7. (Mach) (a) An axle box, journal box, journal bearing, or bushing. (b) A chamber or section of tube in which a valve works; the bucket of a lifting pump.
8. The driver's seat on a carriage or coach.
9. A present in a box; a present; esp. a Christmas box or gift. ĹA Christmas box.ł
10. (Baseball) The square in which the pitcher stands.
11. (ZoĒl.) A Mediterranean food fish; the bogue.
Ķ Box is much used adjectively or in composition; as box lid, box maker, box circle, etc.; also with modifying substantives; as money box, letter box, bandbox, hatbox or hat box, snuff box or snuffbox.
Box beam (Arch.), a beam made of metal plates so as to have the form of a long box. – Box car (Railroads), a freight car covered with a roof and inclosed on the sides to protect its contents. – Box chronometer, a ship's chronometer, mounted in gimbals, to preserve its proper position. – Box coat, a thick overcoat for driving; sometimes with a heavy cape to carry off the rain. – Box coupling, a metal collar uniting the ends of shafts or other parts in machinery. – Box crab (ZoĒl.), a crab of the genus Calappa, which, when at rest with the legs retracted, resembles a box. – Box drain (Arch.), a drain constructed with upright sides, and with flat top and bottom. – Box girder (Arch.), a box beam. – Box groove (Metal Working), a closed groove between two rolls, formed by a collar on one roll fitting between collars on another.
– Box metal, an alloy of copper and tin, or of zinc, lead, and antimony, for the bearings of journals, etc. – Box plait, a plait that doubles both to the rigth and the left. – Box turtle or Box tortoise (ZoĒl.), a land tortoise or turtle of the genera Cistudo and Emys; – so named because it can withdraw entirely within its shell, which can be closed by hinged joints in the lower shell. Also, humorously, an exceedingly reticent person.
– In a box, in a perplexity or an embarrassing position; in difficulty. (Colloq.) – In the wrong box, out of one's place; out of one's element; awkwardly situated. (Colloq.)
Ridley (1554)?
Box, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Boxed (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Boxing.]
1. To inclose in a box.
2. To furnish with boxes, as a wheel.
3. (Arch.) To inclose with boarding, lathing, etc., so as to bring to a required form.
To box a tree, to make an incision or hole in a tree for the purpose of procuring the sap. – To box off, to divide into tight compartments. – To box up. (a) To put into a box in order to save; as, he had boxed up twelve score pounds. (b) To confine; as, to be boxed up in narrow quarters.
Box, n. [Cf.Dan. baske to slap, bask slap, blow. Cf. Pash.] A blow on the head or ear with the hand.
A good–humored box on the ear.
Box, v.i. To fight with the fist; to combat with, or as with, the hand or fist; to spar.
Box, v.t. To strike with the hand or fist, especially to strike on the ear, or on the side of the head.
Box, v.t. [Cf.Sp. boxar, now spelt bojar.] To boxhaul.
To box off (Naut.), to turn the head of a vessel either way by bracing the headyards aback. – To box the compass (Naut.), to name the thirty–two points of the compass in their order.
Box∂ber∑ry (?), n. (Bot.) The wintergreern. (Gaultheria procumbens). [Local, U.S.]

<-- p. 173 -->

Box∂en (?), a. Made of boxwood; pertaining to, or resembling, the box (Buxus). [R.]
The faded hue of sapless boxen leaves.
Box∂er (?),n. One who packs boxes.
Box∂er ,n. One who boxes; a pugilist.
Box∂fish∑ˇ(?), n. (ZoĒl.) The trunkfish.
Box∂haul∑ (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Boxhauled (?).] (Naut.) To put (a vessel) on the other tack by veering her short round on her heel; – so called from the circumstance of bracing the head yards abox (i. e., sharp aback, on the wind).
Box∂haul∑ing, n. (Naut.) A method of going from one tack to another. See Boxhaul.
Box∂ing, n. 1. The act of inclosing (anything) in a box, as for storage or transportation.
2. Material used in making boxes or casings.
3. Any boxlike inclosure or recess; a casing.
4. (Arch.) The external case of thin material used to bring any member to a required form.
Box∂ing, n. The act of fighting with the fist; a combat with the fist; sparring.
Boxing glove, a large padded mitten or glove used in sparring for exercise or amusement.
Box∂–i∑ronˇ(?), n. A hollow smoothing iron containing a heater within.
Box∂keep∑er (?), n. An attendant at a theater who has charge of the boxes.
Box∂thorn∑ (?), n. (Bot.) A plant of the genus Lycium, esp. Lycium barbarum.
Box∂wood∑ (?), n. The wood of the box (Buxus).
Boy (?), n. [Cf. D. boef, Fries. boi, boy; akin to G. bube, Icel. bofi rouge.] A male child, from birth to the age of puberty; a lad; hence, a son.
My only boy fell by the side of great Dundee.
Sir W. Scott.
ĶBoy is often used as a term of comradeship, as in college, or in the army or navy. In the plural used colloquially of members of an assosiaton, fraternity, or party.
Boy bishop, a boy (usually a chorister) elected bishop, in old Christian sports, and invested with robes and other insignia. He practiced a kind of mimicry of the ceremonies in which the bishop usually officiated. The Old Boy, the Devil. [Slang] – Yellow boys, guineas. [Slang, Eng.] – Boy's love, a popular English name of Southernwood (Artemisia abrotonum);) – called also lad's love. – Boy's play, childish amusements; anything trifling.
Boy, v. t. To act as a boy; – in allusion to the former practice of boys acting women's parts on the stage.
I shall see
Some squeaking Cleopatra boy my greatness.
Bo–yar∂ (?), Bo–yard∂ (?), n. [Russ. boi†rin'.] A member of a Russian aristocratic order abolished by Peter the Great. Also, one of a privileged class in Roumania.
Ķ English writers sometimes call Russian landed proprietors boyars.
ō Boy∂au (?), n.; pl. Boyaux or Boyaus (?). [F. boyau gut, a long and narrow place, and (of trenches) a branch. See Bowel.] (Fort.) A winding or zigzag trench forming a path or communication from one siegework to another, to a magazine, etc.
Boy∂cott∑ (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Boycotted; p. pr. & vb. n. Boycotting.] [From Captain Boycott, a land agent in Mayo, Ireland, so treated in 1880.] To combine against (a landlord, tradesman, employer, or other person), to withhold social or business relations from him, and to deter other from holding such relations; to subject to a boycott.
Boy∂cott, n. The process, fact, or pressure of boycotting; a combining to withhold or prevent dealing or social intercourse with a tradesman, employer, etc.; social and business interdiction for the purpose of coercion.
Boy∂cott∑er (?), n. A participant in boycotting.
Boy∂cott–ism (?), n. Methods of boycotters.
Boy∂de–kin (?), n. A dagger; a bodkin. [Obs.]
Boy∂er (?), n. [D. boeijer; – so called because these vessels were employed for laying the boeijen, or buoys: cf. F. boyer. See Buoy.] (Naut.) A Flemish sloop with a castle at each end.
Sir W. Raleigh.
Boy∂hood (?), n. [Boy + –hood.] The state of being a boy; the time during which one is a boy.
Boy∂ish, a. Resembling a boy in a manners or opinions; belonging to a boy; childish; trifling; puerile.
A boyish, odd conceit.
Boy∂ish–ly, adv. In a boyish manner; like a boy.
Boy∂ish–ness, n. The manners or behavior of a boy.
Boy∂ism (?), n 1. Boyhood. [Obs.]
2. The nature of a boy; childishness.
Boyle's∂ law∑ˇ(?). See under Law.
ō Bo∂za (?), n. [See Bosa.] An acidulated fermented drink of the Arabs and Egyptians, made from millet seed and various astringent substances; also, an intoxicating beverage made from hemp seed, darnel meal, and water. [Written also bosa, bozah, bouza.]
Bra–bant∂ine (?), a. Pertaining to Brabant, an ancient province of the Netherlands.
Brab∂ble (?), v.i. [D. brabbelen to talk confusedly. ?95. Cf. Blab, Babble.] To clamor; to contest noisily. [R.]
Brab∂ble, n. A broil; a noisy contest; a wrangle.
This petty brabble will undo us all.
Brab∂ble–ment (?), n. A brabble. [r.]
Brab∂blerˇ3, n. A clamorous, quarrelsome, noisy fellow; a wrangler. [R]
Brac∂cate (?), a.[L. bracatus wearing breeches, fr. bracae breeches.] (ZoĒl.) Furnished with feathers which conceal the feet.
Brace (?), n. [OF. brace, brasse, the two arms, embrace, fathom, F. brasse fathom, fr. L. bracchia the arms (stretched out), pl. of bracchium arm; cf. Gr. ?.] 1. That which holds anything tightly or supports it firmly; a bandage or a prop.
2. A cord, ligament, or rod, for producing or maintaining tension, as a cord on the side of a drum.
The little bones of the ear drum do in straining and relaxing it as the braces of the war drum do in that.
3. The state of being braced or tight; tension.
The laxness of the tympanum, when it has lost its brace or tension.
4. (Arch. & Engin.) A piece of material used to transmit, or change the direction of, weight or pressure; any one of the pieces, in a frame or truss, which divide the structure into triangular parts. It may act as a tie, or as a strut, and serves to prevent distortion of the structure, and transverse strains in its members. A boiler brace is a diagonal stay, connecting the head with the shell.
5. (Print.) A vertical curved line connecting two or more words or lines, which are to be taken together; thus, boll, bowl; or, in music, used to connect staves.
6. (Naut.) A rope reeved through a block at the end of a yard, by which the yard is moved horizontally; also, a rudder gudgeon.
7. (Mech.) A curved instrument or handle of iron or wood, for holding and turning bits, etc.; a bitstock.
8. A pair; a couple; as, a brace of ducks; now rarely applied to persons, except familiarly or with some contempt. ĹA brace of greyhounds.ł
He is said to have shot...fifty brace of pheasants.
A brace of brethren, both bishops, both eminent for learning and religion, now appeared in the church.
But you, my brace of lords.
9. pl. Straps or bands to sustain trousers; suspenders.
I embroidered for you a beautiful pair of braces.
10. Harness; warlike preparation. [Obs.]
For that it stands not in such warlike brace.
11. Armor for the arm; vantbrace.
12. (Mining) The mouth of a shaft. [Cornwall]
Angle brace. See under Angle.
Braceˇ(?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Braced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bracing.] 1. To furnish with braces; to support; to prop; as, to brace a beam in a building.
2. To draw tight; to tighten; to put in a state of tension; to strain; to strengthen; as, to brace the nerves.
And welcome war to brace her drums.
3. To bind or tie closely; to fasten tightly.
The women of China, by bracing and binding them from their infancy, have very little feet.
Some who spurs had first braced on.
Sir W. Scott.
4. To place in a position for resisting pressure; to hold firmly; as, he braced himself against the crowd.
A sturdy lance in his right hand he braced.
5. (Naut.) To move around by means of braces; as, to brace the yards.
To brace about (Naut.), to turn (a yard) round for the contrary tack. –To brace a yard (Naut.), to move it horizontally by means of a brace. – To brace in (Naut.), to turn (a yard) by hauling in the weather brace. – To brace one's self, to call up one's energies. ĹHe braced himself for an effort which he was little able to make.ł
J.D.Forbes.– To brace to (Naut.), to turn (a yard) by checking or easing off the lee brace, and hauling in the weather one, to assist in tacking. – To brace up (Naut.), to bring (a yard) nearer the direction of the keel by hauling in the lee brace. – To brace up sharp (Naut.), to turn (a yard) as far forward as the rigging will permit.
Brace, v.i. To get tone or vigor; to rouse one's energies; –with up. [Colloq.]
Brace∂let (?), n. [F. bracelet, dim. of OF. bracel armlet, prop. little arm, dim. of bras arm, fr. L. bracchium. See Brace,n.] 1. An ornamental band or ring, for the wrist or the arm; in modern times, an ornament encircling the wrist, worn by women or girls.
2. A piece of defensive armor for the arm.
Bra∂cer (?), n. 1. That which braces, binds, or makes firm; a band or bandage.
2. A covering to protect the arm of the bowman from the vibration of the string; also, a brassart.
3. A medicine, as an astringent or a tonic, which gives tension or tone to any part of the body.
Brach (?), n. [OE. brache a kind of scenting hound or setting dog, OF. brache, ? braque, fr. OHG. braccho, G. bracke; possibly akin to E. fragrant, fr. L. fragrare to smell.] A bitch of the hound kind.
ō Brach–el∂y–tra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. (?) short + ? a covering.] (ZoĒl.) A group of beetles having short elytra, as the rove beetles.
ōBrach∂i–a (?), n. pl. See Brachium.
Brach∂i–al (?) or (?), a. [L. brachialis (bracch–), from bracchium (bracch–) arm: cf. F. brachial.] 1. (Anat.) Pertaining or belonging to the arm; as, the brachial artery; the brachial nerve.
2. Of the nature of an arm; resembling an arm.
ō Brach∑i–a∂ta (?), n. pl. [See Brachiate.] (ZoĒl.) A division of the Crinoidea, including those furnished with long jointed arms. See Crinoidea.
Brach∂i–ateˇ(?), a. [L. brachiatus (bracch–) with boughs or branches like arms, from brackium (bracch–) arm.] (Bot.) Having branches in pairs, decussated, all nearly horizontal, and each pair at right angles with the next, as in the maple and lilac.
Brach∑i–og∂a–noid (?), n. One of the Brachioganoidei.
ō Brach∑i–o–ga–noid∂e–i (?), n. pl.[NL., from L. brachium (bracch–) arm + NL. ganoidei.] (ZoĒl.) An order of ganoid fishes of which the bichir of Africa is a living example. See Crossopterygii.
ō Brach∑i–o–la∂ri–aˇ(?), n. pl. [ NL., fr. L. brachiolum (bracch–), dim. of brachium (bracch–) arm.] (ZoĒl.) A peculiar early larval stage of certain starfishes, having a bilateral structure, and swimming by means of bands of vibrating cilia.
Brach∂i–o–podˇ(?), n. [Cf.F. brachiopode.] (ZoĒl.) One of the Brachiopoda, or its shell.
ō Brach∑i–op∂o–da (?), n. [NL., from Gr. ? arm + –poda.] (ZoĒl.) A class of Molluscoidea having a symmetrical bivalve shell, often attached by a fleshy peduncle.
Ķ Within the shell is a pair of Ĺarms,ł often long and spirally coiled, bearing rows of ciliated tentacles by which a current of water is made to flow into the mantle cavity, bringing the microscopic food to the mouth between the bases of the arms. The shell is both opened and closed by special muscles. They form two orders; Lyopoma, in which the shell is thin, and without a distinct hinge, as in Lingula; and Arthropoma, in which the firm calcareous shell has a regular hinge, as in Rhynchonella. See Arthropomata.
ō Brach∂i–um (?), n.; pl. Bracchiaˇ(?). [L. brachium or bracchium, arm.] (Anat.) The upper arm; the segment of the fore limb between the shoulder and the elbow.
Brach∂manˇ(?), n. [L. Brachmanae, pl., Gr. ?.] See Brahman. [Obs.]
Brach∑y–cat∑a–lec∂ticˇ(?), n. [Gr. ?; ? short + ? to leave off; cf. ? incomplete.] (Gr.& Last. Pros.) A verse wanting two syllables at its termination.
Brach∑y–ce–phal∂ic (?), Brach∑y–ceph∂a–lous (?)}, a. [Gr. ? short + ? head.] (Anat.) Having the skull short in proportion to its breadth; shortheaded; – in distinction from dolichocephalic.
Brach∑y–ceph∂a–ly (?), Brach∑y–ceph∂a–lism (?)}, n. [Cf. F. Brachycāphalie]. (Anat.) The state or condition of being brachycephalic; shortness of head.
Bra–chyc∂er–al (?), a. [Gr. ? short + ? horn.] (ZoĒl.) Having short antennĎ, as certain insects.
Brach∑y–di–ag∂o–nal (?), a. [Gr. ? short + E. diagonal.] Pertaining to the shorter diagonal, as of a rhombic prism.
Brachydiagonal axis, the shorter lateral axis of an orthorhombic crystal.
Brach∑y–di–ag∂o–nal, n. The shorter of the diagonals in a rhombic prism.
Brach∑y–domeˇ(?), n. [Gr. ? short + E. dome.] (Crystallog.) A dome parallel to the shorter lateral axis. See Dome.
Bra–chyg∂ra–pher (?), n. A writer in short hand; a stenographer.
He asked the brachygrapher whether he wrote the notes of the sermon.
Bra–chyg∂ra–phyˇ(?), n. [Gr. ? short + –graphy: cf. F. brachygraphie.] Stenograhy.
Bra–chyl∂o–gyˇ(?), n. [Gr. ? :? short + ? discourse: cf. F. brachylogie.] ( Rhet.) Conciseness of expression; brevity.
Brach∑y–pin∂a–coid (?), n. [Gr. ? short + E. pinacoid.] (Crytallog.) A plane of an orthorhombic crystal which is parallel both to the vertical axis and to the shorter lateral (brachydiagonal) axis.
ō Bra–chyp∂te–raˇ(?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? short–winged; short + ? feather, wing.] (ZoĒl.) A group of Coleoptera having short wings; the rove beetles.
ō Bra–chyp∂te–res (?), n.pl. [NL. See Brachyptera. ] (ZoĒl.) A group of birds, including auks, divers, and penguins.
Bra–chyp∂ter–ous (?), a. [Gr. ? :cf. F. brachyptäre.] (ZoĒl.) Having short wings.
Bra–chys∂to–chrone (?), n. [Incorrect for brachistochrone, fr. Gr. ? shortest (superl. of ? short) + ? time : cf. F. brachistochrone. ] (Math.) A curve, in which a body, starting from a given point, and descending solely by the force of gravity, will reach another given point in a shorter time than it could by any other path. This curve of quickest descent, as it is sometimes called, is, in a vacuum, the same as the cycloid.
Brach∂y–ty∑pous (?), a. [Gr. ? short + ? stamp, form.] (Min.) Of a short form.
ō Brach∑y–u∂raˇ(?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? short + ? tail.] (ZoĒl.) A group of decapod Crustacea, including the common crabs, characterized by a small and short abdomen, which is bent up beneath the large cephalo–thorax. [Also spelt Brachyoura.] See Crab, and Illustration in Appendix.
Brach∑y–u∂ralˇ(?), Brach∑y–u∂rous (?)}, a. [Cf. F. brachyure.] (ZoĒl.) Of or pertaining to the Brachyura.
Brach∑y–u∂ran (?), n. One of the Brachyura.
Bra∂cing (?), a. Imparting strength or tone; strengthening; invigorating; as, a bracing north wind.
Bra∂cing (?), n. 1. The act of strengthening, supporting, or propping, with a brace or braces; the state of being braced.
2. (Engin.) Any system of braces; braces, collectively; as, the bracing of a truss.

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Brack (?), n. [Cf.D. braak, Dan. brĎk, a breaking, Sw. & Isel. brak a crackling, creaking. Cf. Breach.]
An opening caused by the parting of any solid body; a crack or breach; a flaw.
Stain or brack in her sweet reputation.
Brack, n. [D. brak, adj., salt; cf. LG. wrak refuse, G. brack.] Salt or brackish water. [Obs.]
Brack∂en (?), n. [OE. braken, AS. bracce. See 2d Brake, n.] A brake or fern.
Sir W.Scott.
Brack∂et (?), n. [Cf.OF. braguette codpiece, F. brayette, Sp. bragueta, also a projecting mold in architecture; dim. fr.L. bracae breeches; cf. also, OF. bracon beam, prop, support; of unknown origin. Cf. Breeches.]
1. (Arch.) An architectural member, plain or ornamental, projecting from a wall or pier, to support weight falling outside of the same; also, a decorative feature seeming to discharge such an office.
Ķ This is the more general word. See Brace, Cantalever, Console, Corbel, Strut.
2. (Engin. & Mech.) A piece or combination of pieces, usually triangular in general shape, projecting from, or fastened to, a wall, or other surface, to support heavy bodies or to strengthen angles.
3. (Naut.) A shot, crooked timber, resembling a knee, used as a support.
4. (Mil.) The cheek or side of an ordnance carriage.
5. (Print.) One of two characters [ ]?, used to inclose a reference, explanation, or note, or a part to be excluded from a sentence, to indicate an interpolation, to rectify a mistake, or to supply an omission, and for certain other purposes; – called also crotchet.
6. A gas fixture or lamp holder projecting from the face of a wall, column, or the like.
Bracket light, a gas fixture or a lamp attached to a wall, column, etc.
Brack∂et, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bracketed; p.pr. & vb.n. Bracketing] To place within brackets; to connect by brackets; to furnish with brackets.
Brack∂etŌing, n. (Arch.) A series or group of brackets; brackets, collectively.
Brack∂ish (?), a. [See Brack salt water.] Saltish, or salt in a moderate degree, as water in saline soil.
Springs in deserts found seem sweet, all brackish though they be.
Brack∂ishŌness, n. The quality or state of being brackish, or somewhat salt.
Brack∂y (?), a. Brackish.
Bract (?), n. [See Bractea.] (Bot.) (a) A leaf, usually smaller than the true leaves of a plant, from the axil of which a flower stalk arises. (b) Any modified leaf, or scale, on a flower stalk or at the base of a flower.
Ķ Bracts are often inconspicuous, but sometimes large and showy, or highly colored, as in many cactaceous plants. The spathes of aroid plants are conspicuous forms of bracts.
ōBrac∂teŌa (?), n. [L., a thin plate of metal or wood, gold foil.] (Bot.) A bract.
Brac∂teŌal (?), a. [Cf.F. bractāal.] Having the nature or appearance of a bract.
Brac∂teŌate (?), a. [Cf.L. bracteatus covered with gold plate.] (Bot.) Having a bract or bracts.
Bract∂ed (?), a. (Bot.) Furnished with bracts.
Brac∂teŌoŌlate (?), a. (Bot.) Furnished with bracteoles or bractlets.
Brac∂teŌole (?), n. [L. bracteola, dim. of bractea. See Bractea.] (Bot.) Same as Bractlet.
Bract∂less, a. (Bot.) Destitute of bracts.
Bract∂let (?), n. [Bract + –let] (Bot.) A bract on the stalk of a single flower, which is itself on a main stalk that support several flowers.
Brad (?), n. [Cf.OE. brod, Dan. braad prick, sting, brodde ice spur, frost nail, Sw. brodd frost nail, Icel. broddr any pointed piece of iron or stell; akin to AS. brord point, spire of grass, and perh. to E. bristle. See Bristle, n.]
A thin nail, usually small, with a slight projection at the top on one side instead of a head; also, a small wire nail, with a flat circular head; sometimes, a small, tapering, square–bodied finishing nail, with a countersunk head.
Brad∂ awl∑ (?). A straight awl with chisel edge, used to make holes for brads, etc.
BraŌdoon∂ (?), n. Same as Bridoon.
ōBrae (?), n. [See Bray a hill.] A hillside; a slope; a bank; a hill. [Scot.]
Brag (?), v.i. [imp. & p. p. Bragged (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bragging.] [OE. braggen to resound, blow, boast (cf. F. braguer to lead a merry life, flaunt, boast, OF. brague merriment), from Icel. braka to creak, brak noise, fr. the same root as E. break; properly then, to make a noise, boast. ?95.] To talk about one's self, or things pertaining to one's self, in a manner intended to excite admiration, envy, or wonder; to talk boastfully; to boast; – often followed by of; as, to brag of one's exploits, courage, or money, or of the great things one intends to do.
Coinceit, more rich in matter than in words,
Brags of his substance, not of ornament.
Syn. – To swagger; boast; vapor; bluster; vaunt; flourish; talk big.
Brag, v.t. To boast of. [Obs.]
Brag, n.
1. A boast or boasting; bragging; ostentatious pretense or self glorification.
CĎsar ... made not here his brag
Of Ĺcame,ł and Ĺsaw,ł and Ĺovercame.ł
2. The thing which is boasted of.
Beauty is Nature's brag.
3. A game at cards similar to bluff.
Brag (?), a. [See Brag, v.i.] Brisk; full of spirits; boasting; pretentious; conceited. [Arhaic]
A brag young fellow.
Brag, adv. Proudly; boastfully. [Obs.]
Brag∑gaŌdo∂cio (?), n. [From Braggadocchio, a boastful character in Spenser's ĹFaČrie Queene.ł]
1. A braggart; a boaster; a swaggerer.
2. Empty boasting; mere brag; pretension.
Brag∂gardŌism (?), n. [See Braggart.] Boastfulness; act of bragging.
Brag∂gart (?), n. [OF. bragard flaunting, vain, bragging. See Brag, v.i.] A boaster.
O, I could play the woman with mine eyes,
And braggart with my tongue.
Brag∂gart, a. Boastful.– Brag∂gartŌly, adv.
Brag∂ger (?), n. One who brags; a boaster.
Brag∂get (?), n. [OE. braket, bragot, fr. W. bragawd, bragod, fr. brag malt.] A liquor made of ale and honey fermented, with spices, etc. [Obs.]

Brag∂ging∑ly (?), adv. Boastingly.
Brag∂less, a. Without bragging. [R.]
Brag∂ly, adv. In a manner to be bragged of; finely; proudly. [Obs.]
Brah∂ma (?), n. [See Brahman.]
1. (Hindoo Myth.) The One First Cause; also, one of the triad of Hindoo gods. The triad consists of Brahma, the Creator, Vishnu, the Preserver, and Siva, the Destroyer.
Ķ According to the Hindoo religious books, Brahma (with the final a short), or Brahm, is the Divine Essence, the One First Cause, the All in All, while the personal gods, Brahm† (with the final a long), Vishnu, and Siva, are emanations or manifestations of Brahma the Divine Essence.
2. (ZoĒl.) A valuable variety of large, domestic fowl, peculiar in having the comb divided lengthwise into three parts, and the legs well feathered. There are two breeds, the dark or penciled, and the light; – called also Brahmapootra.
Brah∂man (?), Brah∂min (?), } n.; pl. Brahmans, Brahmins. [Skr. Brĺhmana (cf. Brahman 0worship, holiness; the God Brahma, also Brahman): cf. F. Brahmane, Brachmane, Bramine, L. Brachmanae, –manes, –mani, pl., Gr. ?, pl.] A person of the highest or sacerdotal caste among the Hindoos.
Brahman bull (ZoĒl.), the male of a variety of the zebu, or Indian ox, considered sacred by the Hindoos.
Brah∂manŌess (?), n. A Brahmani.
Brah∂manŌi (?), n. [Fem. of Brahman.] Any Brahman woman. [Written also Brahmanee.]
BrahŌman∂ic (?), ŌicŌal (?), BrahŌmin∂Ōic (?),ŌicŌal (?), a. Of or pertaining to the Brahmans or to their doctrines and worship.
Brah∂manŌism (?), Brah∂minŌism (?), } n. The religion or system of doctrines of the Brahmans; the religion of Brahma.
Brah∂manŌist (?), Brah∂minŌist (?), } n. An adherent of the religion of the Brahmans.
Brah∂moŌism (?), n. The religious system of Brahmo–somaj.

Brah∑mo–soŌmaj∂ (?), n. [Bengalese, a wor?hiping assembly.] A modern reforming theistic sect among the Hindos. [Written also Brahma–samaj.]
Braid (?), v.t. [imp. &. p.p. Braided; p. pr. & vb. n. Braiding.] [ OE. braiden, breiden, to pull, reach, braid, AS. bregdan to move to and fro, to weave; akin. to Icel. breg?a, D. breiden to knit, OS. bregdan to weave, OHG. brettan to brandish. Cf. Broid.]
1. To weave, interlace, or entwine together, as three or more strands or threads; to form into a braid; to plait.
Braid your locks with rosy twine.
2. To mingle, or to bring to a uniformly soft consistence, by beating, rubbing, or straining, as in some culinary operations.
3. To reproach. [Obs.] See Upbraid.
Braid (?), n. 1. A plait, band, or narrow fabric formed by intertwining or weaving together different strands.
A braid of hair composed of two different colors twined together.
2. A narrow fabric, as of wool, silk, or linen, used for binding, trimming, or ornamenting dresses, etc.
Braid, n. [Cf.Icel. breg?a to move quickly.]
1. A quick motion; a start. [Obs.]
2. A fancy; freak; caprice. [Obs.]
Braid v.i. To start; to awake. [Obs.]
Braid, a. [AS. brĎd, bred, deceit; akin to Icel. brag? trick, AS. bredan, bregdan, to braid, knit, (hence) to knit a net, to draw into a net, i.e., to deceive. See Braid, v.t.] Deceitful. [Obs.]
Since Frenchmen are so braid,
Marry that will, I live and die a maid.
Braid∂ing, n. 1. The act of making or using braids.
2. Braids, collectively; trimming.
A gentleman enveloped in mustachios, whiskers, fur collars, and braiding.
Brail (?), n. [OE. brayle furling rope, OF. braiol a band placed around the breeches, fr.F. braies, pl., breeches, fr.L. braca, bracae, breeches, a Gallic word; cf. Arm. bragez. Cf. Breeches.]
1. (Falconry) A thong of soft leather to bind up a hawk's wing.
2. pl. (Naut.) Ropes passing through pulleys, and used to haul in or up the leeches, bottoms, or corners of sails, preparatory to furling.
3. A stock at each end of a seine to keep it stretched.
Brail, v.t. (Naut.) To haul up by the brails; – used with up; as, to brail up a sail.
Brain (?), n. [OE. brain, brein, AS. bragen, brĎgen; akin to LG. brĄgen, bregen, D. brein, and perh. to Gr. ?, the upper part of head, if ? =? ? 95.]
1. (Anat.) The whitish mass of soft matter (the center of the nervous system, and the seat of consciousness and volition) which is inclosed in the cartilaginous or bony cranium of vertebrate animals. It is simply the anterior termination of the spinal cord, and is developed from three embryonic vesicles, whose cavities are connected with the central canal of the cord; the cavities of the vesicles become the central cavities, or ventricles, and the walls thicken unequally and become the three segments, the fore–, mid–, and hind–brain.
Ķ In the brain of man the cerebral lobes, or largest part of the forebrain, are enormously developed so as to overhang the cerebellum, the great lobe of the hindbrain, and completely cover the lobes of the midbrain. The surface of the cerebrum is divided into irregular ridges, or convolutions, separated by grooves (the so–called fissures and sulci), and the two hemispheres are connected at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure by a great transverse band of nervous matter, the corpus callosum, while the two halves of the cerebellum are connected on the under side of the brain by the bridge, or pons Varolii.
2. (ZoĒl.) The anterior or cephalic ganglion in insects and other invertebrates.
3. The organ or seat of intellect; hence, the understanding. Ĺ My brain is too dull.ł
Sir W.Scott.
Ķ In this sense, often used in the plural.
4. The affections; fancy; imagination. [R.]
To have on the brain, to have constantly in one's thoughts, as a sort of monomania. [Low]
Brain box or case, the bony on cartilaginous case inclosing the brain. – Brain coral, Brain stone coral (ZoĒl), a massive reef–building coral having the surface covered by ridges separated by furrows so as to resemble somewhat the surface of the brain, esp. such corals of the genera MĎandrina and Diploria. – Brain fag (Med.), brain weariness. See Cerebropathy.– Brain fever (Med.), fever in which the brain is specially affected; any acute cerebral affection attended by fever. – Brain sand, calcareous matter found in the pineal gland.
Brain (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Brained (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Braining.]
1. To dash out the brains of; to kill by beating out the brains. Hence, Fig.: To destroy; to put an end to; to defeat.
There thou mayst brain him.
It was the swift celerity of the death ...
That brained my purpose.

2. To conceive; to understand. [Obs.]
?T is still a dream, or else such stuff as madmen
Tongue, and brain not.
Brained (?), p.a. Supplied with brains.
If th' other two be brained like us.
Brain∂ish, a. Hot–headed; furious. [R.]
Brain∂less, a. Without understanding; silly; thougthless; witless. – Brain∂lessŌness, n.
Brain∂pan∑ (?), n. [Brain + pan.] The bones which inclose the brain; the skull; the cranium.
Brain∂sick∑ (?), a. Disordered in the understanding; giddy; thoughtless. – Brain∂sickŌness, a.
Brain∂sick∑ly, adv. In a brainsick manner.
Brain∂y (?), a. Having an active or vigorous mind. [Colloq.]
Braise, Braize (?), n. [So called from its iridescent colors.] (ZoĒl.) A European marine fish (Pagrus vulgaris) allied to the American scup; the becker. The name is sometimes applied to the related species. [Also written brazier.]
Braise, Braize, n. [F.] 1. Charcoal powder; breeze.
2. (Cookery) Braised meat.
Braise, v.t. [F. braiser, fr. braise coals.] (Cookery) To stew or broil in a covered kettle or pan.
A braising kettle has a deep cover which holds coals; consequently the cooking is done from above, as well as below.
Mrs. Henderson.

Brais∂er (?), n. A kettle or pan for braising.
Brait (?), n. [Cf.W. braith variegated, Ir. breath, breagh, fine, comely.] A rough diamond.
Braize (?), n. See Braise.
Brake (?), imp. of Break. [Arhaic]
Brake, n. [OE. brake fern; cf. AS. bracce fern, LG. brake willow bush, Da. bregne fern, G. brach fallow; prob. orig. the growth on rough, broken ground, fr. the root of E. break. See Break, v.t., cf. Bracken, and 2d Brake, n.]
1. (Bot.) A fern of the genus Pteris, esp. the P. aquilina, common in almost all countries. It has solitary stems dividing into three principal branches. Less properly: Any fern.
2. A thicket; a place overgrown with shrubs and brambles, with undergrowth and ferns, or with canes.
Rounds rising hillocks, brakes obscure and rough,
To shelter thee from tempest and from rain.
He stayed not for brake, and he stopped not for stone.
Sir W.Scott.
Cane brake, a thicket of canes. See Canebrake.

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Brake (?), n. [OE. brake; cf. LG. brake an instrument for breaking flax, G. breche, fr. the root of E. break. See Break, v. t., and cf. Breach.] 1. An instrument or machine to break or bruise the woody part of flax or hemp so that it may be separated from the fiber.
2. An extended handle by means of which a number of men can unite in working a pump, as in a fire engine.
3. A baker's kneading though.
4. A sharp bit or snaffle.
Pampered jades...which need nor break nor bit.
5. A frame for confining a refractory horse while the smith is shoeing him; also, an inclosure to restrain cattle, horses, etc.
A horse... which Philip had bought... and because of his fierceness kept him within a brake of iron bars.
J. Brende.
6. That part of a carriage, as of a movable battery, or engine, which enables it to turn.
7. (Mil.) An ancient engine of war analogous to the crossbow and ballista.
8. (Agric.) A large, heavy harrow for breaking clods after plowing; a drag.
9. A piece of mechanism for retarding or stopping motion by friction, as of a carriage or railway car, by the pressure of rubbers against the wheels, or of clogs or ratchets against the track or roadway, or of a pivoted lever against a wheel or drum in a machine.
10. (Engin.) An apparatus for testing the power of a steam engine, or other motor, by weighing the amount of friction that the motor will overcome; a friction brake.
11. A cart or carriage without a body, used in breaking in horses.
12. An ancient instrument of torture.
Air brake. See Air brake, in the Vocabulary. – Brake beam or Brake bar, the beam that connects the brake blocks of opposite wheels. – Brake block. (a) The part of a brake holding the brake shoe. (b) A brake shoe. – Brake shoe or Brake rubber, the part of a brake against which the wheel rubs. – Brake wheel, a wheel on the platform or top of a car by which brakes are operated. – Continuous brake . See under Continuous.
Brake∂man (?), n.; pl. Brakemen (?).
1. (Railroads) A man in charge of a brake or brakes.
2. (Mining) The man in charge of the winding (or hoisting) engine for a mine.
Brak∂y (?), a. Full of brakes; abounding with brambles, shrubs, or ferns; rough; thorny.
In the woods and braky glens.
Bra∂ma (?), n. See Brahma.
Bra∂mah press∑ (?). A hydrostatic press of immense power, invented by Joseph Bramah of London. See under Hydrostatic.
Bram∂ble (?), n. [OE. brembil, AS.br?mbel, br?mbel (akin to OHG. bramal), fr. the same root as E. broom, As. br?m. See Broom.] 1. (Bot.) Any plant of the genus Rubus, including the raspberry and blackberry. Hence: Any rough, prickly shrub.
The thorny brambles, and embracing bushes.
2. (ZoĒl.) The brambling or bramble finch.
Bram∂ble bush∑ (?). (Bot.) The bramble, or a collection of brambles growing together.
He jumped into a bramble bush
And scratched out both his eyes.
Mother Goose.
Bram∂bled (?), a. Overgrown with brambles.
Forlorn she sits upon the brambled floor.
Bram∂ble net∑ (?). A net to catch birds.
Bram∂bling (?), n. [OE. bramline. See Bramble, n.] (ZoĒl.) The European mountain finch (Fringilla montifringilla); – called also bramble finch and bramble.
Bram∂bly (?), a. Pertaining to, resembling, or full of, brambles. ĹIn brambly wildernesses.ł
Brame (?), n. [Cf. Breme.] Sharp passion; vexation. [Obs.]
Heart–burning brame.
Bra∂min (?), BraŌmin∂ic (?), etc. See Brahman, Brachmanic, etc.
Bran (?), n. [OE. bren, bran, OF. bren, F. bran, from Celtic; cf. Armor. brenn, Ir. bran, bran, chaff.] 1. The broken coat of the seed of wheat, rye, or other cereal grain, separated from the flour or meal by sifting or bolting; the coarse, chaffy part of ground grain.
2. (ZoĒl.) The European carrion crow.
Bran∂card (?), n. [F.] A litter on which a person may be carried. [Obs.]
Branch (?), n.; pl. Branchesˇ(?). [OE. braunche, F. branche, fr. LL. branca claw of a bird or beast of prey; cf. Armor. brank branch, bough.] 1. (Bot.) A shoot or secondary stem growing from the main stem, or from a principal limb or bough of a tree or other plant.
2. Any division extending like a branch; any arm or part connected with the main body of thing; ramification; as, the branch of an antler; the branch of a chandelier; a branch of a river; a branch of a railway.
Most of the branches , or streams, were dried up.
3. Any member or part of a body or system; a distinct article; a section or subdivision; a department. ĹBranches of knowledge.ł
It is a branch and parcel of mine oath.
4. (Geom.) One of the portions of a curve that extends outwards to an indefinitely great distance; as, the branches of an hyperbola.
5. A line of family descent, in distinction from some other line or lines from the same stock; any descendant in such a line; as, the English branch of a family.
His father, a younger branch of the ancient stock.
6. (Naut.) A warrant or commission given to a pilot, authorizing him to pilot vessels in certain waters.
Branches of a bridle, two pieces of bent iron, which bear the bit, the cross chains, and the curb. – Branch herring. See Alewife.– Root and branch , totally, wholly.
Syn. – Bough; limb; shoot; offshoot; twig; sprig.
Branch (?), a. Diverging from, or tributary to, a main stock, line, way, theme, etc.; as, a branch vein; a branch road or line; a branch topic; a branch store.
Branch, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Branchedˇ(?); p .pr. & vb. n. Branching.] 1. To shoot or spread in branches; to separate into branches; to ramify.
2. To divide into separate parts or subdivision.
To branch off, to form a branch or a separate part; to diverge. – To branch out, to speak diffusively; to extend one's discourse to other topics than the main one; also, to enlarge the scope of one's business, etc.
To branch out into a long disputation.
Branch, v. t. 1. To divide as into branches; to make subordinate division in.
2. To adorn with needlework representing branches, flowers, or twigs.
The train whereof loose far behind her strayed,
Branched with gold and pearl, most richly wrought.
Branch∂er (?), n. 1. That which shoots forth branches; one who shows growth in various directions.
2. (Falconry) A young hawk when it begins to leave the nest and take to the branches.
Branch∂erŌy (?), n. A system of branches.
ō Bran∂chiŌa (?), n.; pl. Branchi?ˇ(?). [L., fr. Gr. ?, pl. of ?.] (Anat.) A gill; a respiratory organ for breathing the air contained in water, such as many aquatic and semiaquatic animals have.
Bran∂chiŌal (?), a. (Anat.) Of or pertaining to branchiĎ or gills.
Branchial arches, the bony or cartilaginous arches which support the gills on each side of the throat of fishes and amphibians. See Illustration in Appendix. – Branchial clefts, the openings between the branchial arches through which water passes.
Bran∂chiŌate (?), a. (Anat.) Furnished with branchiĎ; as branchiate segments.
BranŌchif∂erŌous (?), a. (Anat.) Having gills; branchiate; as, branchiferous gastropods.
Branch∂iŌness (?), n. Fullness of branches.
Branch∂ing, a. Furnished with branches; shooting our branches; extending in a branch or branches.
Shaded with branching palm.
Branch∂ing, n. The act or state of separation into branches; division into branches; a division or branch.
The sciences, with their numerous branchings.
ō Bran∑chiŌoŌgasŌtrop∂oŌda (?), n. pl. [NL., from Gr. ? gill + E. gastropoda.] (ZoĒl.) Those Gastropoda that breathe by branchiĎ, including the Prosobranchiata and Opisthobranchiata.
Bran∑chiŌom∂erŌism (?), n. [Gr. ? gill + –mere.] (Anat.) The state of being made up of branchiate segments.
R. Wiedersheim.
Bran∂chiŌoŌpod (?), n. One of the Branchiopoda.
ō Bran∂chiŌoŌpoda (?), n. pl. [Gr. ? gill + –poda: cf. F. branchiopode.] (ZoĒl.) An order of Entomostraca; – so named from the feet of branchiopods having been supposed to perform the function of gills. It includes the fresh–water genera Branchipus, Apus, and Limnadia, and the genus Artemia found in salt lakes. It is also called Phyllopoda. See Phyllopoda, Cladocera. It is sometimes used in a broader sense.
Bran∑chiŌos∂teŌgal (?), a. [Gr. ? gill + ? to cover: cf. F. branchiostäge.] (Anat.) Pertaining to the membrane covering the gills of fishes. – n. (Anat.) A branchiostegal ray. See Illustration of Branchial arches in Appendix.
Ķ This term was formerly applied to a group of fishes having boneless branchiĎ. But the arrangement was artificial, and has been rejected.
Bran∑chiŌos∂tege (?), (Anat.) The branchiostegal membrane. See Illustration in Appendix.
Bran∑chiŌos∂teŌgous (?), a. (Anat.) Branchiostegal.
ō Bran∑chiŌos∂toŌma (?), n. [NL., fr., Gr. ? gill + ? mouth.] (ZoĒl.) The lancelet. See Amphioxus.
ō Bran∂chiŌu∂ra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr., Gr. ? gill + ? tail.] (ZoĒl.) A group of Entomostraca, with suctorial mouths, including species parasitic on fishes, as the carp lice (Argulus).
Branch∂less (?), a. Destitude of branches or shoots; without any valuable product; barren; naked.
Branch∂let (?), n. [Branch + –let.] A little branch; a twig.
Branch∂ pi∑lot (?). A pilot who has a branch or commission, as from Trinity House, England, for special navigation.
Branch∂y (?), a. Full of branches; having wide–spreading branches; consisting of branches.
Beneath thy branchy bowers of thickest gloom.
Brand (?), n. [OE. brand, brond, AS. brand brond brand, sword, from byrnan, beornan, to burn; akin to D., Dan., Sw., & G. brand brand, Icel. brandr a brand, blade of a sword. ?32. See Burn, v. t., and cf. Brandish.] 1. A burning piece of wood; or a stick or piece of wood partly burnt, whether burning or after the fire is extinct.
Snatching a live brand from a wigwam, Mason threw it on a matted roof.
2. A sword, so called from its glittering or flashing brightness. [Poetic]
Paradise, so late their happy seat,
Waved over by that flaming brand.
3. A mark made by burning with a hot iron, as upon a cask, to designate the quality, manufacturer, etc., of the contents, or upon an animal, to designate ownership; – also, a mark for a similar purpose made in any other way, as with a stencil. Hence, figurately: Quality; kind; grade; as, a good brand of flour.
4. A mark put upon criminals with a hot iron. Hence: Any mark of infamy or vice; a stigma.
The brand of private vice.
5. An instrument to brand with; a branding iron.
6. (Bot.) Any minute fungus which produces a burnt appearance in plants. The brands are of many species and several genera of the order PucciniĎi.
Brand (?), v.t [imp. & p.p. Branded; p. pr. & vb. n. Branding.]. 1. To burn a distinctive mark into or upon with a hot iron, to indicate quality, ownership, etc., or to mark as infamous (as a convict).
2. To put an actual distinctive mark upon in any other way, as with a stencil, to show quality of contents, name of manufacture, etc.
3. Fig.: To fix a mark of infamy, or a stigma, upon.
The Inquisition branded its victims with infamy.
There were the enormities, branded and condemned by the first and most natural verdict of common humanity.
4. To mark or impress indelibly, as with a hot iron.
As if it were branded on my mind.
Geo. Eliot.
Brand∂er (?), n. 1. One who, or that which, brands; a branding iron.
2. A gridiron. [Scot.]
Brand∂ goose∑ (?). [Prob. fr. 1st brand + goose: cf. Sw. brandgÜs. Cf. Brant.] (ZoĒl.) A species of wild goose (Branta bernicla) usually called in America brant. See Brant.
Bran∂died (?), a. Mingled with brandy; made stronger by the addition of brandy; flavored or treated with brandy; as, brandied peaches.
Brand∂ing i∑Ōron (?). An iron to brand with.
Brand∂ i∑ron. 1. A branding iron.
2. A trivet to set a pot on.
3. The horizontal bar of an andiron.
Bran∂dish (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Brandishedˇ(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Brandishing.] [OE. braundisen, F. brandir, fr. brand a sword, fr. OHG. brant brand. See Brand, n.] 1. To move or wave, as a weapon; to raise and move in various directions; to shake or flourish.
The quivering lance which he brandished bright.
2. To play with; to flourish; as, to brandish syllogisms.
Bran∂dish, n. A flourish, as with a weapon, whip, etc. ĹBrandishes of the fan.ł
Bran∂dish–er (?), n. One who brandishes.
Bran∂dle (?), v. t. & i. [F. brandiller.] To shake; to totter. [Obs.]
Brand∂ling (?), Brand∂lin (?) }, n. (ZoĒl.) Same as Branlin, fish and worm.
Brand∂–new∂ (?), a. [See Brand, and cf. Brannew.] Quite new; bright as if fresh from the forge.
Brand∂ spore∑ (?). (Bot.) One of several spores growing in a series or chain, and produced by one of the fungi called brand.
Bran∂dy (?), n.; pl. Brandiesˇ(?). [From older brandywine, brandwine, fr. D. brandewijn, fr. p. p. of branden to burn, distill + wijn wine, akin to G. branntwein. See Brand.] A strong alcoholic liquor distilled from wine. The name is also given to spirit distilled from other liquors, and in the United States to that distilled from cider and peaches. In northern Europe, it is also applied to a spirit obtained from grain.
Brandy fruit, fruit preserved in brandy and sugar.
Bran∂dyŌwine∑ (?), n. Brandy. [Obs.]
Bran∂gle (?), n. [Prov. E. brangled confused, entangled, Scot. brangle to shake, menace; probably a variant of wrangle, confused with brawl. ?95.] A wrangle; a squabble; a noisy contest or dispute. [R.]
A brangle between him and his neighbor.
Bran∂gle, v.i [imp. & p. p. Brangledˇ(?); p.pr. & vb. n. Branglingˇ(?).] To wrangle; to dispute contentiously; to squabble. [R.]
Bran∂gleŌment (?), n. Wrangle; brangle. [Obs.]
Bran∂gler (?), n. A quarrelsome person.
Bran∂gling (?), n. A quarrel. [R.]
Brank (?), n. [Prov. of Celtic origin; cf. L. brance, brace, the Gallic name of a particularly white kind of corn.] Buckwheat. [Local, Eng.]
Brank, Branks,} n. [Cf. Gael. brangus, brangas, a sort of pillory, Ir. brancas halter, or D. pranger fetter.] 1. A sort of bridle with wooden side pieces. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]
2. A scolding bridle, an instrument formerly used for correcting scolding women.It was an iron frame surrounding the head and heaving a triangular piece entering the mouth of the scold.
Brank, v. i. 1. To hold up and toss the head; – applied to horses as spurning the bit. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]
2. To prance; to caper. [Scot.]
Brank∂urŌsine (?), n. [F. branc–ursine, branch–ursine, fr. LL. branca claw + L. ursinus belonging to a bear (fr. ursus bear), i .e., bear's claw, because its leaves resemble the claws of a bear. Cf. Branch.] (Bot.) Bear's–breech, or Acanthus.
Bran∂lin (?), n. [Scot. branlie fr. brand.] (ZoĒl.) A young salmon or parr, in the stage in which it has transverse black bands, as if burned by a gridiron.
Bran∂lin, n. [See Brand.] A small red worm or larva, used as bait for small fresh–water fish; – so called from its red color.
Bran∂–new∂ (?), a. See Brand–new.
Bran∂ny (?), a. Having the appearance of bran; consisting of or containing bran.
Bran∂sle (?), n. [See Brawl a dance.] A brawl or dance. [Obs.]

<-- p. 176 -->

Brant (?), n. [Cf.Brand goose, Brent, Brenicle.] (ZoĒl.) A species of wild goose (Branta bernicla)– called also brent and brand goose. The name is also applied to other related species.
Brant, a. [See Brent.] Steep. [Prov. Eng.]
Bran∂tail∑ (?), n. (ZoĒl.) The European redstart; – so called from the red color of its tail.
Brant∂Ōfox∑ (?), n. [For brand–fox; cf. G. brandfuchs, Sw. bradrĄf. So called from its yellowish brown and somewhat black color. See Brand.] (ZoĒl.) A kind of fox found in Sweden (Vulpes alopex), smaller than the common fox (V. vulgaris), but probably a variety of it.
Bran∂uŌlar (?), a. Relating to the brain; cerebral.
Bra∂sen (?), a. Same as Brazen.
Brash (?), a. [Cf. Gael. bras or G. barsch harsh, sharp, tart, impetuous, D. barsch, Sw. & Dan. barsk.] Hasty in temper; impetuous.
Brash, a. [Cf. Amer. bresk, brusk, fragile, brittle.] Brittle, as wood or vegetables. [Colloq., U. S.]
Brash, n. [See Brash brittle.] 1. A rash or eruption; a sudden or transient fit of sickness.
2. Refuse boughs of trees; also, the clippings of hedges. [Prov. Eng.]
3. (Geol.) Broken and angular fragments of rocks underlying alluvial deposits.
4. Broken fragments of ice.
Water brash (Med.), an affection characterized by a spasmodic pain or hot sensation in the stomach with a rising of watery liquid into the mouth; pyrosis. – Weaning brash (Med.), a severe form of diarrhea which sometimes attacks children just weaned.
Bra∂sier, Bra∂zier (?), n. [OE. brasiere, F. braise live coals. See Brass.] An artificer who works in brass.
Bra∂sier, Bra∂zier, n. [F. brasier, brais°er, fr. braise live coals. See Brass.] A pan for holding burning coals.
Brass (?), n.; pl. Brasses (?). [OE. bras, bres, AS. brĎs; akin to Icel. bras cement, solder, brasa to harden by fire, and to E. braze, brazen. Cf. 1st & 2d Braze.] 1. An alloy (usually yellow) of copper and zinc, in variable proportion, but often containing two parts of copper to one part of zinc. It sometimes contains tin, and rarely other metals.
2. (Mach.) A journal bearing, so called because frequently made of brass. A brass is often lined with a softer metal, when the latter is generally called a white metal lining. See Axle box, Journal Box, and Bearing.
3. Coin made of copper, brass, or bronze. [Obs.]
Provide neither gold, nor silver, nor brass in your purses, nor scrip for your journey.
Matt. x. 9.
4. Impudence; a brazen face. [Colloq.]
5. pl. Utensils, ornaments, or other articles of brass.
The very scullion who cleans the brasses.
6. A brass plate engraved with a figure or device. Specifically, one used as a memorial to the dead, and generally having the portrait, coat of arms, etc.
7. pl. (Mining) Lumps of pyrites or sulphuret of iron, the color of which is near to that of brass.
Ķ The word brass as used in Sculpture language is a translation for copper or some kind of bronze.
Ķ Brass is often used adjectively or in self–explaining compounds; as, brass button, brass kettle, brass founder, brass foundry or brassfoundry.
Brass band (Mus.), a band of musicians who play upon wind instruments made of brass, as trumpets, cornets, etc. – Brass foil, Brass leaf, brass made into very thin sheets; – called also Dutch gold.
Bras∂sage (?), n. {F.] A sum formerly levied to pay the expense of coinage; – now called seigniorage.
Bras∂sart (?), n. [F. brassard, fr. bras arm. See Brace, n.] Armor for the arm; – generally used for the whole arm from the shoulder to the wrist, and consisting, in the 15th and 16th centuries, of many parts.
Brasse (?), n. [Perh. a transposition of barse; but cf. LG. brasse the bream, G. brassen Cf. Bream.] (ZoĒl.) A spotted European fish of the genus Lucioperca, resembling a perch.
Bras∂sets (?), n. See Brassart.
ō Bras∂siŌca (?), n. [L., cabbage.] (Bot.) A genus of plants embracing several species ad varieties differing much in appearance and qualities: such as the common cabbage (B. oleracea), broccoli, cauliflowers, etc.; the wild turnip (B. campestris); the common turnip (B. rapa); the rape of coleseed (B. napus), etc.
Bras∑siŌca∂ceous (?), a. [L. brassica cabbage.] (Bot.) Related to, or resembling, the cabbage, or plants of the Cabbage family.
Brass∂iŌness (?), n. The state, conditions, or quality of being brassy. [Colloq.]
Brass∂Ōvis∂aged (?), a. Impudent; bold.
Brass∂y (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to brass; having the nature, appearance, or hardness, of brass.
2. Impudent; impudently bold. [Colloq.]
Brast (?), v. t. & i. [See Burst.] To burst. [Obs.]
And both his yČn braste out of his face.
Dreadfull furies which their chains have brast.
Brat (?), n. [OE. bratt coarse garnment, AS. bratt cloak, fr. the Celtic; cf. W. brat clout, rag, Gael. brat cloak, apron, raf, Ir. brat cloak; properly then, a child's bib or clout; hence, a child.] 1. A coarse garnment or cloak; also, coarse clothing, in general. [Obs.]
2. A coarse kind of apron for keeping the clothes clean; a bib. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]
3. A child; an offspring; – formerly used in a good sense, but now usually in a contemptuous sense. ĹThis brat is none of mine.ł
ĹA beggar's brat.ł
O Israel? O household of the Lord?
O Abraham's brats? O brood of blessed seed?
4. The young of an animal. [Obs.]
Brat (?), n. (Mining) A thin bed of coal mixed with pyrites or carbonate of lime.
ō Brat∂sche (?), n. [G., fr. It. viola da braccio viola held on the arm.] The tenor viola, or viola.
Brat∂tice (?), n. [See Brettice.] (Mining) (a) A wall of separation in a shaft or gallery used for ventilation. (b) Planking to support a roof or wall.
Brat∂tishŌing (?), n. 1. See Brattice, n.
2. (Arch.) Carved openwork, as of a shrine, battlement, or parapet.
Braun∂ite (?), n. (Min.) A native oxide of manganese, of dark brownish black color. It was named from a Mr. Braun of Gotha.
BraŌvade∂ (?), n. Bravado. [Obs.]
BraŌva∂do (?), n., pl. Bravadoesˇ(?). [Sp. bravada, bravata, boast, brag: cf. F. bravade. See Brave.] Boastful and threatening behavior; a boastful menace.
In spite of our host's bravado.
Brave (?), a. [Compar. Braver; superl. Bravest.] [F. brave, It. or Sp. bravo, (orig.) fierce, wild, savage, prob. from. L. barbarus. See Barbarous, and cf. Bravo.]
1. Bold; courageous; daring; intrepid; – opposed to cowardly; as, a brave man; a brave act.
2. Having any sort of superiority or excellence; – especially such as in conspicuous. [Obs. or Archaic as applied to material things.]
Iron is a brave commodity where wood aboundeth.
It being a brave day, I walked to Whitehall.
3. Making a fine show or display. [Archaic]
Wear my dagger with the braver grace.
For I have gold, and therefore will be brave.
In silks I'll rattle it of every color.
Robert Greene.
Frog and lizard in holiday coats
And turtle brave in his golden spots.
Syn. – Courageous; gallant; daring; valiant; valorous; bold; heroic; intrepid; fearless; dauntless; magnanimous; high–spirited; stout–hearted. See Gallant.
Brave (?), n. 1. A brave person; one who is daring.
The star–spangled banner, O,long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
2. Specifically, an Indian warrior.
3. A man daring beyond discretion; a bully.
Hot braves like thee may fight.
4. A challenge; a defiance; bravado. [Obs.]
Demetrius, thou dost overween in all;
And so in this, to bear me down with braves.
Brave, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Bravedˇ(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Braving.] 1. To encounter with courage and fortitude; to set at defiance; to defy; to dare.
These I can brave, but those I can not bear.
2. To adorn; to make fine or showy. [Obs.]
Thou [a tailor whom Grunio was browbeating] hast braved meny men; brave not me; I'll neither be faced or braved.
Brave∂ly (?), adv. 1. In a brave manner; courageously; gallantly; valiantly; splendidly; nobly.
2. Finely; gaudily; gayly; showily.
And [she] decked herself bravely to allure the eyes of all men that should see her.
Judith. x. 4.
3. Well; thrivingly; prosperously. [Colloq.]
Brave∂ness, n. The quality of state or being brave.
Brav∂erŌy (?), n. [Cf. F. braverie.] 1. The quality of being brave; fearless; intrepidity.
Remember, sir, my liege, ...
The natural bravery of your isle.
2. The act of braving; defiance; bravado. [Obs.]
Reform, then, without bravery or scandal of former times and persons.
3. Splendor; magnificence; showy appearance; ostentation; fine dress.
With scarfs and fans and double change of bravery.
Like a stately ship...
With all her bravery on, and tackle trim.
4. A showy person; a fine gentleman; a beau. [Obs.]
A man that is the bravery of his age.
Beau. & Fl.
Syn. – Courage; heroism; interpidity; gallantry; valor; fearlessness; dauntlessness; hardihood; manfulness. See Courage, and Heroism.
Brav∂ing (?), n. A bravado; a boast.
With so proud a strain
Of threats and bravings.
Brav∂ingŌly (?), adv. In a defiant manner.
Bra∂vo (?), n.; pl. Bravoesˇ(?). [I. See Brave, a.] A daring villain; a bandit; one who sets law at defiance; a professional assassin or murderer.
Safe from detection, seize the unwary prey.
And stab, like bravoes, all who come this way.
Bra∂vo (?), interj. [It. See Brave.] Well done? excellent? an exclamation expressive of applause.
ō BraŌvu∂ra (?), n. [It., (properly) bravery, spirit, from bravo. See Brave.] (Mus.) A florid, brilliant style of music, written for effect, to show the range and flexibility of a singer's voice, or the technical force and skill of a performer; virtuoso music.
Aria di bravura (?) [It.], a florid air demanding brilliant execution.
Brawl (?), v. i. [imp. & p.p. Brawled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Brawling.] [OE. braulen to quarrel, boast, brallen to cry, make a noise; cf. LG. brallen to brag, MHG. pr?ulen, G. prahlen, F. brailler to cry, shout, Pr. brailar, braillar, W. bragal to vociferate, brag, Armor. bragal to romp, to strut, W. broliaw to brag, brawl boast. ?95.] 1. To quarrel noisily and outrageously.
Let a man that is a man consider that he is a fool that brawleth openly with his wife.
Golden Boke.
2. To complain loudly; to scold.
3. To make a loud confused noise, as the water of a rapid stream running over stones.
Where the brook brawls along the painful road.
Syn. – To wrangle; squabble; contend.
Brawl (?), n. A noisy quarrel; loud, angry contention; a wrangle; a tumult; as, a drunken brawl.
His sports were hindered by the brawls.
Syn. – Noise; quarrel; uproar; row; tumult.
Brawl∂er (?), n. One that brawls; wrangler.
Common brawlers (Law), one who disturbs a neighborhood by brawling (and is therefore indictable at common law as a nuisance).
Brawl∂ing, a. 1. Quarreling; quarrelsome; noisy.
She is an irksome brawling scold.
2. Making a loud confused noise. See Brawl, v. i., 3.
A brawling stream.
J.S. Shairp.
Brawl∂ingŌly, adv. In a brawling manner.
Brawn (?), n. [OF. braon fleshy part, muscle, fr. HG. br?to flesh, G. braten roast meat; akin to Icel. br?? flesh, food of beasts, AS. br?de roast meat, br?dan to roast, G. braten, and possibly to E. breed.] 1. A muscle; flesh. [Obs.]
Formed well of brawns and of bones.
2. Full, strong muscles, esp. of the arm or leg, muscular strength; a protuberant muscular part of the body; sometimes, the arm.
Brawn without brains is thine.
It was ordained that murderers should be brent on the brawn of the left hand.
E. Hall.
And in my vantbrace put this withered brawn.
3. The flesh of a boar; also, the salted and prepared flesh of a boar.
The best age for the boar is from two to five years, at which time it is best to geld him, or sell him for brawn.
4. A boar. [Obs.]
Beau. & Fl.
Brawned (?), a. Brawny; strong; muscular. [Obs.]
Brawn∂er (?), n. A boor killed for the table.
Brawn∂iŌness (?), n. The quality or state of being brawny.
Brawn∂y (?), a. Having large, strong muscles; muscular; fleshy; strong. ĹBrawny limbs.ł
Syn. – Muscular; fleshy; strong; bulky; sinewy; athletic; stalwart; powerful; robust.
Brax∂y (?), n. [Cf. AS. breac rheum, broc sickness, Ir. bracha corruption. Jamieson.] 1. A disease of sheep. The term is variously applied in different localities. [Scot.]
2. A diseased sheep, or its mutton.
Bray (?), v. t. [imp. & p. p. Brayed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Braying.] [OE. brayen, OF. breier, F. broyer to pound, grind, fr. OHG. brehhan to break. See Break.] To pound, beat, rub, or grind small or fine.
Though thou shouldest bray a fool in a mortar, ... yet will not his foolishness depart from him.
Prov. xxvii. 22.
Bray, v. i. [ OE brayen, F. braire to bray, OF. braire to cry, fr. LL. bragire to whinny; perh. fr. the Celtic and akin to E. break; or perh. of imitative origin.]
1. To utter a loud, harsh cry, as an ass.
Laugh, and they
Return it louder than an ass can bray.
2. To make a harsh, grating, or discordant noise.
Heard ye the din of battle bray?
Bray, v. t. To make or utter with a loud, discordant, or harsh and grating sound.
Arms on armor clashing, brayed
Horrible discord.
And varying notes the war pipes brayed.
Sir W.Scott.
Bray, n. The harsh cry of an ass; also, any harsh, grating, or discordant sound.
The bray and roar of multitudinous London.
Bray, n. [OE. braye, brey, brew, eyebrow, brow of a hill, hill, bank, Scot. bra, brae, bray, fr. AS. br?w eyebrow, influenced by the allied Icel. br? eyebrow, bank, also akin to AS. br? yebrow. See Brow.] A bank; the slope of a hill; a hill. See Brae, which is now the usual spelling. [North of Eng. & Scot.]
Bray∂er (?), n. An implement for braying and spreading ink in hand printing.
Bray∂er, n. One that brays like an ass.
Bray∂ing, a. Making a harsh noise; blaring, ĹBraying trumpets.ł
Braze (?), v. i.[imp. & p. p. Brazedˇ(?); p. pr & vb. n. Brazing.][F. braser to solder, fr. Icel. brasa to harden by fire. Cf. Brass.] 1. To solder with hard solder, esp. with an alloy of copper and zinc; as, to braze the seams of a copper pipe.
2. To harden. ĹNow I am brazes to it.ł
Braze (?), v. t. [AS. brĎsian, fr. brĎs brass. See Brass.] To cover or ornament with brass.
Bra∂zen (?), a.[OE. brasen, AS. brĎsen. See Brass.] 1. Pertaining to, made of, or resembling, brass.
2. Sounding harsh and loud, like resounding brass.
3. Impudent; immodest; shameless; having a front like brass; as, a brazen countenance.
Brazen age. (a) (Muth.) The age of war and lawlessness which succeeded the silver age. (b) (ArchĎol.)ˇSee under Bronze. – Brazen sea (Jewish Antiq.), a large laver of brass, placed in Solomon's temple for the use of the priests.
Bra∂zen, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Brazened (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Brazening.] To carry through impudently or shamelessly; as, to brazen the matter through.
Sabina brazened it out before Mrs. Wygram, but inwardly she was resolved to be a good deal more circumspect.
Bra∂zenŌbrowed∑ (?), a. Shamelessly impudent.
Sir T.Browne.
Bra∂zenŌface∑ (?), n. An impudent of shameless person. ĹWell said, brazenface; hold it out.ł
Bra∂zenŌfaced∑ (?), a. Impudent; shameless.
Bra∂zenŌly (?), adv. In a bold, impudent manner.

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Bra∂zenŌness (?), n. The quality or state of being brazen.
Bra∂zier (?), n. Same as Brasier.
ōBraz∑iŌlet∂to (?), n. [Cf. Pg. & Sp. brasilete, It. brasiletto.] See Brazil wood.
BraŌzil∂ian (?), a. Of or pertaining to Brasil. – n. A native or an inhabitant of Brazil.
Brazilian pebble. See Pebble, n., 2.
Braz∂iŌlin (?), n. [Cf. F. brāsiline. See Brazil.] (Chem.) A substance contained in both Brazil wood and Sapan wood, from which it is extracted as a yellow crystalline substance which is white when pure. It is colored intensely red by alkalies. [Written also brezilin.]
BraŌzil∂ nut∑ (?). (Bot.) An oily, three–sided nut, the seed of the Bertholletia excelsa; the cream nut.
Ķ From eighteen to twenty–four of the seed or Ĺnutsł grow in a hard and nearly globular shell.
BraŌzil∂ wood∑ (?). [OE. brasil, LL. brasile (cf. Pg. & Sp. brasil, Pr. bresil, Pr. bresil); perh. from Sp. or Pg. brasa a live coal (cf. Braze, Brasier); or Ar. vars plant for dyeing red or yellow. This name was given to the wood from its color; and it is said that King Emanuel, of Portugal, gave the name Brazil to the country in South America on account of its producing this wood.]
1. The wood of the oriental CĎsalpinia Sapan; – so called before the discovery of America.
2. A very heavy wood of a reddish color, imported from Brazil and other tropical countries, for cabinet–work, and for dyeing. The best is the heartwood of CĎsalpinia echinata, a leguminous tree; but other trees also yield it. An interior sort comes from Jamaica, the timber of C. Braziliensis and C. crista. This is often distinguished as Braziletto , but the better kind is also frequently so named.
Breach (?), n. [OE. breke, breche, AS. brice, gebrice, gebrece (in comp.), fr. brecan to break; akin to Dan. brĎk, MHG. breche, gap, breach. See Break, and cf. Brake (the instrument), Brack a break]. 1. The act of breaking, in a figurative sense.
2. Specifically: A breaking or infraction of a law, or of any obligation or tie; violation; non–fulfillment; as a breach of contract; a breach of promise.
3. A gap or opening made made by breaking or battering, as in a wall or fortification; the space between the parts of a solid body rent by violence; a break; a rupture.
Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more;
Or close the wall up with our English dead.
4. A breaking of waters, as over a vessel; the waters themselves; surge; surf.
The Lord hath broken forth upon mine enemies before me, as the breach of waters.
2 Sam. v. 20?
A clear breach implies that the waves roll over the vessel without breaking. – A clean breach implies that everything on deck is swept away.
Ham. Nav. Encyc.
5. A breaking up of amicable relations; rupture.
There's fallen between him and my lord
An unkind breach.
6. A bruise; a wound.
Breach for breach, eye for eye.
Lev. xxiv.20?
7. (Med.) A hernia; a rupture.
8. A breaking out upon; an assault.
The Lord had made a breach upon Uzza.
Breach of falth, a breaking, or a failure to keep, an expressed or implied promise; a betrayal of confidence or trust. – Breach of peace, disorderly conduct, disturbing the public peace. – Breach of privilege, an act or default in violation of the privilege or either house of Parliament, of Congress, or of a State legislature, as, for instance, by false swearing before a committee.
Mozley. Abbott.
– Breach of promise, violation of one's plighted word, esp. of a promise to marry. – Breach of trust, violation of one's duty or faith in a matter entrusted to one.
Syn. – Rent; cleft; chasm; rift; aperture; gap; break; disruption; fracture; rupture; infraction; infringement; violation; quarrel; dispute; contention; difference; misunderstanding.
Breach, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Breached (?) ; p. pr. & vb. n. Breaching.] To make a breach or opening in; as, to breach the walls of a city.
Breach, v. i. To break the water, as by leaping out; – said of a whale.
Breach∂y (?),a. Apt to break fences or to break out of pasture; unruly; as, breachy cattle.
Bread (?), v. t. [AS. brĎdan to make broad, to spread. See Broad, a.] To spread. [Obs.]
Bread (?), n. [AS. bre†d; akin to OFries. brĺd, OS. br?d, D. brood, G. brod, brot, Icel. brau?, Sw. & Dan. brĒd. The root is probably that of E. brew. ? See Brew.] 1. An article of food made from flour or meal by moistening, kneading, and baking.
Ķ Raised bread is made with yeast, salt, and sometimes a little butter or lard, and is mixed with warm milk or water to form the dough, which, after kneading, is given time to rise before baking. – Cream of tartar bread is raised by the action of an alkaline carbonate or bicarbonate (as saleratus or ammonium bicarbonate) and cream of tartar (acid tartrate of potassium) or some acid. –Unleavened bread is usually mixed with water and salt only.
AČrated bread. See under A?rated. Bread and butter (fig.), means of living. – Brown bread, Indian bread, Graham bread, Rye and Indian bread. See Brown bread, under Brown. – Bread tree. See Breadfruit.
2. Food; sustenance; support of life, in general.
Give us this day our daily bread.
Matt. vi. 11?
Bread, v. t. (Cookery) To cover with bread crumbs, preparatory to cooking; as, breaded cutlets.
Bread∂bas∑ket (?), n. The stomach. [Humorous]
S. Foote.
Bread∂corn∑ (?). Corn of grain of which bread is made, as wheat, rye, etc.
Bread∂ed, a. Braided [Obs.]
Bread∂en (?), a. Made of bread. [R.]
Bread∂fruit∑ (?), n. (Bot.) 1. The fruit of a tree (Artocarpus incisa) found in the islands of the Pacific, esp. the South Sea islands. It is of a roundish form, from four to six or seven inches in diameter, and, when baked, somewhat resembles bread, and is eaten as food, whence the name.
2. (Bot.) The tree itself, which is one of considerable size, with large, lobed leaves. Cloth is made from the bark, and the timber is used for many purposes. Called also breadfruit tree and bread tree.
Bread∂less, a. Without bread; destitude of food.
Plump peers and breadless bards alike are dull.

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