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3.Turned back, or inclining to the left; as, a backhanded letters.
Back¶hand·edĻness, n. State of being backhanded; the using of backhanded or indirect methods.
Back¶hand·er (?), n. A backhanded blow.
Back¶house· (?), n. [’Back, a. + house.] A building behind the main building. Specifically: A privy; a necessary.
Back¶ing, n. 1. The act of moving backward, or of putting or moving anything backward.
2. That which is behind, and forms the back of, anything, usually giving strength or stability.
3. Support or aid given to a person or cause.
4. (Bookbinding) The preparation of the back of a book with glue, etc., before putting on the cover.
Back¶joint· (?), n. [Back’, a. or adv. + joint.] (a) A rebate or chase in masonry left to receive a permanent slab or other filling.
Back¶lash· (?), n. [’Back’, adv. + lash.] (Mech.) The distance through which one part of connected machinery, as a wheel, piston, or screw, can be moved without moving the connected parts, resulting from looseness in fitting or from wear; also, the jarring or reflex motion caused in badly fitting machinery by irregularities in velocity or a reverse of motion.
Back¶less, a. Without a back.
Back¶log·(?), n. [’Back, a. + log.] A large stick of wood, forming the of a fire on the hearth. [U.S.]
There was first a backlog, from fifteen to four and twenty inches in diameter and five feet long, imbedded in the ashes.
S.G. Goodrich.
Back¶piece· (?), Back¶plate· (?),} n. [’Back, n. or a. + ’piece, plate.’] A piece, or plate which forms the back of anything, or which covers the back; armor for the back.

<-- p. 111 -->

Back¶rack (?), Back¶rag (?),} n. See Bacharach.
Backs (?), n. pl. Among leather dealers, the thickest and stoutest tanned hides.
Back¶saw· (?), n. [2d back,n.+ saw.] A saw (as a tenon saw) whose blade is stiffened by an added metallic back.
Back¶set· (?), n. [’Back, adv. + ’set.] 1. A check; a relapse; a discouragement; a setback.
2. Whatever is thrown back in its course, as water.
Slackwater, or the ’backset caused by the overflow.
Harper's Mag.
Back¶set·, v.i. To plow again, in the fall; - said of prairie land broken up in the spring. [Western U.S.]
Back¶set¶tler (?), n. [Back, a. + settler.] One living in the back or outlying districts of a community.
The English backsettlers of Leinster and Munster.
Macaulay.
ŲBack¶sheesh·, ŲBack¶shish·} (?), n. [Pers.’bakhshĘsh, fr. ’bakhshĘdan to give.] In Egypt and the Turkish empire, a gratuity; a ½tipø.
Back¶side· (?), n. [’Back, a. + side.’] The hinder part, posteriors, or rump of a person or animal.
µBackside (one word) was formerly used of the
rear part or side of any thing or place, but in such senses is now two words.
Back¶sight· (?), n. [Back, adv. + sight.’] (Surv.) The reading of the leveling staff in its unchanged position when the leveling instrument has been taken to a new position; a sight directed backwards to a station previously occupied. Cf. Foresight,’n., 3.
Back·slide¶ (?), v.i. [ imp. Backslid’(?); p.p. Backslidden (?), Backslid; p.pr.&vb.n. ’Backsliding.’] [Back’, adv.+ slide.] To slide back; to fall away; esp. to abandon gradually the faith and practice of a religion that has been professed.
Back¶slid¶er (?), n. One who backslides.
Back¶slid¶ing, a. Slipping back; falling back into sin or error; sinning.
Turn, O backsliding children, saith the Lord.
Jer. iii. 14.
Back¶slid¶ing, n. The act of one who backslides; abandonment of faith or duty.
Our backslidings are many.
Jer. xiv.7.
Back¶staff· (?), n. An instrument formerly used for taking the altitude of the heavenly bodies, but now superseded by the quadrant and sextant; - so called because the observer turned his back to the body observed.
Back¶ stairs·. Stairs in the back part of a house, as distinguished from the front stairs; hence, a private or indirect way.
Back¶stairs·, Back¶stair·, a. Private; indirect; secret; intriguing; as if finding access by the back stairs.
A backstairs influence.
Burke.
Female caprice and ’backstairs influence.
Trevelyan.
Back¶stay· (?), n. [’Back, a. or n. + stay.] 1.(Naut.) A rope or stay extending from the masthead to the side of a ship, slanting a little aft, to assist the shrouds in supporting the mast. [ Often used in the plural.]
2. A rope or strap used to prevent excessive forward motion.
Back¶ster (?), n. [See Baxter.] A backer. [Obs.]
Back¶stitch· (?), n. [’Back, adv. + ’stitch.] A stitch made by setting the needle back of the end of the last stitch, and bringing it out in front of the end.
Back¶stitch·, v.i. To sew with backstitches; as, to backstitch a seam.
Back¶stress (?), n. A female baker. [Obs.]
Back¶sword· (?), n. [2d back, n. + sword.] 1. A sword with one sharp edge.
2. In England, a stick with a basket handle, used in rustic amusements; also, the game in which the stick is used. Also called ’singlestick.
Halliwell.
Back¶ward (?), Back¶wards (?),} adv. [’Back, ’adv. + Ļward.] 1. With the back in advance or foremost; as, to ride backward.
2. Toward the back; toward the rear; as, to throw the arms ’backward.
3. On the back, or with the back downward.
Thou wilt fall ’backward.’
Shak.
4. Toward, or in, past time or events; ago.
Some reigns ’backward. ’
Locke.
5. By way of reflection; reflexively.
Sir J.Davies.
6. From a better to a worse state, as from honor to shame, from religion to sin.
The work went ’backward.’
Dryden.
7. In a contrary or reverse manner, way, or direction; contrarily; as, to read ’backwards.
We might have ... beat them ’backward home.
Shak.
Back¶ward, a. 1. Directed to the back or rear; as, backward glances.
2. Unwilling; averse; reluctant; hesitating; loath.
For wiser brutes were ’backward’ to be slaves.
Pope.
3. Not well advanced in learning; not quick of apprehension; dull; inapt; as, a ’backward ’child. ½The backward learner.ø
South.
4. Late or behindhand; as, a ’backward season.
5. Not advanced in civilization; undeveloped; as, the country or region is in a backward ’state.
6. Already past or gone; bygone. [R.]
And flies unconscious o'er each ’backward’ year.
Byron.
Back¶ward, n. The state behind or past. [Obs.]
In the dark ’backward’ and abysm of time.
Shak.
Back¶ward, v.i. To keep back; to hinder. [Obs.]
Back·warĻda¶tion (?), n. [Backward, v.i.+ Ļation.] (Stock Exchange) The seller's postponement of delivery of stock or shares, with the consent of the buyer, upon payment of a premium to the latter; - also, the premium so paid. See ’Contango.
Biddle.
Back¶wardĻly (?), adv. 1. Reluctantly; slowly; aversely. [Obs.]
Sir P.Sidney.
2. Perversely; ill.[Obs.]
And does he think so ’backwardly’ of me?
Shak.
Back¶wardĻness, n. The state of being backward.
Back¶wash· (?), v.i. To clean the oil from (wood) after combing.
Back¶wa·ter (?), n. [’Back, a. or adv. + ’Ļward.’] 1. Water turned back in its course by an obstruction, an opposing current , or the flow of the tide, as in a sewer or river channel, or across a river bar.
2. An accumulation of water overflowing the low lands, caused by an obstruction.
3. Water thrown back by the turning of a waterwheel, or by the paddle wheels of a steamer.
Back¶woods¶ (?), n. pl. [Back,’ a. + ’woods.] The forests or partly cleared grounds on the frontiers.
Back¶woods¶man (?), n.; pl. Backwoodsmen (?). A men living in the forest in or beyond the new settlements, especially on the western frontiers of the older portions of the United States.
Fisher Ames.
Back¶worm· (?), n. [2d ’back, n. + worm.’] A disease of hawks. See Filanders.
Wright.
Ba¶con (?), n. [OF. bacon, fr. OHG. bacho, bahho, flitch of bacon, ham; akin to E. back. ’Cf. ’Back the back side.] The back and sides of a pig salted and smoked; formerly, the flesh of a pig salted or fresh.
Bacon beetle (Zo”l.), a beetle (Dermestes lardarius) which, especially in the larval state, feeds upon bacon, woolens, furs, etc. See Dermestes. - To save one's bacon, to save one's self or property from harm or less. [Colloq.]
BaĻco¶niĻan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Lord Bacon, or to his system of philosophy.
Baconian method, the inductive method. See Induction.
BacĻte¶riĻa (?), n.p. See ’Bacterium.
BacĻte¶riĻal (?), a. (Biol.) Of or pertaining to bacteria.
BacĻte¶riĻci·dal (?), a. Destructive of bacteria.
BacĻte¶riĻcide (?), n. [’Bacterium ’+ L. ’caedere to kill] (Biol.) Same as Germicide.
BacĻte¶riĻoĻlog·icĻal (?), a. Of or pertaining to bacteriology; as, ’bacteriological ’studies.
BacĻte¶riĻol·oĻgist, n. One skilled in bacteriology.
BacĻte¶riĻol·oĻgy (?), n. [’Bacterium + Ļlogy.’] (Biol.) The science relating to bacteria.
BacĻte·riĻoĻscop¶ic (?), a. (Biol.) Relating to bacterioscopy; as, a ’bacterioscopic examination.
BacĻte·riĻos¶coĻpist (?), n. (Biol.) One skilled in bacterioscopic examinations.
BacĻte·riĻos¶coĻpy (?), n. [’Bacterium + Ļscopy’] (Biol.) The application of a knowledge of bacteria for their detection and identification, as in the examination of polluted water.
BacĻte¶riĻum (?), n.; pl. ’Bacteria (?). [NL., fr. Gr.?, ?, a staff: cf. F. bact‚rie.’] (Biol.) A microscopic vegetable organism, belonging to the class Alg‘, usually in the form of a jointed rodlike filament, and found in putrefying organic infusions. Bacteria are destitute of chlorophyll, and are the smallest of microscopic organisms. They are very widely diffused in nature, and multiply with marvelous rapidity, both by fission and by spores. Certain species are active agents in fermentation, while others appear to be the cause of certain infectious diseases. See ’Bacillus.
Bac¶teĻroid (?), Bac·teĻroid¶al (?),} a. [’Bacterium + Ļoid.] (Biol.) Resembling bacteria; as, bacteroid particles.
Bac¶triĻan (?), a. Of or pertaining to Bacteria in Asia. - n. A native of Bacteria.
Bactrian camel, the two-humped camel.
Bac¶ule (?), n. [F.] (Fort.) See ’Bascule.
Bac¶uĻline (?), a. [L. baculum staff.] Of or pertaining to the rod or punishment with the rod.
Bac¶uĻlite (?), n. [L. baculune stick, staff; cf. F. baculite.] (Paleon.) A cephalopod of the extinct genus Baculites, found fossil in the Cretaceous rocks. It is like an uncoiled ammonite.
Bac·uĻlom¶eĻtry (?), n. [L. baculum staff + Ļmetry] Measurement of distance or altitude by a staff or staffs.
Bad (?), imp. of Bid.’ Bade. [Obs.]
Dryden.
Bad (?), a. [Compar. Worse (?); ’superl. ’Worst (?).’] [Probably fr. AS. ’b‘ddel hermaphrodite; cf. b‘dling effeminate fellow.] Wanting good qualities, whether physical or moral; injurious, hurtful, inconvenient, offensive, painful, unfavorable, or defective, either physically or morally; evil; vicious; wicked; - the opposite of good; as a ’bad man; ’bad conduct; bad habits; bad soil; ’bad health; bad crop; bad news.
Sometimes used substantively.
The strong antipathy of good to ’bad.’
Pope.
Syn. - Pernicious; deleterious; noxious; baneful; injurious; hurtful; evil; vile; wretched; corrupt; wicked; vicious; imperfect.
Bad¶der (?), compar. of ’Bad, a.[Obs.]
Chaucer.
Bad¶derĻlocks (?), n. [Perh. for Balderlocks, ’fr. Balder the Scandinavian deity.] (Bot.) A large black seaweed (Alaria esculenta) sometimes eaten in Europe; - also called ’murlins, honeyware, ’and henware.
Bad¶dish, a. Somewhat bad; inferior.
Jeffrey.
Bade (?). A form of the pat tense of ’Bid.
Badge (?), n. [LL. bagea, bagia, ’sign, prob. of German origin; cf. AS. be g, be h, bracelet, collar, crown, OS ’b?g- in comp., AS. b?gan ’to bow, bend, G. ’biegen. See Bow to bend.] 1. A distinctive mark, token, sign, or cognizance, worn on the person; as, the ’badge of a society; the ’badge of a policeman. ½Tax gatherers, recognized by their official ’badges.’ø
Prescott.
2. Something characteristic; a mark; a token.
Sweet mercy is nobility's true ’badge.’
Shak.
3. (Naut.) A carved ornament on the stern of a vessel, containing a window or the representation of one.
Badge (?), v.t. To mark or distinguish with a badge.
Badge¶less, a. Having no badge.
Bp. Hall.
Badg¶er (?), n. [Of uncertain origin; perh. fr. an old verb ’badge to lay up provisions to sell again.] An itinerant licensed dealer in commodities used for food; a hawker; a huckster; - formerly applied especially to one who bought grain in one place and sold it in another. [Now dialectic, Eng.]
Badg¶er, n. [OE. bageard, prob. fr. badge + Ļard, in reference to the white mark on its forehead. See Badge,n.] 1. A carnivorous quadruped of the genus ’Meles or of an allied genus. It is a burrowing animal, with short, thick legs, and long claws on the fore feet. One species (M. vulgaris), called also brock, inhabits the north of Europe and Asia; another species (Taxidea Americana or Labradorica) inhabits the northern parts of North America. See ’Teledu.
2. A brush made of badgers' hair, used by artists.
Badger dog. (Zo”l.) See ’Dachshund.
Badg¶er, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Badgered (?);p. pr. & vb. n. Badgering.] [For sense 1, see 2d ’Badger; for 2, see 1st Badger.] 1. To tease or annoy, as a badger when baited; to worry or irritate persistently.
2. To beat down; to cheapen; to barter; to bargain.

Badg¶erĻer (?), n. 1. One who badgers.
2. A kind of dog used in badger baiting.
Badg¶erĻing, n. 1. The act of one who badgers.
2. The practice of buying wheat and other kinds of food in one place and selling them in another for a profit. [Prov. Eng.]
Badg¶erĻlegged· (?), a. Having legs of unequal length, as the badger was thought to have.
Shak.
ŲBad·iĻa¶ga (?), n. [Russ. badiaga.] (Zo”l.) A freshŠwater sponge (Spongilla), common in the north of Europe, the powder of which is used to take away the livid marks of bruises.
ŲBa¶diĻan (?), n. [F.badiane, fr. Per. b¾di¾n anise.] [Bot.] An evergreen Chinese shrub of the Magnolia family (Illicium anisatum), and its aromatic seeds; Chinese anise; star anise.
BaĻdi¶geon (?), n. [F.] A cement or paste (as of plaster and freestone, or of sawdust and glue or lime) used by sculptors, builders, and workers in wood or stone, to fill holes, cover defects, or finish a surface.
ŲBa·di·nage¶ (?),n. [F., fr. badiner to joke, OF. to trifle, be silly, fr. badin silly.] Playful raillery; banter. ½He ...indulged himself only in an elegant badinage.ø
Warbur?on.
Bad¶ lands¶ (?). Barren regions, especially in the western United States, where horizontal strata (Tertiary deposits) have been often eroded into fantastic forms, and much intersected by canons, and where lack of wood, water, and forage increases the difficulty of traversing the country, whence the name, first given by the Canadian French, Mauvaises Terres (bad lands).
Bad¶ly, adv. In a bad manner; poorly; not well; unskillfully; imperfectly; unfortunately; grievously; so as to cause harm; disagreeably; seriously.
µ Badly is often used colloquially for very much or very greatly, with words signifying to want or need.
Bad¶minĻton (?), n. [From the name of the seat of the Duke of Beaufort in England.] 1. A game, similar to lawn tennis, played with shuttlecocks.
2. A preparation of claret, spiced and sweetened.
Bad¶ness, n. The state of being bad.
ŲB‘¶noĻmere (?), n. [Gr. ? to walk + Šmere.] (Zo”l.) One of the somites (arthromeres) that make up the thorax of Arthropods.
Packard.
B‘¶noĻpod (?), n. [Gr. ? to walk + Špod.] (Zo”l.) One of the thoracic legs of Arthropods.
ŲB‘¶noĻsome (?), n. [Gr. ? to walk + Šsome body.] (Zo”l.) The thorax of Arthropods.
Packard.
Baff (?), n. A blow; a stroke. [Scot.]
H.Miller.
Baf¶fle (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Baffled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Baffling (?).] [Cf. Lowland Scotch bauchle to treat contemptuously, bauch tasteless, abashed, jaded, Icel. b¾gr uneasy, poor, or b¾gr, n., struggle, b‘gja to push, treat harshly, OF. beffler, beffer, to mock, deceive, dial. G. b„ppe mouth, beffen to bark, chide.]
1. To cause to undergo a disgraceful punishment, as a recreant knight. [Obs.]
He by the heels him hung upon a tree,
And baffled so, that all which passed by
The picture of his punishment might see.
Spenser.
2. To check by shifts and turns; to elude; to foil.
The art that baffles time's tyrannic claim.
Cowper.
3. To check by perplexing; to disconcert, frustrate, or defeat; to thwart. ½A baffled purpose.ø
De Quincey.
A suitable scripture ready to repel and baffle them all.
South.
Calculations so difficult as to have baffled, until within a ... recent period, the most enlightened nations.
Prescott.
The mere intricacy of a question should not baffle us.
Locke.
Baffling wind (Naut.), one that frequently shifts from one point to another.
Syn. Š To balk; thwart; foil; frustrate; defeat.
Baf¶fle, v.i. 1. To practice deceit. [Obs.]
Barrow.
2. To struggle against in vain; as, a ship baffles with the winds. [R.]
Baf¶fle, n. A defeat by artifice, shifts, and turns; discomfiture. [R.] ½A baffle to philosophy.ø
South.
Baf¶fleĻment (?), n. The process or act of baffling, or of being baffled; frustration; check.
Baf¶fler (?), n. One who, or that which, baffles.

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Baf¶fling (?), a. Frustrating; discomfiting; disconcerting; as, baffling currents, winds, tasks, Š
?
Baft (?). n. Same as Bafta.
Baf¶ta (?), n. [Cf. Per. baft. woven, wrought.] A coarse stuff, usually of cotton, originally made in India. Also, an imitation of this fabric made for export.
Bag (?), n. [OE. bagge; cf. Icel. baggi, and also OF. bague, bundle, LL. baga.] 1. A sack or pouch, used for holding anything; as, a bag of meal or of money.
2. A sac, or dependent gland, in animal bodies, containing some fluid or other substance; as, the bag of poison in the mouth of some serpents; the bag of a cow.
3. A sort of silken purse formerly tied about men's hair behind, by way of ornament. [Obs.]
4. The quantity of game bagged.
5. (Com.) A certain quantity of a commodity, such as it is customary to carry to market in a sack; as, a bag of pepper or hops; a bag of coffee.
Bag and baggage, all that belongs to one. Š To give one the bag, to disappoint him. [Obs.]
Bunyan.

Bag, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bagged(?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bagging] 1. To put into a bag; as, to bag hops.
2. To seize, capture, or entrap; as, to bag an army; to bag game.
3. To furnish or load with a bag or with a well filled bag.
A bee bagged with his honeyed venom.
Dryden.
Bag, v.i. 1. To swell or hang down like a full bag; as, the skin bags from containing morbid matter.
2. To swell with arrogance. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
3. To become pregnant. [Obs.]
Warner.(Alb.Eng.).
ŲBaĻgasse¶ (?), n. [F.] Sugar cane, as it ?omes crushed from the mill. It is then dried and used as fuel. Also extended to the refuse of beetroot sugar.
ŲBag·aĻtelle¶ (?), n. [F., fr. It. bagatella; cf. Prov. It. bagata trifle, OF. bague, Pr. bagua, bundle. See Bag, n.] 1. A trifle; a thing of no importance.
Rich trifles, serious bagatelles.
Prior.
2. A game played on an oblong board, having, at one end, cups or arches into or through which balls are to be driven by a rod held in the hand of the player.
Bag¶gage (?), n. [F. bagage, from OF. bague bungle. In senses 6 and 7 cf. F. bagasse a prostitute. See Bag, n.] 1. The clothes, tents, utensils, and provisions of an army.
µ ½The term itself is made to apply chiefly to articles of clothing and to small personal effects.ø
Farrow.
2. The trunks, valises, satchels, etc., which a traveler carries with him on a journey; luggage.
The baronet's baggage on the roof of the coach.
Thackeray.
We saw our baggage following below.
Johnson.
µ The English usually call this luggage.
3. Purulent matter. [Obs.]
Barrough.
4. Trashy talk. [Obs.]
Ascham.
5. A man of bad character. [Obs.]
Holland.
6. A woman of loose morals; a prostitute.
A disreputable, daring, laughing, painted French baggage.
Thackeray.
7. A romping, saucy girl. [Playful]
Goldsmith.
Bag¶gage mas·ter (?). One who has charge of the baggage at a railway station or upon a line of public travel. [U.S.]
Bag¶gaĻger (?), n. One who takes care of baggage; a camp follower. [Obs.]
Sir W.Raleigh.
ŲBag¶gaĻla (?), n. [Ar. ½fem. of baghl a mule.ø Balfour.] (Naut.) A twoŠmasted Arab or Indian trading vessel, used in Indian Ocean.
Bag¶giĻly (?), adv. In a loose, baggy way.
Bag¶ging, n. 1. Cloth or other material for bags.
2. The act of putting anything into, or as into, a bag.
3. The act of swelling; swelling.
Bag¶ging, n. [Etymol. uncertain.] Reaping peas, beans, wheat, etc., with a chopping stroke. [Eng.]
Bag¶gy (?), a. Resembling a bag; loose or puffed out, or pendent, like a bag; flabby; as, baggy trousers; baggy cheeks.
Bag¶man (?), n.; pl. Bagmen (?). A commercial traveler; one employed to solicit orders for manufacturers and tradesmen.
Thackeray.
Bag¶ net· (?). A bagŠshaped net for catching fish.
Bagn¶io (?), n. [It. bagno, fr. L. balneum. Cf. Bain.] 1. A house for bathing, sweating, etc.; Š also, in Turkey, a prison for slaves. [Obs.]
2. A brothel; a stew; a house of prostitution.
Bag¶pipe (?), n. A musical wind instrument, now used chiefly in the Highlands of Scotland.
µ It consists of a leather bag, which receives the air by a tube that is stopped by a valve; and three sounding pipes, into which the air is pressed by the performer. Two of these pipes produce fixed tones, namely, the bass, or key tone, and its fifth, and form together what is called the drone; the third, or chanter, gives the melody.
Bag¶pipe, v.t. To make to look like a bagpipe.
To bagpipe the mizzen (Naut.), to lay it aback by bringing the sheet to the mizzen rigging.
Totten.
Bag¶pip·er (?), n. One who plays on a bagpipe; a piper.
Shak.
Bag¶reef· (?), n. [Bag + reef.] (Naut.) The lower reef of fore and aft sails; also, the upper reef of topsails.
Ham. Nav. Encyc.
ŲBague (?), n. [F., a ring] (Arch.) The annular molding or group of moldings dividing a long shaft or clustered column into two or more parts.
BaĻguet¶, BaĻguette¶ } (?), n. [F. baguette, prop. a rod? It. bacchetta, fr. L. baculum, baculu? stick, staff.] 1. (Arch.) A small molding, like the astragal, but smaller; a bead.
2. (Zo”l) One of the minute bodies seen in the divided nucleoli of some Infusoria after conjugation.
Bag¶wig¶ (?), n. A wig, in use in the 18th century, with the hair at the back of the head in a bag.
Bag¶worm· (?), n. (Zo”l.) One of several lepidopterous insects which construct, in the larval state, a baglike case which they carry about for protection. One species (Plat?ceticus Gloveri) feeds on the orange tree. See Basket worm.
Bah’(?), interj. An exclamation expressive of extreme contempt.
TwentyŠfive years ago the vile ejaculation, Bah! was utterly unknown to the English public.
De Quincey.
ŲBaĻhar¶ (?), n. [Ar. bah¾r, from bahara to charge with a load.] A weight used in certain parts of the East Indies, varying considerably in different localities, the range being from 223 to 625 pounds.
Baigne (?), v.i. [F. baigner to bathe, fr. L. balneum bath.] To soak or drench. [Obs.]
Bail (?), n. [F. baille a bucket, pail; cf. LL. bacula, dim. of bacca a sort of vessel. Cf. Bac.] A bucket or scoop used in bailing water out of a boat. [Obs.]
The bail of a canoe ... made of a human skull.
Capt. Cook.
Bail, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bailed (?); p. pr. & vb.n. Bailing.] 1. To lade; to dip and throw; Š usually with out; as, to bail water out of a boat.
Buckets ... to bail out the water.
Capt. J. Smith.
2. To dip or lade water from; Š often with out to express completeness; as, to bail a boat.
By the help of a small bucket and our hats we bailed her out.
R.H.Dana, Jr.
Bail, v.?t. [OF. bailler to give, to deliver, fr. L. bajulare to bear a burden, keep in custody, fr. bajulus ? who bears burdens.] 1. To deliver; to release. [Obs.]
Ne none there was to rescue her, ne none to bail.
Spenser.
2. (Law) (a) To set free, or deliver from arrest, or out of custody, on the undertaking of some other person or persons that he or they will be responsible for the appearance, at a certain day and place, of the person bailed.
µ The word is applied to the magistrate or the surety. The magistrate bails (but admits to bail is commoner) a man when he liberates him from arrest or imprisonment upon bond given with sureties. The surety bails a person when he procures his release from arrest by giving bond for his appearance.
Blackstone.
(b) To deliver, as goods in trust, for some special object or purpose, upon a contract, expressed or implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed on the part of the bailee, or person intrusted; as, to bail cloth to a tailor to be made into a garment; to bail goods to a carrier.
Blackstone. Kent.
Bail, n. [OF. bail guardian, administrator, fr. L. bajulus. See Bail to deliver.] 1. Custody; keeping. [Obs.]
Silly Faunus now within their bail.
Spenser.
2. (Law) (a) The person or persons who procure the release of a prisoner from the custody of the officer, or from imprisonment, by becoming surely for his appearance in court.
The bail must be real, substantial bondsmen.
Blackstone.
A. and B. were bail to the arrest in a suit at law.
Kent.
(b) The security given for the appearance of a prisoner in order to obtain his release from custody of the officer; as, the man is out on bail; to go bail for any one.
Excessive bail ought not to be required.
Blackstone.
Bail, n. [OE. beyl; cf. Dan. b”ile an bending, ring, hoop, Sw. b”gel, bygel, and Icel. beyla hump, swelling, akin to E. bow to bend.] 1. The arched handle of a kettle, pail, or similar vessel, usually movable.
Forby.
2. A half hoop for supporting the cover of a carrier's wagon, awning of a boat, etc.
Bail, n. [OF. bail, baille. See Bailey.] 1. (Usually pl.) A line of palisades serving as an exterior defense. [Written also bayle.] [Obs.]
2. The outer wall of a feudal castle. Hence: The space inclosed by it; the outer court.
Holinshed.
3. A certain limit within a forest. [Eng.]
4. A division for the stalls of an open stable.
5. (Cricket) The top or cross piece ( or either of the two cross pieces) of the wicket.
Bail¶aĻble (?), a. 1. Having the right or privilege of being admitted to bail, upon bond with sureties; Š used of persons. ½He's bailable, I'm sure.ø
Ford.
2. Admitting of bail; as, a bailable offense.
3. That can be delivered in trust; as, bailable goods.
Bail¶ bond· (?). (Law) (a) A bond or obligation given by a prisoner and his surety, to insure the prisoner's appearance in court, at the return of the writ. (b) Special bail in court to abide the judgment.
Bouvier.
Bail·ee¶ (?), n. [OF. baill‚, p.p. of bailler. See Bail to deliver.] (Law) The person to whom goods are committed in trust, and who has a temporary possession and a qualified property in them, for the purposes of the trust.
Blackstone.
µ In penal statutes the word includes those who receive goods for another in good faith.
Wharton.
Bail¶er’(?), n. (Law) See Bailor.
Bail¶er, n. 1. One who bails or lades.
2. A utensil, as a bucket or cup, used in bailing; a machine for bailing water out of a pit.
Bai¶ley (?), n. [The same word as bail line of palisades; cf. LL. ballium bailey, OF. bail, baille, a palisade, baillier to inclose, shut.] 1. The outer wall of a feudal castle. [Obs.]
2. The space immediately within the outer wall of a castle or fortress. [Obs.]
3. A prison or court of justice; Š used in certain proper names; as, the Old Bailey in London; the New Bailey in Manchester. [Eng.]
Oxf. Gloss.
Bail¶ie (?), n. [See Bailiff.] An officer in Scotland, whose office formerly corresponded to that of sheriff, but now corresponds to that of an English alderman.
Bail¶iff (?), n. [OF. baillif, F. bailli, custodia? magistrate, fr. L. bajulus porter. See Bail to deliver.]
1. Originally, a person put in charge of something especially, a chief officer, magistrate, or keeper, as of a county, town, hundred, or castle; one to whom power? of custody or care are intrusted.
Abbott.
Lausanne is under the canton of Berne, governed by a bailiff sent every three years from the senate.
Addison.
2. (Eng. Law) A sheriff's deputy, appointed to make arrests, collect fines, summon juries, etc.
µ In American law the term bailiff is seldom used except sometimes to signify a sheriff's officer or constable, or a party liable to account to another for the rent and profits of real estate.
Burrill.
3. An overseer or under steward of an estate, who directs husbandry operations, collects rents, etc. [Eng.]
Bail¶iffĻwick (?), n. See Bailiwick. [Obs.]
Bail¶iĻwick (?), n. [Bailie, bailiff + wick a village.] (Law) The precincts within which a bailiff has jurisdiction; the limits of a bailiff's authority.
Bail¶lie (?), n. 1. Bailiff. [Obs.]
2. Same as Bailie. [Scot.]
Bail¶ment (?), n. 1. (Law) The action of bailing a person accused.
Bailment ...is the saving or delivery of a man out of prison before he hath satisfied the law.
Dalton.
2. (Law) A delivery of goods or money by one person to another in trust, for some special purpose, upon a contract, expressed or implied, that the trust shall be faithfully executed.
Blackstone.
µ In a general sense it is sometimes used as comprehending all duties in respect to property.
Story.
Bail·or¶ (?), n. (Law) One who delivers goods or money to another in trust.
Bail¶piece· (?), n. (Law) A piece of parchment, or paper, containing a recognizance or bail bond.
Bain (?), n. [F. bain, fr. L. balneum. Cf. Bagnio.] A bath; a bagnio. [Obs.]
Holland.
ŲBain·Ļma·rie¶ (?), n. [F.] A vessel for holding hot water in which another vessel may be heated without scorching its contents; Š used for warming or preparing food or pharmaceutical preparations.
ŲBai¶ram (?), n. [Turk. ba‹r¾m.] The name of two Mohammedan festivals, of which one is held at the close of the fast called Ramadan, and the other seventy days after the fast.
Bairn (?), n. [Scot. bairn, AS. bearn, fr. beran to bear; akin to Icel., OS., &Goth. barn. See Bear to support.] A child. [Scot. & Prov. Eng.]
Has he not well provided for the bairn !
Beau. & Fl.
Baise¶mains· (?), n. pl. [F., fr. baiser to kiss + mains hands.] Respects; compliments. [Obs.]
Bait (?), n. [Icel. beita food, beit pasture, akin to AS. b¾t food, Sw. bete. See Bait, v.i.] 1. Any substance, esp. food, used in catching fish, or other animals, by alluring them to a hook, snare, inclosure, or net.
2. Anything which allures; a lure; enticement; temptation.
Fairfax.
3. A portion of food or drink, as a refreshment taken on a journey; also, a stop for rest and refreshment.
4. A light or hasty luncheon.
Bait bug (Zo”l), a crustacea? of the genus Hippa found burrowing in sandy beaches. See Anomura.
Bait, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Baited; p. pr. & vb. n. Baiting.] [OE. baiten, beit?n, to feed, harass, fr. Icel. beita, orig. to cause to bite, fr. bĘta. ?87. See Bite.]
1. To provoke and harass; esp., to harass or torment for sport; as, to bait a bear with dogs; to bait a bull.
2. To give a portion of food and drink to, upon the road; as, to bait horses.

Holland.
3. To furnish or cover with bait, as a trap or hook.
A crooked pin ... bailed with a vile earthworm.
W.Irving.
Bait, v.i. To stop to take a portion of food and drink for refreshment of one's self or one's beasts, on a journey.
Evil news rides post, while good news baits.
Milton.
My lord's coach conveyed me to Bury, and thence baiting a? Newmarket.
Evelyn.
Bait, v.i. [F. battre de l'aile (or des ailes), to flap o? flutter. See Batter, v.i.] To flap the wings; to flutter as if to fly; or to hover, as a hawk when she stoops to her prey. ½Kites that bait and beat.ø
Shak.
Bait¶er (?), n. One who baits; a tormentor.
Baize (?), n. [For bayes, pl. fr. OF. baie; cf. F. bai bayŠcolored. See Bay a color.] A coarse woolen stuff with a long nap; Š usually dyed in plain colors.
A new black baize waistcoat lined with silk.
Pepys.
ŲBaĻjoc¶co (?), n. [It., fr. bajo brown, bay, from its color.] A small cooper coin formerly current in the Roman States, worth about a cent and a half.
Bake (?), v. t. [imp.& p.p. Baked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Baking.] [ AS. bacan; akin to D. bakken, OHG. bacchan, G. backen, Icel. & Sw. baca, Dan. bage, Gr. ? to roast.] 1. To prepare, as food, by cooking in a dry heat, either in an oven or under coals, or on heated stone or metal; as, to bake bread, meat, apples.
µ Baking is the term usually applied to that method of cooking which exhausts the moisture in food more than roasting or broiling; but the distinction of meaning between roasting and baking is not always observed.
2. To dry or harden (anything) by subjecting to heat, as, to bake bricks; the sun bakes the ground.
3. To harden by cold.
The earth ... is baked with frost.
Shak.
They bake their sides upon the cold, hard stone.
Spenser.
Bake, v.i. 1. To do the work of baking something; as, she brews, washes, and bakes.
Shak.
2. To be baked; to become dry and hard in heat; as, the bread bakes; the ground bakes in the hot sun.
Bake, n. The process, or result, of baking.
Bake¶house·’(?), n. [AS. b‘ch?s. See Bak?, v.i., and House.] A house for baking; a bakery.

<-- p. 113 -->

Bake¶meat· (?), Baked¶Ļmeat· (?), } n. A pie; baked food. [Obs.]
Gen. xl.17. Shak.
Bak¶en (?), p.p. of Bake. [Obs. or. Archaic]
Bak¶er (?), n. [AS. b‘cere. See Bake, v.i.] 1. One whose business it is to bake bread, biscuit, etc.
2. A portable oven in which baking is done. [U.S.]
A baker's dozen, thirteen. Š Baker foot, a distorted foot. [Obs.] Jer.Taylor. Š Baker's itch, a rash on the back of the hand, caused by the irritating properties of yeast. Š Baker's salt, the subcarbonate of ammonia, sometimes used instead of soda, in making bread.
Bak¶erŠlegged· (?), a. Having legs that bend inward at the knees.
Bak¶erĻy (?), n. 1. The trade of a baker. [R.]
2. The place for baking bread; a bakehouse.
Bak¶ing, n. 1. The act or process of cooking in an oven, or of drying and hardening by heat or cold.
2. The quantity baked at once; a batch; as, a baking of bread.
Baking powder, a substitute for yeast, usually consisting of an acid, a carbonate, and a little farinaceous matter.
Bak¶ingĻly, adv. In a hot or baking manner.
Bak¶isĻtre (?), n. [See Baxter.] A baker. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
ŲBak¶sheesh·, Bak¶shish· (?), n. Same as Backsheesh.
Ba¶laam (?), n. A paragraph describing something wonderful, used to fill out a newspaper column; Š an allusion to the miracle of Balaam's ass speaking. Numb. xxii.30. [Cant]
Balaam basket or box (Print.), the receptacle for rejected articles.
Black?. Mag.
ŲBal¶aĻchong (?), n. [Malay b¾lach¾n.] A condiment formed of small fishes or shrimps, pounded up with salt and spices, and then dried. It is much esteemed in China.
ŲBal·‘Ļnoi¶deĻa (?), n. [NL., from L. balaena whale + Šoid.] (Zo”l) A division of the Cetacea, including the right whale and all other whales having the mouth fringed with baleen. See Baleen.
Bal¶ance (?), n. [OE. balaunce, F. balance, fr. L. bilan?, bilancis, having two scales; bis twice (akin to E. two) + lanx plate, scale.] 1. An apparatus for weighing.
µ In its simplest form, a balance consists of a beam or lever supported exactly in the middle, having two scales or basins of equal weight suspended from its extremities. Another form is that of the Roman balance, our steelyard, consisting of a lever or beam, suspended near one of its extremities, on the longer arm of which a counterpoise slides. The name is also given to other forms of apparatus for weighing bodies, as to the combinations of levers making up platform scales; and even to devices for weighing by the elasticity of a spring.
2. Act of weighing mentally; comparison; estimate.
A fair balance of the advantages on either side.
Atterbury.
3. Equipoise between the weights in opposite scales.
4. The state of being in equipoise; equilibrium; even adjustment; steadiness.
And hung a bottle on each side
To make his balance true.
Cowper.
The order and balance of the country were destroyed.
Buckle.
English workmen completely lose their balance.
J. S. Mill.
5. An equality between the sums total of the two sides of an account; as, to bring one's accounts to a balance; Š also, the excess on either side; as, the balance of an account. ½ A balance at the banker's. ø
Thackeray.
I still think the balance of probabilities leans towards the account given in the text.
J. Peile.
6. (Horol.) A balance wheel, as of a watch, or clock. See Balance wheel (in the Vocabulary).
7. (Astron.) (a) The constellation Libra. (b) The seventh sign in the Zodiac, called Libra, which the sun enters at the equinox in September.
8. A movement in dancing. See Balance, v. i., S.
Balance electrometer, a kind of balance, with a poised beam, which indicates, by weights suspended from one arm, the mutual attraction of oppositely electrified surfaces. Knight. Š Balance fish. (Zo”l) See Hammerhead. Š Balance knife, a carving or table knife the handle of which overbalances the blade, and so keeps it from contact with the table. Š Balance of power. (Politics), such an adjustment of power among sovereign states that no one state is in a position to interfere with the independence of the others; international equilibrium; also, the ability ( of a state or a third party within a state) to control the relations between sovereign states or between dominant parties in a state. Š Balance sheet (Bookkeeping), a paper showing the balances of the open accounts of a business, the debit and credit balances footing up equally, if the system of accounts be complete and the balances correctly taken. Š Balance termometer, a termometer mounted as a balance so that the movement of the mercurial column changes the indication of the tube. With the aid of electrical or mechanical devices adapted to it, it is used for the automatic regulation of the temperature of rooms warmed artificially, and as a fire alarm. Š Balance of torsion. See Torsion Balance. Š Balance of trade (Pol. Econ.), an equilibrium between the money values of the exports and imports of a country; or more commonly, the amount required on one side or the other to make such an equilibrium. Š Balance valve, a valve whose surfaces are so arranged that the fluid pressure tending to seat, and that tending to unseat the valve, are nearly in equilibrium; esp., a puppet valve which is made to operate easily by the admission of steam to both sides. See Puppet valve. Š Hydrostatic balance. See under Hydrostatic. Š To lay in balance, to put up as a pledge or security. [Obs.] Chaucer. Š To strike a balance, to find out the difference between the debit and credit sides of an account.
Bal¶ance (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Balanced (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Balancing (?).] [From Balance, n.: cf. F. balancer. ] 1. To bring to an equipoise, as the scales of a balance by adjusting the weights; to weigh in a balance.
2. To support on a narrow base, so as to keep from falling; as, to balance a plate on the end of a cane; to balance one's self on a tight rope.
3. To equal in number, weight, force, or proportion; to counterpoise, counterbalance, counteract, or neutralize.
One expression ... must check and balance another.
Kent.
4. To compare in relative force, importance, value, etc.; to estimate.
Balance the good and evil of things.
L'Estrange.
5. To settle and adjust, as an account; to make two accounts equal by paying the difference between them.
I am very well satisfied that it is not in my power to balance accounts with my Maker.
Addison.
6. To make the sums of the debits and credits of an account equal; Š said of an item; as, this payment, or credit, balances the account.
7. To arrange accounts in such a way that the sum total of the debits is equal to the sum total of the credits; as, to balance a set of books.
8. (Dancing) To move toward, and then back from, reciprocally; as, to balance partners.
9. (Naut.) To contract, as a sail, into a narrower compass; as, to balance the boom mainsail.
Balanced valve. See Balance valve, under Balance, n.
Syn. Š To poise; weigh; adjust; counteract; neutralize; equalize.
Bal¶ance, v.i. 1. To have equal weight on each side; to be in equipoise; as, the scales balance.
2. To fluctuate between motives which appear of equal force; to waver; to hesitate.
He would not balance or err in the determination of his choice.
Locke.
3. (Dancing) To move toward a person or couple, and then back.
Bal¶anceĻaĻble (?), a. Such as can be balanced.
Bal¶anceĻment (?), n. The act or result of balancing or adjusting; equipoise; even adjustment of forces. [R.]
Darwin.
Bal¶anĻcer’(?), n. 1. One who balances, or uses a balance.
2. (Zo”l.) In Diptera, the rudimentary posterior wing.
Bal¶anceĻreef· (?), n. (Naut.) The last reef in a foreŠandŠaft sail, taken to steady the ship.
Bal¶ance wheel· (?). 1. (Horology) (a) A wheel which regulates the beats or pulses of a watch or chronometer, answering to the pendulum of a clock; Š often called simply a balance. (b) A ratchetŠshaped scape wheel, which in some watches is acted upon by the axis of the balance wheel proper (in those watches called a balance).
2. (Mach.) A wheel which imparts regularity to the movements of any engine or machine; a fly wheel.
Bal·aĻnif¶erĻous (?), a. [L. balanus acorn + Šferous.] Bearing or producing acorns.
Bal¶aĻnite (?), n. [L. balanus acorn: cf. F. balanite.] (Paleon.) A fossil balanoid shell.
ŲBal·aĻnoĻglos¶sus’(?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? acorn + ? tongue.] (Zo”l) A peculiar marine worm. See Enteropneusta, and Tornaria.
Bal¶aĻnoid (?), a. [Gr. ? acorn + Šoid.] (Zo”l.) Resembling an acorn; Š applied to a group of barnacles having shells shaped like acorns. See Acornshell, and Barnacle.
Bal¶as ru·by (?). [OE. bales, balais, F. balais, LL. balascus, fr. Ar. balakhsh, so called from Badakhshan, Balashan, or Balaxiam, a place in the neighborhood of Samarcand, where this ruby is found.] (Min.) A variety of spinel ruby, of a pale rose red, or inclining to orange. See Spinel.
BaĻlaus¶tine’(?), n. [L. balaustium, Gr. ?.] (Bot.) The pomegranate tree (Punica granatum). The bark of the root, the rind of the fruit, and the flowers are used medicinally.
BalĻbu¶tiĻate (?), BalĻbu¶ciĻnate’(?),} v.i. [L. balbutire, fr. balbus stammering: cf. F. balbutier.] To stammer. [Obs.]
ŲBalĻbu¶tiĻes’(?), n. (Med.) The defect of stammering; also, a kind of incomplete pronunciation.
Bal¶con’(?), n. A balcony. [Obs.]
Pepys.
Bal¶coĻnied’(?), a. Having balconies.
Bal¶coĻny (?), n.; pl. Balconies (?). [It. balcone; cf. It. balco, palco, scaffold, fr. OHG. balcho, pa?cho, beam, G. balken. See Balk beam.] 1. (Arch.) A platform projecting from the wall of a building, usually resting on brackets or consoles, and inclosed by a parapet; as, a balcony in front of a window. Also, a projecting gallery in places of amusement; as, the balcony in a theater.
2. A projecting gallery once common at the stern of large ships.
µ ½The accent has shifted from the second to the first syllable within these twenty years.ø
Smart (1836).
Bald (?), a. [OE. balled, ballid, perh. the p.p. of ball to reduce to the roundness or smoothness of a ball, by removing hair. ?85. But cf. W. bali whiteness in a horse's forehead.] 1. Destitute of the natural or common covering on the head or top, as of hair, feathers, foliage, trees, etc.; as, a bald head; a bald oak.
On the bald top of an eminence.
Wordsworth.
2. Destitute of ornament; unadorned; bare; literal.
In the preface to his own bald translation.
Dryden.
3. Undisguised. ½ Bald egotism.ø
Lowell.
4. Destitute of dignity or value; paltry; mean. [Obs.]
5. (Bot.) Destitute of a beard or awn; as, bald wheat.
6. (Zo”l.) (a) Destitute of the natural covering. (b) Marked with a white spot on the head; baldŠfaced.
Bald buzzard (Zo”l.), the fishhawk or osprey. Š Bald coot (Zo”l.), a name of the European coot (Fulica atra), alluding to the bare patch on the front of the head.
Bal¶daĻchin (?), n. [LL. baldachinus, baldechinus, a canopy of rich silk carried over the host; fr. Bagdad, It. Baldacco, a city in Turkish Asia from whence these rich silks came: cf. It. baldacchino. Cf. Baudekin.] 1. A rich brocade; baudekin. [Obs.]
2. (Arch.) A structure in form of a canopy, sometimes supported by columns, and sometimes suspended from the roof or projecting from the wall; generally placed over an altar; as, the baldachin in St. Peter's.
3. A portable canopy borne over shrines, etc., in procession.
[Written also baldachino, baldaquin, etc.]
Bald¶ ea¶gle (?). (Zo”l.) The whiteŠheaded eagle (Hali‘etus ?eucocephalus) of America. The young, until several years old, lack the white feathers on the head.
µ The bald eagle is represented in the coat of arms, and on the coins, of the United States.
Bal¶der (?), n. [Icel. Baldr, akin to E. bold.] (Scan. Myth.) The most beautiful and beloved of the gods; the god of peace; the son of Odin and Freya. [Written also Baldur.]
Bal¶derĻdash (?), n. [Of uncertain origin: cf. Dan. balder noise, clatter, and E. dash; hence, perhaps, unmeaning noise, then hodgepodge, mixture; or W. baldorduss a prattling, baldordd, baldorddi, to prattle.] 1. A worthless mixture, especially of liquors.
Indeed beer, by a mixture of wine, hath lost both name and nature, and is called balderdash.
Taylor (Drink and Welcome).
2. Senseless jargon; ribaldry; nonsense; trash.
Bal¶derĻdash (?), v.t. To mix or adulterate, as liquors.
The wine merchants of Nice brew and balderdash, and even
mix it with pigeon's dung and quicklime.
Smollett.
Bald¶Ļfaced· (?), a. Having a white face or a white mark on the face, as a stag.
Bald¶head·’(?), n. 1. A person whose head is bald.
2 Kings ii. 23.
2. (Zo”l.) A whiteŠheaded variety of pigeon.
Bald¶head·ed, a. Having a bald head.
Bald¶ly, adv. Nakedly; without reserve; inelegantly.
Bald¶ness, n. The state or condition of being bald; as, baldness of the head; baldness of style.
This gives to their syntax a peculiar character of simplicity and baldness.
W.D. Whitney.
Bald¶pate· (?), n. 1. A baldheaded person.
Shak.
2. (Zo”l.) The American widgeon (Anas Americana).
Bald¶pate· (?), Bald¶pat·ed (?), } a. Destitute of hair on the head; baldheaded.
Shak.
Bald¶rib· (?),n. A piece of pork cut lower down than the sparerib, and destitute of fat. [Eng.]
Southey.
Bal¶dric (?), n. [OE. baudric, bawdrik, through OF. (cf. F. baudrier and LL. baldringus, baldrellus), from OHG. balderich, cf. balz, palz, akin to E. belt. See Belt, n.] A broad belt, sometimes richly ornamented, worn over one shoulder, across the breast, and under the opposite arm; less properly, any belt. [Also spelt bawdrick.]
A radiant baldric o'er his shoulder tied
Sustained the sword that glittered at his side.
Pope.
Bald¶win (?), n. (Bot.) A kind of reddish, moderately acid, winter apple. [U.S.]
Bale (?), n. [OE. bale, OF. bale, F. balle, LL. bala, fr. OHG. balla, palla, pallo, G. ball, balle, ballen, ball round pack; cf. D. baal. Cf. Ball a round body.] A bundle or package of goods in a cloth cover, and corded for storage or transportation; also, a bundle of straw ? hay, etc., put up compactly for transportation.
Bale of dice, a pair of dice. [Obs.]
B. Jonson.
Bale, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Baled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Baling.] To make up in a bale.
Goldsmith.
Bale, v.t. See Bail, v.t., to lade.

<-- p. 114 -->

Bale (?), n. [AS. bealo, bealu, balu; akin to OS. ?alu, OHG. balo, Icel. b”l, Goth. balweins.] 1. Misery; ?alamity; misfortune; sorrow.
Let now your bliss be turned into bale.
Spenser.
2. Evil; an evil, pernicious influence; something causing great injury. [Now chiefly poetic]
Bal·eĻar¶ic (?), a. [L. Balearicus, fr. Gr. ? the Balearic Islands.] Of or pertaining to the isles of Majorca, Minorca, Ivica, etc., in the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Valencia.
Balearic crane. (Zo”l.) See Crane.
BaĻleen¶ (?), n. [F. baleine whale and whalibone, L. balaena a whale; cf. Gr. ?. ] (Zo”l. & Com.) Plates or blades of ½whalebone,ø from two to twelve feet long, and sometimes a foot wide, which in certain whales (Bal‘noidea) are attached side by side along the upper jaw, and form a fringelike sieve by which the food is retained in the mouth.
Bale¶fire· (?), n. [AS. b?lj?r the fire of the ?uneral pile; b?l fire, flame (akin to Icel. b¾l, OSlav. b?l?, white, Gr. ? bright, white, Skr. bh¾la brightness) + f?r, E. fire.] A signal fire; an alarm fire.
Sweet Teviot! on thy silver tide
The glaring balefires blaze no more.
Sir W. Scott.
Bale¶ful (?), a. [AS. bealoful. See Bale misery.] 1. Full of deadly or pernicious influence; destructive. ½Baleful enemies.ø
Shak.
Four infernal rivers that disgorge
Into the burning lake their baleful streams.
Milton.
2. Full of grief or sorrow; woeful; sad. [Archaic]
Bale¶fulĻly, adv. In a baleful manner; perniciously.
Bale¶fulĻness, n. The quality or state of being baleful.
ŲBal¶iĻsa·ur (?), n. [Hind.] (Zo”l.) A badgerlike animal of India (Arcionyx collaris).
Bal¶isĻter (?), n. [OF. balestre. See Ballista.] A crossbow. [Obs.]
Blount.
Bal¶isĻtoid (?), a. (Zo”l.) Like a fish of the genus Balistes; of the family Balistid‘. See Filefish.
ŲBal·isĻtra¶riĻa (?), n. [LL.] (Anc. Fort.) A narrow opening, often cruciform, through which arrows might be discharged.
ŲBaĻlize¶ (?), n. [F. balise; cf. Sp. balisa.] A pole or a frame raised as a sea beacon or a landmark.
Balk (?), n. [AS. balca beam, ridge; akin to Icel. b¾lkr partition, bj¾lki beam, OS. balko, G. balken; cf. Gael. balc ridge of earth between two furrows. Cf. Balcony, Balk, v.i., 3d Bulk.] 1. A ridge of land left unplowed between furrows, or at the end of a field; a piece missed by the plow slipping aside.
Bad plowmen made balks of such ground.
Fuller.
2. A great beam, rafter, or timber; esp., the tieŠbeam ?f a house. The loft above was called ½the balks.ø
Tubs hanging in the balks.
Chaucer.
3. (Mil.) One of the beams connecting the successive supports of a trestle bridge or bateau bridge.
4. A hindrance or disappointment; a check.
A balk to the confidence of the bold undertaker.
South.
5. A sudden and obstinate stop; a failure.
6. (Baseball) A deceptive gesture of the pitcher, as if to deliver the ball.
Balk line (Billiards), a line across a billiard table near one end, marking a limit within which the cue balls are placed in beginning a game; also, a line around the table, parallel to the sides, used in playing a particular game, called the balk line game.
Balk, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Balked (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Balking.] [From Balk a beam; orig. to put a balk or beam in one's way, in order to stop or hinder. Cf., for sense 2, AS. on balcan legan to lay in heaps.]
1. To leave or make balks in. [Obs.]
Gower.
2. To leave heaped up; to heap up in piles. [Obs.]
Ten thousand bold Scots, two and twenty knights,
Balk'd in their own blood did Sir Walter see.
Shak.
3. To omit, miss, or overlook by chance. [Obs.]
4. To miss intentionally; to avoid; to shun; to refuse; to let go by; to shirk. [Obs. or Obsolescent]
By reason of the contagion then in London, we balked the ?nns.
Evelyn.
Sick he is, and keeps his bed, and balks his meat.
Bp. Hall.
Nor doth he any creature balk,
But lays on all he meeteth.
Drayton.
5. To disappoint; to frustrate; to foil; to baffle; to ?hwart; as, to balk expectation.
They shall not balk my entrance.
Byron.
Balk, v.i. 1. To engage in contradiction; to be in opposition. [Obs.]
In strifeful terms with him to balk.
Spenser.
2. To stop abruptly and stand still obstinately; to jib; to stop short; to swerve; as, the horse balks.
µ This has been regarded as an Americanism, but it occurs in Spenser's ½Fa‰rie Queene,ø Book IV., 10, xxv.
Ne ever ought but of their true loves talkt,
Ne ever for rebuke or blame of any balkt.
Balk, v.i. [Prob. from D. balken to bray, bawl.] To indicate to fishermen, by shouts or signals from shore, the direction taken by the shoals of herring.
Balk¶er (?), n. [See 2d Balk.] One who, or that which balks.
Balk¶er (?), n. [See last Balk.] A person who stands on a rock or eminence to espy the shoals of herring, etc., and to give notice to the men in boats which way they pass; a conder; a huer.
Bale¶ingĻly, adv. In manner to balk or frustrate.
Balk¶ish, a. Uneven; ridgy. [R.]
Holinshed.
Balk¶y (?), a. Apt to balk; as, a balky horse.
Ball (?), n. [OE. bal, balle; akin to OHG. balla, palla, G. ball, Icel. b”llr, ball; cf. F. balle. Cf. 1st Bale, n., Pallmall.] 1. Any round or roundish body or mass; a sphere or globe; as, a ball of twine; a ball of snow.
2. A spherical body of any substance or size used to play with, as by throwing, knocking, kicking, etc.
3. A general name for games in which a ball is thrown, kicked, or knocked. See Baseball, and Football.
4. Any solid spherical, cylindrical, or conical projectile of lead or iron, to be discharged from a firearm; as, a cannon ball; a rif?e ball; Š often used collectively; as, powder and ball. Spherical balls for the smaller firearms are commonly called bullets.
5. (Pirotechnics & Mil.) A flaming, roundish body shot into the air; a case filled with combustibles intended to burst and give light or set fire, or to produce smoke or stench; as, a fire ball; a stink ball.
6. (Print.) A leatherŠcovered cushion, fastened to a handle called a ballstock; Š formerly used by printers for inking the form, but now superseded by the roller.
7. A roundish protuberant portion of some part of the body; as, the ball of the thumb; the ball of the foot.
8. (Far.) A large pill, a form in which medicine is commonly given to horses; a bolus.
White.
9. The globe or earth.
Pope.
Move round the dark terrestrial ball.
Addison.
Ball and socket joint, a joint in which a ball moves within a socket, so as to admit of motion in every direction within certain limits. Š Ball bearings, a mechanical device for lessening the friction of axle bearings by means of small loose metal balls. Š Ball cartridge, a cartridge containing a ball, as distinguished from a blank cartridge, containing only powder. Š Ball cock, a faucet or valve which is opened or closed by the fall or rise of a ball floating in water at the end of a lever. Š Ball gudgeon, a pivot of a spherical form, which permits lateral deflection of the arbor or shaft, while retaining the pivot in its socket. Knight. Š Ball lever, the lever used in a ball cock. Š Ball of the eye, the eye itself, as distinguished from its lids and socket; Š formerly, the pupil of the eye. Š Ball valve (Mach.), a contrivance by which a ball, placed in a circular cup with a hole in its bottom, operates as a valve. Š Ball vein (Mining), a sort of iron ore, found in loose masses of a globular form, containing sparkling particles. Š Three balls, or Three golden balls, a pawnbroker's sign or shop.
Syn.Š See Globe.
Ball, v.i. [imp. & p.p. Balled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Balling.] To gather balls which cling to the feet, as of damp snow or clay; to gather into balls; as, the horse balls; the snow balls.
Ball, v.t. 1. (Metal.) To heat in a furnace and form into balls for rolling.
2. To form or wind into a ball; as, to ball cotton.
Ball, n. [F. bal, fr. OF. baler to dance, fr. LL. ballare. Of uncertain origin; cf. Gr. ? to toss or throw, or ?, ?, to leap, bound, ? to dance, jump about; or cf. 1st Ball, n.] A social assembly for the purpose of dancing.
Bal¶lad (?), n. [OE. balade, OF. balade, F. ballade, fr. Pr. ballada a dancing song, fr. ballare to dance; cf. It. ballata. See 2d Ball, n., and Ballet.] A popular kind of narrative poem, adapted for recitation or singing; as, the ballad of Chevy Chase; esp., a sentimental or romantic poem in short stanzas.
Bal¶lad, v.i. To make or sing ballads. [Obs.]
Bal¶lad, v.t. To make mention of in ballads. [Obs.]
BalĻlade¶ (?), n. [See Ballad, n.] A form of French versification, sometimes imitated in English, in which three or four rhymes recur through three stanzas of eight or ten lines each, the stanzas concluding with a refrain, and the whole poem with an envoy.
Bal¶ladĻer (?), n. A writer of ballads.
Bal¶lad mon·ger (?). [See Monger.] A seller or maker of ballads; a poetaster.
Shak.
Bal¶ladĻry (?), n. [From Ballad, n. ] Ballad poems; the subject or style of ballads. ½Base balladry is so beloved.ø
Drayton.
Bal¶laĻhoo, Bal¶laĻhou } (?), n. A fastŠsailing schooner, used in the Bermudas and West Indies.
Bal¶laĻrag (?), v.i. [Corrupted fr. bullirag.] To bully; to threaten. [Low]
T. Warton.
Bal¶last (?), n. [D. ballast; akin to Dan. baglast, ballast, OSw. barlast, Sw. ballast. The first part is perh. the same word as E. bare, adj.; the second is last a burden, and hence the meaning a bare, or mere, load. See Bare, a., and Last load.] 1. (Naut.) Any heavy substance, as stone, iron, etc., put into the hold to sink a vessel in the water to such a depth as to prevent capsizing.
2. Any heavy matter put into the car of a balloon to give it steadiness.
3. Gravel, broken stone, etc., laid in the bed of a railroad to make it firm and solid.
4. The larger solids, as broken stone or gravel, used in making concrete.
5. Fig.: That which gives, or helps to maintain, uprightness, steadiness, and security.
It [piety] is the right ballast of prosperity.
Barrow.
Ballast engine, a steam engine used in excavating and for digging and raising stones and gravel for ballast. Š Ship in ballast, a ship carring only ballast.
Bal¶last, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Ballasted; p.pr. & vb.n. Ballasting.] 1. To steady, as a vessel, by putting heavy substances in the hold.
2. To fill in, as the bed of a railroad, with gravel, stone, etc., in order to make it firm and solid.
3. To keep steady; to steady, morally.
'T is charity must ballast the heart.
Hammond.

Bal¶lastĻage (?), n. (Law) A toll paid for the privilege of taking up ballast in a port or harbor.
Bal¶lastĻing, n. That which is used for steadying anything; ballast.
Bal¶laĻtry (?), n. See Balladry. [Obs.]
Milton.
ŲBal¶let· (?), n. [F., a dim. of bal dance. See 2d Ball, n.] 1. An artistic dance performed as a theatrical entertainment, or an interlude, by a number of persons, usually women. Sometimes, a scene accompanied by pantomime and dancing.
2. The company of persons who perform the ballet.
3. (Mus.) A light part song, or madrigal, with a fa la burden or chorus, Š most common with the Elizabethan madrigal composers.
4. (Her.) A bearing in coats of arms, representing one or more balls, which are denominated bezants, plates, etc., according to color.
Ball¶Ļflow·er (?), n. (Arch.) An ornament resembling a ball placed in a circular flower, the petals of which form a cup round it, Š usually inserted in a hollow molding.
ŲBalĻlis¶ta’(?), n.; pl. Ballist?e (?). [L. ballista, balista, fr. Gr. ? to throw.] An ancient military engine, in the form of a crossbow, used for hurling large missiles.
Bal¶lisĻter (?), n. [L. ballista. Cf. Balister.] A crossbow. [Obs.]
BalĻlis¶tic (?), a. 1. Of or pertaining to the ballista, or to the art of hurling stones or missile weapons by means of an engine.
2. Pertaining to projection, or to a projectile.
Ballistic pendulum, an instrument consisting of a mass of wood or other material suspended as a pendulum, for measuring the force and velocity of projectiles by means of the arc through which their impact impels it.
BalĻlis¶tics (?), n. [Cf. F. balistique. See Ballista.] The science or art of hurling missile weapons by the use of an engine.
Whewell.
ŲBal¶liĻum’(?),n. [LL.] See Bailey.
BalĻloon¶’(?), n. [F. ballon, aug. of balle ball: cf. It. ballone. See 1st Ball, n., and cf. Pallone.] 1. A bag made of silk or other light material, and filled with hydrogen gas or heated air, so as to rise and float in the atmosphere; especially, one with a car attached for a‰rial navigation.
2. (Arch.) A ball or globe on the top of a pillar, church, etc., as at St. Paul's, in London. [R.]
3. (Chem.) A round vessel, usually with a short neck, to hold or receive whatever is distilled; a glass vessel of a spherical form.
4. (Pyrotechnics) A bomb or shell. [Obs.]
5. A game played with a large inf?ated ball. [Obs.]
6. (Engraving) The outline inclosing words represented as coming from the mouth of a pictured figure.
Air balloon, a balloon for a‰rial navigation. Š Balloon frame (Carp.), a house frame constructed altogether of small timber. Š Balloon net, a variety of woven lace in which the weft threads are twisted in a peculiar manner around the warp.
BalĻloon¶, v.t. To take up in, or as if in, a balloon.
BalĻloon¶, v.i. 1. To go up or voyage in a balloon.
2. To expand, or puff out, like a balloon.
BalĻlooned¶ (?),a. Swelled out like a balloon.
BalĻloon¶er (?), n. One who goes up in a balloon; an a‰ronaut.
BalĻloon¶ fish· (?). (Zo”l.) A fish of the genus Diodon or the genus Tetraodon, having the power of distending its body by taking air or water into its dilatable esophagus. See Globefish, and Bur fish.
BalĻloon¶ing, n. 1. The art or practice of managing balloons or voyaging in them.
2. (Stock Exchange) The process of temporarily raising the value of a stock, as by fictitious sales. [U.S.]
BalĻloon¶ing spi¶der (?). (Zo”l.) A spider which has the habit of rising into the air. Many kinds ( esp. species of Lycosa) do this while young by ejecting threads of silk until the force of the wind upon them carries the spider aloft.
BalĻloon¶ist, n. An a‰ronaut.
BalĻloon¶ry’(?), n. The art or practice of ascending in a balloon; a‰ronautics.
Bal¶lot (?), n. [F. ballotte, fr. It. ballotta. See Ball round body.]
1. Originally, a ball used for secret voting. Hence: Any printed or written ticket used in voting.
2. The act of voting by balls or written or printed ballots or tickets; the system of voting secretly by balls or by tickets.
The insufficiency of the ballot.
Dickens.

<-- p. 115 -->

3. The whole number of votes cast at an election, or in a given territory or electoral district.
Ballot box, a box for receiving ballots.
Bal¶lot (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Balloted; p.pr. & vb. n. Balloting.] [F. ballotter to toss, to ballot, or It. ballottare. See Ballot, n.] To vote or decide by ballot; as, to ballot for a candidate.
Bal¶lot, v.t. To vote for or in opposition to.
None of the competitors arriving to a sufficient number of balls, they fell to ballot some others.
Sir H. Wotton.
Bal¶loĻtade· (?), n. [F. ballottade, fr. ballotter to toss. See Ballot, v.i.] (Man.) A leap of a horse, as between two pillars, or upon a straight line, so that when his four feet are in the air, he shows only the shoes of his hind feet, without jerking out.
Bal·loĻta¶tion (?), n. Voting by ballot. [Obs.]
Sir H. Wotton.
Bal¶lotĻer (?), n. One who votes by ballot.
Bal¶loĻtin (?),n. [F.] An officer who has charge of a ballot box. [Obs.]
Harrington.
Bal¶low (?),n. A cudgel. [Obs.]
Shak.
Ball¶proof· (?), a. Incapable of being penetrated by balls from firearms.
Ball¶room· (?), n. A room for balls or dancing.
Balm (?), n. [OE. baume, OF. bausme, basme, F. baume, L. balsamum balsam, from Gr. ?; perhaps of Semitic origin; cf. Heb. b¾s¾m. Cf. Balsam.]
1. (Bot.) An aromatic plant of the genus Melissa.
2. The resinous and aromatic exudation of certain trees or shrubs.
Dryden.
3. Any fragrant ointment.
Shak.
4. Anything that heals or that mitigates pain. ½Balm for each ill.ø
Mrs. Hemans.
Balm cricket (Zo”l.), the European cicada. Tennyson. Š Balm of Gilead (Bot.), a small evergreen African and Asiatic tree of the terebinthine family (Balsamodendron Gileadense). Its leaves yield, when bruised, a strong aromatic scent; and from this tree is obtained the balm of Gilead of the shops, or balsam of Mecca. This has a yellowish or greenish color, a warm, bitterish, aromatic taste, and a fragrant smell. It is valued as an unguent and cosmetic by the Turks. The fragrant herb Dracocephalum Canariense is familiarly called balm of Gilead, and so are the American trees, Populus balsamifera, variety candicans (balsam poplar), and Abies balsamea (balsam fir).
Balm, v.i. To anoint with balm, or with anything medicinal. Hence: To soothe; to mitigate. [Archaic]
Shak.
Balm¶iĻfy (?), v. t. [Balm + Šfy.] To render balmy. [Obs.]
Cheyne.
Balm¶iĻly, adv. In a balmy manner.
Coleridge.
BalĻmor¶al (?), n. [From Balmoral Castle, in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.] 1. A long woolen petticoat, worn immediately under the dress.
2. A kind of stout walking shoe, laced in front.
A man who uses his balmorals to tread on your toes.
George Eliot.
Balm¶y (?), a. 1. Having the qualities of balm; odoriferous; aromatic; assuaging; soothing; refreshing; mild. ½The balmy breeze.ø
Tickell.
Tired nature's sweet restorer, balmy sleep !
Young.
2. Producing balm. ½The balmy tree.ø
Pope.
Syn. Š Fragrant; sweetŠscented; odorous; spicy.
Bal¶neĻal’(?), a. [L. balneum bath.] Of or pertaining to a bath.
Howell.
Bal¶neĻaĻry (?), n. [L. balnearium, fr. balneum bath.] A bathing room.
Sir T. Browne.
Bal·neĻa¶tion (?), n. [LL. balneare to bathe, fr. L. balneum bath.] The act of bathing. [R.]
Bal¶neĻaĻtoĻry (?), a. [L. balneatorius.] Belonging to a bath. [Obs.]
Bal·neĻog¶raĻphy (?), n. [L. balneum bath + Šgraphy.] A description of baths.
Bal·neĻol¶oĻgy (?), n. [L. balneum bath + Šlogy.] A treatise on baths; the science of bathing.
Bal·neĻoĻther¶aĻpy (?), n. [L. balneum bath + Gr. ? to heal.] The treatment of disease by baths.
Bal¶oĻtade· (?), n. See Ballotade.
ŲBal¶sa (?), n. [Sp. or Pg. balsa.] (Naut.) A raft or float, used principally on the Pacific coast of South America.
Bal¶sam (?), n. [L. balsamum the balsam tree or its resin, Gr. ?. See Balm, n.] 1. A resin containing more or less of an essential o? volatile oil.
µ The balsams are aromatic resinous substances, flowing spontaneously r by incision from certain plants. A great variety of substances pass under this name, but the term is now usually restricted to resins which, in addition to a volatile oil, contain benzoic and cinnamic acid. Among the true balsams are the balm of Gilead, and the balsams of copaiba, Peru, and Tolu. There are also many pharmaceutical preparations and resinous substances, possessed of a balsamic smell, to which the name balsam has been given.
2. (Bot.) (a) A species of tree (Abies balsamea). (b) An annual garden plant (Impatiens balsamina) with beautiful flowers; balsamine.
3. Anything that heals, soothes, or restores.
Was not the people's blessing a balsam to thy blood?
Tennyson.
Balsam apple (Bot.), an East Indian plant ( Momordica balsamina), of the gourd family, with red or orangeŠyellow cucumberŠshaped fruit of the size of a walnut, used as a vulnerary, and in liniments and poultices. ŠBalsam fir (Bot.), the American coniferous tree, Abies balsamea, from which the useful Canada balsam is derived. Š Balsam of copaiba. See Copaiba. Š Balsam of Mecca, balm of Gilead. Š Balsam of Peru, a reddish brown, syrupy balsam, obtained from a Central American tree ( Myroxylon Pereir‘ and used as a stomachic and expectorant, and in the treatment of ulcers, etc. It was long supposed to be a product of Peru. Š Balsam of Tolu, a reddish or yellowish brown semisolid or solid balsam, obtained from a South American tree ( Myxoxylon toluiferum.). It is highly fragrant, and is used as a stomachic and expectorant. Š Balsam tree, any tree from which balsam is obtained, esp. the Abies balsamea. Š Canada balsam, Balsam of fir, Canada turpentine, a yellowish, viscid liquid, which, by time and exposure, becomes a transparent solid mass. It is obtained from the balm of Gilead (or balsam) fir (Abies balsamea) by breaking the vesicles upon the trunk and branches. See Balm.
Bal¶sam (?), v.t. To treat or anoint with balsam; to relieve, as with balsam; to render balsamic.
Bal·samĻa¶tion’(?), n. 1. The act of imparting balsamic properties.
2. The art or process of embalming.
BalĻsam¶ic’(?), BalĻsam¶icĻal’(?), } a. [Cf. F. balsamique.] Having the qualities of balsam; containing, or resembling, balsam; soft; mitigative; soothing; restorative.
Bal·samĻif¶erĻous (?), a. [Balsam + Šferous.] Producing balsam.
Bal¶samĻine’(?), n. [Cf. F. balsamine, fr. Gr. ? balsam plant.] (Bot.) The Impatiens balsamina, or garden balsam.
Bal¶samĻous (?), a. Having the quality of balsam; containing balsam. ½A balsamous substance.ø
Sterne.
Bal¶ter’(?), v. t. [Etymol. uncertain. Cf. Bloodboltered.] To stick together.[Obs.]
Holland.
Bal¶tic (?), a. [NL. mare Balticum, fr. L. balteus belt, from certain straits or channels surrounding its isles, called belts. See Belt.] Of or pertaining to the sea which separates Norway and Sweden from Jutland, Denmark, and Germany; situated on the Baltic Sea.
Bal¶tiĻmore bird· (?). Bal¶tiĻmore o¶riĻole’(?). } (Zo”l.) A common American bird (Icterus galbula), named after Lord Baltimore, because its colors (black and orange red) are like those of his coat of arms; Š called also golden robin.
Bal¶usĻter (?), n. [F. balustre, It. balaustro, fr. L. balaustium the flower of the wild pomegranate, fr. Gr. ?; Š so named from the similarity of form.] (Arch.) A row of balusters topped by a rail, serving as an open parapet, as along the edge of a balcony, terrace, bridge, staircase, or the eaves of a building.
Bam (?), n. [Prob. a contr. of bamboozle.] An imposition; a cheat; a hoax.
Garrick.
To relieve the tedium? he kept plying them with all manner of bams.
Prof. Wilson.
Bam, v.t. To cheat; to wheedle. [Slang]
Foote.
ŲBamĻbi¶no’(?), n. [It., a little boy, fr. bambo silly; cf. Gr. ?, ?, to chatter.] A child or baby; esp., a representation in art of the infant Christ wrapped in swaddling clothes.
BamĻboc·ciĻade¶’(?), n. [It. bambocciata, fr. Bamboccio a nickname of Peter Van Laer, a Dutch genre painter; properly, a child, simpleton, puppet, fr. bambo silly.] (Paint.) A representation of a grotesque scene from common or rustic life.
BamĻboo¶ (?), n. [Malay bambu, mambu.] (Bot.) A plant of the family of grasses, and genus Bambusa, growing in tropical countries.
µ The most useful species is Bambusa arundinacea, which has a woody, hollow, round, straight, jointed stem, and grows to the height of forty feet and upward. The flowers grow in large panicles, from the joints of the stalk, placed three in a parcel, close to their receptacles. Old stalks grow to five or six inches in diameter, and are so hard and durable as to be used for building, and for all sorts of furniture, for water pipes, and for poles to support palanquins. The smaller stalks are used for walking sticks, flutes, etc.
BamĻboo¶, v.t. To flog with the bamboo.
BamĻboo¶zle (?), v.t. [Imp. & p.p. Bamboozled (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bamboozling’(?).] [Said to be of Gipsy origin.] To deceive by trickery; to cajole by confusing the senses; to hoax; to mystify; to humbug. [Colloq.]
Addison.
What oriental tomfoolery is bamboozling you?
J.H.Newman.
BamĻboo¶zler (?), n. A swindler; one who deceives by trickery. [Colloq.]
Arbuthnot.
ŲBan (?), n. [AS. bann command, edict; akin to D. ban, Icel. bann, Dan. band, OHG. ban, G. bann, a public proclamation, as of interdiction or excommunication, Gr. ? to say, L. fari to speak, Skr. bhan to speak; cf. F. ban, LL. bannum, of G. origin. ?. Cf. Abandon, Fame.] 1. A public proclamation or edict; a public order or notice, mandatory or prohibitory; a summons by public proclamation.
2. (Feudal & Mil.) A calling together of the king's (esp. the French king's) vassals for military service; also, the body of vassals thus assembled or summoned. In present usage, in France and Prussia, the most effective part of the population liable to military duty and not in the standing army.
3. pl. Notice of a proposed marriage, proclaimed in church. See Banns (the common spelling in this sense).
4. An interdiction, prohibition, or proscription. ½Under ban to touch.ø
Milton.
5. A curse or anathema. ½Hecate's ban.ø
Shak.
6. A pecuniary mulct or penalty laid upon a delinquent for offending against a ban; as, a mulct paid to a bishop by one guilty of sacrilege or other crimes.
Ban of the empire (German Hist.), an imperial interdict by which political rights and privileges, as those of a prince, city, or district, were taken away.
Ban, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Banned (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Banning.] [OE. bannen, bannien, to summon, curse, AS. bannan to summon; akin to Dan. bande, forbande, to curse, Sw. banna to revile, bannas to curse. See Ban an edict, and cf. Banish.] 1. To curse; to invoke evil upon.
Sir W. Scott.
2. To forbid; to interdict.
Byron.
Ban, v.i. To curse; to swear. [Obs.]
Spenser.
Ban, n. [Serv. ban; cf. Russ. & Pol. pan a master? lord, Per. ban.] An ancient title of the warden of the eastern marches of Hungary; now, a title of the viceroy of Croatia and Slavonia.
Ban¶al’(?), a. [F., fr. ban an ordinance.] Commonplace; trivial; hackneyed; trite.
BaĻnal¶iĻty (?), n.; pl. Banalities (?). [F. banalit‚. See Banal.] Something commonplace, hackneyed, or trivial; the commonplace, in speech.
The highest things were thus brought down to the banalities of discourse.
J. Morley.
BaĻna¶na (?), n. [Sp. banana, name of the fruit.] (Bot.) A perennial herbaceous plant of almost treelike size (Musa sapientum); also, its edible fruit. See Musa.
µ The banana has a soft, herbaceous stalk, with leaves of great length and breadth. The flowers grow in bunches, covered with a sheath of a green or purple color; the fruit is five or six inches long, and over an inch in diameter; the pulp is soft, and of a luscious taste, and is eaten either raw or cooked. This plant is a native of tropical countries, and furnishes an important article of food.
Banana bird (Zo”l.), a small American bird (Icterus leucopteryx), which feeds on the banana. Š Banana quit (Zo”l.), a small bird of tropical America, of the genus Certhiola, allied to the creepers.
Ban¶at (?), n. [Cf. F. & G. banat. See Ban a warden.] The territory governed by a ban.
Banc (?), ŲBan¶cus (?), Bank (?), } n. [OF. banc, LL. bancus. See Bank, n.] A bench; a high seat, or seat of distinction or judgment; a tribunal or court.
In banc, In banco (the ablative of bancus), In bank, in full court, or with full judicial authority; as, sittings in banc (distinguished from sittings at nini prius).
ŲBan¶co (?), n. [It. See Bank.] A bank, especially that of Venice.
µ This term is used in some parts of Europe to indicate bank money, as distinguished from the current money, when this last has become depreciated.
Band’(?), n. [OE. band, bond, Icel. band; akin to G., Sw., & D. band, OHG. bant, Goth. banti, Skr. bandha a binding, bandh to bind, for bhanda, bhandh, also to E. bend, bind. In sense 7, at least, it is fr. F. bande, from OHG. bant. ? See Bind, v.t., and cf. Bend, Bond, 1st Bandy.] 1. A fillet, strap, or any narrow ligament with which a thing is encircled, or fastened, or by which a number of things are tied, bound together, or confined; a fetter.
Every one's bands were loosed.
Acis xvi 26.
2. (Arch.) (a) A continuous tablet, stripe, or series of ornaments, as of carved foliage, of color, or of brickwork, etc. (b) In Gothic architecture, the molding, or suite of moldings, which encircles the pillars and small shafts.
3. That which serves as the means of union or connection between persons; a tie. ½To join in Hymen's bands.ø
Shak.
4. A linen collar or ruff worn in the 16th and 17th centuries.
5. pl. Two strips of linen hanging from the neck in front as part of a clerical, legal, or academic dress.
6. A narrow strip of cloth or other material on any article of dress, to bind, strengthen, ornament, or complete it. ½Band and gusset and seam.ø
Hood.

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7. A company of persons united in any common design, especially a body of armed men.
Troops of horsemen with his bands of foot.
Shak.
8. A number of musicians who play together upon portable musical instruments, especially those making a loud sound, as certain wind instruments (trumpets, clarinets, etc.), and drums, or cymbals.
9. (Bot.) A space between elevated lines or ribs, as of the fruits of umbelliferous plants.
10. (Zo”l.) A stripe, streak, or other mark transverse to the axis of the body.
11. (Mech.) A belt or strap.
12. A bond [Obs.] ½Thy oath and band.ø
Shak.
13. Pledge; security. [Obs.]
Spenser.
Band saw, a saw in the form of an endless steel belt, with teeth on one edge, running over wheels.
Band (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Banded; p.pr. & vb.n. Banding.] 1. To bind or tie with a band.
2. To mark with a band.
3. To unite in a troop, company, or confederacy. ½Banded against his throne.ø
Milton.
Banded architrave, pier, shaft, etc. (Arch.), an architrave, pier, etc., of which the regular profile is interrupted by blocks or projections crossing it at right angles.
Band, v.i. To confederate for some common purpose; to unite; to conspire together.
Certain of the Jews banded together.
Acts xxiii. 12.
Band, v.t. To bandy; to drive away. [Obs.]
Band, imp. of Bind. [Obs.]
Band¶age (?), n. [F. bandage, fr. bande. See Band.] 1. A fillet or strip of woven material, used in dressing and binding up wounds, etc.
2. Something resembling a bandage; that which is bound over or round something to cover, strengthen, or compress it; a ligature.
Zeal too had a place among the rest, with a bandage over her eyes.
Addison.
Band¶age, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bandaged (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bandaging (?).] To bind, dress, or cover, with a bandage; as, to bandage the eyes.
ŲBanĻda¶la (?), n. A fabric made in Manilla from the older leaf sheaths of the abaca (Musa textilis).
BanĻdan¶na, BanĻdan¶a } (?), n. [Hind. b¾ndhn? a mode of dyeing in which the cloth is tied in different places so as to prevent the parts tied from receiving the dye. Cf. Band, n.] 1. A species of silk or cotton handkerchief, having a uniformly dyed ground, usually of red or blue, with white or yellow figures of a circular, lozenge, or other simple form.
2. A style of calico printing, in which white or bright spots are produced upon cloth previously dyed of a uniform red or dark color, by discharging portions of the color by chemical means, while the rest of the cloth is under pressure.
Ure.
Band¶box·’(?), n. A light box of pasteboard or thin wood, usually cylindrical, for holding ruffs (the bands of the 17th century), collars, caps, bonnets, etc.
ŲBan¶deau’(?), n.; pl. Bandeaux’(?). [F.] A narrow band or fillet; a part of a headŠdress.
Around the edge of this cap was a stiff bandeau of leather.
Sir W.Scott.
Band¶eĻlet (?), Band¶let’(?), n. [F. bandelette, dim. of bande. See Band, n., and ch. Bendlet.] (Arch.) A small band or fillet; any little band or flat molding, compassing a column, like a ring.
Gwilt.
Band¶er (?), n. One banded with others. [R.]
Band¶eĻrole (?), Band¶rol’(?), n. [F. banderole, dim. of bandiŠre, banniŠre, banner; cf. It. banderuola a little banner. See Banner.] A little banner, flag, or streamer. [Written also bannerol.]
From the extremity of which fluttered a small banderole or streamer bearing a cross.
Sir W. Scott.
Band¶ fish· (?). (Zo”l.) A small red fish of the genus Cepola; the ribbon fish.
Ban¶diĻcoot (?), n. [A corruption of the native name.] (Zo”l.) (a) A species of very large rat (Mus giganteus), found in India and Ceylon. It does much injury to rice fields and gardens. (b) A ratlike marsupial animal (genus Perameles) of several species, found in Australia and Tasmania.
Band¶ing plane· (?). A plane used for cutting out grooves and inlaying strings and bands in straight and circular work.
Ban¶dit (?), n.; pl.Bandits (?), or Banditti (?). [It. bandito outlaw, p.p. of bandire to proclaim, to banish, to proscribe, LL. bandire, bannire. See Ban an edict, and cf. Banish.] An outlaw; a brigand.
No savage fierce, bandit, or mountaineer.
Milton.
µ The plural banditti was formerly used as a collective noun.
Deerstealers are ever a desperate banditti.
Sir W. Scott.
Ban¶dle (?),n. [Ir. bannlamh cubit, fr. bann a measure + lamh hand, arm.] An Irish measure of two feet in length.
Band¶let (?),n. Same as Bandelet.
Band¶mas·ter (?), n. The conductor of a musical band.
Ban¶dog· (?),n. [Band + dog, i.e., bound dog.] A mastiff or other large and fierce dog, usually kept chained or tied up.
The keeper entered leading his bandog, a large bloodhound, tied in a leam, or band, from which he takes his name.
Sir W. Scott.
Ban·doĻleer¶, Ban·doĻlier¶ (?), n. [ F. bandouliŠre (cf.It. bandoliera, Sp.bandolera), fr.F. bande band, Sp.&It. banda. See Band, n.] 1. A broad leather belt formerly worn by soldiers over the right shoulder and across the breast under the left arm. Originally it was used for supporting the musket and twelve cases for charges, but later only as a cartridge belt.
2. One of the leather or wooden cases in which the charges of powder were carried. [Obs.]
Ban¶doĻline (?), n. [Perh. allied to band.] A glutinous pomatum for the fair.
Ban¶don (?), n. [OF. bandon. See Abandon.] Disposal; control; license. [Obs.]
Rom. of R.
Ban¶dore (?), n. [Sp. bandurria, fr. L. pandura, pandurium, a musical instrument of three strings, fr. Gr. ?. Cf. Pandore, Banjo, Mandolin.] A musical stringed instrument, similar in form to a guitar; a pandore.
Band¶rol (?), n. Same as Banderole.
Ban¶dy (?), n. [Telugu bandi.] A carriage or cart used in India, esp. one drawn by bullocks.
Ban¶dy, n. pl. Bandies (?). [Cf. F. band‚, p.p. of bander to bind, to bend (a bow), to bandy, fr. bande. See Band, n.] 1. A club bent at the lower part for striking a ball at play; a hockey stick.
Johnson.
2. The game played with such a club; hockey; shinney; bandy ball.
Ban¶dy, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bandied (?); p.pr. & vb.n. Bandying.] 1. To beat to and fro, as a ball in playing at bandy.
Like tennis balls bandied and struck upon us ... by rackets from without.
Cudworth.
2. To give and receive reciprocally; to exchange. ½To bandy hasty words.ø
Shak.
3. To toss about, as from man to man; to agitate.
Let not obvious and known truth be bandied about in a disputation.
I. Watts.
Ban¶dy, v.i. To content, as at some game in which each strives to drive the ball his own way.
Fit to bandy with thy lawless sons.
Shak.
Ban¶dy, a. Bent; crooked; curved laterally, esp. with the convex side outward; as, a bandy leg.
Ban¶dyŠlegged· (?), a. Having crooked legs.
Bane (?), n. [OE. bane destruction, AS. bana murderer; akin to Icel. bani death, murderer, OHG. bana murder, bano murderer, ? murder, OIr. bath death, benim I strike. ?.] 1. That which destroys life, esp. poison of a deadly quality. [Obs. except in combination, as in ratsbane, henbane, etc.]
2. Destruction; death. [Obs.]
The cup of deception spiced and tempered to their bane.
Milton.
3. Any cause of ruin, or lasting injury; harm; woe.
Money, thou bane of bliss, and source of woe.
Herbert.
4. A disease in sheep, commonly termed the rot.
Syn. Š Poison; ruin; destruction; injury; pest.
Bane, v.t. To be the bane of; to ruin. [Obs.]
Fuller.
Bane¶ber·ry (?), n.(Bot.) A genus (Act‘a) of plants, of the order Ranunculace‘, native in the north temperate zone. The red or white berries are poisonous.
Bane¶ful (?), a. Having poisonous qualities; deadly; destructive; injurious; noxious; pernicious. ½Baneful hemlock.ø Garth. ½Baneful wrath.ø ? Chapman.
?ŠBane¶fulĻly, adv.ŠBane¶fulĻness, n.
Bane¶wort (?), n. (Bot.) Deadly nightshade.
Bang (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Banged; p.pr. & vb.n. Banging.] [Icel. banga to hammer; akin to Dan. banke to beat, Sw.b†ngas to be impetuous, G. bengel club, clapper of a bell.] 1. To beat, as with a club or cudgel; to treat with violence; to handle roughly.
The desperate tempest hath so banged the Turks.
Shak.
2. To beat or thump, or to cause ( something) to hit or strike against another object, in such a way as to make a loud noise; as, to bang a drum or a piano; to bang a door (against the doorpost or casing) in shutting it.
Bang, v.i. To make a loud noise, as if with a blow or succession of blows; as, the window blind banged and waked me; he was banging on the piano.
Bang, n. 1. A blow as with a club; a heavy blow.
Many a stiff thwack, many a bang.
Hudibras.
2. The sound produced by a sudden concussion.
Bang, v.t. To cut squarely across, as the tail of a hors, or the forelock of human beings; to cut (the hair).
His hair banged even with his eyebrows.
The Century Mag.
Bang, n. The short, front hair combed down over the forehead, esp. when cut squarely across; a false front of hair similarly worn.
His hair cut in front like a young lady's bang.
W. D. Howells.
Bang, Bangue (?), n. See Bhang.
Bang¶ing, a. Huge; great in size. [Colloq.]
Forby.
Ban¶gle (?), v.t. [From 1st Bang.] To waste by little and little; to fritter away. [Obs.]
Ban¶gle, n. [Hind. bangrĘ bracelet, bangle.] An ornamental circlet, of glass, gold, silver, or other material, worn by women in India and Africa, and in some other countries, upon the wrist or ankle; a ring bracelet.
Bangle ear, a loose hanging ear of a horse, like that of a spaniel.
Ban¶ian (?),n. [Skr. banij merchant. The tree was so named by the English, because used as a market place by the merchants.] 1. A Hindoo trader, merchant, cashier, or money changer. [Written also banyan.]
2. A man's loose gown, like that worn by the Banians.
3. (Bot.) The Indian fig. See Banyan.
Banian days (Naut.), days in which the sailors have no flesh meat served out to them. This use seems to be borrowed from the Banians or Banya race, who eat no flesh.
Ban¶ish (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Banished(?); p.pr. & vb.n. Banishing.] [OF. banir, F. bannir, LL. bannire, fr. OHG. bannan to summon, fr. ban ban. See Ban an edict, and Finish, v.t.] 1. To condemn to exile, or compel to leave one's country, by authority of the ruling power. ½We banish you our territories.ø
Shak.
2. To drive out, as from a home or familiar place; Š used with from and out of.
How the ancient Celtic tongue came to be banished from the Low Countries in Scotland.
Blair.
3. To drive away; to compel to depart; to dispel. ½Banish all offense.ø
Shak.
Syn. Š To Banish, Exile, Expel. The idea of a coercive removal from a place is common to these terms. A man is banished when he is forced by the government of a country (be he a foreigner or a native) to leave its borders. A man is exiled when he is driven into banishment from his native country and home. Thus to exile is to banish, but to banish is not always to exile. To expel is to eject or banish, summarily or authoritatively, and usually under circumstances of disgrace; as, to expel from a college; expelled from decent society.
Ban¶ishĻer (?), n. One who banishes.
Ban¶ishĻment (?), n. [Cf. F. bannissement.] The act of banishing, or the state of being banished.
He secured himself by the banishment of his enemies.
Johnson.
Round the wide world in banishment we roam.
Dryden.
Syn. Š Expatriation; ostracism; expulsion; proscription; exile; outlawry.
Ban¶isĻter (?),n. [Formerly also banjore and banjer; corrupted from bandore, through negro slave pronunciation.] A stringed musical instrument having a head and neck like the guitar, and its body like a tambourine. It has five strings, and is played with the fingers and hands.
Bank (?), n. [OE. banke; akin to E. bench, and prob. of Scand. origin.; cf. Icel. bakki. See Bench.] 1. A mound, pile, or ridge of earth, raised above the surrounding level; hence, anything shaped like a mound or ridge of earth; as, a bank of clouds; a bank of snow.
They cast up a bank against the city.
2 Sam. xx. 15.
2. A steep acclivity, as the slope of a hill, or the side of a ravine.
3. The margin of a watercourse; the rising ground bordering a lake, river, or sea, or forming the edge of a cutting, or other hollow.
Tiber trembled underneath her banks.
Shak.
4. An elevation, or rising ground, under the sea; a shoal, shelf, or shallow; as, the banks of Newfoundland.
5. (Mining) (a) The face of the coal at which miner? are working. (b) A deposit of ore or coal, worked by excavations above water level. (c) The ground at the top of a shaft; as, ores are brought to bank.
Bank beaver (Zo”l.), the otter. [Local, U.S.] Š Bank swallow, a small American and European swallow (Clivicola riparia) that nests in a hole which it excavates in a bank.
Bank, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Banked(?); p.pr. & vb.n. Banking.] 1. To raise a mound or dike about; to inclose, defend, or fortify with a bank; to embank. ½Banked well with earth.ø
Holland.
2. To heap or pile up; as, to bank sand.
3. To pass by the banks of. [Obs.]
Shak.
To bank a fire, To bank up a fire, to cover the coals or embers with ashes or cinders, thus keeping the fire low but alive.
Bank, n. [Prob. fr. F. banc. Of German origin, and akin to E. bench. See Bench.] 1. A bench, as for rowers in a galley; also, a tier of oars.
Placed on their banks, the lusty Trojan sweep
Neptune's smooth face, and cleave the yielding deep.
Waller.
2. (Law) (a) The bench or seat upon which the judges sit. (b) The regular term of a court of law, or the full court sitting to hear arguments upon questions of law, as distinguished from a sitting at Nisi Prius, or a court held for jury trials. See Banc.
Burrill.
3. (Printing) A sort of table used by printers.
4. (Music) A bench, or row of keys belonging to a keyboard, as in an organ.
Knight.
Bank, n. [F. banque, It. banca, orig. bench, table, counter, of German origin, and akin to E. bench; cf. G. bank bench, OHG. banch. See Bench, and cf. Banco, Beach.] 1. An establishment for the custody, loan, exchange, or issue, of money, and for facilitating the transmission of funds by drafts or bills of exchange; an institution incorporated for performing one or more of such functions, or the stockholders (or their representatives, the directors), acting in their corporate capacity.
2. The building or office used for banking purposes.
3. A fund from deposits or contributions, to be used in transacting business; a joint stock or capital. [Obs.]
Let it be no bank or common stock, but every man be master of his own money.
Bacon.
4. (Gaming) The sum of money or the checks which the dealer or banker has as a fund, from which to draw his stakes and pay his losses.
5. In certain games, as dominos, a fund of pieces from which the players are allowed to draw.
Bank credit, a credit by which a person who has give? the required security to a bank has liberty to draw to ? certain extent agreed upon. Š Bank of deposit, a bank which receives money for safe keeping. Š Bank of issue, a bank which issues its own notes payable to bearer.
Bank, v.t. To deposit in a bank.
Bank, v.i. 1. To keep a bank; to carry on the business of a banker.

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2. To deposit money in a bank; to have an account with a banker.
Bank¶aĻble (?), a. Receivable at a bank.
Bank¶ bill·(?). 1. In America ( and formerly in England), a promissory note of a bank payable to the bearer on demand, and used as currency; a bank note.
2. In England, a note, or a bill of exchange, of a bank, payable to order, and usually at some future specified time. Such bills are negotiable, but form, in the strict sense of the term, no part of the currency.
Bank¶ book· (?). A book kept by a depositor, in which an officer of a bank enters the debits and credits of the depositor's account with the bank.
Bank¶er (?), n.[ See the nouns Bank and the verbs derived from them.] 1. One who conducts the business of banking; one who, individually, or as a member of a company, keeps an establishment for the deposit or loan of money, or for traffic in money, bills of exchange, etc.
2. A money changer. [Obs.]
3. The dealer, or one who keeps the bank in a gambling house.
4. A vessel employed in the cod fishery on the banks of Newfoundland.
Grabb. J.Q. Adams.
5. A ditcher; a drain digger. [Prov. Eng.]
6. The stone bench on which masons cut or square their work.
Weale.
Bank¶erĻess (?), n. A female banker.
Thackeray.
Bank¶ing, n. The business of a bank or of a banker.
Banking house, an establishment or office in which, or a firm by whom, banking is done.
Bank¶ note· (?). 1. A promissory note issued by a bank or banking company, payable to bearer on demand.
µ In the United States popularly called a bank bill.
2. Formerly, a promissory note made by a banker, or banking company, payable to a specified person at a fixed date; a bank bill. See Bank bill, 2. [Obs.]
3. A promissory note payable at a bank.
Bank¶rupt’(?), n. [F. banqueroute, fr. It. bancarotta bankruptcy; banca bank (fr. OHG. banch, G. bank, bench) + rotta broken, fr. L. ruptus, p.p. of rumpere to break. At Florence, it is said, the bankrupt had his bench ( i.e., money table) broken. See 1st Bank, and Rupture, n.] 1. (Old Eng. Low) A trader who secretes himself, or does certain other acts tending to defraud his creditors.
Blackstone.
2. A trader who becomes unable to pay his debts; an insolvent trader; popularly, any person who is unable to pay his debts; an insolvent person.
M?Culloch.
3. (Law) A person who, in accordance with the terms of a law relating to bankruptcy, has been judicially declared to be unable to meet his liabilities.
µ In England, until the year 1861 none but a ½traderø could be made a bankrupt; a nonŠtrader failing to meet his liabilities being an ½insolventø. But this distinction was abolished by the Bankruptcy Act of 1861. The laws of 1841 and 1867 of the United States relating to bankruptcy applied this designation bankrupt to others besides those engaged in trade.
Bank¶rupt, a. 1. Being a bankrupt or in a condition of bankruptcy; unable to pay, or legally discharged from paying, one's debts; as, a bankrupt merchant.
2. Depleted of money; not having the means of meeting pecuniary liabilities; as, a bankrupt treasury.
3. Relating to bankrupts and bankruptcy.
4. Destitute of, or wholly wanting (something once possessed, or something one should possess). ½Bankrupt in gratitude.ø
Sheridan.
Bankrupt law, a law by which the property of a person who is unable or unwilling to pay his debts may be taken and distributed to his creditors, and by which a person who has made a full surrender of his property, and is free from fraud, may be discharged from the legal obligation of his debts. See Insolvent, a.
Bank¶rupt, v.t. [imp. & p. p. Bankrupted; p. pr. & vb.n. Bankrupting.] To make bankrupt; to bring financial ruin upon; to impoverish.
Bank¶ruptĻcy (?), n.; pl. Bankruptcies(?).
1. The state of being actually or legally bankrupt.
2. The act or process of becoming a bankrupt.
3. Complete loss; Š followed by of.
Bank¶side·(?), n. The slope of a bank, especially of the bank of a steam.
Bank¶Ļsid·ed(?), a. (Naut.) Having sides inclining inwards, as a ship; Š opposed to wallŠsided.
Bank¶ swal¶low (?). See under 1st Bank, n.
ŲBan¶liĻeue· (?), n. [F., fr. LL. bannum leucae, banleuca; bannum jurisdiction + leuca league.]
The territory without the walls, but within the legal limits, of a town or city.
Brande & C.
Ban¶ner (?), n. [OE. banere, OF. baniere, F. banniŠre, bandiŠre, fr. LL. baniera, banderia, fr. bandum banner, fr. OHG. bant band, strip of cloth; cf. bindan to bind, Goth. bandwa, bandwo, a sign. See Band, n.] 1. A kind of flag attached to a spear or pike by a crosspiece, and used by a chief as his standard in battle.
Hang out our banners on the outward walls.
Shak.
2. A large piece of silk or other cloth, with a device or motto, extended on a crosspiece, and borne in a procession, or suspended in some conspicuous place.
3. Any flag or standard; as, the starŠspangled banner.
Banner fish (Zo”l.), a large fish of the genus Histiophorus, of the Swordfish family, having a broad bannerlike dorsal fin; the sailfish. One species (H. Americanus) inhabits the North Atlantic.
Ban¶nered (?), a. Furnished with, or bearing, banners. ½A bannered host.ø
Milton.
Ban¶nerĻet (?), n.[ OE. baneret, OF. baneret, F. banneret; properly a dim. of OF. baniere. See Banner.]
1. Originally, a knight who led his vassals into the field under his own banner; Š commonly used as a title of rank.
2. A title of rank, conferred for heroic deeds, and hence, an order of knighthood; also, the person bearing such title or rank.
µ The usual mode of conferring the rank on the field of battle was by cutting or tearing off the point of the pennon or pointed flag on the spear of the candidate, thereby making it a banner.
3. A civil officer in some Swiss cantons.
4. A small banner.
Shak.
Ban¶nerĻol (?), n. A banderole; esp. a banner displayed at a funeral procession and set over the tomb. See Banderole.
BanĻni¶tion (?), n. [LL. bannitio. See Banish.] The act of expulsion.[Obs.]
Abp. Laud.
Ban¶nock (?), n. [Gael. bonnach.] A kind of cake or bread, in shape flat and roundish, commonly made of oatmeal or barley meal and baked on an iron plate, or griddle; Š used in Scotland and the northern counties of England.
Jamieson.
Bannock fluke, the turbot. [Scot.]
Banns (?), n. pl. [See Ban.] Notice of a proposed marriage, proclaimed in a church, or other place prescribed by law, in order that any person may object, if he knows of just cause why the marriage should not take place.
Ban¶quet (?), n. [F., a feast, prop. a dim. of banc bench; cf. It. banchetto, dim. of banco a bench, counter. See Bank a bench, and cf. Banquette.] 1. A feast; a sumptuous entertainment of eating and drinking; often, a complimentary or ceremonious feast, followed by speeches.
2. A dessert; a course of sweetmeats; a sweetmeat or sweetmeats. [Obs.]
We'll dine in the great room, but let the music
And banquet be prepared here.
Massinger.
Ban¶quet,v.t. [imp. & p.p. Banqueted; p. pr. & vb.n. Banqueting.] To treat with a banquet or sumptuous entertainment of food; to feast.
Just in time to banquet
The illustrious company assembled there.
Coleridge.

Ban¶quet, v.i. 1. To regale one's self with good eating and drinking; to feast.
Were it a draught for Juno when she banquets,
I would not taste thy treasonous offer.
Milton.
2. To partake of a dessert after a feast. [Obs.]
Where they did both sup and banquet.
Cavendish.
Ban¶quetĻter (?), n. One who banquets; one who feasts or makes feasts.
BanĻquette¶ (?), n. [F. See Banquet, n.] 1. (Fort.) A raised way or foot bank, running along the inside of a parapet, on which musketeers stand to fire upon the enemy.
2. (Arch.) A narrow window seat; a raised shelf at the back or the top of a buffet or dresser.
Ban¶shee, Ban¶shie (?), n. [ Gael. beanŠshith fairy; Gael. & Ir. bean woman + Gael. sith fairy.] A supernatural being supposed by the Irish and Scotch peasantry to warn a family of the speedy death of one of its members, by wailing or singing in a mournful voice under the windows of the house.
Ban¶stic·kle (?), n. [OE. ban, bon, bone + stickle prickle, sting. See Bone, n., Stickleback.] (Zo”l.) A small fish, the threeŠspined stickleback.
Ban¶tam (?), n. A variety of small barnyard fowl, with feathered legs, probably brought from Bantam, a district of Java.
Ban¶tam work·. Carved and painted work in imitation of Japan ware.
ŲBan¶teng (?), n. (Zo”l.) The wild ox of Java (Bibos Banteng).
Ban¶ter (?), v.t. [ imp. & p.p. Bantered(?); p. pr. & vb.n. Bantering.] [Prob. corrupted fr. F. badiner to joke, or perh. fr. E. bandy to beat to and fro. See Badinage, and cf. Barter fr. OF. barater.]
1. To address playful goodŠnatured ridicule to, Š the person addressed, or something pertaining to him, being the subject of the jesting; to rally; as, he bantered me about my credulity.
HagŠridden by my own fancy all night, and then bantered on
my haggard looks the next day.
W. Irving.
2. To jest about; to ridicule in speaking of, as some trait, habit, characteristic, and the like. [Archaic]
If they banter your regularity, order, and love of study, banter in return their neglect of them.
Chatham.
3. To delude or trick, Š esp. by way of jest. [Obs.]
We diverted ourselves with bantering several poor scholars
with hopes of being at least his lordship's chaplain.
De Foe.
4. To challenge or defy to a match. [Colloq. Southern and Western U.S.]
Ban¶ter, n. The act of bantering; joking or jesting; humorous or goodŠhumored raillery; pleasantry.
Part banter, part affection.
Tennyson.
Ban¶terĻer (?), n. One who banters or rallies.
Ban¶tingĻism (?), n. A method of reducing corpulence by avoiding food containing much farinaceous, saccharine, or oily matter; Š so called from William Banting of London.
Bant¶ling (?), n. [Prob. for bandling, from band, and meaning a child wrapped in swaddling bands; or cf. G. b„ntling a bastard, fr. bank bench. Cf. Bastard, n.] A young or small child; an infant. [Slightly contemptuous or depreciatory.]
In what out of the way corners genius produces her bantlings.
W. Irving.
Banx¶ring (?), n.(Zo”l.) An East Indian insectivorous mammal of the genus Tupaia.
Ban¶yan (?), n. [See Banian.] (Bot.) A tree of the same genus as the common fig, and called the Indian fig ( Ficus Indica), whose branches send shoots to the ground, which take root and become additional trunks, until it may be the tree covers some acres of ground and is able to shelter thousands of men.
Ba¶oĻbab (?), n. [The native name.] (Bot.) A gigantic African tree ( Adansonia digitata), also naturalized in India. See Adansonia.
Baph¶oĻmet (?), n.[ A corruption of Mahomet or Mohammed, the Arabian prophet: cf. Pr. Bafomet, OSp. Mafomat, OPg. Mafameda.] An idol or symbolical figure which the Templars were accused of using in their mysterious rites.
Bap¶tism (?), n. [OE. baptim, baptem, OE. baptesme, batisme, F. baptˆme, L. baptisma, fr. Gr. ?, fr. ? to baptize, fr. ? to dip in water, akin to ? deep, Skr. g¾h to dip, bathe, v.i.] The act of baptizing; the application of water to a person, as a sacrament or religious ceremony, by which he is initiated into the visible church of Christ. This is performed by immersion, sprinkling, or pouring.
BapĻtis¶mal (?), a. [Cf. F. baptismal.] Pertaining to baptism; as, baptismal vows.
Baptismal name, the Christian name, which is given at baptism.
BapĻtis¶malĻly, adv. In a baptismal manner.
Bap¶tist (?), n. [L. baptista, G. ?]
1. One who administers baptism; Š specifically applied to John, the forerunner of Christ.
Milton.
2. One of a denomination of Christians who deny the validity of infant baptism and of sprinkling, and maintain that baptism should be administered to believers alone, and should be by immersion. See Anabaptist.
? In doctrine the Baptists of this country [the United States] are Calvinistic, but with much freedom and moderation.
Amer. Cyc.
Freewill Baptists, a sect of Baptists who are Arminian in doctrine, and practice open communion. Š SeventhŠday Baptists, a sect of Baptists who keep the seventh day of the week, or Saturday, as the Sabbath. See Sabbatarian. The Dunkers and Campbellites are also Baptists.
Bap¶tisĻterĻy (?),Bap¶tisĻtry(?), n.; pl. Baptisteries (?), Ļtries (?). [L. baptisterium, Gr. ?: cf. F. baptistŠre.] (Arch.) (a) In early times, a separate building, usually polygonal, used for baptismal services. Small churches were often changed into baptisteries when larger churches were built near. (b) A part of a church containing a font and used for baptismal services.
BapĻtis¶tic (?), a. [Gr. ?] Of or for baptism; baptismal.
BapĻtis¶ticĻal(?), a. Baptistic. [R.]
BapĻtiz¶aĻble(?), a. Capable of being baptized; fit to be baptized.
Baxter.
Bap·tiĻza¶tion(?), n. Baptism. [Obs.]
Their baptizations were null.
Jer. Taylor.
BapĻtize¶ (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Baptized (?); p. pr. & vb.n. Baptizing.] [F. baptiser, L. baptizare, fr.Gr. ?. See Baptism.] 1.To administer the sacrament of baptism to.
2. To christen ( because a name is given to infants at their baptism); to give a name to; to name.
I'll be new baptized;
Henceforth I never will be Romeo.
Shak.
3. To sanctify; to consecrate.
BapĻtize¶ment (?),n. The act of baptizing.[R.]
BapĻtiz¶er(?), n. One who baptizes.
Bar (?), n. [OE. barre, F. barre, fr. LL. barra, W. bar the branch of a tree, bar, baren branch, Gael. & Ir. barra bar. ? 91.] 1. A piece of wood, metal, or other material, long in proportion to its breadth or thickness, used as a lever and for various other purposes, but especially for a hindrance, obstruction, or fastening; as, the bars of a fence or gate; the bar of a door.
Thou shalt make bars of shittim wood.
Ex. xxvi. 26.
2. An indefinite quantity of some substance, so shaped as to be long in proportion to its breadth and thickness; as, a bar of gold or of lead; a bar of soap.
3. Anything which obstructs, hinders, or prevents; an obstruction; a barrier.
Must I new bars to my own joy create?
Dryden.

<-- p. 118 -->

4. A bank of sand, gravel, or other matter, esp. at the mouth of a river or harbor, obstructing navigation.
5. Any railing that divides a room, or office, or hall of assembly, in order to reserve a space for those having special privileges; as, the bar of the House of Commons.
6. (Law) (a) The railing that incloses the place which counsel occupy in courts of justice. Hence, the phrase at the bar of the court signifies in open court. (b) The place in court where prisoners are stationed for arraignment, trial, or sentence. (c) The whole body of lawyers licensed in a court or district; the legal profession. (d) A special plea constituting a sufficient answer to plaintiff's action.
7. Any tribunal; as, the bar of public opinion; the bar of God.
8. A barrier or counter, over which liquors and food are passed to customers; hence, the portion of the room behind the counter where liquors for sale are kept.
9. (Her.) An ordinary, like a fess but narrower, occupying only one fifth part of the field.
10. A broad shaft, or band, or stripe; as, a bar of light; a bar of color.
11. (Mus.) A vertical line across the staff. Bars divide the staff into spaces which represent measures, and are themselves called measures.
µ A double bar marks the end of a strain or main division of a movement, or of a whole piece of music; in psalmody, it marks the end of a line of poetry. The term bar is very often loosely used for measure, i.e., for such length of music, or of silence, as is included between one bar and the next; as, a passage of eight bars; two bars' rest.
12. (Far.) pl. (a) The space between the tusks and grinders in the upper jaw of a horse, in which the bit is placed. (b) The part of the crust of a horse's hoof which is bent inwards towards the frog at the heel on each side, and extends into the center of the sole.
13. (Mining) (a) A drilling or tamping rod. (b) A vein or dike crossing a lode.
14. (Arch.) (a) A gatehouse of a castle or fortified town. (b) A slender strip of wood which divides and supports the glass of a window; a sash bar.
Bar shoe (Far.), a kind of horseshoe having a bar across the usual opening at the heel, to protect a tender frog from injury. Š Bar shot, a double headed shot, consisting of a bar, with a ball or half ball at each end; Šformerly used for destroying the masts or rigging in naval combat. Š Bar sinister (Her.), a term popularly but erroneously used for baton, a mark of illegitimacy. See Baton. Š Bar tracery (Arch.), ornamental stonework resembling bars of iron twisted into the forms required. Š Blank bar (Law). See Blank. Š Case at bar (Law), a case presently before the court; a case under argument. Š In bar of, as a sufficient reason against; to prevent. Š Matter in bar, or Defence in bar, a plea which is a final defense in an action. Š Plea in bar, a plea which goes to bar or defeat the plaintiff's action absolutely and entirely. Š Trial at bar ( Eng. Law), a trial before all the judges of one the superior courts of Westminster, or before a quorum representing the full court.
Bar (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Barred (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Barring.] [ F. barrer. See Bar, n.] 1. To fasten with a bar; as, to bar a door or gate.
2. To restrict or confine, as if by a bar; to hinder; to obstruct; to prevent; to prohibit; as, to bar the entrance of evil; distance bars our intercourse; the statute bars my right; the right is barred by time; a release bars the plaintiff's recovery; Š sometimes with up.
He barely looked the idea in the face, and hastened to bar it in its dungeon.
Hawthorne.
3. To except; to exclude by exception.
Nay, but I bar toŠnight: you shall not gauge me
By what we do toŠnight.
Shak.
4. To cross with one or more stripes or lines.
For the sake of distinguishing the feet more clearly, I have
barred them singly.
Burney.
Barb(?), n. [F. barbe, fr. L. barba beard. See Beard, n.] 1. Beard, or that which resembles it, or grows in the place of it.
The barbel, so called by reason of his barbs, or wattles in his mouth.
Walton.
2. A muff?er, worn by nuns and mourners. [Obs.]
3. pl. Paps, or little projections, of the mucous membrane, which mark the opening of the submaxillary glands under the tongue in horses and cattle. The name is mostly applied when the barbs are inflamed and swollen. [Written also barbel and barble.]
4. The point that stands backward in an arrow, fishhook, etc., to prevent it from being easily extracted. Hence: Anything which stands out with a sharp point obliquely or crosswise to something else. ½Having two barbs or points.ø
Ascham.
5. A bit for a horse. [Obs.]
Spenser.
6. (Zo”l.) One of the side branches of a feather, which collectively constitute the vane. See Feather.
7. (Zo”l.) A southern name for the kingfishes of the eastern and southeastern coasts of the United States; Š also improperly called whiting.
8. (Bot.) A hair or bristle ending in a double hook.
Barb, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Barbed (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Barbing.] 1. To shave or dress the beard of. [Obs.]
2. To clip; to mow. [Obs.]
Marston.
3. To furnish with barbs, or with that which will hold or hurt like barbs, as an arrow, fishhook, spear, etc.
But rattling storm of arrows barbed with fire.
Milton.
Barb, n. [F. barbe, fr. Barbarie.] 1. The Barbary horse, a superior breed introduces from Barbary into Spain by the Moors.
2. (Zo”l.) A blackish or dun variety of the pigeon, originally brought from Barbary.
Barb, n. [Corrupted fr. bard.] Armor for a horse. Same as 2d Bard, n., 1.
Bar¶baĻcan (?), n. See Barbican.
Bar¶baĻcanĻage (?), n. See Barbicanage.
BarĻba¶diĻan’(?), a. Of or pertaining to Barbados. Š n. A native of Barbados.
BarĻba¶dos or BarĻba¶does (?), n. A West Indian island, giving its name to a disease, to a cherry, etc.
Barbados cherry (Bot.), a genus of trees of the West Indies (Malpighia) with an agreeably acid fruit resembling a cherry. Š Barbados leg (Med.), a species of elephantiasis incident to hot climates. Š Barbados nuts, the seeds of the Jatropha curcas, a plant growing in South America and elsewhere. The seeds and their acrid oil are used in medicine as a purgative. See Physic nut.
ŲBar¶baĻra (?), n. [Coined by logicians.] (Logic) The first word in certain mnemonic lines which represent the various forms of the syllogism. It indicates a syllogism whose three propositions are universal affirmatives.
Whately.
Bar·baĻresque¶ (?), a. Barbaric in form or style; as, barbaresque architecture.
De Quincey.
BarĻba¶riĻan (?), n. [See Barbarous.]
1. A foreigner. [Historical]
Therefore if I know not the meaning of the voice, I shall be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.
? Cor. xiv. 11.
2. A man in a rule, savage, or uncivilized state.
3. A person destitute of culture.
M. Arnold.
4. A cruel, savage, brutal man; one destitute of pity or humanity. ½Thou fell barbarian.ø
Philips.
BarĻba¶riĻan, a. Of, or pertaining to, or resembling, barbarians; rude; uncivilized; barbarous; as, barbarian governments or nations.
BarĻba¶ic (?), a. [L. barbaricus foreign, barbaric, Gr. ?.] 1. Of, or from, barbarian nations; foreign; Š often with reference to barbarous nations of east. øBarbaric pearl and gold.ø
Milton.
2. Of or pertaining to, or resembling, an uncivilized person or people; barbarous; barbarian; destitute of refinement. ½Wild, barbaric music.ø
Sir W. Scott.
Bar¶baĻrism (?), n. [L. barbarismus, Gr.?; cf. F. barbarisme.] 1. An uncivilized state or condition; rudeness of manners; ignorance of arts, learning, and literature; barbarousness.
Prescott.
2. A barbarous, cruel, or brutal action; an outrage.
A heinous barbarism ... against the honor of marriage.
Milton.
3. An offense against purity of style or language; any form of speech contrary to the pure idioms of a particular language. See Solecism.
The Greeks were the first that branded a foreign term in any
of their writers with the odious name of barbarism.
G. Campbell.
BarĻbar¶iĻty (?), n.; pl. Barbarities (?). [From Barbarous.] 1. The state or manner of a barbarian; lack of civilization.
2. Cruelty; ferociousness; inhumanity.
Treating Christians with a barbarity which would have
shocked the very Moslem.
Macaulay.
3. A barbarous or cruel act.
4. Barbarism; impurity of speech. [Obs.]
Swift.
Bar¶baĻrize (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Barbarized (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Barbarizing (?).]
1. To become barbarous.
The Roman empire was barbarizing rapidly from the time of
Trajan.
De Quincey.
2. To adopt a foreign or barbarous mode of speech.
The ill habit ... of wretched barbarizing against the Latin
and Greek idiom, with their untutored Anglicisms.
Milton.
Bar¶baĻrize (?),v.t. [Cf. F. barbariser, LL. barbarizare.] To make barbarous.
The hideous changes which have barbarized France.
Burke.
Bar¶baĻrous (?), a. [L. barbarus, Gr. ?, strange, foreign; later, slavish, rude, ignorant; akin to L. balbus stammering, Skr. barbara stammering, outlandish. Cf. Brave, a.] 1. Being in the state of a barbarian; uncivilized; rude; peopled with barbarians; as, a barbarous people; a barbarous country.
2. Foreign; adapted to a barbaric taste.[Obs.]
Barbarous gold.
Dryden.
3. Cruel; ferocious; inhuman; merciless.
By their barbarous usage he died within a few days, to the grief of all that knew him.
Clarendon.
4. Contrary to the pure idioms of a language.
A barbarous expression
G. Campbell.

Syn. Š Uncivilized; unlettered; uncultivated; untutored; ignorant; merciless; brutal. See Ferocious.
Bar¶baĻrousĻly, adv. In a barbarous manner.
Bar¶baĻrousĻness, n. The quality or state of being barbarous; barbarity; barbarism.
Bar¶baĻry(?), n. [Fr. Ar. Barbar the people of Barbary.] The countries on the north coast of Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic. Hence: A Barbary horse; a barb. [Obs.] Also, a kind of pigeon.
Barbary ape (Zo”l.), an ape (Macacus innus) of north Africa and Gibraltar Rock, being the only monkey inhabiting Europe. It is very commonly trained by showmen.
Bar¶baĻstel· (?),n. [F. barbastelle.] (Zo”l.) A European bat (Barbastellus communis), with hairy lips.
Bar¶bate (?), a. [ L. barbatus, fr. barba beard. See Barb beard.] (Bot.) Bearded; beset with long and weak hairs.
Bar¶baĻted (?), a. Having barbed points.
A dart uncommonly barbated.
T. Warton.
Bar¶beĻcue (?), n. [In the language of Indians of Guiana, a frame on which all kinds of flesh and fish are roasted or smokeŠdried.] 1. A hog, ox, or other large animal roasted or broiled whole for a feast.
2. A social entertainment, where many people assemble, usually in the open air, at which one or more large animals are roasted or broiled whole.
3. A floor, on which coffee beans are sunŠdried.
Bar¶beĻcue (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Barbecued(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Barbecuing.] 1. To dry or cure by exposure on a frame or gridiron.
They use little or no salt, but barbecue their game and fish in the smoke.
Stedman.
2. To roast or broil whole, as an ox or hog.
Send me, gods, a whole hog barbecued.
Pope.
Barbed (?), a. [See 4th Bare.] Accoutered with defensive armor; Š said of a horse. See Barded ( which is the proper form.)
Sir W. Raleigh.
Barbed, a. Furnished with a barb or barbs; as, a barbed arrow; barbed wire.
Barbed wire, a wire, or a strand of twisted wires, armed with barbs or sharp points. It is used for fences.
Bar¶bel (?), n.[OE. barbel, F. barbeau, dim. of L. barbus barbel, fr. barba beard. See 1st Barb.]
1. (Zo”l.) A slender tactile organ on the lips of certain fished.
2. (Zo”l.) A large freshŠwater fish ( Barbus vulgaris) found in many European rivers. Its upper jaw is furnished with four barbels.
3. pl. Barbs or paps under the tongued of horses and cattle. See 1st Barb,3.
Bar¶belĻlate (?),a. [See 1st Barb.] (Bot.) Having short, stiff hairs, often barbed at the point.
Gray.
BarĻbel¶luĻlate (?), a. (Bot.) Barbellate with diminutive hairs or barbs.
Bar¶ber (?), n. [OE. barbour, OF. barbeor, F. barbier, as if fr. an assumed L. barbator, fr. barba beard. See 1st Barb.] One whose occupation it is to shave or trim the beard, and to cut and dress the hair of his patrons.
Barber's itch. See under Itch.
µ Formerly the barber practiced some offices of surgery, such as letting blood and pulling teeth. Hence such terms as barber surgeon ( old form barber chirurgeon), barber surgery, etc.
Bar¶ber, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Barbered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Barbering.] To shave and dress the beard or hair of.
Shak.
Bar¶ber fish. (Zo”l.) See Surgeon fish.
Bar¶berĻmon·ger (?), n. A fop. [Obs.]
Bar¶berĻry (?),n. [OE. barbarin, barbere, OF. berbere.] (Bot.) A shrub of the genus Berberis, common along roadsides and in neglected fields. B. vulgaris is the species best known; its oblong red berries are made into a preserve or sauce, and have been deemed efficacious in fluxes and fevers. The bark dyes a fine yellow, esp. the bark of the root. [Also spelt berberry.]
Bar¶bet (?),n. [F. barbet, fr.barbe beard, long hair of certain animals. See Barb beard.] (Zo”l.) (a) A variety of small dog, having long curly hair. (b) A bird of the family Bucconid‘, allied to the Cuckoos, having a large, conical beak swollen at the base, and bearded with five bunches of stiff bristles; the puff bird. It inhabits tropical America and Africa. (c) A larva that feeds on aphides.
BarĻbette¶ (?), n. [F. Cf. Barbet.] ( Fort.) A mound of earth or a platform in a fortification, on which guns are mounted to fire over the parapet.
En barbette, In barbette, said of guns when they are elevated so as to fire over the top of a parapet, and not through embrasures. Š Barbette gun, or Barbette battery,a single gun, or a number of guns, mounted in barbette, or partially protected by a parapet or turret. Š Barbette carriage, a gun carriage which elevates guns sufficiently to be in barbette. [See Illust. of Casemate.]
Bar¶biĻcan (?), Bar¶baĻcan(?), n. [OE. barbican, barbecan, F. barbacane, LL. barbacana, barbicana, of uncertain origin: cf. Ar. barbakh aqueduct, sewer. F. barbacane also means, an opening to let out water, loophole.] 1. ( Fort.) A tower or advanced work defending the entrance to a castle or city, as at a gate or bridge. It was often large and strong, having a ditch and drawbridge of its own.
2. An opening in the wall of a fortress, through which missiles were discharged upon an enemy.
Bar¶biĻcanĻage (?), Bar¶baĻcanĻage (?),n. [LL. barbicanagium. See Barbican.] Money paid for the support of a barbican. [Obs.]
Bar¶biĻcel (?), n. [NL. barbicella, dim. of L. barba. See 1st Barb.] (Zo”l.) One of the small hooklike processes on the barbules of feathers.
ŲBar¶biers (?), n. (Med.) A variety of paralysis, peculiar to India and the Malabar coast; Š considered by many to be the same as beriberi in chronic form.
BarĻbig¶erĻous (?), a. [L. barba a beard + gerous.] Having a beard; bearded; hairy.
ŲBar¶biĻton (?), n. [L., fr. Gr. ?.] (Mus.) An ancient Greek instrument resembling a lyre.
Bar·biĻtu¶ric ac¶id (?). (Chem.) A white, crystalline substance, ?, derived

<-- p. 119 -->

from alloxantin, also from malonic acid and urea, and regarded as a substituted urea.
Bar¶ble (?), n. See Barbel.
Bar¶boĻtine (?), n. [F.] A paste of clay used in decorating coarse pottery in relief.
Bar¶bre (?), a. Barbarian. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
Bar¶bule (?), n. [L. barbula, fr. barba beard.]
1. A very minute barb or beard.
Booth.
2. (Zo”l.) One of the processes along the edges of the barbs of a feather, by which adjacent barbs interlock. See Feather.
Bar¶caĻrolle (?), n. [F. barcarolle, fr. It. barcaruola, fr. barca bark, barge.] (Mus.) (a) A popular song or melody sung by Venetian gondoliers. (b) A piece of music composed in imitation of such a song.
Bar¶con (?), n. [It. barcone, fr. barca a bark.] A vessel for freight; Š used in Mediterranean.
Bard (?), n. [Of Celtic origin; cf. W. bardd, Arm. barz, Ir. & Gael. bard, and F. barde.] 1. A professional poet and singer, as among the ancient Celts, whose occupation was to compose and sing verses in honor of the heroic achievements of princes and brave men.
2. Hence: A poet; as, the bard of Avon.
Bard, Barde (?), n. [F. barde, of doubtful origin.]
1. A piece of defensive (or, sometimes, ornamental) armor for a horse's neck, breast, and flanks; a barb. [Often in the pl.]
2. pl. Defensive armor formerly worn by a man at arms.
3. (Cookery) A thin slice of fat bacon used to cover any meat or game.
Bard, v.t. (Cookery) To cover (meat or game) with a thin slice of fat bacon.
Bard¶ed, p.a. [See Bard horse armor.] 1. Accoutered with defensive armor; Š said of a horse.
2. (Her.) Wearing rich caparisons.
Fifteen hundred men ... barded and richly trapped.
Stow.
Bard¶ic, a. Of or pertaining to bards, or their poetry.
½The bardic lays of ancient Greece.ø
G.P. Marsh.
Bard¶ish, a. Pertaining to, or written by, a bard or bards. ½Bardish impostures.ø
Selden.
Bard¶ism (?), n. The system of bards; the learning and maxims of bards.
Bard¶ling (?), n. An inferior bard.
J. Cunningham.
Bard¶ship, n. The state of being a bard.
Bare (?), a. [OE. bar, bare, AS. b‘r; akin to D. & G. baar, OHG. par, Icel. berr, Sw. & Dan. bar, OSlav. bos? barefoot, Lith. basas; cf. Skr. bh¾s to shine ?.]
1. Without clothes or covering; stripped of the usual covering; naked; as, his body is bare; the trees are bare.
2. With head uncovered; bareheaded.
When once thy foot enters the church, be bare.
Herbert.
3. Without anything to cover up or conceal one's thoughts or actions; open to view; exposed.
Bare in thy guilt, how foul must thou appear !
Milton.
4. Plain; simple; unadorned; without polish; bald; meager. ½Uttering bare truth.ø
Shak.
5. Destitute; indigent; empty; unfurnished or scantily furnished; Š used with of (rarely with in) before the thing wanting or taken away; as, a room bare of furniture. ½A bare treasury.ø
Dryden.
6. Threadbare; much worn.
It appears by their bare liveries that they live by your bare words.
Shak.
7. Mere; alone; unaccompanied by anything else; as, a bare majority. ½The bare necessaries of life.ø
Addison.
Nor are men prevailed upon by bare of naked truth.
South.
Under bare poles (Naut.), having no sail set.
Bare, n. 1. Surface; body; substance. [R.]
You have touched the very bare of naked truth.
Marston.
2. (Arch.) That part of a roofing slate, shingle, tile, or metal plate, which is exposed to the weather.
Bare, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bared(?); p. pr. & vb. n. Baring.] [AS. barian. See Bare, a.] To strip off the covering of; to make bare; as, to bare the breast.
Bare. Bore; the old preterit of Bear, v.
Bare¶back· (?), adv. On the bare back of a horse, without using a saddle; as, to ride bareback.
Bare¶backed· (?), a. Having the back uncovered; as, a barebacked horse.
Bare¶bone· (?), n. A very lean person; one whose bones show through the skin.
Shak.
Bare¶faced· (?), a. 1. With the face uncovered; not masked. ½You will play barefaced.ø
Shak.
2. Without concealment; undisguised. Hence: Shameless; audacious. ½Barefaced treason.ø
J. Baillie.
Bare¶faced·ly, adv. Openly; shamelessly.
Locke.
Bare¶faced·ness, n. The quality of being barefaced; shamelessness; assurance; audaciousness.
Bare¶foot (?), a. & adv. With the feet bare; without shoes or stockings.
Bare¶foot·ed, a. Having the feet bare.
ŲBaĻr‚ge¶ (?), n. [F. bar‚ge, so called from Bar‚ges, a town in the Pyrenees.] A gauzelike fabric for ladies' dresses, veils, etc. of worsted, silk and worsted, or cotton and worsted.
Bare¶hand·ed (?), n. Having bare hands.
Bare¶head·ed (?), Bare¶head, a. & adv. Having the head uncovered; as, a bareheaded girl.
Bare¶legged· (?), a. Having the legs bare.
Bare¶ly, adv. 1. Without covering; nakedly.
2. Without concealment or disguise.
3. Merely; only.
R. For now his son is duke.
W. Barely in title, not in revenue.
Shak.
4. But just; without any excess; with nothing to spare ( of quantity, time, etc.); hence, scarcely; hardly; as, there was barely enough for all; he barely escaped.
Bare¶necked· (?), a. Having the neck bare.
Bare¶ness, n. The state of being bare.
Bare¶sark (?), n. [Literally, bare sark or shirt.] A Berserker, or Norse warrior who fought without armor, or shirt of mail. Hence, adverbially: Without shirt of mail or armor.
Bar¶fish· (?), n. (Zo”l.) Same as Calico bass.
Bar¶ful (?), a. Full of obstructions. [Obs.]
Shak.
Bar¶gain (?), n. [OE. bargayn, bargany, OF. bargaigne, bargagne, prob. from a supposed LL. barcaneum, fr. barca a boat which carries merchandise to the shore; hence, to traffic to and fro, to carry on commerce in general. See Bark a vessel. ] 1. An agreement between parties concerning the sale of property; or a contract by which one party binds himself to transfer the right to some property for a consideration, and the other party binds himself to receive the property and pay the consideration.
A contract is a bargain that is legally binding.
Wharton.
2. An agreement or stipulation; mutual pledge.
And whon your honors mean to solemnize
The bargain of your faith.
Shak.
3. A purchase; also ( when not qualified), a gainful transaction; an advantageous purchase; as, to buy a thing at a bargain.
4. The thing stipulated or purchased; also, anything bought cheap.
She was too fond of her most filthy bargain.
Shak.
Bargain and sale (Law), a species of conveyance, by which the bargainor contracts to convey the lands to the bargainee, and becomes by such contract a trustee for and seized to the use of the bargainee. The statute then completes the purchase; i.e., the bargain vests the use, and the statute vests the possession. Blackstone. Š Into the bargain, over and above what is stipulated; besides. Š To sell bargains, to make saucy ( usually indelicate) repartees. [Obs.] Swift. Š To strike a bargain, to reach or ratify an agreement. ½A bargain was struck.ø Macaulay.
Syn. Š Contract; stipulation; purchase; engagement.
Bar¶gain, v.i. [OE. barganien, OF. bargaigner, F. barguigner, to hesitate, fr. LL. barcaniare. See Bargain, n.] To make a bargain; to make a contract for the exchange of property or services; Š followed by with and for; as, to bargain with a farmer for a cow.
So worthless peasants bargain for their wives.
Shak.
Bar¶gain, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Bargained (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bargaining.] To transfer for a consideration; to barter; to trade; as, to bargain one horse for another.
To bargain away, to dispose of in a bargain; Š usually with a sense of loss or disadvantage; as, to bargain away one's birthright. ½The heir ... had somehow bargained away the estate.ø
G.Eliot.
Bar·fainĻee¶ (?), n. [OF. bargaign‚, p.p. See Bargain, v.i.] (Law) The party to a contract who receives, or agrees to receive, the property sold.
Blackstone.
Bar¶gainĻer (?), n. One who makes a bargain; Š sometimes in the sense of bargainor.
Bar·gainĻor¶ (?), n. (Law) One who makes a bargain, or contracts with another; esp., one who sells, or contracts to sell, property to another.
Blackstone.
Barge (?), n. [OF. barge, F. berge, fr. LL. barca, for barica (not found), prob. fr. L. baris an Egyptian rowboat, fr. Gr. ?, prob. fr. Egyptian: cf. Coptic bari a boat. Cf. Bark a vessel.] 1. A pleasure boat; a vessel or boat of state, elegantly furnished and decorated.
2. A large, roomy boat for the conveyance of passengers or goods; as, a ship's barge; a charcoal barge.
3. A large boat used by flag officers.
4. A doubleŠdecked passenger or freight vessel, towed by a steamboat. [U.S.]
5. A large omnibus used for excursions. [Local, U.S.]
Barge¶board· (?), n. [Perh. corrup. of vergeboard; or cf. LL. bargus a kind of gallows.] A vergeboard.
Barge¶course· (?), n. [See Bargeboard.] (Arch.) A part of the tiling which projects beyond the principal rafters, in buildings where there is a gable.
Gwilt.
BarĻgee¶ (?), n. A bargeman. [Eng.]
Barge¶man (?), n. The man who manages a barge, or one of the crew of a barge.
Barge¶mast·ter (?), n. The proprietor or manager of a barge, or one of the crew of a barge.
Bar¶ger (?),n. The manager of a barge. [Obs.]
Bar¶ghest· (?), n. [Perh. G. berg mountain + geist demon, or b„r a bear + geist.] A goblin, in the shape of a large dog, portending misfortune. [Also written barguest.]
Ba¶riĻa (?), n. [Cf. Barium.] (Chem.) Baryta.
Bar¶ic (?), a. (Chem.) Of or pertaining to barium; as, baric oxide.
Bar¶ic, a. [Gr. ? weight.] (Physics) Of or pertaining to weight, esp. to the weight or pressure of the atmosphere as measured by the barometer.
BaĻril¶la (?), n. [Sp. barrilla.] 1. (Bot.) A name given to several species of Salsola from which soda is made, by burning the barilla in heaps and lixiviating the ashes.
2. (Com.) (a) The alkali produced from the plant, being an impure carbonate of soda, used for making soap, glass, etc., and for bleaching purposes. (b) Impure soda obtained from the ashes of any seashore plant, or kelp.
Ure.
Copper barilla (Min.), native copper in granular form mixed with sand, an ore brought from Bolivia; Š called also Barilla de cobre.
ŲBar¶ilĻlet (?), n. [F., dim. of baril barrel.] A little cask, or something resembling one.
Smart.
Bar¶ i·ron (?). See under Iron.
Ba¶rite (?), n. (Min.) Native sulphate of barium, a mineral occurring in transparent, colorless, white to yellow crystals (generally tabular), also in granular form, and in compact massive forms resembling marble. It has a high specific gravity, and hence is often called heavy spar. It is a common mineral in metallic veins.
Bar¶iĻtone (?), a. & n. See Barytone.
Ba¶riĻum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? heavy.] (Chem.) One of the elements, belonging to the alkaline earth group; a metal having a silverŠwhite color, and melting at a very high temperature. It is difficult to obtain the pure metal, from the facility with which it becomes oxidized in the air. Atomic weight, ?137. Symbol, Ba. Its oxide called baryta. [Rarely written barytum.]
µ Some of the compounds of this element are remarkable for their high specific gravity, as the sulphate, called heavy spar, and the like. The oxide was called barote, by Guyton de Morveau, which name was changed by Lavoisier to baryta, whence the name of the metal.
Bard (?), n. [Akin to Dan. & Sw. bark, Icel. b”rkr, LG. & HG. borke.] 1. The exterior covering of the trunk and branches of a tree; the rind.
2. Specifically, Peruvian bark.
Bark bed. See Bark stove (below). Š Bark pit, a pit filled with bark and water, in which hides are steeped in tanning. Š Bark stove (Hort.), a glazed structure for keeping tropical plants, having a bed of tanner's bark ( called a bark bed) or other fermentable matter which produces a moist heat.
Bark, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Barked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Barking.] 1. To strip the bark from; to peel.
2. To abrade or rub off any outer covering from; as to bark one's heel.
3. To girdle. See Girdle, v.t., 3.
4. To cover or inclose with bark, or as with bark; as, to bark the roof of a hut.
Bark, v.i. [OE. berken, AS. beorcan; akin to Icel. berkja, and prob. to E. break.] 1. To make a short, loud, explosive noise with the vocal organs; Š said of some animals, but especially of dogs.
2. To make a clamor; to make importunate outcries.
They bark, and say the Scripture maketh heretics.
Tyndale.
Where there is the barking of the belly, there no other commands will be heard, much less obeyed.
Fuller.
Bark, n. The short, loud, explosive sound uttered by a dog; a similar sound made by some other animals.
Bark, Barque (?), n. [F. barque, fr. Sp. or It. barca, fr. LL. barca for barica. See Barge.]
1. Formerly, any small sailing vessel, as a pinnace, fishing smack, etc.; also, a rowing boat; a barge. Now applied poetically to a sailing vessel or boat of any kind.
Byron.
2. (Naut.) A threeŠmasted vessel, having her foremast and mainmast squarerigged, and her mizzenmast schoonerŠrigged.
Bark¶anĻtine (?), n. Same as Barkentine.
Bark¶ bee·tle (?). (Zo”l.) A small beetle of many species (family Scolytid‘), which in the larval state bores under or in the bark of trees, often doing great damage.
Bark¶bound· (?), a. Prevented from growing, by having the bark too firm or close.
Bar¶keep·er (?), n. One who keeps or tends a bar for the sale of liquors.
Bark¶en (?), a. Made of bark. [Poetic]
Whittier.
Bark¶enĻtine (?), n. [See Bark, n., a vessel.] (Naut.) A threemasted vessel, having the foremast squareŠrigged, and the others schoonerŠrigged. [Spel? also barquentine, barkantine, etc.] See Illust. in Append.
Bark¶er (?), n. 1. An animal that barks; hence, any one who clamors unreasonably.
2. One who stands at the doors of shops to urg? passers by to make purchases. [Cant, Eng.]
3. A pistol. [Slang]
Dickens.
4. (Zo”l.) The spotted redshank.
Bark¶er, n. One who strips trees of their bark.
Bark¶er's mill· (?). [From Dr. Barker, the inventor.] A machine, invented in the 17th century, worked by a form of reaction wheel. The water flows into a vertical tube and gushes from apertures in hollow horizontal arms, causing the machine to revolve on its axis.
Bark¶erĻy (?), n. A tanhouse.
Bark¶ing i·rons (?). 1. Instruments used in taking off the bark of trees.
Gardner.
2. A pair of pistols. [Slang]
Bark¶less, a. Destitute of bark.
Bark¶ louse· (?). (Zo”l.) An insect of the family Coccid‘, which infests the bark of trees and vines.
µ The wingless females assume the shape of scales. The bark louse of vine is Pulvinaria innumerabilis; that of the pear is Lecanium pyri. See Orange scale.
Bark¶y (?), a. Covered with, or containing, bark. ½The barky fingers of the elm.ø
Shak.
Bar¶ley (?), n. [OE. barli, barlich, AS. b‘rlic; bere barley + lĘc (which is prob. the same as E. like, adj., or perh. a form of AS. le¾c leek). AS. bere is akin to Icel, barr barley, Goth. barizeins made of barley, L. far spelt; cf. W. barlys barley, bara bread. ?92. Cf. Farina, 6th Bear.] (Bot.) A valuable grain, of the family of grasses, genus Hordeum, used for food, and for making malt, from which are prepared beer, ale, and whisky.

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Barley bird (Zo”l.), the siskin. Š Barley sugar, sugar boiled till it is brittle (formerly with a decoction of barley) and candied. Š Barley water, a decoction of barley, used in medicine, as a nutritive and demulcent.
Bar¶leyĻbrake· Bar¶leyĻbreak· } (?), n. An ancient rural game, commonly played round stacks of barley, or other grain, in which some of the party attempt to catch others who run from a goal.
Bar¶leyŠbree· (?), n. [Lit. barley broth. See Brew.] Liquor made from barley; strong ale. [Humorous] [Scot.]
Burns.
Bar¶leyĻcorn· (?), n. [See Corn.] 1. A grain or ½cornø of barley.
2. Formerly , a measure of length, equal to the average length of a grain of barley; the third part of an inch.
John Barleycorn, a humorous personification of barley as the source of malt liquor or whisky.
Barm (?), n. [OE. berme, AS. beorma; akin to Sw. b„rma, G. b„rme, and prob. L. fermenium. ū93. Foam rising upon beer, or other malt liquors, when fermenting, and used as leaven in making bread and in brewing; yeast.
Shak.
Barm , n. [OE. bearm, berm, barm, AS. beorma; akin to E. bear to support.] The lap or bosom. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
Bar¶maid· (?), n. A girl or woman who attends the customers of a bar, as in a tavern or beershop.
A bouncing barmaid.
W. Irving.
Bar¶mas·ter (?), n. [Berg + master: cf. G. Bergmeister.] Formerly, a local judge among miners; now, an officer of the barmote. [Eng.]
Barm¶cloth· (?), n. Apron. [Obs.]
Chaucer.
Bar¶meĻci·dal (?), a. [See Barmecide.] Unreal; illusory. ½A sort of Barmecidal feast.ø
Hood.
Bar¶meĻcide (?), n. [A prince of the Barmecide family, who, as related in the ½Arabian Nights' Talesø, pretended to set before the hungry Shacabac food, on which the latter pretended to feast.] One who proffers some illusory advantage or benefit. Also used as an adj.: Barmecidal. ½A Barmecide feast.ø
Dickens.
Bar¶mote· (?), n. [Barg + mote meeting.] A court held in Derbyshire, in England, for deciding controversies between miners.
Blount.
Balm¶y (?), a. Full of barm or froth; in a ferment. ½Barmy beer.ø
Dryden.
Barn (?), n. [OE. bern, AS. berern, bern; bere barley + ern, ‘rn, a close place. ?92. See Barley.] A covered building used chiefly for storing grain, hay, and other productions of a farm. In the United States a part of the barn is often used for stables.
Barn owl (Zo”l.), an owl of Europe and America (Aluco flammeus, or Strix flammea), which frequents barns and other buildings. Š Barn swallow (Zo”l.), the common American swallow (Hirundo horreorum), which attaches its nest of mud to the beams and rafters of barns.
Barn, v.t. To lay up in a barn. [Obs.]
Shak.
Men ... often barn up the chaff, and burn up the grain.
Fuller.
Barn, n. A child. [Obs.] See Bairn.
Bar¶naĻbite (?), n. (Eccl. Hist.) A member of a religious order, named from St. Barnabas.
Bar¶naĻcle (?), n. [Prob. from E. barnacle a kind of goose, which was popularly supposed to grow from this shellfish; but perh. from LL. bernacula for pernacula, dim. of perna ham, sea mussel; cf. Gr. ? ham Cf. F. bernacle, barnacle, E. barnacle a goose; and Ir. bairneach, barneach, limpet.] (Zo”l.) Any cirriped crustacean adhering to rocks, floating timber, ships, etc., esp. (a) the sessile species (genus Balanus and allies), and (b) the stalked or goose barnacles (genus Lepas and allies). See Cirripedia, and Goose barnacle.
Barnacle eater (Zo”l.), the orange filefish. Š Barnacle scale (Zo”l.), a bark louse (Ceroplastes cirripediformis) of the orange and quince trees in Florida. The female scale curiously resembles a sessile barnacle in form.
Bar¶naĻcle, n. [See Bernicle.] A bernicle goose.
Bar¶naĻcle, n. [OE. bernak, bernacle; cf. OF. bernac, and Prov. F. (Berri) berniques, spectacles.] 1. pl. (Far.) An instrument for pinching a horse's nose, and thus restraining him. [Formerly used in the sing.]
The barnacles ... give pain almost equal to that of the
switch.
Youatt.
2. pl. Spectacles; Š so called from their resemblance to the barnacles used by farriers. [Cant, Eng.]
Dickens.
Barn¶yard· (?), n. A yard belonging to a barn.
ŲBaĻroc¶co (?), a. [It.] (Arch.) See Baroque.
Bar¶oĻgraph (?), n. [Gr.? weight + Šgraph.] (Meteor.) An instrument for recording automatically the variations of atmospheric pressure.
BaĻro¶ko (?), n. [A mnemonic word.] (Logic) A form or mode of syllogism of which the first proposition is a universal affirmative, and the other two are particular negative.
BaĻrol¶oĻgy (?), n. [Gr. ? weight + Šlogy.] The science of weight or gravity.
Bar·oĻmaĻcrom¶eĻter (?), n. [Gr. ? weight + ? long + Šmeter.] (Med.) An instrument for ascertaining the weight and length of a newborn infant.
BaĻrom¶eĻter (?), n. [Gr. ? weight + Šmeter: cf. F. baromŠtre.] An instrument for determining the weight or pressure of the atmosphere, and hence for judging of the probable changes of weather, or for ascertaining the height of any ascent.
µ The barometer was invented by Torricelli at Florence about 1643. It is made in its simplest form by filling a graduated glass tube about 34 inches long with mercury and inverting it in a cup containing mercury. The column of mercury in the tube descends until balanced by the weight of the atmosphere, and its rise or fall under varying conditions is a measure of the change in the atmospheric pressure. At the sea level its ordinary height is about 30 inches (760 millimeters). See Sympiesometer.
Nichol.
Aneroid barometer. See Aneroid barometer, under Aneroid. Š Marine barometer, a barometer with tube contracted at bottom to prevent rapid oscillations of the mercury, and suspended in gimbals from an arm or support on shipboard. Š Mountain barometer, a portable mercurial barometer with tripod support, and long scale, for measuring heights. Š Siphon barometer, a barometer having a tube bent like a hook with the longer leg closed at the top. The height of the mercury in the longer leg shows the pressure of the atmosphere. Š Wheel barometer, a barometer with recurved tube, and a float, from which a cord passes over a pulley and moves an index.
Bar·oĻmet¶ric (?), Bar·oĻmet¶ricĻal (?), } a. Pertaining to the barometer; made or indicated by a barometer; as, barometric changes; barometrical observations.
Bar·oĻmet¶ricĻalĻly, adv. By means of a barometer, or according to barometric observations.
Bar·oĻmet¶roĻgraph (?), n. [Gr. ? weight + ? measure + Šgraph.] A form of barometer so constructed as to inscribe of itself upon paper a record of the variations of atmospheric pressure.
BaĻrom¶eĻtry (?), n. The art or process of making barometrical measurements.
Bar¶oĻmetz (?), n. [ Cf. Russ. baranets' clubmoss.] (Bot.) The woollyŠskinned rhizoma or rootstock of a fern (Dicksonia barometz), which, when specially prepared and inverted, somewhat resembles a lamb; Š called also Scythian lamb.
Bar¶on (?), n. [OE. baron, barun, OF. baron, accus. of ber, F. baron, prob. fr. OHG. baro (not found) bearer, akin to E. bear to support; cf. O. Frisian bere, LL. baro, It. barone, Sp. varon. From the meaning bearer (of burdens) seem to have come the senses strong man, man (in distinction from woman), which is the oldest meaning in French, and lastly, nobleman. Cf. L. baro, simpleton. See Bear to support.]
1. A title or degree of nobility; originally, the possessor of a fief, who had feudal tenants under him; in modern times, in France and Germany, a nobleman next in rank below a count; in England, a nobleman of the lowest grade in the House of Lords, being next below a viscount.
µ ½The tenants in chief from the Crown, who held lands of the annual value of four hundred pounds, were styled Barons; and it is to them, and not to the members of the lowest grade of the nobility (to whom the title at the present time belongs), that reference is made when we read of the Barons of the early days of England's history.... Barons are addressed as 'My Lord,' and are styled 'Right Honorable.' All their sons and daughters 'Honorable.'ø
Cussans.
2. (Old Law) A husband; as, baron and feme, husband and wife. [R.]
Cowell.
Baron of beef, two sirloins not cut asunder at the backbone. Š Barons of the Cinque Ports, formerly members of the House of Commons, elected by the seven Cinque Ports, two for each port. Š Baron of the exchequer, the judges of the Court of Exchequer, one of the three ancient courts of England, now abolished.
Bar¶onĻage (?), n. [OE. barnage, baronage, OF.barnage, F. baronnage; cf. LL. baronagium.]
1. The whole body of barons or peers.
The baronage of the kingdom.
Bp. Burnet.
2. The dignity or rank of a baron.
3. The land which gives title to a baron. [Obs.]
Bar¶onĻess (?), n. A baron's wife; also, a lady who holds the baronial title in her own right; as, the Baroness BurdettŠCoutts.
Bar¶onĻet (?), n. [Baron + Šet.] A dignity or degree of honor next below a baron and above a knight, having precedency of all orders of knights except those of the Garter. It is the lowest degree of honor that is hereditary. The baronets are commoners.
µ The order was founded by James I. in 1611, and is given by patent. The word, however, in the sense of a lesser baron, was in use long before. ½Baronets have the title of 'Sir' prefixed to their Christian names; their surnames being followed by their dignity, usually abbreviated Bart. Their wives are addressed as 'Lady' or 'Madam'. Their sons are possessed of no title beyond 'Esquire.'ø
Cussans.
Bar¶onĻetĻage (?), n. 1. State or rank of a baronet.
2. The collective body of baronets.
Bar¶onĻetĻcy (?), n. The rank or patent of a baronet.
BaĻro¶niĻal (?), a. Pertaining to a baron or a barony. ½Baronial tenure.ø
Hallam.
Bar¶oĻny (?), n.; pl. Baronies (?). [OF. baronie, F. baronnie, LL. baronia. See Baron.] 1. The fee or domain of a baron; the lordship, dignity, or rank of a baron.
2. In Ireland, a territorial division, corresponding nearly to the English hundred, and supposed to have been originally the district of a native chief. There are 252 of these baronies. In Scotland, an extensive freehold. It may be held by a commoner.
Brande & C.
BaĻroque¶ (?), a. [F.; cf. It. barocco.] (Arch.) In bad taste; grotesque; odd.
Bar¶oĻscope (?), n. [Gr. ? weight + Šscope: cf. F. baroscope.] Any instrument showing the changes in the weight of the atmosphere; also, less appropriately, any instrument that indicates Šor foreshadows changes of the weather, as a deep vial of liquid holding in suspension some substance which rises and falls with atmospheric changes.
Bar·oĻscop¶ic (?), Bar·oĻscop¶icĻal (?), } a. Pertaining to, or determined by, the baroscope.
BaĻrouche¶ (?), n. [G. barutsche, It. baroccio, biroccio, LL. barrotium, fr. L. birotus twoŠwheeled; bi=bis twice + rota wheel.] A fourŠwheeled carriage, with a falling top, a seat on the outside for the driver, and two double seats on the inside arranged so that the sitters on the front seat face those on the back seat.
Ba·rouĻchet¶(?), n. A kind of light barouche.
Bar¶post· (?), n. A post sunk in the ground to receive the bars closing a passage into a field.
Barque (?), n. Same as 3d Bark, n.
Bar¶raĻcan (?), n. [F. baracan, bouracan (cf. Pr. barracan, It. baracane, Sp. barragan, Pg. barregana, LL. barracanus), fr. Ar. barrak¾n a kind of black gown, perh. fr. Per. barak a garment made of camel's hair.] A thick, strong stuff, somewhat like camlet; Š still used for outer garments in the Levant.
Bar¶rack (?), n. [F. baraque, fr. It. baracca (cf. Sp. barraca), from LL. barra bar. See Bar, n.]
1. (Mil.) A building for soldiers, especially when in garrison. Commonly in the pl., originally meaning temporary huts, but now usually applied to a permanent structure or set of buildings.
He lodged in a miserable hut or barrack, composed of dry branches and thatched with straw.
Gibbon.
2. A movable roof sliding on four posts, to cover hay, straw, etc. [Local, U.S.]
Bar¶rack, v.t. To supply with barracks; to establish in barracks; as, to barrack troops.
Bar¶rack, v.i. To live or lodge in barracks.
Bar¶raĻclade (?), n. [D. baar, OD. baer, naked, bare + kleed garment, i.e., cloth undressed or without nap.] A homeŠmade woolen blanket without nap. [Local, New York]
Bartlett.
Bar¶raĻcoon· (?), n. [Sp. or Pg. barraca. See Barrack.] A slave warehouse, or an inclosure where slaves are quartered temporarily.
Du Chaillu.
Bar·raĻcu¶da (?), Bar·raĻcou¶ata (?), } n. 1. (Zo”l.) A voracious pikelike, marine fish, o? the genus Sphyr‘na, sometimes used as food.
µ That of Europe and our Atlantic coast is Sphyr‘na spet (or S. vulgaris); a southern species is S. picuda; the Californian is S. argentea.
2. (Zo”l.) A large edible freshŠwater fish of Australia and New Zealand (Thyrsites atun).
Bar¶rage (?), n. [F., fr. barrer to bar, from barre bar.] (Engin.) An artificial bar or obstruction placed in a river or water course to increase the depth of water; as, the barrages of the Nile.
ŲBarĻran¶ca (?), n. [Sp.] A ravine caused by heavy rains or a watercourse. [Texas & N. Mex.]
ŲBar¶ras (?), n. [F.] A resin, called also galipot.
Bar¶raĻtor (?), n. [OE. baratour, OF. barateor deceiver, fr. OF. barater, bareter, to deceive, cheat, barter. See Barter, v.i.] One guilty of barratry.
Bar¶raĻtrous (?), ? (Law) Tainter with, or constituting, barratry. Š Bar¶raĻtrousĻly, adv.
Kent.
Bar¶raĻtry (?), n. [Cf. F. baraterie, LL. barataria. See Barrator, and cf. Bartery.] 1. (Law) The practice of exciting and encouraging lawsuits and quarrels. [Also spelt barretry.]
Coke. Blackstone.
2. (Mar. Law) A fraudulent breach of duty or willful act of known illegality on the part of a master of a ship, in his character of master, or of the mariners, to the injury of the owner of the ship or cargo, and without his consent. It includes every breach of trust committed with dishonest purpose, as by running away with the ship, sinking or deserting her, etc., or by embezzling the cargo.
Kent. Part.
3. (Scots Law) The crime of a judge who is influenced by bribery in pronouncing judgment.
Wharton.
Barred¶ owl¶ (?). (Zo”l.) A large American owl (Syrnium nebulosum); Š so called from the transverse bars of a dark brown color on the breast.
Bar¶rel (?), n.[OE. barel, F. baril, prob. fr. barre bar. Cf. Barricade.] 1.A round vessel or cask, of greater length than breadth, and bulging in the middle, made of staves bound with hoops, and having flat ends or heads.
2. The quantity which constitutes a full barrel. This varies for different articles and also in different places for the same article, being regulated by custom or by law. A barrel of wine is 31 1/2 gallons; a barrel of flour is 196 pounds.
3. A solid drum, or a hollow cylinder or case; as, the barrel of a windlass; the barrel of a watch, within which the spring is coiled.

<-- p. 121 -->

4. A metallic tube, as of a gun, from which a projectile is discharged.
Knight.
5. A jar. [Obs.]
1 Kings xvii. 12.
6. (Zo”l.) The hollow basal part of a feather.
Barrel bulk (Com.), a measure equal to five cubic feet, used in estimating capacity, as of a vessel for freight. Š Barrel drain (Arch.), a drain in the form of a cylindrical tube. Š Barrel of a boiler, the cylindrical part of a boiler, containing the flues. Š Barrel of the ear ( ? ), the tympanum, or tympanic cavity. Š Barrel organ, an instrument for producing music by the action of a revolving cylinder. Š Barrel vault. See under Vault.
Bar¶rel (?), v.t. [imp. & p.p. Barreled (?), or Barrelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Barreling, or Barrelling.] To put or to pack in a barrel or barrels.
Bar¶reled, Bar¶relled (?), a. Having a barrel; Š used in composition; as, a doubleŠbarreled gun.
Bar¶ren (?), a. [OE. barein, OF. brehaing, ?em. brehaigne, baraigne, F. br‚haigne; of uncertain origin; cf. Arm. br‚kha?, markha?, sterile; LL. brana a sterile mare, principally in Aquitanian and Spanish documents; Bisc. barau, baru, fasting.] 1. Incapable of producing offspring; producing no young; sterile; Š ?aid of women and female animals.
She was barren of children.
Bp. Hall.
2. Not producing vegetation, or useful vegetation; ?rile. ½Barren mountain tracts.ø
Macaulay.
3. Unproductive; fruitless; unprofitable; empty.
Brilliant but barren reveries.
Prescott.
Some schemes will appear barren of hints and matter.
Swift.
4. Mentally dull; stupid.
Shak.
Barren flower, a flower which has only stamens without a pistil, or which as neither stamens nor pistils. Š Barren Grounds (Geog.), a vast tract in British America northward of the forest regions. Š Barren Ground bear (Zo”l.), a peculiar bear, inhabiting the Barren Grounds, now believed to be a variety of the brown bear of Europe. Š Barren Ground caribou (Zo”l.), a small reindeer (Rangifer Gr?nlandicus) peculiar to the Barren Grounds and Greenland.
Bar¶ren, n. 1. A tract of barren land.
2. pl. Elevated lands or plains on which grow small trees, but not timber; as, pine barrens; oak barrens. They are not necessarily sterile, and are often fertile. [Amer.]
J. Pickering.
Bar¶renĻly, adv. Unfruitfully; unproductively.
Bar¶renĻness, n. The condition of being barren; sterility; unproductiveness.
A total barrenness of invention.
Dryden.
Bar¶renĻwort· (?), n. (Bot.) An herbaceous plant of the Barberry family (Epimedium alpinum), having leaves that are bitter and said to be sudorific.
Bar¶ret (?), n. [F. barrette, LL. barretum a cap. See Berretta, and cf. Biretta.] A kind of cap formerly worn by soldiers; Š called also barret cap. Also, the flat cap worn by Roman Catholic ecclesiastics.
Bar·riĻcade¶ (?), n. [F. barricade, fr. Sp. barricada, orig. a barring up with casks; fr. barrica cask, perh. fr. LL. barra bar. See Bar, n., and cf. Barrel, n.]
1. (Mil.) A fortification, made in haste, of trees, earth, palisades, wagons, or anything that will obstruct the progress or attack of an enemy. It is usually an obstruction formed in streets to block an enemy's access.
2. Any bar, obstruction, or means of defense.
Such a barricade as would greatly annoy, or absolutely stop,
the currents of the atmosphere.
Derham.
Bar·riĻcade¶, v. t. [imp. & p.p. Barricaded; p. pr. & vb. n. Barricading.] [Cf. F. barricader. See Barricade, n.] To fortify or close with a barricade or with barricades; to stop up, as a passage; to obstruct; as, the workmen barricaded the streets of Paris.
The further end whereof [a bridge] was barricaded with barrels.
Hakluyt.
Bar·riĻcad¶er (?), n. One who constructs barricades.
Bar·riĻca¶do (?), n. & v.t. See Barricade.
Shak.
Bar¶riĻer (?), n. [OE. barrere, barere, F. barriŠre, fr. barre bar. See Bar, n.] 1. (Fort.) A carpentry obstruction, stockade, or other obstacle made in a passage in order to stop an enemy.
2. A fortress or fortified town, on the frontier of a country, commanding an avenue of approach.
3. pl. A fence or railing to mark the limits of a place, or to keep back a crowd.
No sooner were the barriers opened, than he paced into the lists.
Sir W. Scott.
4. An any obstruction; anything which hinders approach or attack. ½Constitutional barriers.ø
Hopkinson.
5. Any limit or boundary; a line of separation.
'Twixt that [instinct] and reason, what a nice barrier !
Pope.
Barrier gate, a heavy gate to close the opening through a barrier. Š Barrier reef, a form of coral reef which runs in the general direction of the shore, and incloses a lagoon channel more or less extensive. Š To fight at barriers, to fight with a barrier between, as a martial exercise. [Obs.]
ŲBar·riĻgu¶do (?),n. [Native name, fr. Sp. barrigudo bigŠbellied.] (Zo”l.) A large, darkŠcolored, South American monkey, of the genus Lagothrix, having a long prehensile tail.
Bar·ringĻout¶ (?), n. The act of closing the doors of a schoolroom against a schoolmaster; Š a boyish mode of rebellion in schools.
Swift.
Bar¶risĻter (?), n. [From Bar, n.] Counselor at law; a counsel admitted to plead at the bar, and undertake the public trial of causes, as distinguished from an attorney or solicitor. See Attorney. [Eng.]
Bar¶room· (?), n. A room containing a bar or counter at which liquors are sold.
Bar¶row (?), n. [OE. barow, fr. AS. beran to bear. See Bear to support, and cf. Bier.] 1. A support having handles, and with or without a wheel, on which heavy or bulky things can be transported by hand. See Handbarrow, and Wheelbarrow.
2. (Salt Works) A wicker case, in which salt is put to drain.
Bar¶row (?), n. [OE. barow, bargh, AS. bearg, bearh; akin to Icel. b”rgr, OHG. barh, barug, G. barch. ?95.] A hog, esp. a male hog castrated.
Holland.
Bar¶row, n. [OE. bergh, AS. beorg, beorh, hill, sepulchral mound; akin to G. berg mountain, Goth. bairgahei hill, hilly country, and perh. to Skr. b?hant high, OIr. brigh mountain. Cf. Berg, Berry a mound, and Borough an incorporated town.] 1. A large mound of earth or stones over the remains of the dead; a tumulus.
2. (Mining) A heap of rubbish, attle, etc.
Bar¶rowĻist, n. (Eccl. Hist.) A follower of Henry Barrowe, one of the founders of Independency or Congregationalism in England. Barrowe was executed for nonconformity in 1953.
Bar¶ruĻlet (?), n. [Dim. of bar, n.] (Her.) A diminutive of the bar, having one fourth its width.
Bar¶ruĻly (?), a. (Her.) Traversed by barrulets or small bars; Š said of the field.
Bar¶ry (?), a. (Her.), Divided into bars; Š said of the field.
Barse (?), n. [AS. bears, b‘rs, akin to D. baars, G. bars, barsch. Cf. 1st Bass, n.] The common perch. See 1st Bass. [Prov. Eng.]
Halliwell.
Bar¶tend·er (?), n. A barkeeper.
Bar¶ter (?), v.i. [imp. & p.p. Bartered (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Bartering.] [OE. bartren, OF. barater, bareter, to cheat, exchange, perh. fr. Gr. ? to do, deal (well or ill), use practices or tricks, or perh. fr. Celtic; cf. Ir. brath treachery, W. brad. Cf. Barrator.] To traffic or trade, by exchanging one commodity for another, in distinction from a sale and purchase, in which money is paid for the commodities transferred; to truck.
Bar¶ter, v.t. To trade or exchange in the way of barter; to exchange (frequently for an unworthy consideration); to traffic; to truck; Š sometimes followed by away; as, to barter away goods or honor.
Bar¶ter, n. 1. The act or practice of trafficking by exchange of commodities; an exchange of goods.
The spirit of huckstering and barter.
Burke.
2. The thing given in exchange.
Syn. Š Exchange; dealing; traffic; trade; truck.
Bar¶terĻer (?), n. One who barters.
Bar¶terĻy (?), n. Barter. [Obs.]
Camden.
Barth (?), n. [Etymol. unknown.] A place of shelter for cattle. [Prov. Eng.]
Halliwell.
BarĻthol¶oĻmew tide· (?). Time of the festival of St. Bartholomew, August 24th.
Shak.
Bar¶tiĻzan· (?), n. [Cf. Brettice.] (Arch.) A small, overhanging structure for lookout or defense, usually projecting at an angle of a building or near an entrance gateway.
Bart¶lett (?), n. (Bot.) A Bartlett pear, a favorite kind of pear, which originated in England about 1770, and was called Williams' Bonchr‚tien. It was brought to America, and distributed by Mr. Enoch Bartlett, of Dorchester, Massachusetts.
Bar¶ton (?), n. [AS. beret?n courtyard, grange; bere barley + t?n an inclosure. ] 1. The demesne lands of a manor; also, the manor itself. [Eng.]
Burton.
2. A farmyard. [Eng.]
Southey.
Bar¶tram (?), n. (Bot.) See Bertram.
Johnson.
Bar¶way· (?), n. A passage into a field or yard, closed by bars made to take out of the posts.
Bar¶wise· (?), adv. (Her.) Horizontally.
Bar¶wood· (?), n. A red wood of a leguminous tree (Baphia nitida), from Angola and the Gaboon in Africa. It is used as a dyewood, and also for ramrods, violin bows and turner's work.
Bar·yĻcen¶tric (?), a. [Gr. ? heavy + ? center.] Of or pertaining to the center of gravity. See Barycentric calculus, under Calculus.
BaĻryph¶oĻny (?), n. [Gr. ? heavy + ? a sound voice.] (Med.) Difficulty of speech.
BaĻry¶ta (?), n. [Gr. ? heavy. Cf. Baria.] (Chem.) An oxide of barium (or barytum); a heavy earth with a specific gravity above 4.
BaĻry¶tes (?), n. [Gr. ? heavy: cf. Gr. ? heaviness, F. baryte.] (Min.) Barium sulphate, generally called heavy spar or barite. See Barite.
BaĻryt¶ic (?), a. Of or pertaining to baryta.
BaĻry¶toŠcal¶cite (?), n. [Baryta + calcite.] (Min.) A mineral of a white or gray color, occurring massive or crystallized. It is a compound of the carbonates of barium and calcium.
Bar¶yĻtone, Bar¶iĻtone (?), a. [Gr. ?; ? heavy + ? tone.] 1. (Mus.) Grave and deep, as a kind of male voice.
2. (Greek Gram.) Not marked with an accent on the last syllable, the grave accent being understood.
Bar¶yĻtone, Bar¶iĻtone , n. [F. baryton: cf. It. baritono.] 1. (Mus.) (a) A male voice, the compass of which partakes of the common bass and the tenor, but which does not descend as low as the one, nor rise as high as the other. (b) A person having a voice of such range. (c) The viola di gamba, now entirely disused.
2. (Greek Gram.) A word which has no accent marked on the last syllable, the grave accent being understood.
BaĻry¶tum (?), n. [NL.] (Chem.) The metal barium. See Barium. [R.]
Ba¶sal (?), a. Relating to, or forming, the base.
Basal cleavage. See under Cleavage. Š Basal plane (Crystallog.), one parallel to the lateral or horizontal axis.
Ba¶salŠnerved· (?), a. (Bot.) Having the nerves radiating from the base; Š said of leaves.
BaĻsalt¶ (?),n. [N. basaltes (an African word), a dark and hard species of marble found in Ethiopia: cf. F. basalte.] 1. (Geol.) A rock of igneous origin, consisting of augite and triclinic feldspar, with grains of magnetic or titanic iron, and also bottleŠgreen particles of olivine frequently disseminated.
µ It is usually of a greenish black color, or of some dull brown shade, or black. It constitutes immense beds in some regions, and also occurs in veins or dikes cutting through other rocks. It has often a prismatic structure as at the Giant's Causeway, in Ireland, where the columns are as regular as if the work of art. It is a very tough and heavy rock, and is one of the best materials for macadamizing roads.
2. An imitation, in pottery, of natural basalt; a kind of black porcelain.
BaĻsalt¶ic (?),a. [Cf. F. basaltique.] Pertaining to basalt; formed of, or containing, basalt; as basaltic lava.
BaĻsalt¶iĻform (?), a. [Basalt + Šform.] In the form of basalt; columnar.
BaĻsalt¶oid (?), a. [Basalt + Šoid.] Formed like basalt; basaltiform.
Bas¶an (?), n. Same as Basil, a sheepskin.
Bas¶aĻnite (?), n. [L. basanites lapis, Gr. ? the touchstone: cf. F. basanite.] (Min.) Lydian stone, or black jasper, a variety of siliceous or flinty slate, of a grayish or bluish black color. It is employed to test the purity of gold, the amount of alloy being indicated by the color left on the stone when rubbed by the metal.
ŲBas·bleu¶ (?), n. [F., fr. bas stocking + bleu blue.] A bluestocking; a literary woman. [Somewhat derisive]
Bas¶ciĻnet (?), n. [OE. bacinet, basnet, OF. bassinet, bacinet, F. bassinet, dim. of OF. bacin, F. bassin, a helmet in the form of a basin.] A light helmet, at first open, but later made with a visor. [Written also basinet, bassinet, basnet.]
Bas¶cule (?), n. [F., a seesaw.] In mechanics an apparatus on the principle of the seesaw, in which one end rises as the other falls.
Bascule bridge, a counterpoise or balanced drawbridge, which is opened by sinking the counterpoise and thus lifting the footway into the air.
Base (?), a. [OE. bass, F. bas, low, fr. LL. bassus thick, fat, short, humble; cf. L. Bassus, a proper name, and W. bas shallow. Cf. Bass a part in music.] 1. Of little, or less than the usual, height; of low growth; as, base shrubs. [Archaic]
Shak.
2. Low in place or position. [Obs.]
Shak.
3. Of humble birth; or low degree; lowly; mean. [Archaic] ½A pleasant and base swain.ø
Bacon.
4. Illegitimate by birth; bastard. [Archaic]
Why bastard? wherefore base?
Shak.
5. Of little comparative value, as metal inferior to gold and silver, the precious metals.
6. Alloyed with inferior metal; debased; as, base coin; base bullion.
7. Morally low. Hence: LowŠminded; unworthy; without dignity of sentiment; ignoble; mean; illiberal; menial; as, a base fellow; base motives; base occupations. ½A cruel act of a base and a cowardish mind.ø Robynson (More's Utopia). ½Base ingratitude.ø
Milton.
8. Not classical or correct. ½Base Latin.ø
Fuller.
9. Deep or grave in sound; as, the base tone of a violin. [In this sense, commonly written bass.]
10. (Law) Not held by honorable service; as, a base estate, one held by services not honorable; held by villenage. Such a tenure is called base, or low, and the tenant, a base tenant.
Base fee, formerly, an estate held at the will of the lord; now, a qualified fee. See note under Fee, n., 4. Š Base metal. See under Metal.
Syn. Š Dishonorable; worthless; ignoble; lowŠminded; infamous; sordid; degraded. Š Base, Vile, Mean. These words, as expressing moral qualities, are here arranged in the order of their strength, the strongest being placed first. Base marks a high degree of moral turpitude; vile and mean denote, in different degrees, the want of what is valuable or worthy of esteem. What is base excites our abhorrence; what is vile provokes our disgust or indignation; what is mean awakens contempt. Base is opposed to highŠminded; vile, to noble; mean, to liberal or generous. Ingratitude is base; sycophancy is vile; undue compliances are mean.
Base, n.[F. base, L. basis, fr. Gr. ? a stepping step, a base, pedestal, fr. ? to go, step, akin to E. come. Cf. Basis, and see Come.] 1. The bottom of anything, considered as its support, or that on which something rests for support; the foundation; as, the base of a statue. ½The base of mighty mountains.ø
Prescott.
2. Fig.: The fundamental or essential part of a thing; the essential principle; a groundwork.
3. (Arch.) (a) The lower part of a wall, pier, or column, when treated as a separate feature, usually in projection, or especially ornamented. (b) The lower part of a complete architectural design, as of a monument; also, the lower part of any elaborate piece of furniture or decoration.
4. (Bot.) That extremity of a leaf, fruit, etc., at which it is attached to its support.

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5. (Chem.) The positive, or nonŠacid component of a salt; a substance which, combined with an acid, neutralizes the latter and forms a salt; Š applied also to the hydroxides of the positive elements or radicals, and to certain organic bodies resembling them in their property of forming salts with acids.
6. (Pharmacy) The chief ingredient in a compound.
7. (Dyeing) A substance used as a mordant.
Ure.
8. (Fort.) The exterior side of the polygon, or that imaginary line which connects the salient angles of two adjacent bastions.
9. (Geom.) The line or surface constituting that part of a figure on which it is supposed to stand.
10. (Math.) The number from which a mathematical table is constructed; as, the base of a system of logarithms.
11. [See Base low.] A low, or deep, sound. (Mus.) (a) The lowest part; the deepest male voice. (b) One who sings, or the instrument which plays, base. [Now commonly written bass.]
The trebles squeak for fear, the bases roar.
Dryden.
12. (Mil.) A place or tract of country, protected by fortifications, or by natural advantages, from which the operations of an army proceed, forward movements are made, supplies are furnished, etc.
13. (Mil.) The smallest kind of cannon. [Obs.]
14. (Zo”l.) That part of an organ by which it is attached to another more central organ.
15. (Crystallog.) The basal plane of a crystal.
16. (Geol.) The ground mass of a rock, especially if not distinctly crystalline.
17. (Her.) The lower part of the field. See Escutcheon.
18. The housing of a horse. [Obs.]
19. pl. A kind of skirt ( often of velvet or brocade, but sometimes of mailed armor) which hung from the middle to about the knees, or lower. [Obs.]
20. The lower part of a robe or petticoat. [Obs.]
21. An apron. [Obs.] ½Bakers in their linen bases.ø
Marston.
22. The point or line from which a start is made; a starting place or a goal in various games.
To their appointed base they went.
Dryden.
23. (Surv.) A line in a survey which, being accurately determined in length and position, serves as the origin from which to compute the distances and positions of any points or objects connected with it by a system of triangles.
Lyman.
24. A rustic play; Š called also prisoner's base, prison base, or bars. ½To run the country base.ø
Shak.
25. (Baseball) Any one of the four bounds which mark the circuit of the infield.
Altern base. See under Altern. Š Attic base. (Arch.) See under Attic. Š Base course. (Arch.) (a) The first or lower course of a foundation wall, made of large stones of a mass of concrete; Š called also foundation course. (b) The architectural member forming the transition between the basement and the wall above. Š Base hit (Baseball), a hit, by which the batsman, without any error on the part of his opponents, is able to reach the first base without being put out. Š Base line. (a) A main line taken as a base, as in surveying or in military operations. (b) A line traced round a cannon at the rear of the vent. Š Base plate, the foundation plate of heavy machinery, as of the steam engine; the bed plate. Š Base ring (Ordnance), a projecting band of metal around the breech, connected with the body of the gun by a concave molding.
H.L. Scott.
Base (?), v. t. [imp. & p.p. Based (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Basing.] [From Base, n.] To put on a base or basis; to lay the foundation of; to found, as an argument or conclusion; Š used with on or upon.
Bacon.
Base, v. t. [See Base, a., and cf. Abase.] 1. To abase; to let, or cast, down; to lower. [Obs.]
If any ... based his pike.
Sir T. North.
2. To reduce the value of; to debase. [Obs.]
Metals which we can not base.
Bacon.
Base¶ball¶ (?), n. 1. A game of ball, so called from the bases or bounds ( four in number) which designate the circuit which each player must endeavor to make after striking the ball.
2. The ball used in this game.
Base¶board (?), n. (Arch.) A board, or other woodwork, carried round the walls of a room and touching the floor, to form a base and protect the plastering; Š also called washboard (in England), mopboard, and scrubboard.
Base¶born· (?), a. 1. Born out of wedlock.
Gay.
2. Born of low parentage.
3. Vile; mean. ½Thy baseborn heart.ø
Shak.
Base¶Šburn·er (?), n. A furnace or stove in which the fuel is contained in a hopper or chamber, and is fed to the fire as the lower stratum is consumed.
Base¶Šcourt· (?), n. [F. basseŠcour. See Base, a., and Court, n.] 1. The secondary, inferior, or rear courtyard of a large house; the outer court of a castle.
2. (Law) An inferior court of law, not of record.
Based (?), p.p. & a. 1. Having a base, or having as a base; supported; as, broadŠbased.
2. [See Base, n., 18Š21.] Wearing, or protected by, bases. [Obs.] ½Based in lawny velvet.ø
E.Hall.
Ba¶seĻdow's disĻease¶ (?). [Named for Dr. Basedow, a German physician.] (Med.) A disease characterized by enlargement of the thyroid gland, prominence of the eyeballs, and inordinate action of the heart; Š called also exophthalmic goiter.
Flint.
Bas¶eĻlard (?), n. [OF. baselarde, LL. basillardus.] A short sword or dagger, worn in the fifteenth century. [Written also baslard.]
Fairholt.
Base¶less, a. Without a base; having no foundation or support. ½The baseless fabric of this vision.ø
Shak.
Base¶ly, adv. 1. In a base manner; with despicable meanness; dishonorably; shamefully.
2. Illegitimately; in bastardy. [Archaic]
Knolles.
Base¶ment (?), n. [F. soubassement. Of uncertain origin. Cf. Base, a., Bastion.] (Arch.) The outer wall of the ground story of a building, or of a part of that story, when treated as a distinct substructure. ( See Base, n., 3 (a).) Hence: The rooms of a ground floor, collectively.
Basement membrane (Anat.), a delicate membrane composed of a single layer of flat cells, forming the substratum upon which, in many organs, the epithelioid cells are disposed.
Base¶ness (?), n. The quality or condition of being base; degradation; vileness.
I once did hold it a baseness to write fair.
Shak.
Bas¶eĻnet (?), n. See Bascinet. [Obs.]
Base¶ vi·ol (?). See Bass viol.
Bash (?), v. t. & i. [OE. baschen, baissen. See Abash.] To abash; to disconcert or be disconcerted or put out of countenance. [Obs.]
His countenance was bold and bashed not.
Spenser.
BaĻshaw¶ (?), n. [See Pasha.] 1. A Turkish title of honor, now written pasha. See Pasha.
2. Fig.: A magnate or grandee.
3. (Zo”l.) A very large siluroid fish (Leptops olivaris) of the Mississippi valley; Š also called goujon, mud cat, and yellow cat.
Bash¶ful (?), a. [See Bash.] 1. Abashed; daunted; dismayed. [Obs.]
2. Very modest, or modest excess; constitutionally disposed to shrink from public notice; indicating extreme or excessive modesty; shy; as, a bashful person, action, expression.
Syn. Š Diffident; retiring; reserved; shamefaced; sheepish.
Bash¶fulĻly, adv. In a bashful manner.
Bash¶fulĻness, n. The quality of being bashful.
Syn. Š Bashfulness, Modesty, Diffidence, Shyness. Modesty arises from a low estimate of ourselves; bashfulness is an abashment or agitation of the spirits at coming into contact with others; diffidence is produced by an undue degree of selfŠdistrust; shyness usually arises from an excessive selfŠconsciousness, and a painful impression that every one is looking at us. Modesty of deportment is becoming at all; bashfulness often gives rise to mistakes and blundering; diffidence is society frequently makes a man a burden to himself; shyness usually produces a reserve or distance which is often mistaken for haughtiness.
ŲBash¶iĻbaĻzouk¶ (?), n. [Turkish, lightŠheaded, a foolish fellow.] A soldier belonging to the irregular troops of the Turkish army.
Bash¶less, a. Shameless; unblushing. [Obs.]
Spenser.
Bas¶hyle (?), n. (Chem.) See Basyle.
Ba¶siĻ (?). A combining form, especially in anatomical and botanical words, to indicate the base or position at or near a base; forming a base; as, basibranchials, the most ventral of the cartilages or bones of the branchial arches; basicranial, situated at the base of the cranium; basifacial, basitemporal, etc.
Ba¶sic (?), a. 1. (Chem.) (a) Relating to a base; performing the office of a base in a salt. (b) Having the base in excess, or the amount of the base atomically greater than that of the acid, or exceeding in proportion that of the related neutral salt. (c) Apparently alkaline, as certain normal salts which exhibit alkaline reactions with test paper.
2. (Min.) Said of crystalline rocks which contain a relatively low percentage of silica, as basalt.
Basic salt (Chem.), a salt formed from a base or hydroxide by the partial replacement of its hydrogen by a negative or acid element or radical.
BaĻsic¶erĻite (?), n. [BasiŠ + Gr. ? horn, antenna.] (Zo”l.) The second joint of the antenn‘ of crustaceans.
BaĻsic¶iĻty, n. (Chem.) (a) The quality or state of being a base. (b) The power of an acid to unite with one or more atoms or equivalents of a base, as indicated by the number of replaceable hydrogen atoms contained in the acid.
BaĻsid¶iĻoĻspore (?), n. [Basidium + spore.] (Bot.) A spore borne by a basidium. Š BaĻsid·iĻoĻspor¶ous (?), a.
ŲBaĻsid¶iĻum (?), n. [NL., dim. of Gr. ? base.] (Bot.) A special oblong or pyriform cell, with slender branches, which bears the spores in that division of fungi called Basidiomycetes, of which the common mushroom is an example.
Ba¶siĻfi·er (?), n. (Chem.) That which converts into a salifiable base.
BaĻsif¶uĻgal (?), a. [Base, n. + L. fugere to flee.] (Bot.) Tending or proceeding away from the base; as, a basifugal growth.
Ba¶siĻfy (?), v.t. [Base + Šfy.] (Chem.) To convert into a salifiable base.
ŲBa·siĻgyn¶iĻum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? base + ? woman.] (Bot.) The pedicel on which the ovary of certain flowers, as the passion flower, is seated; a carpophore or thecaphore.
Ba·siĻhy¶al (?), a. [BasiŠ + Gr. ? (the letter ½upsilonø); from the shape.] (Anat.) Noting two small bones, forming the body of the inverted hyoid arch.
Ba·siĻhy¶oid (?), n. [BasiŠ + hyoid.] (Anat.) The central tongue bone.
Bas¶il (?), n. [Cf. F. basile and E. Bezel.] The slope or angle to which the cutting edge of a tool, as a plane, is ground.
Grier.
Bas¶il, v.t. [imp. & p.p. Basiled (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Basiling.] To grind or form the edge of to an angle.
Moxon.
Bas¶il, n. [F. basilic, fr. L. badilicus royal, Gr. ?, fr. ? king.] (Bot.) The name given to several aromatic herbs of the Mint family, but chiefly to the common or sweet basil (Ocymum basilicum), and the bush basil, or lesser basil (O. minimum), the leaves of which are used in cookery. The name is also given to several kinds of mountain mint (Pycnanthemum).
Basil thyme, a name given to the fragrant herbs Calamintha Acinos and C. Nepeta. Š Wild basil, a plant (Calamintha clinopodium) of the Mint family.
Bas¶il (?), n. [Corrupt. from E. basan, F. basane, LL. basanium, bazana, fr. Ar. bith¾na, prop., lining.] The skin of a sheep tanned with bark.
Bas¶iĻlar (?), Bas¶iĻlaĻry (?), } a. [F. basilaire, fr. L. basis. See Base, n.] 1. Relating to, or situated at, the base.
2. Lower; inferior; applied to impulses or springs of action. [R.] ½Basilar instincts.ø
H. W. Beecher.
BaĻsil¶ic (?), n. [F. basilique.] Basilica.
BaĻsil¶ic (?), BaĻsil¶icĻal (?), } a. [See Basilica.] 1. Royal; kingly; also, basilican.
2. (Anat.) Pertaining to certain parts, anciently supposed to have a specially important function in the animal economy, as the middle vein of the right arm.
BaĻsil¶iĻca (?), n.; pl. Basilicas (?); sometimes Basilic?e (?). [L. basilica, Gr. ? ( sc. ?, or ?) fr. ? royal, fr. ? king.] 1. Originally, the place of a king; but afterward, an apartment provided in the houses of persons of importance, where assemblies were held for dispensing justice; and hence, any large hall used for this purpose.
2. (Arch.) (a) A building used by the Romans as a place of public meeting, with court rooms, etc., attached. (b) A church building of the earlier centuries of Christianity, the plan of which was taken from the basilica of the Romans. The name is still applied to some churches by way of honorary distinction.
BaĻsil¶iĻca, n. A digest of the laws of Justinian, translated from the original Latin into Greek, by order of Basil I., in the ninth century.
P. Cyc.
BaĻsil¶iĻcan (?), a. Of, relating to, or resembling, a basilica; basilical.
There can be no doubt that the first churches in Constantinople were in the basilican form.
Milman.
BaĻsil¶iĻcok (?), n. [OF. basilicoc.] The basilisk. [Obs.]
Chaucer
ŲBaĻsil¶iĻcon (?), n. [L. basilicon, Gr. ?, neut. of ?: cf. F. basilicon. See Basilica.] (Med.) An ointment composed of wax, pitch, resin, and olive oil, lard, or other fatty substance.
Bas¶iĻlisk (?), n. [L. basiliscus, Gr. ? little king, kind of serpent, dim. of ? king; Š so named from some prominences on the head resembling a crown.] 1. A fabulous serpent, or dragon. The ancients alleged that its hissing would drive away all other serpents, and that its breath, and even its look, was fatal. See Cockatrice.
Make me not sighted like the basilisk.
Shak.
2. (Zo”l.) A lizard of the genus Basiliscus, belonging to the family Iguanid‘.
µ This genus is remarkable for a membranous bag rising above the occiput, which can be filled with air at pleasure; also for an elevated crest along the back, that can be raised or depressed at will.
3. (Mil.) A large piece of ordnance, so called from its supposed resemblance to the serpent of that name, or from its size. [Obs.]
Ba¶sin (?), n. [OF. bacin, F. bassin, LL. bacchinus, fr. bacca a water vessel, fr. L. bacca berry, in allusion to the round shape; or perh. fr. Celtic. Cf. Bac.]
1. A hollow vessel or dish, to hold water for washing, and for various other uses.
2. The quantity contained in a basin.
3. A hollow vessel, of various forms and materials, used in the arts or manufactures, as that used by glass grinders for forming concave glasses, by hatters for molding a hat into shape, etc.
4. A hollow place containing water, as a pond, a dock for ships, a little bay.
5. (Physical Geog.) (a) A circular or oval valley, or depression of the surface of the ground, the lowest part of which is generally occupied by a lake, or traversed by a river. (b) The entire tract of country drained by a river, or sloping towards a sea or lake.
6. (Geol.) An isolated or circumscribed formation, particularly where the strata dip inward, on all sides, toward a center; Š especially applied to the coal formations, called coal basins or coal fields.
Ba¶sined (?), a. Inclosed in a basin. ½Basined rivers.ø
Young.
Bas¶iĻnet (?), n. Same as Bascinet.
Ba·siĻocĻcip¶iĻtal (?), a. [BasiŠ + occipital.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to the bone in the base of the cranium, frequently forming a part of the occipital in the adult, but usually distinct in the young. Š n. The basioccipital bone.
ŲBa¶siĻon (?), n. [Gr. ? a base.] (Anat.) The middle of the anterior margin of the great foramen of the skull.
BaĻsip¶oĻdite (?), n. [BasiŠ + ?, ?, foot.] (Anat.) The basal joint of the legs of Crustacea.
ŲBaĻsip·teĻryg¶iĻum (?), n. [NL., fr. Gr. ? a base + ? a fin.] (Anat.) A bar of cartilage at the base of the embryonic fins of some fishes. It develops into the metapterygium. Š BaĻsip·terĻyg¶iĻal (?), a.
Ba·sipĻter¶yĻgoid (?), a. & n. [BasiŠ + pierygoid.] (Anat.) Applied to a protuberance of the base of the sphenoid bone.
Ba¶sis (?),n.; pl. Bases (?). [L. basis, Gr. ?. See Base, n.] 1. The foundation of anything; that on which a thing rests.
Dryden.
2. The pedestal of a column, pillar, or statue. [Obs.]
If no basis bear my rising name.
Pope.

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3. The ground work the first or fundamental principle; that which supports.
The basis of public credit is good faith.
A. Hamilton.
4. The principal component part of a thing.
BaĻsis¶oĻlute (?), a. [BasiĻ + solute, a.] (Bot.) Prolonged at the base, as certain leaves.
Ba·siĻsphe¶noid (?), Ba·siĻspheĻnoid¶al (?), } a. [BasiĻ + spheroid.] (Anat.) Of or pertaining to that part of the base of the cranium between the basioccipital and the presphenoid, which usually ossifies separately in the embryo or in the young, and becomes a part of the sphenoid in the adult.
Ba·siĻsphe¶noid, n. (Anat.) The basisphenoid bone.
Bask, v. i. [imp. & p.p. Basked (?); p. pr. & vb. n. Basking.] [ OScand. ba?ask to bathe one's self, or perh. bakask to bake one's self, sk being reflexive. See Bath, n., Bake, v. t.] To lie in warmth; to be exposed to genial heat.
Basks in the glare, and stems the tepid wave.
Goldsmith.
Bask, v. t. To warm by continued exposure to heat; to warm with genial heat.
Basks at the fire his hairy strength.
Milton.
Bas¶ket (?), n. [Of unknown origin. The modern Celtic words seem to be from the English.] 1. A vessel made of osiers or other twigs, cane, rushes, splints, or other flexible material, interwoven. ½Rude baskets ... woven of the flexile willow.ø
Dyer.
2. The contents of a basket; as much as a basket contains; as, a basket of peaches.
3. (Arch.) The bell or vase of the Corinthian capital. [Improperly so used.]
Gwilt.
4. The two back seats facing one another on the outside of a stagecoach. [Eng.]
Goldsmith.
Basket fish (Zo”l.), an ophiuran of the genus Astrophyton, having the arms much branched. See Astrophyton. Š Basket hilt, a hilt with a covering wrought like basketwork to protect the hand. Hudibras. Hence, Baskethilted, a. Š Basket work, work consisting of plaited osiers or twigs. Š Basket worm (Zo”l.), a lepidopterous insect of the genus Thyridopteryx and allied genera, esp. T. ephemer‘formis. The larva makes and carries about a bag or basketŠlike case of silk and twigs, which it afterwards hangs up to shelter the pupa and wingless adult females.
Bas¶ket, v. t. To put into a basket. [R.]
Bas¶ketĻful (?), n.; pl. Basketfuls (?). As much as a basket will contain.
Bas¶ketĻry (?), n. The art of making baskets; also, baskets, taken collectively.
Bask¶ing shark· (?). (Zo”l.) One of the largest species of sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), so called from its habit of basking in the sun; the liver shark, or bone shark. It inhabits the northern seas of Europe and America, and grows to a length of more than forty feet. It is a harmless species.
Bas¶net (?), n. Same as Bascinet.
ŲBaĻsom·maĻtoph¶oĻra (?), n. pl. [NL., fr. Gr. ? base + ? eye + ? to bear.] (Zo”l.) A group of Pulmonifera having the eyes at the base of the tentacles, including the common pond snails.
Ba¶son (?), n. A basin. [Obs. or Special form]
Basque (?), a. [F.] Pertaining to Biscay, its people, or their language.
Basque (?), n. [F.] 1. One of a race, of unknown origin, inhabiting a region on the Bay of Biscay in Spain and France.
2. The language spoken by the Basque people.
3. A part of a lady's dress, resembling a jacket with a short skirt; Š probably so called because this fashion of dress came from the Basques.
Basqu¶ish (?), a. [F. Basque Biscayan: cf. G. Baskisch.] Pertaining to the country, people, or language of Biscay; Basque [Obs.]
Sir T. Browne.
Bas·ŠreĻlief¶ (?), n. [F. basĻrelief; bas law + relief raised work, relever to raise: cf. It. bassorilievo.] Low relief; sculpture, the figures of which project less than half of their true proportions; Š called also bassrelief and bassoĻrilievo. See AltoĻrilievo.
Bass (?), n.; pl. Bass, and sometimes Basses (?). [A corruption of barse.] (Zo”l.) 1. An edible, spinyŠfinned fish, esp. of the genera Roccus, Labrax, and related genera. There are many species.
µ The common European bass is Labrax lupus. American species are: the striped bass (Roccus lineatus); white or silver bass of the lakes. (R. chrysops); brass or yellow bass (R. interruptus).
2. The two American freshŠwater species of black bass (genus Micropterus). See Black bass.
3. Species of Serranus, the sea bass and rock bass. See Sea bass.
4. The southern, red, or channel bass (Sci‘na ocellata). See Redfish.

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