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king keeps, on which they are sworn and received as kings, and on
it must be sworn all those that shall come after them; and in case
such a horse dies they put another in its place. If any king does
not wish to be sworn on horseback, they swear him on an elephant,
which they keep and treat with equal dignity.

These horses, then, going in the way I have stated, pass twice round
the arena and place themselves in the middle of the arena in five
or six lines, one before the other, and the king's horse in front
of them, all facing the king; they stand in such a way that between
them and the men there is an open space all round. As soon as they are
arranged in this way and are all quiet there goes out from the inside
of the palace a Brahman, the highest in rank of those about the king,
and two others with him, and this chief Brahman carries in his hands
a bowl with a cocoanut and some rice and flowers, while others carry
a pot of water; and they pass round by the back of the horses, which
all stand facing the king; and after performing his ceremonies there,
he returns to the palace.

After this is over you will see issuing from inside twenty-five or
thirty female doorkeepers, with canes in their hands and whips on their
shoulders; and then close to these come many eunuchs, and after these
eunuchs come many women playing many trumpets and drums and pipes
(but not like ours) and viols, and many other kinds of music, and
behind these women will come some twenty women-porters, with canes
in their hands all covered with silver, and close to them come women
clothed in the following manner. They have very rich and fine silk
cloths; on the head they wear high caps which they call COLLAES,[448]
and on these caps they wear flowers made of large pearls; collars
on the neck with jewels of gold very richly set with many emeralds
and diamonds and rubies and pearls; and besides this many strings of
pearls, and others for shoulder-belts; on the lower part of the arms
many bracelets, with half of the upper arm all bare, having armlets
in the same way all of precious stones; on the waist many girdles of
gold and of precious stones, which girdles hang in order one below the
other, almost as far down as half the thigh; besides these belts they
have other jewels, and many strings of pearls round the ankles, for
they wear very rich anklets even of greater value than the rest. They
carry in their hands vessels of gold each as large as a small cask of
water; inside these are some loops made of pearls fastened with wax,
and inside all this a lighted lamp. They come in regular order one
before the other, in all perhaps sixty women fair and young, from
sixteen to twenty years of age. Who is he that could tell of the
costliness and the value of what each of these women carries on her
person? So great is the weight of the bracelets and gold and jewels
carried by them that many of them cannot support them, and women
accompany them assisting them by supporting their arms. In this manner
and in this array they proceed three times round the horses, and at
the end retire into the palace. These women are maids of honour to the
queens, and so are the others that go with them; on each day of these
nine days of the feast one of the queens sends, each on her own day,
her ladies with the others. The officials, in honour of the feast,
have the days divided between them in accordance with their custom
as already arranged by the king; and these women come every day most
richly attired, taking pleasure in strewing themselves in such things,
and in making a display each one of what she possesses.

When these women retire the horses also go, and then come the
elephants, and after making their salaam they too retire. As soon as
they are gone the king retires by a small door which is at the end
of the building. Then the Brahmans go and take an idol, and carry
it to the House of Victory, where is the room of cloth that I have
spoken of; and the king at once comes from within, and goes to where
the idol is, and offers his prayers and performs his ceremonies. Then
they bring there more buffaloes and sheep, and kill them in the same
way as before, and then come the professional women to dance. As soon
as the slaughter of the buffaloes and sheep is over the king retires,
and goes to his supper; for he fasts all these nine days, and (each
day) they eat nothing until all is finished, and their hour for food
is midnight. The bayaderes remain dancing before the idol a long time
after all this is done.

In this way are celebrated these festivals of nine days; on the last
day there are slaughtered two hundred and fifty buffaloes and four
thousand five hundred sheep.

When these days of festival are past, the king holds a review of
all his forces, and the review is thus arranged. The king commands
to pitch his tent of Mecca velvet a full league from the city, at a
place already fixed for that purpose; and in this tent they place the
idol in honour of which all these festivals are celebrated. From this
tent to the king's palace the captains range themselves with their
troops and array, each one in his place according to his rank in the
king's household. Thus the soldiers stand in line; but it does not
appear to you to be only one line but in some places two or three,
one behind the other. Where there was a lake it was surrounded with
troops, and where the road was narrow they were drawn up on the plain;
and so on the slope of the hills and eminences, in such a way that
you could see neither plain nor hill that was not entirely covered
with troops. Those on foot stood in front of those on horses, and the
elephants behind the horses; in this array was each captain with his
troops. The captains who had their stations inside the city, since
the soldiers could not be drawn up on the flat roofs of the houses,
put up scaffoldings across the mouths of the streets to hold the
troops, in such a way that all were full, both outside and in.

Now I should like to describe to you how they were armed, and their
decorations. The cavalry were mounted on horses fully caparisoned, and
on their foreheads plates, some of silver but most of them gilded, with
fringes of twisted silk of all colours, and reins of the same;[449]
others had trappings of Mecca velvet, which is velvet of many colours
with fringes and ornaments; others had them of other silks, such as
satins and damask, and others of brocade from China and Persia.[450]
Some of the men with the gilded plates had them set with many large
precious stones, and on the borders lace-work of small stones. Some
of these horses had on their foreheads heads of serpents and of
other large animals of various kinds, made in such a strange manner
that they were a sight to see for the perfection of their make. The
horsemen were dressed in quilted tunics,[451] also of brocade and
velvet and every kind of silk. These tunics are made of layers of
very strong raw leather, and furnished with other iron (plates) that
make them strong; some have these plates gilded both inside and out,
and some are made of silver. Their headpieces are in the manner of
helmets with borders covering the neck, and each has its piece to
protect the face; they are of the same fashion as the tunics. They
wear on the neck gorgets (COFOS) all gilded, others made of silk with
plates of gold and silver, others of steel as bright as a mirror. At
the waists they have swords and small battle-axes, and in their hands
javelins with the shafts covered with gold and silver. All have their
umbrellas of state made of embroidered velvet and damask, with many
coloured silks on the horses. They wave many (standards with) white
and coloured tails, and hold them in much esteem -- which tails are
horses' tails. The elephants in the same way are covered with caparison
of velvet and gold with fringes, and rich cloths of many colours, and
with bells so that the earth resounds; and on their heads are painted
faces of giants and other kinds of great beasts. On the back of each
one of them are three or four men, dressed in their quilted tunics,
and armed with shields and javelins, and they are arrayed as if for
a foray. Then, turning to the troops on foot, there are so many that
they surround all the valleys and hills in a way with which nothing
in the world can compare. You will see amongst them dresses of such
rich cloths that I do not know where they came from, nor could any
one tell how many colours they have; shield-men with their shields,
with many flowers of gold and silver on them, others with figures
of tigers and other great beasts, others all covered with silver
leaf-work beautifully wrought, others with painted colours, others
black and (so polished that) you can see into them as into a mirror,
and their swords so richly ornamented that they could not possibly be
more so. Of the archers, I must tell you that they have bows plated
with gold and silver, and others have them polished, and their arrows
very neat, and so feathered that they could not be better; daggers
at their waists and battle-axes, with the shafts and ends of gold and
silver; then you see musqueteers with their musquets and blunderbusses
and their thick tunics, all in their order, with their ...[452] in
all their bravery; it was indeed a thing to see. Then the Moors --
one must not forget them -- for they were there also in the review
with their shields, javelins, and Turkish bows, with many bombs and
spears and fire-missiles; and I was much astonished to find amongst
them men who knew so well how to work these weapons.

The king leaves his palace riding on the horse of which I have already
told you, clothed in the many rich white cloths I have mentioned, with
two umbrellas of state all gilded and covered with crimson velvet,
and with the jewels and adornments which they keep for the purpose of
wearing at such times: he who ever wears such jewels can understand the
sort of things so great a lord would wear. Then to see the grandeur
of the nobles and men of rank, I cannot possibly describe it all,
nor should I be believed if I tried to do so; then to see the horses
and the armour that they wear, you would see them so covered with
metal plates that I have no words to express what I saw, and some
hid from me the sight of others; and to try and tell of all I saw is
hopeless, for I went along with my head so often turned from one side
to the other that I was almost falling backwards off my horse with
my senses lost. The cost of it all is not so much to be wondered at,
as there is so much money in the land, and the chiefs are so wealthy.

There went in front of the king many elephants with their coverings
and ornaments, as I have said; the king had before him some twenty
horses fully caparisoned and saddled, with embroideries of gold and
precious stones, that showed off well the grandeur and state of their
lord. Close to the king went a cage such as is seen at Lisbon on the
day of the Corpo de Dios festival, and it was gilded and very large;
it seemed to me to be made of copper or silver; it was carried by
sixteen men, eight on each side, besides others who took their turns,
and in it is carried the idol of which I have already spoken. Thus
accompanied the king passed along gazing at his soldiers, who gave
great shouts and cries and struck their shields; the horses neighed,
the elephants screamed, so that it seemed as it the city would
be overturned, the hills and valleys and all the ground trembled
with the discharges of arms and musquets; and to see the bombs and
fire-missiles over the plains, this was indeed wonderful. Truly it
seemed as if the whole world were collected there.

In this way it went on till the king arrived at the place where
the tent was that I have already mentioned, and he entered his
and performed his usual ceremonies and prayers. You must not think
that when the king passed the troops moved from their positions,
on the contrary they stood motionless in their places till the king
returned. As soon as the king had finished his ceremonies he again
took horse and returned to the city in the same way as he had come,
the troops never wearying of their shouting; as soon as he passed
by them they began to march. Then to see those who were on the hills
and slopes, and the descent of them with their shouts and beating of
shields and shaking of arrows and bows that were without count. Truly,
I was so carried out with myself that it seemed as if what I saw was a
vision, and that I was in a dream. Then the troops began to march to
their tents and pavilions in the plains, which were in great number;
and all the captains accompanied the king as far as the palace,
and thence departed to rest themselves from their labour.

Now I desire you to know that this king has continually a million
fighting troops,[453] in which are included 35,000 cavalry in armour;
all these are in his pay, and he has these troops always together and
ready to be despatched to any quarter whenever such may be necessary. I
saw, being in this city of Bisnaga, the king despatch a force against
a place, one of those which he has by the sea-coast; and he sent fifty
captains with 150,000 soldiers, amongst whom were many cavalry. He has
many elephants, and when the king wishes to show the strength of his
power to any of his adversaries amongst the three kings bordering on
his kingdom, they say that he puts into the field two million soldiers;
in consequence of which he is the most feared king of any in these
parts. And although he takes away so many men from his kingdom, it must
not be thought that the kingdom remains devoid of men; it is so full
that it would seem to you as if he had never taken away a man, and
this by reason of the many and great merchants that are in it. There
are working people and all other kinds of men who are employed in
business, besides those who are obliged to go into the field; there
are also a great number of Brahmans. In all the land of the heathen
there are these Brahmans; they are men who do not eat anything that
suffers death; they have little stomach for the use of arms.

Should any one ask what revenues this king possesses, and what his
treasure is that enables him to pay so many troops, since he has so
many and such great lords in his kingdom, who, the greater part of
them, have themselves revenues, I answer thus: These captains whom
he has over these troops of his are the nobles of his kingdom; they
are lords, and they hold the city, and the towns and villages of
the kingdom; there are captains amongst them who have a revenue of
a million and a million a half of PARDAOS, others a hundred thousand
PARDAOS, others two hundred, three hundred or five hundred thousand
PARDAOS, and as each one has revenue so the king fixes for him the
number of troops he must maintain, in foot, horse, and elephants.[454]
These troops are always ready for duty, whenever they may be called out
and wherever they may have to go; and in this way he has this million
of fighting men always ready. Each of these captains labours to turn
out the best troops he can get because he pays them their salaries; and
in this review there were the finest young men possible to be seen or
that ever could be seen, for in all this array I did not see a man that
would act the coward. Besides maintaining these troops, each captain
has to make his annual payments to the king, and the king has his own
salaried troops to whom he gives pay. He has eight hundred elephants
attached to his person, and five hundred horses always in his stables,
and for the expenses of these horses and elephants he has devoted the
revenues that he receives from this city of Bisnaga. You may well
imagine how great these expenses may be, and besides these that of
the servants who have the care of the horses and elephants; and by
this you will be able to judge what will be the revenue of this city.

This king of Bisnaga has five kings his subjects and vassals,[455]
besides other captains and lords having large territories and great
revenues; whenever a son happens to be born to this king, or a
daughter, all the nobles of the kingdom offer him great presents of
money and jewels of price, and so they do to him every year on the
day of his birth.

You must know that when these feasts of which I have spoken are ended,
at the beginning of the month of October, when eleven of its days are
past, they make great feasts, during which every one puts on new,
and rich, and handsome cloths, each one according to his liking,
and all the captains give their men handsome cloths of many colours,
each one having his own colour and device. On the same day they give
great gifts of money to the king, it is even said that they give on
that day to the king in money a million and five hundred thousand
gold PARDAOS, and each PARDAO is worth three hundred and sixty REIS,
and from this you will be able to know how many REIS there will be. I
wish you to know that on this day begins their year; it is their New
Year's Day, and for this they make the feast and give the gifts;
and it is not to be wondered at, for we also do the same on New
Year's Day. They begin the year in this month with the new moon,
and they count the months always from moon to moon.[456]

And now I wish you to know that the previous kings of this place for
many years past have held it a custom to maintain a treasury, which
treasury, after the death of each, is kept locked and sealed in such
a way that it cannot be seen by any one, nor opened, nor do the kings
who succeed to the kingdom open them or know what is in them. They are
not opened except when the kings have great need, and thus the kingdom
has great supplies to meet its needs. This king has made his treasury
different from those of the previous kings, and he puts in it every
year ten million PARDAOS, without taking from them one PARDAO more
than for the expenses of his house. The rest remains for him, over and
above these expenses and of the expenses in the houses of his wives,
of whom I have already told you that he keeps near him twelve thousand
women; from this you will be able to judge how great is the richness
of this kingdom, and how great the treasure that this king has amassed.

And if any one does not know what a PARDAO is, let him know that it
is a round gold coin, which coin is not struck anywhere in India
except in this kingdom; it bears impressed on it on one side two
images and on the other the name of the king who commanded it to
be struck; those which this king ordered to be struck have only one
image. This coin is current all over India. Each PARDAO, as already
said, is worth three hundred and sixty REIS.

After all these things (feasts) had passed the king betook himself to
the new city, of which I have already told you that he delights in it
much because it was made and peopled by him, of which I have already
told you. In two years the king built this city. The king was received
by the citizens with great feasts, and the streets were hung with rich
cloths, and with many triumphal arches under which he passed. In this
city the king held another review of the troops of his guard, and
he distributed pay to all because it was the beginning of the year,
and it is their custom to pay salaries year by year. An inspection is
held by the officers of his house, and they write down the name of each
one, and the marks that he has on his face or body. There are men of
the guard who have a thousand PARDAOS pay, and others eight hundred,
others six hundred and more, and a little more or less; there is a
difference, and also a difference in the persons. Some men of them who
are of higher rank than others have two horses or three, and others
have no more than one. These troops have their captains, and each
captain goes with his guard to mount guard at the palace according
to order and custom; the king has in his guard five hundred horse,
and these watch outside the palace armed with their weapons. There
are two watches inside, and people with swords and shields.

The king, then, being in his new city, as I have said, Christovao de
Figueiredo begged him of his kindness that he would permit him to be
shown the palace of the city of Bisnaga, forasmuch as there had come
with him many Portuguese who had never been in Bisnaga, and they would
rejoice to see it, in order to have somewhat to tell of on their return
to their own lands, whenever God should take them there. The king at
once commanded that they should be shown certain of his residences,
for that of his wives no one ever sees. As soon as we had returned
to the city of Bisnaga, the governor of that place, who is called
Gamdarajo, and is brother of Salvatinica,[457] showed us the palace.

You must know that on entering that gate of which I have spoken,
by which the ladies serving the king's wives make their exit when
they come to the feast, opposite to it there is another of the same
kind. Here they bade us stand still, and they counted us how many
we were, and as they counted they admitted us one by one to a small
courtyard with a smoothly plastered floor, and with very white walls
around it.[458] At the end of this courtyard, opposite this gate by
which we entered, is another close to it on the left hand, and another
which was closed; the door opposite belongs to the king's residence. At
the entrance of this door outside are two images painted like life and
drawn in their manner, which are these; the one on the right hand is of
the father of this king, and the one on the left is of this king. The
father was dark and a gentleman of fine form, stouter than the son
is; they stand with all their apparel and such raiment as they wear
or used to wear when alive. Afterwards, wishing to pass in at this
door, they again counted us, and after they had finished counting us
we entered a little house which contained what I shall now relate.

As soon as you are inside, on the left hand, are two chambers one above
the other, which are in this manner: the lower one is below the level
of the ground, with two little steps which are covered with copper
gilded, and from there to the top is all lined with gold (I do not
say "gilded," but "lined" inside), and outside it is dome-shaped. It
has a four-sided porch made of cane-work[459] over which is a work
of rubies and diamonds and all other kinds of precious stones, and
pearls, and above the porch are two pendants of gold; all the precious
stonework is in heart-shapes, and, interweaved between one and another,
is a twist of thick seed-pearl work; on the dome are pendants of the
same. In this chamber was a bed which had feet similar to the porch,
the cross-bars covered with gold, and there was on it a mattress of
black satin; it had all round it a railing of pearls a span wide;
on it were two cushions and no other covering. Of the chamber above
it I shall not say if it held anything because I did not see it,
but only the one below on the right side. In this house there is
a room with pillars of carved stone; this room is all of ivory, as
well the chamber as the walls, from top to bottom, and the pillars
of the cross-timbers at the top had roses and flowers of lotuses all
of ivory, and all well executed, so that there could not be better,
-- it is so rich and beautiful that you would hardly find anywhere
another such. On this same side is designed in painting all the ways
of life of the men who have been here even down to the Portuguese,
from which the king's wives can understand the manner in which each
one lives in his own country, even to the blind and the beggars. In
this house are two thrones covered with gold, and a cot of silver
with its curtains. Here I saw a little slab of green jasper, which is
held for a great thing in this house. Close to where this jasper is,
I.E. underneath some arches where is the entrance into the palace,
there is a little door closed with some padlocks: they told us that
inside it there was a treasury of one of the former kings.

As soon as we left this house we entered a courtyard as large as an
arena for beast-fights, very well plastered, and almost in the middle
are some pillars of wood, with a cross beam at the top all covered
with copper gilt, and in the middle four chains of silver links with
hooks which are caught one into the other; this serves for a swing
for the wives of the king. At the entrance of this courtyard on the
right hand we mounted four or five steps and entered some beautiful
houses made in the way I have already told you -- for their houses
are single-storeyed houses with flat roofs on top, although on
top there may be other houses; the plan is good, and they are like
terraces. There is a building there built on many pillars, which are
of stone-work, and so also is all the work of the roof, with all the
rest of wood (MANERIA), and all the pillars (with all the other work)
are gilded so that they seem as if covered with gold.

Then at the entrance of this building in the middle nave, there is,
standing on four pillars, a canopy covered with many figures of
dancing-women, besides other small figures[460] which are placed in
the stone-work. All this is also gilded, and has some red colour on
the under-sides of the leaves which stand out from the sculpture. You
must know that they make no use of this building because it belongs to
their idol and to the temple. At the end of this is a little closed
door where the idol is. Whenever they celebrate any festival of this
idol, they carry it on a golden throne and put it underneath that
canopy which is made for that purpose; and then come the Brahmans to
perform their ceremonies there, and the dancing-girls come to dance.

Descending from this building, we passed on the left side of the
courtyard, and we entered a corridor which runs the whole length
of it, in which we saw some things. On entering the corridor was a
cot suspended in the air by silver chains; the cot had feet made of
bars of gold, so well made that they could not be better, and the
cross-bars of the cot were covered with gold. In front of this cot
was a chamber where was another cot suspended in the air by chains of
gold; this cot had feet of gold with much setting of precious stones,
and the cross-bars were covered with gold. Above this chamber was
another, smaller, and with nothing in it save only that it was gilt
and painted. Passing this chamber, along the same corridor in front
was a chamber which this king, commanded to be made; on the outside
were figures of women with bows and arrows like amazons. They had
begun to paint this chamber, and they told us that it had to be
finer than the others, and that it was to be all plated with gold,
as well the ground below as all the rest. Passing this corridor and
mounting up into another which is higher, we saw at one end three
caldrons of gold, so large that in each one they could cook half
a cow, and with them were others, very large ones, of silver, and
also little pots of gold and some large ones. Thence we went up by a
little staircase, and entered by a little door into a building which
is in this manner. This hall is where the king sends his women to be
taught to dance. It is a long hall and not very wide, all of stone
sculpture on pillars, which are at a distance of quite an arm's length
from the wall; between one and another is an arm's length and a half,
perhaps a little more. These pillars stand in that manner all around
the building; they are half-pillars (?)[461] made with other hollows
(?) all gilt.[462] In the supports (or pedestals) on the top[463]
are many great beasts like elephants, and of other shapes; it is open
so that the interior is seen, and there are on the inner side of
these beasts other images, each placed according to its character;
there are also figures of men turned back to back, and other beasts
of different sorts. In each case from pillar to pillar is a cross-bar
(the architrave) which is like a panel, and from pillar to pillar are
many such panels; there are images of old men, too, gilded and of the
size of a cubit. Each of the panels has one placed in this way. These
images are over all the building. And on the pillars are other images,
smaller, with other images yet more subordinate, and other figures
again, in such a way that I saw this work gradually diminishing in
size on these pillars with their designs, from pillar to pillar, and
each time smaller by the size of a span as it went on, becoming lost;
so it went dwindling gradually away till there remained of all the
sculptured work only the dome, the most beautiful I ever saw. Between
these images and pillars runs a design of foliage, like plates (A
MANEYRA DE LAMINES), all gilt, with the reverses of the leaves in
red and blue, the images that are on the pillars are stags and other
animals, they are painted in colours with the pink on their faces;
but the other images seated on the elephants, as well as those on
the panels, are all dancing women having tattle drums (tom-toms).

The designs of these panels show the positions at the ends of dances
in such a way that on each panel there is a dancer in the proper
position at the end of the dance; this is to teach the women, so
that if they forget the position in which they have to remain when
the dance is done, they may look at one of the panels where is the
end of that dance. By that they keep in mind what they have to do.

At the end of this house on the left hand is a painted recess where
the women cling on with their hands in order better to stretch and
loosen their bodies and legs; there they teach them to make the whole
body supple, in order to make their dancing more graceful. At the
other end, on the right, in the place where the king places himself
to watch them dancing, all the floors and walls where he sits are
covered with gold, and in the middle of the wall is a golden image
of a woman of the size of a girl of twelve years, with her arms in
the position which she occupies in the end of a dance.

They did not show us more than this. The residence of the women no
one may see except the eunuchs, of whom I have already told you. From
here we returned by the way we had entered to the second gate, and
there they again counted us.

Of the city of Bisnaga they say that there are more than a hundred
thousand dwelling-houses in it, all one-storeyed and flat-roofed,
to each of which there is a low surrounding wall, and in this city
the king lives most of the time. On the north side are rocky hills;
a river runs between them, and the wall runs along the top of them,
and on the farther side is a city called Nagumdym; and it has only
three gates, namely one by the river, which they cross in boats
embarking just at this gate;[464] one on the other side which is to
the north, this is a stronger gate; and one on the north-west side,
a little gate between two very high ridges; and it is such a bad road
that only one horseman can pass out a time.

And on the north-west side (of Bisnaga) is another city called
Crisnapor[465] connected with Bisnaga, in which are all their pagodas,
those in which they most worship, and all the revenue of this city is
granted to them, and they say that they have a revenue of a hundred
thousand PARDAOS OF gold. The pagodas are high and have great buildings
with many figures of men and women, all in lascivious attitudes.

On the south side is the other city called Nagalapor in a plain; in
it the Ydalcao stopped with all his forces when he besieged Bisnaga,
and he razed it to the ground; but already it is again rebuilt,
and this is a league from Bisnaga.[466]

On the east side is another city called Ardegema,[467] which is the
name of the principal wife of this king, and it is new, and he built
it for love of her.

Chronicle of Fernao Nuniz

(Written, Probably, A.D. 1535 -- 37)


Copy and Summary of a Chronicle of the Kings of Bisnaga, who reigned
(ORIG. were) from the era one thousand two hundred and thirty, which
was after the general destruction of the kingdom of Bisnaga.[468]

In the year twelve hundred and thirty[469] these parts of India were
ruled by a greater monarch than had ever reigned. This was the King of
Dili,[470] who by force of arms and soldiers made war on Cambaya for
many years, taking and destroying in that period the land of Guzarate
which belongs to Cambaya,[471] and in the end he became its lord.

And this taken, not being content with the victory which he had already
gained, he made ready a large army of foot and horse, and determined
to make war on the King of Bisnaga, leaving his captains in his lands
and fortresses to defend themselves against his enemies, of whom there
were many; for this King[472] was at that time at war with Bemgalla,
and with the Turkomans on the confines of the country of Sheikh
Ismael.[473] These men are fair and large of body; in their lands
are many horses with which this King of Delly made war on Cambaya
and laid it waste; and after the country was taken and he lord of it,
there still remained to him as many as eight hundred thousand horsemen
with whom he passed on to Bisnaga; of the number of people on foot
nothing is said here because no one counted them.

And, determining to make war on the King of Bisnaga and to reduce him
under his rule, he passed out of the lands which he had newly gained,
entering into those of the King of Bisnaga, which at that time were
many; and quitting the kingdom of Cambaya, he began to invade and make
war on the Ballagate,[474] whose lands now belong to the Idalcao,[475]
taking and destroying many towns and places in such a way that the
people of the country surrendered to him their persons and property,
though he left to them their weapons which he could not prevent
their carrying.

And after he had become lord of all the country of the Ballagate,
he passed the river of Duree,[476] which forms the boundary of the
territories of the Ballagate and of those of the King of Bisnaga,
which river he passed in basket-boats without finding any one to
oppose the passage. Up to that time, in all that was (afterwards)
the kingdom of Bisnaga, no place was populated save only the city of
Nagumdym,[477] in which the King of Bisnaga[478] then was, awaiting
his destruction, since it was strong, and because he possessed no
other citadel but that, which was his Lisbon.

And from the river which that King of Delly passed in
basket-boats,[479] to that city was twenty-five leagues, all being open
country (CAMPOS); and in them it seemed good to him to pitch his camp,
so that his people might drink of the water in the plain (CAMPOS)
along the length of the river. At that time there was great drought
by reason of the summer season, and the waters of the few little lakes
that were in the plain would not suffice for ten days for his troops,
horses, and elephants, without drying up; and for that reason he halted
some days by the banks of that river, till rain fell in the fields
and lakes, enough for such a large army as he had brought with him.

And when the time came he raised his camp and brought his array to
a halt in sight of that city of Nagundy.

And the King of Bisnaga, seeing his great power and how many troops
he had brought with him, determined to abandon the city, which was
very difficult to enter; close to which was, and now is, a river
which is called Nagundy, whence the city is called Nagundy, and they
say the city had its name because of it. And he fled for shelter to
a fortress called Crynamata,[480] which was by the bank of the river,
and which contained much provision and water; but not enough for the
sustenance of so many people as he had with him, as many as fifty
thousand men. Therefore the King chose five thousand men with their
property and took refuge in the fortress; and for the rest he bade
them betake themselves to another fortress of his in another part of
his kingdom.

And being sheltered in the fortress, after he had taken order about
his provisions, he was beset on all sides by the King of the people
of Dely, who had already up to this time been at war with him[481]
for twelve years; over which siege little time was spent, because the
people that were inside the fortress were numerous, and in a little
space had consumed their provisions.

Then the King of Bisnaga, seeing the determination of the soldiers
of the King of Delly that they would never leave the place without
making an end of those whom he had with him in the fortress, made a
speech to them all, laying before them the destruction that the King
of the troops of Dely had caused in his own kingdoms;[482] and how,
not content with that, he had besieged this fortress, so that now
there was nothing for them to look to but death, since already there
was no water in the fortress nor anything left to eat. And (he said)
that of the fifty thousand men who had been in the city of Nagundy
he had chosen them alone as his companions and true friends, and he
begged of them that they would hold fast in death to the loyalty which
they had borne him in their lives; for he hoped that day to give battle
to the King of Delly. Then he said that already there remained to him
of his kingdom and lordship nothing but that fortress and the people
that were in it, and so he asked them to arm themselves and die with
him in battle, giving their lives to the enemy who had deprived them
of all their lands.

All of them were very content and glad at this, and in a short space
were all armed; and after they were so the King made them another
speech, saying, "Before we join battle we have to wage another war
with our sons and daughters and wives, for it will not be good that
we should allow them to be taken for the use of our enemies." And the
King said, "I will be the first to deal with my wife and sons." At this
time they were all standing in a large open space which was before the
citadel, and there by the hand of the King were slain over fifty of his
wives and some sons and little daughters; and the same was done with
their own hands by all who had wives and sons that could not fight.

When these nuptial feasts, so abhorred of all, were fulfilled, they
opened the gates of the fortress, and their enemies forthwith entered,
and slew all of them except six old men who withdrew to a house. These
were made captive and were taken before the King (of Delhi), and the
King asked them who they were and how they had escaped, and they told
them who they were; at which the King greatly rejoiced, because one
of them was the minister of the kingdom and another the treasurer,
and the others were leading officers in it. They were questioned by
the King concerning the treasures of the King of Bisnaga, and such
riches as were buried in the vaults of the fortress were delivered up
to him, they also gave him an account of the revenues of the kingdom
of Bisnaga at that time. When all was known to the King he delivered
them to one of his captains, and commanded to make over the bodies of
the dead to another captain, and gave orders that the bodies should
be burned; and the body of the King, at the request of those six men,
was conveyed very honourably to the city of Nagundy. From that time
forward that place became a burying-place of the kings. Amongst
themselves they still worship this King as a saint.


Of what the King (of Delhi) did after he had slain the King of Bisnaga,
and entirely overthrown him, and seized his lands for himself, none
being left to defend them.

As soon as the King had thus fulfilled all his desires, he bade his
captains destroy some villages and towns which had risen against him,
and give security to those who sought it of him. After the death of
the (Hindu) King he stayed in that fortress two years, having already
for twelve waged war on the kingdom.[483] He was far from his home,
which WAS more than five hundred leagues distant; and, his forces
being all scattered, news came to him how that all the land which
was first gained by him had rebelled. As soon as this was known to
the King he sent to collect his people, leaving in this fortress,
which was the strongest in the kingdom, abundant provisions for its
defence in all circumstances; and he left, for captain and governor
of the kingdom, Enybiquymelly,[484] a Moor, and with him he left many
troops, showing much kindness to each one of them separately, giving
to each lavish gifts and lands in such a way that all were content,
and, abandoning, forthwith all hope of returning to their own country,
made there their homes.


How the King of Dily departed with his troops, and took to his kingdom
the six captives that he had taken in the fortress, &c.

The King having departed to his own kingdom in consequence of the news
that had been brought to him, leaving the kingdom of Bisnaga in the
power of Meliquy niby, when it was known throughout the country how
he was out of it, those who had escaped to the mountains, with others
who, against their will and through fear had taken oaths of fealty
for their towns and villages, rose against the captain Mileque neby,
and came to besiege him in the fortress, allowing no provisions to go
in to him, nor paying him the taxes that had been forced on them. And
Meliquy niby, seeing how little profit he could get in this country,
and how badly he was obeyed, and how far off was the succour sent by
his lord the King, sent quickly to him to tell him how all the land
was risen against him, and how every one was lord of what he pleased,
and no one was on his side; and that His Highness should decide what
he thought best to be done in such case. And when the King heard this
news he took counsel, telling the great people of the realm of the
letter and message which he had from Melinebiquy, his captain and
governor of the kingdom of Bisnaga, and how badly the lords of the
land obeyed him; so that each one was king and lord over whomsoever
he pleased, as soon as he acquired any power, there being no justice
amongst them, nor any one whom they wished to obey. What was it seemed
best to them (he asked), and what in such case ought they, and could
they, do, so that he should not lose so fair a territory and one so
rich, the seizure of which had cost such labour, so much money, and
the lives of so many of their fellows? All the councillors decided
that the King should command the presence of the six men whom he held
captive, and that he should learn from them who was at that time the
nearest of kin, or in any way related to the Kings of Bisnaga; and,
this questioning done, no one was found to whom by right the kingdom
could come, save to one of the six whom he held captive, and this one
he who at the time of the destruction of Bisnaga had been minister of
the kingdom. He was not related by blood to the kings, but only was
the principal judge; but (it seemed) good that His Highness should give
the kingdom to that one. And this advice pleased the King and them all.

At once the six captives were released and set at liberty, and many
kindnesses and honours were done them, and the governor was raised to
be King and the treasurer to be governor;[485] and he took from them
oaths and pledges of their fealty as vassals; and they were at once
despatched and sent to their lands with a large following to defend
them from any one who should desire to do them an injury. And when
these six men had thus finished their journey to the city of Nagundy,
they found only the ruined basements of the houses, and places peopled
by a few poor folk.

In a short time the arrival of Deorao[486] (for so he was called)
was known in all the country, and now he had been exalted to be King,
with which the people were well content, as men who had felt so deeply
their subjection to a lord not of their own faith; and from this man
have descended all those who have reigned up to now. And they made
great feasts for him, and delivered up to him the lands taken by former
kings and lost to them, and he was obeyed as King. And when the captain
Meliquy niby became aware of this, he was very pleased and contented,
and delivered up to him the fortress and kingdom as the King his lord
had commanded; and making himself ready with all speed he departed,
leaving the land to its proper owner. And after he had gone, King
Deorao, entering on his rule, strove to pacify the people and those who
had revolted, and to make them safe, and he did them many kindnesses
so as to secure their good-will, and travelled about their fortresses
and towns. He abandoned the lost lands since he knew that he could
not regain them, having no army or forces for such a work, nor any
cause for which he could make war; and also because he was very old.


How the City of Bisnaga was built by that King Dehorao.

The King going one day a-hunting, as was often his wont, to a mountain
on the other side of the river of Nagumdym, where now is the city of
Bisnaga, -- which at that time was a desert place in which much hunting
took place, and which the King had reserved for his own amusement, --
being in it with his dogs and appurtenances of the chase, a hare rose
up before him, which, instead of fleeing from the dogs, ran towards
them and bit them all, so that none of them dared go near it for the
harm that it did them.[487] And seeing this, the King, astonished
at so feeble a thing biting dogs which had already caught for him a
tiger and a lion, judged it to be not really a hare but (more likely)
some prodigy; and he at once turned back to the city of Nagumdym.

And arriving at the river, he met a hermit who was walking along
the bank, a man holy among them, to whom he told what had happened
concerning the hare. And the hermit, wondering at it, said to the
King that he should turn back with him and shew him the place where
so marvellous a thing had happened; and being there, the hermit said
that the King ought in that place to erect houses in which he could
dwell, and build a city, for the prodigy meant that this would be
the strongest city in the world, and that it would never be captured
by his enemies, and would be the chief city in the kingdom. And so
the King did, and on that very day began work on his houses, and he
enclosed the city round about; and that done he left Nagumdym and soon
filled the new city with people. And he gave it the name Vydiajuna,
for so the hermit called himself[488] who had bidden him construct it;
but in course of time this name has become corrupted, and it is now
called Bisnaga. And after that hermit was dead the King raised a very
grand temple[489] in honour of him and gave much revenue to it. And
ever since, in his memory, the Kings of Bisnaga, on the day when they
are raised to be kings, have, in honour of the hermit, to enter this
house before they enter their own, and they offer many prayers in it,
and celebrate many feasts there every year.

This King Dehorao reigned seven years, and did nothing therein but
pacify the kingdom, which he left in complete tranquillity.

By his death one called Bucarao[490] inherited the kingdom, and he
conquered many lands which at the time of the destruction of that
kingdom remained rebellious, and by him they were taken and turned
to his power and lordship; and he took the kingdom of Orya, which is
very great; it touches on Bemgalla. He reigned thirty-seven years,
being not less feared than esteemed, and obeyed by all in his kingdom.

On the death of that King Bucarao there came to the throne his son
called Pureoyre Deorao,[491] which in Canara means "powerful lord,"
and he coined a money of PARDAOS which even now they call "PUROURE
DEORAO;" and from that time forward it has become a custom to call
coins by the names of the kings that made them; and it is because
of this that there are so many names of PARDAOS in the kingdom of
Bisnaga. And this King in his time did nothing more than leave at
his death as much conquered country as his father had done.

This King had a son who by his death inherited the kingdom, who was
called Ajarao;[492] and he reigned forty-three years, in which time
he was always at war with the Moors; and he took Goa, and Chaul, and
Dabull, and Ceillao,[493] and all the country of Charamamdell,[494]
which had also rebelled after the first destruction of this kingdom,
and he did many other things which are not recorded here.

This King made in the city of Bisnaga many walls and towers and
enclosed it anew. Now the city at that time was of no use, there
being no water in it by which could be raised gardens and orchards,
except the water of the Nagumdym which was far from it, for what water
there was in the country was all brackish and allowed nothing to grow;
and the King, desiring to increase that city and make it the best in
the kingdom, determined to bring to it a very large river which was at
a distance of five leagues away, believing that it would cause much
profit if brought inside the city. And so he did, damming the river
itself with great boulders; and according to story he threw in a stone
so great that it alone made the river follow the King's will. It was
dragged thither by a number of elephants of which there are many in
the kingdom; and the water so brought he carried through such parts
of the city as he pleased. This water proved of such use to the city
that it increased his revenue by more than three hundred and fifty
thousand PARDAOS. By means of this water they made round about the
city a quantity of gardens and orchards and great groves of trees and
vineyards, of which this country has many, and many plantations of
lemons and oranges and roses, and other trees which in this country
bear very good fruit. But on this turning of the river they say the
King spent all the treasure that had come to him from the king his
father, which was a very great sum of money.

This King left a son at his death called Visarao,[495] who inherited
the kingdom on the death of his father; and he lived six years,
and during this time did nothing worth relating.

At his death he left a son called Deorao, who reigned twenty-five
years. He determined to collect great treasures, but owing to constant
warfare he could not gain more than eight hundred and fifty millions of
gold, not counting precious stones. This was no great sum, seeing that
in his time the King of Coullao,[496] and Ceyllao, and Paleacate,[497]
and Peguu, and Tanacary[498] and many other countries, paid tribute
to him.

At his death this King left a son who inherited the kingdom, who
was called Pinarao,[499] he reigned twelve years, and was a great
astrologer; he was given much to letters, and made many books and
(promulgated) ordinances in his land and kingdom. As long as he
reigned he had twenty ministers, which is an office that amongst these
(people) is (generally) held only by one person. This King was very
wise; he was well versed in all his duties, and possessed such good
talents and qualities that they called him Pinarao, which amongst
them, in the language of Canara, means a very wise man. This King
was killed by treason by the hand of a nephew whom he had brought up
in his house like a son, who thus caused the death of the King.[500]
The nephew resolved to marry, and for the feasts at his wedding he
prayed the King, his uncle; that he would command that he should
be attended and honoured at his wedding by the King's own son; and
the King, for the love that he bore him and the pleasure that he
had in honouring him, bade his son make ready with his following,
and sent him with the ministers and captains of his court to attend
and honour the wedding of his nephew. And he, making all ready, as
soon as they were in his house, being at table, they were all slain
by daggers thrust by men kept in readiness for that deed. This was
done without any one suspecting it, because the custom there is to
place on the table all that there is to eat and drink, no man being
present to serve those who are seated, nor being kept outside, but
only those who are going to eat; and because of their thus being
alone at table, nothing of what passed could be known to the people
they had brought with them. And after he had killed the King's son
with all the captains, the minister[501] set out to ride as if he
were going to bear a present to the King, and as soon as he arrived
at the gates of the palace he sent a message to the King saying that
he was there, and had brought him a present according to custom. And
the King, being at that time at leisure and amusing himself with his
wives, bade him enter; and as soon as he was come to where he stood,
he presented to the King a golden bowl in which he had placed a dagger
steeped in poison, with which he wounded him in many places; but the
King, as he was a man who knew how to use both sword and dagger better
than any one in his kingdom, avoided by twists and turns of his body
the thrusts aimed at him, freed himself from him, and slew him with
a short sword that he had. And this done he ordered a horse to be
saddled, and mounted it, and rode holding his nephew's head in his
hand; and he took the road to the latter's house, apprehending that
treason might have been wrought and fearing that his son might be
dead. And as soon as he arrived he beheld the treason in very deed,
and how wicked a deed his nephew had done; seeing that his son and
his principal captains were dead, and that the traitor might have
prevailed against himself had he had the power. In great wrath the
King commanded his men to inflict dreadful punishments on all found
guilty of this treason, and indeed many who were not so. He himself
remained grievously wounded with the poisoned wounds and he lasted only
six months, and these ended, died of the poison carried on the dagger.

After his death a son remained to him who inherited the kingdom and
was called ... [502], and this King, as soon as he began to reign,
sent to call his treasurers and the minister and the scribes of
his household, and inquired of them the revenue of his kingdom, and
learned how much revenue came in yearly; and His Highness had every
year thirteen millions of gold. This King granted to the pagodas a
fifth part of the revenue of his kingdom; no law is possible in the
country where these pagodas are, save only the law of the Brahmans,
which is that of the priests; and so the people suffer.

On the death of this King succeeded a son named Verupacarao.[503] As
long as he reigned he was given over to vice, caring for nothing but
women, and to fuddle himself with drink and amuse himself, and never
showed himself either to his captains or to his people; so that in
a short time he lost that which his forefathers had won and left to
him. And the nobles of the kingdom, seeing the habits and life of this
king, rebelled, every one of them, each holding to what he possessed,
so that in his time the King lost Goa, and Chaull, and Dabull, and
the other chief lands of the realm. This King in mere sottishness
slew many of his captains. Because he dreamed one night that one of
his captains entered his chamber, on the next day he had him called,
telling him that he had dreamed that night that the captain had entered
his room to kill him; and for that alone he had him put to death. This
King had two sons already grown up, who, seeing the wickedness of
their father and how he had lost his kingdom, determined to kill him,
as in fact was done by one of them, the elder, who was his heir; and
after he had killed him, when they besought him to be King, he said,
"Although this kingdom may be mine by right, I do not want it because
I killed my father, and did therein that which I ought not to have
done, and have committed a mortal sin, and for that reason it is
not well that such an unworthy son should inherit the kingdom. Take
my brother and let him govern it since he did not stain his hands
with his father's blood;" which was done, and the younger brother
was raised to the throne. And when they had entrusted the kingdom to
him he was advised by his minister and captains that he should slay
his brother, because, as the latter had killed his father so he would
kill him if desirous of so doing; and as it appeared to the King that
such a thing might well be, he determined to kill him, and this was
at once carried out, and he slew him with his own hand. So that this
man truly met the end that those meet with who do such ill deeds This
King was called Padearao; and after this was done he gave himself up
to the habits of his father, and, abandoning himself to his women,
and not seeking to know ought regarding his realm save only the vices
in which he delighted, he remained for the most part in the city.

One of his captains who was called Narsymgua,[504] who was in some
manner akin to him, seeing his mode of life, and knowing how ill
it was for the kingdom that he should live and reign, though all
was not yet lost, determined to attack him and seize on his lands;
which scheme he at once put into force.

He wrote, therefore, and addressed the captains and chiefs of the
kingdom, saying how bad it was for them not to have a King over them
who could govern properly, and how it would be no wonder, seeing the
manner of his life, if the King soon lost by his bad government even
more than his father had done.

He made great presents to all of them so as to gain their goodwill,
and when he had thus attached many people to himself he made ready
to attack Bisnaga where the King dwelt. When the King was told of the
uprising of this captain Narsymgua, how he was approaching and seizing
his lands and how many people were joining him, he seemed unmindful of
the loss he had suffered, he gave no heed to it nor made ready, but,
instead, he only ill-treated him who had brought the news. So that a
captain of the army of this Narsymgua arrived at the gates of Bisnaga,
and there was not a single man defending the place; and when the King
was told of his arrival he only said that it could not be. Then the
captain entered the city, and the King only said that it could not
be. Then he even entered his palace and came as far as the doors of
his chamber, slaying some of the women. At last the King believed,
and seeing now how great was the danger, he resolved to flee by the
gates on the other side; and so he left his city and palaces, and fled.

When it was known by the captain that the King had fled he did not
trouble to go after him, but took possession of the city and of the
treasures which he found there; and he sent to acquaint his lord,
Narsymgua. And after that Narsymgua was raised to be king. And as
he had much power and was beloved by the people, thenceforward this
kingdom of Bisnaga was called the kingdom of Narsymga.

After he was raised to be king and was obeyed he came to Bisnaga,
where he did many acts of justice; and he took the territories from
whomsoever had, contrary to right, taken them from the king. This King
reigned forty-four years, and at his death left all the kingdom in
peace, and he regained all the lands which the kings his predecessors
had lost. He caused horses to be brought from Oromuz and Adeem[505]
into his kingdom and thereby gave great profit to the merchants,
paying them for the horses just as they asked. He took them dead or
alive at three for a thousand PARDAOS, and of those that died at sea
they brought him the tail only, and he paid for it just as if it had
been alive.

At the death of that King there remained three fortresses which had
revolted from his rule, and which he was never able to take, which were
these -- Rachol, and Odegary and Conadolgi,[506] which have large and
rich territories and are the principal forts in the kingdom. At his
death he left two sons, and the governor of the kingdom was Nasenaque,
who was father of the king that afterwards was king of Bisnaga;[507]
and this king (Narsymgua), before he died, sent to call Narsenaque
his minister, and held converse with him, telling him that at his
death he would by testament leave him to govern the kingdom until
the princes should be of an age to rule; also he said that all the
royal treasures were his alone, and he reminded him that he had won
this kingdom of Narsymgua at the point of the sword; adding that now
there remained only three fortresses to be taken, but that for him
the time for their capture was passed; and the King begged him to
keep good guard over the kingdom and to deliver it up to the princes,
to whichever of them should prove himself most fitted for it. And
after the King's death this Narsenaque remained as governor, and soon
he raised up the prince to be king, retaining in his own hands the
treasures and revenues and the government of the country.

At that time a captain who wished him ill, determined to kill the
prince, with a view afterwards to say that Narsenaque had bidden him
commit the murder, he being the minister to whom the government of
the kingdom had been entrusted, and he thought that for this act of
treason Narsenaque would be put to death. And he soon so arranged it
that the prince was killed one night by one of his pages who had been
bribed for that purpose, and who slew the prince with a sword. As soon
as Narsenaque heard that he was dead, and learned that he himself (was
supposed to have) sent to kill him, he raised up another brother of the
late King's to be king, not being able further to punish this captain,
because he had many relations, until after he had raised this younger
brother to be king, who was called Tamarao. He (Narsenaque) went out
one day from the city of Bisnaga towards Nagumdym, saying that he was
going hunting, leaving all his household in the city. And after he had
arrived at this city of Nagumdym he betook himself to another called
Penagumdim,[508] which is four-and-twenty leagues from that place,
where he at once made ready large forces and many horses and elephants,
and then sent to tell the King Tamarao of the cause of his going;
relating to him the treason that that captain by name Tymarsaa[509]
had carried out slaying his brother the king, and by whose death he
(the prince) had inherited the kingdom. He told him how that the
kingdom had been entrusted to him by his father, as well as the care
of himself and his brother, that as this man had killed his brother,
so he would do to him in the same way, for he was a traitor; and he
urged that for that reason it was necessary to punish him. But the king
at that time was very fond of that captain, since by reason of him
he had become King, and in place of punishing him he bestowed favour
on him and took his part against the minister. And, seeing this,
Narsenaque went against him with large forces, and besieged him,
threatening him for four or five days, until the King, seeing his
determination, commanded Timarsaa to be put to death; after which he
(the King) sent the (traitor's) head to be shown to the minister,
who greatly rejoiced. Narsenaque sent away all the troops and entered
the city, where he was very well received by all the people, by whom
he was much loved as being a man of much justice.

And after some days and years had passed, Narsenaque, seeing the age
of the king how young he was, determined to keep him in the city of
Penagumdy, with large guards to make safe his person, and to give
him 20,000 cruzados of gold every year for his food and expenses,
and himself to govern the kingdom -- for it had been entrusted to
him by the king his lord so to do. After this had been done he told
the King that he desired to go to Bisnaga to do certain things that
would tend to the benefit of the kingdom, and the King, pleased at
that, told him that so it should be; thinking that now he himself
would be more his own master and not be so liable to be checked by
him. And after he had departed and arrived at Bisnaga, Narsenaque
sent the King 20,000 men for his guard, as he had arranged, and he
sent as their captain Timapanarque, a man in whom he much confided;
(commanding him) that he should not allow the King to leave the city,
and that he should carefully guard his person against treachery.

And after this was done Narsenaque began to make war on several places,
taking them and demolishing them because they had revolted. At that
time it was proposed by some captains that they should kill the King,
as he was not a man fitted to govern, but to this Narsenaque would
answer nothing. After some days had passed, however, Narsenaque,
pondering on the treason about which they had spoken to him, how it
would increase his greatness and more easily make him lord of the
kingdom of which he was (only) minister, called one day those same
captains who had often proposed it to him, and asked them by what means
the King could be slain without its being known that he had had a hand
in his death. Then one man[510] told him that a very good way would be
that he (the minister) should appear to be annoyed with him and should
send to command his presence, which mandate he would not obey, and
on account of this act of disrespect he (the minister) should ordain
that some punishment be inflicted, and at this aggravation he would
leave the city and fly to Penagundy to stir up the King against the
minister. He said that after he had gained the goodwill of the King
he would so plot against him that he would render him disobedient;
and that to give the King greater encouragement he would forge letters
as if from captains which should contain the same counsel -- namely,
that he should leave that city where he was more prisoner than free --
and would point out to him that he alone was king and lord, and yet
that the land was under the power of Narasenaque his vassal, who had
made himself very strong and powerful in the kingdom and held him (the
King) prisoner, and had rebelled. He would urge the King to secretly
quit the city and betake himself to a fortress belonging to the captain
who had sent him that letter, and that there he should prepare himself,
getting together a large following. And he would tell him that when
the lords and captains came to know of his wish and determination they
would act according to it, and would help him, and would come with him
to fall upon Narsenayque, and would bestow upon him (Narsenaque) the
prison in which he (the King) was now kept. So he would be king. (The
captain further said) that after he had persuaded the King to this
he would cause him to (leave the city), and while going out he would
kill him, and that in this way Narsenaque should become king.

Narsenayque was well pleased to listen to this treason and to hear
of the evil deed which this captain planned, and he showed him much
favour. The captain disappeared after some days from where Narsenayque
was, feigning to have fled; and he came to Penagumdy, where in a few
days his arrival was known; and he set about and put in hand all those
things that had been arranged. Every day he showed the King a letter,
one day from a captain of one fortress, the next day another from
another captain; and the King, understanding the plots contained in
the letters so shown, replied that the counsel and advice seemed good,
and yet how could he resist the power of Narsenayque, who, besides
being minister of the kingdom, had (possession of) all the horses
and elephants and treasure, so that he could at once make war against
him? "True it is, Sire, that which thou sayest," answered the traitor,
"and yet he is much misliked by all the captains who raised thee
to be king, and as soon as they shall see thee in Chaodagary"[511]
(which was a fortress whither he had advised him to flee, being one
which up to that time was independent), "all will flock to thine aid,
since they esteem it a just cause." Said the King, -- "Since this is
so, how dost thou propose that I should leave this place, so that my
going should not be known to the guards and to the 20,000 men who
surround me in this city?" "Sire," he replied, "I will disclose to
thee a very good plan; thou and I will go forth by this thy garden,
and from thence by a postern gate which is in the city (wall), and
which I know well; and the guards, seeing thee alone without any
following, will not know that it is thou, the King, and thus we shall
pass to the outside of the city, where I will have horses ready that
will take us whithersoever it seemeth good to thee." All this pleased
the King well, and he placed everything in his hands; and, seeing
fulfilled all his desire, the captain spoke with those men who guarded
that part of the garden by which he wished that the King should fly,
and which was near the King's own houses, (for into this garden the
King often went to amuse himself with his wives, which garden was at
that part guarded by a matter of 300 armed men) and to these men he
spoke thus, saying to them: -- "If ye shall happen to see me pass by
here on such a night and at such an hour, and if ye shall see a man
coming with me, slay him, for he well deserves it of me, and I will
reward ye;" and they all said that that would be a very small service
to do for him. When that day had passed the traitor went to the King
and said to him: -- "Sire, do not put off till to-morrow that which
thou hast to do to-day; for I have the horses ready for thy escape,
and have planned so to escort thee forth that even thy ladies shall
not be aware of thy departure, nor any other person. Come, Sire, to
the garden, where I will await thee." The King replied that his words
were good and so he would do, and as soon as night was come and the
hour arrived, the King went carefully out, and still more careful was
he who for some time had awaited him; and he gave signal to the armed
men, and as soon as he was come to the garden he passed between two
of them who were the guards, and they threw themselves on the King
and slew him, and forthwith buried him at the foot of a tree in the
same garden. And this being accomplished without their knowing whom
they had slain, the traitor gave them his thanks, and returned to
his inn to make ready to leave the city, and also so as not to give
cause for talk therein. And the next morning it was found that the
King was missing; and though searched for throughout all the city no
news of him could be heard, all the people thinking that he had fled
somewhere, whence he would make war on Narsenayque. And to Narsenayque
the news was straightway brought, and he, feigning much sorrow at it,
yet made ready all his horses and elephants in case the kingdom should
be plunged into some revolution by the death of the king; although as
yet he knew not for certain how the matter stood, save that the King
had disappeared. And afterwards the man came who had killed the King,
and told him how it had been done and how secretly he had been slain,
so that even the very men who had killed him knew not who it was;
and Narsenayque bestowed upon him rich reward. And since there was
no news of the King, and he holding everything now under his hand,
he was raised to be king over all the land of Narsymga.

And this king left at his death five sons, one was called Busbalrao,
and another Crismarao, and another Tetarao, and another Ramygupa and
another Ouamysyuaya.[512]

And this Busbalrao inherited the kingdom at the death of his father
Narsenayque and reigned six years, during which he was always at war,
for as soon as his father was dead the whole land revolted under its
captains; who in a short time were destroyed by that King, and their
lands taken and reduced under his rule. During these six years the
King spent, in restoring the country to its former condition, eight
million gold PARDAOS. This King died of his sickness in the city of
Bisnaga; and before he died he sent for Salvatimya, his minister,[513]
and commanded to be brought to him his (the King's) son, eight years
old, and said to Sallvatina that as soon as he was dead he must raise
up this son to be king (though he was not of an age for that, and
though the kingdom ought perhaps to belong to his brother Crisnarao)
and that he must put out the eyes of the latter and must bring them to
show him; in order that after his death there should be no differences
in the kingdom. Salvatina said that he would do so and departed, and
sent to call for Crisnarao, and took him aside to a stable, and told
him how his brother had bade him put out his eyes and make his son
king. When he heard this, Crisnarao said that he did not seek to be
king, nor to be anything in the kingdom, even though it should come to
him by right; that his desire was to pass through this world as a JOGI
(ascetic, recluse), and that he should not put his eyes out, seeing
that he had not deserved that of his brother. Sallvatina, hearing
this, and seeing that Crisnarao was a man of over twenty years and
therefore more fit to be king, as you will see farther on, than the
son of Busbalrao who was only eight years old, commanded to bring a
she-goat, and he put out its eyes, and took them to show the King,
for already he was at the last hour of his life; and he presented them
to him, and as soon as the King was dead his brother Crisnarao was
raised to be king, whose eyes the late King had ordered to be torn out.


Of the things done by King Crisnarao after he was raised to the throne.

As soon as Crisnarao was raised to be King and was obeyed throughout
all his kingdom, -- Salvatine being his minister, who had been the same
for his brother Busbalrao,[514] -- he without delay sent his nephew,
son of Busbalrao his brother, together with his own three brothers,
to a fortress called Chaodegary; the nephew remained there till he
died. And after the King had done this for his own safety he stayed in
the city of Bisnaga for a year and a half without going outside of it,
learning the affairs of the kingdom and looking at the testaments of
past kings. Amongst these he found one of king Narsymga, whose minister
his father Narsenayque had been, in which that King desired that his
sons, or whoever should inherit this kingdom of Narsymga which he had
gained by force of arms, should capture three fortresses that at his
death remained in revolt against him, the which he had not himself
taken because time failed him; one of them was called Rracholl,[515]
and another Medegulla.[516]

Crisnarao, seeing this testament and seeing how badly the kings his
predecessors had acted in what had been enjoined on them, determined
at once to prepare armies and to go against these places; and one
of these fortresses was called Odigair, and it belonged to the King
of Orya. And, determining to go first against this, he collected
(an army of) thirty-four thousand foot and eight hundred elephants,
and arrived with this force at the city of Digary,[517] in which
there were ten thousand foot soldiers and four hundred horse; for the
fortress had no necessity for more by reason of its great strength,
because it could not be taken except by being starved out.

And the King laid siege to it for a year and a half, in which time he
made many paths across rocky hills, breaking up many great boulders
in order to make a road for his soldiers to approach the towers of
the fortress. The place at this time was so strong that they could not
approach it except by one way which was so narrow that men could only
pass along it one at a time; and in this place he made a broad road,
and many others also, so that he could come close to the fortress.

And he took it by force of arms, and in it captured an aunt[518]
of the King of Orya, who was taken captive and carried off with all
the courtesy that he could show her, having her liberty; and he took
her along with himself.

And after this was done he called Salvatinya and bade him see how well
he had performed that which king Narsymga had by his testament enjoined
on him, and yet he said he was not content with such a trivial victory,
for[519] he desired to go forward a hundred leagues into the kingdom
of Orya; and he ordered him to make ready provisions and pay fully
the salaries of the forces.

And after this fortress was taken he departed and went against
Comdovy,[520] which was one of the principal cities of the kingdom
of Orya, and besieged it; and, learning this, the King of Orya
came against him to defend his territories, and brought with him one
thousand three hundred elephants, and twenty thousand horsemen, and he
brought five hundred thousand foot-soldiers. Crisnarao, being aware of
the approach of the king of Orya, left the city without assaulting it,
saying that he preferred to fight the King in person and his army
rather than to attack the city, and that there would be plenty of
time afterwards to take it; and he went forward four leagues from it,
leaving a force to prevent the escape of the people from the city
if they should seek to flee to the coast. And he arrived at a large
river of salt water crossed by a ford,[521] and on the other side of
the river was the King of Orya with his army. King Crisnarao halted
his army on this side of the river, and sent the King a message that
if he desired to fight with him he would retire from the river two
leagues, so that he (the king of Orya) might pass the river unmolested,
and as soon as he had passed he would join battle; to which message
the King of Orya gave no reply, but on the contrary made ready to
give battle. And King Crisnarao, seeing his determination, crossed
the river with all his forces and elephants, and in the crossing of
the river there were heavy encounters on both sides, and many were
slain. Notwithstanding this, King Crisnarao crossed the river, and
on the bank fought so bravely that he defeated the King of Oria and
put him to flight, in which defeat he took many horses and elephants.

And after the King had done this he told Salvatinea his minister
that he purposed to turn back to the fortress, which had not yet
experienced his strength, and he went against it, and stopped there
two months besieging it; and he took it.

And he gave the command of it to Salvatinea, who left in it, from his
army, for captain one of his brothers, in order that he himself might
go forward with the King through the kingdom of Orya. And the King,
passing the river once more in pursuit of the King of Orya, and taking
and ravaging all the country which had no reason for expecting him,
arrived at a city called Comdepallyr,[522] where were all the chiefs
of the kingdom, it being the chief city in that kingdom. And he laid
siege to it, and remained there three months without being able to
capture it, and in the end he took it more by reason of his numbers
than by force of arms; in which fortress he found many people of
high rank whom he made captive, amongst whom was a wife of the King,
and one of his sons who was a prince, and seven principal captains
of the kingdom, all of whom he sent by road to Bysnaga.

And he went forward a hundred leagues into the kingdom, finding no
one to bar his progress till he got to Symamdary,[523] which was a
very large city, in which he halted for six months, waiting for the
King of Orya. He sent many messages to say that he was waiting for him
in the field, but he never came. And in this city he did many works,
and gave alms to the temples, and erected therein a very grand temple
to which he gave much revenue. And he commanded to engrave on it an
inscription which says: -- "Perhaps when these letters are decayed,
the king of Orya will give battle to the King of Bisnaga. If the King
of Orya erases them, his wife shall be given to the smiths who shoe
the horses of the King of Bisnaga."

And after this was done he returned, leaving the greater part of
those lands to the temples, and came to Bisnaga where he rested some
days. And he sent to call the son of the king of Orya who was taken
captive in the first fortress, and told him that as people said that
he was a very active man and was very dexterous with both sword and
dagger, he would be pleased to see him fence.

The young man said that since His Highness summoned him he would do
what he could, and asked that this might be put off till next day. And
when the next day came the King sent to call him, and also sent for one
of his own men who at that time was very expert in the art,[524] that
he should fence with him. And when the son of the King of Orya saw him,
being offended with the King for sending a man to fight with him who
was not the son of a King but only a man of humble birth, he cried out
to the King: -- "God forbid that I should soil my hands by touching a
man not of the blood royal," and saying this he slew himself. And his
father, hearing how his son was dead, wrote to Salvatinea (asking) by
what means he could ransom his wife who remained in the power of the
King, since his son was dead; to which he made answer that he should
arrange the marriage of his daughter with the King, and that afterwards
the King would restore him his wife and lands (or, would take only
his lands).[525] This counsel he accepted, and he sent ambassadors
to Bisnaga to arrange a marriage with his daughter, with which King
Crisnarao was well content; and when the King of Orya knew his will
(in the matter) he sent him his daughter; and with the coming of her
they were friends. And Crisnarao restored the lands on the other side
of the river, and kept those on the hither side for himself.


How Crisnarao, after he had made peace with the King of Oria,
determined to go against the land of Catuir.

After Crisnarao had made peace, and had married the daughter of the
King of Oria, and had restored to him his wife and the lands beyond
the river, as has been narrated above, he made ready a large army
and prepared to attack Catuir,[526] which is the land of a lord who
had been in revolt for fifty years; this land is on the Charamaodel
side. And he went against it, and laid siege to one of the principal
cities where the lord of the land was; and it is called ...[527]and
is surrounded with water.

Now at the time when Crisnarao attacked this city it was winter, for
which cause the river that surrounded it was so swollen, and carried
down so much water, that the king could do no harm to the place. And
King Crisnarao, seeing this, and seeing that time was passing away
without his attaining his desire, commanded his men to cut many new
channels in order to be able to attack that principal (river) which
had opposed itself to the fulfilment of his wishes. And this was
done in a short time, since he had many soldiers; and after the (new)
watercourses were finished and brought to where the water should go
he opened mouths in the river, the water of which very soon flowed
out so that the bottom could be seen, and it was left so shallow
that it enabled him to reach the walls of the city; and the river
was thus diverted into fifty different beds. Inside the city were
one hundred thousand foot-soldiers and three thousand cavalry, who
defended themselves and fought very bravely, but this availed little
to prevent Crisnarao from entering in a few days and slaughtering
all of them. He found large treasures in this city, amongst others
in ready money a million and six hundred thousand golden PARDAOS,
besides jewels, and horses, which were numerous, and elephants. And
after he had finished the capture of this land Crisnarao divided it
amongst many of his captains, giving to each one what was necessary
for him; and the chief who lived in the city and who was lord of the
land was taken away captive and carried to Bisnaga, where he died in
the King's prison.

And after the King had settled the country he came to Bisnaga, whence
he sent Salvatinea to the city of Comdovy, since he was chief of it,
by whom his brother was placed in it so as to see directly to the
land and ifs government; for after the King returned from Orya he
never went again thither.

And Salvatinea, having departed on his journey to Comdovy, before he
arrived there, met, opposing his path, a Muhammadan named Madarmeluquo,
who was a captain of the King on this side,[528] and who was awaiting
him with sixty thousand men. Salvatinea had two hundred thousand men,
and had very little fear of him; and with these he went against him,
and took and defeated him, and took prisoners himself and his wife
and son and horses and elephants and much money and store of jewels,
and sent them all to King Crisnarao. The king commanded to put (the
captives) in prison, and there they died. And Sallvatinea went to
his territories, and after he had stayed there some months and seen
to its government and decided matters in dispute, he returned to the
King at Bisnaga, by whom he was well received as being the principal
person in the kingdom.


How Crisnarao, on the arrival of Salvatinia, determined to attack
Rachol, a city of the Ydalcao, and to break the peace that had lasted
so long; and the reason why.

After Salvatinia had arrived and had been well received by the King,
and after the lapse of some days, the King told him that he desired
to fulfil all the wishes expressed in the testament of King Narsynga,
one of which was to capture Rachol, which was a very strong city and
amongst the principal ones of the Ydallcao, who had taken it from
the kings his ancestors; and because there was now peace between
both parties, and had been so for forty years, he knew not how he
could manage to break it. But Salvatinia said that since the peace
had been made under certain conditions -- one of which was that if
on either one side or the other any land-owners, captains in revolt,
or other evil-doers should be harboured and their surrender should
be demanded, they should forthwith be given up -- there was now great
reason for breaking the peace, since many land-owners and debtors to
His Highness had tied into the kingdom of the Ydallcao. He counselled
therefore that the King should send to demand the surrender of
these men, and that on refusal to give them up there would be good
ground for breaking the peace. Many, however, disagreed with this
advice. Now it happened at this time that the King (of Bisnaga)
sent Cide Mercar with forty thousand PARDAOS to Goa to buy horses,
which Cide Mercar was a Moor in whom the King of Bisnaga confided on
account of various affairs with which he had already been entrusted;
and this man, when he arrived at a place where the Moors lived which
was called, Pomdaa and is two leagues from Goa, fled from that place,
Pomdaa, to the Ydallcao, carrying with him all the treasure. Some say
that the Ydallcao wrote to him a letter as soon as he got there. As
soon as they gave to the King this news of the flight of Cide, and
how he had carried off all the money, he said that he would write to
the Ydallcao to send the man back to him with all the money, since he
was his friend. Then the King caused a letter to be written, in which
he spoke of the friendship that had existed for so many years so that
nothing could shake it, and that he hoped that a traitor would not
be the cause of breaking a peace of such long standing as had been
between them; and he begged that he would send Cide back at once.

As soon as the letter was read to the Ydallcao he sent to summon his
kazis and the men of his council, and he bade them read the letter
which had come from the King, as to which letter there were many
suggestions made. At the end of all they agreed that he should not
send him (Cide) to him (the King of Bisnaga), for they said that he
(Cide) was one learned in the law and related to Mafumdo.[529] And the
Ydallcao, as a cloak to his action, gave Dabull to that Cide, by way
of showing that he was not near his person nor knew he aught of him;
from which town of Dabull Cide fled, nor had they any further news
of him. When those who had come from the King returned bearing the
Ydallcao's answer, the King showed great indignation at it, and held
that the peace was broken; he at once ordered to appear before him the
great lords of his Council, and had the letter read aloud so that all
might hear. As soon as it was read he said that without more ado they
should make ready, since he was determined to take full vengeance. But
the councillors advised the King, saying that for such a small sum
of money as this it was not well so to act; that he should think of
what would be said and talked of throughout the world; and that if he
was bent on breaking so prolonged a peace for such a trifling cause,
he should call to mind that there never was any honesty in a Moor;
that others were to blame in that which Cide had done; and that if
Cide should dare to come to that war which was waged in order to
take vengeance on him,[530] then it would be well that those who
accompanied him should die, but that they knew that Cide would keep
well away from the army.[531]

The councillors, however, saw that the King remained unmoved from his
determination to make war, and they then counselled him, saying: --
"Sire, do not go to war by that route (Dabull), but go against Rachol,
which now belongs to the Ydallcao but of old was part of this kingdom;
then the Ydallcao will be forced to come to defend it, and thus thou
wilt take vengeance jointly both on one and the other." The King
held this advice to be good and prepared for his departure, sending
letters to Madre Maluco, and Demellyno, and Desturvirido,[532] and
other superior lords, giving them an account of what had taken place
in the matter of the Ydallcao, and how he had determined to make war
on him; from which lords he received answer that he was doing rightly,
and that they would assist him as far as they were able. As to the
Zemelluco, at the time when the messengers returned this answer he
could find no excuse for not sending some troops to the aid of his
sister who was wedded to the Ydallcao.

The King had sent the letters to those lords out of his great
craftiness, for he told them of what he was about to do in order
to seduce them to his side, -- so far at least as concerned their
goodwill, seeing that in the matter of troops he had no need of
them -- because if they had joined the Ydallcao he (the King) would
never have conquered as he did; but because the Ydallcao was hated
by them all as being a more powerful chief than they, (for there is
little faith amongst the Moors, and they bite one another like dogs
and like to see one after the other destroyed) he was conquered,
as you will see hereafter, in the month of May, on the new moon day,
in the year one thousand five hundred and twenty-two.[533]

After the King had made his offerings and performed sacrifices to
his idols he left the city of Bisnaga with all his troops; and they
marched in the following order. The chief of the guard (O PORTEIRO
MOOR)[534] led the advance with thirty thousand infantry -- archers,
men with shields, and musqueteers, and spearmen -- and a thousand
horse and his[535] elephants. After him went Trimbicara with fifty
thousand foot and two thousand horse and twenty elephants. After him
went Timapanayque; he had with him sixty thousand foot and three
thousand five hundred horse and thirty elephants; and after him
went Adapanayque with one hundred thousand foot and five thousand
horse and fifty elephants. After him came Comdamara,[536] and he had
one hundred and twenty thousand foot six thousand horse and sixty
elephants; after him went Comara, and he had eighty thousand foot and
of horse two thousand five hundred, and forty elephants; after him the
forces of Ogemdraho,[537] the governor of the city of Bisnaga, with
one of his captains, who had one thousand horse and thirty thousand
foot and ten elephants. After him went three eunuchs, favourites of
the King, who had forty thousand foot and one thousand horse and
fifteen elephants. The page who served the King with betel[538]
had fifteen thousand foot and two hundred horse, but he had no
elephants. Comarberca[539] had eight thousand foot and four hundred
horse and twenty elephants. The people of the chief of Bengapor[540]
went by another route with the people of Domar, who were very numerous;
and in the same way went other captains of ten or twelve thousand men,
of whom I make no mention, not knowing their names. The King took of
his guard six thousand horse and forty thousand foot, the pick of all
his kingdom, men with shields, archers, and three hundred elephants.

All were equally well armed, each after his own fashion, the archers
and musqueteers with their quilted tunics,[541] and the shieldmen
with their swords and poignards[542] in their girdles; the shields
are so large that there is no need for armour to protect the body,
which is completely covered; the horses in full clothing, and the
men with doublets,[543] and weapons in their hands, and on their
heads headpieces after the manner of their doublets, quilted with
cotton. The war-elephants go with their howdahs (CASTELLOS) from
which four men fight on each side of them, and the elephants are
completely clothed, and on their tusks they have knives fastened,
much ground and sharpened, with which they do great harm. Several
cannon were also taken. I do not speak here of the washermen, who are
numberless here -- they wash clothes -- nor of the public women who
accompanied the army; there were twenty thousand of them with the king
during his journey. Any one can imagine the amount of baggage that
such a large number of people would take. In the rear with the king,
but always on the road in front of him, some ten or twelve thousand
men with water-skins who go seeking water, and place themselves along
the road to give water to those who have no one to bring it to them;
this is done so that none of the people should die of thirst. Three
or four leagues in front of all this multitude go some fifty thousand
men who are like scouts; they have to spy out the country in front,
and always keep that distance; and on their flanks there are two
thousand horse of the cavalry of that country. These are all bowmen,
and they always advance on the flanks of the scouts.

In this order, as I have stated, they left the city of Bisnaga, and
with them a great number of merchants, besides many others who were
already in advance with all supplies; so that wherever you may be you
will at once find all you want. Every captain has his merchants who
are compelled to give him all supplies requisite for all his people,
and in the same way they carry all other necessaries

According to the King's custom, when he wishes to lie down and sleep,
they make for him a hedge of brush-wood and of thorns behind which
his tent is pitched, which was done for him all along this route;
on which route was seen a wonderful thing, namely that on passing
a river which, when they reached it, came half-way up to the knee,
before half the people had passed it was totally dry without a drop
of water; and they went about in the sand of it making pits to find
some water. In this order the King proceeded till he arrived at the
town of Mollabamdym,[544] which is a league from the city of Rachol,
where he pitched his camp so as to give a rest to the people after
the fatigues of the march.

And the King being in the city of Mollabamdyn, settling all that was
necessary for the siege of Rachol, there came to him people of the King
of Bisnaga, and the people of Domaar, and also many other captains with
an infinitude of people. As soon as they had joined and everything was
put in order, and after his Brahmans had finished their ceremonies
and sacrifices, they told the King that it was now time, that the
pagodas had given sign of conquest, and that he should advance.

Then he sent the Moors in the royal service to lead the van, and
Camanayque, the chief of the guard, pitched the camp very near the
ditches of the city of Rachol, and every captain halted his people
according to the commands given. The people of the City received
them with many shots from heavy cannon that they had, and from many
firelocks, and many arrows and musket-shots, so that those of the
besiegers who arrived close to the ditches suffered heavily and wanted
to retreat. But the King would not permit this, saying that he would
not have sent them there were it not that he would soon effect an
entry into the city, and if not, that they should all die; wherefore
his men were compelled to attack the city, and did so in many brave
and severe fights. In these many of them lost their lives, since
those of the city were in very strong position and well acquainted
with everything that was necessary for their defence, while the
King's troops never ceased their attacks on the city. The captains,
seeing how badly the attack was going in consequence of the number
of soldiers killed, had recourse to lavish gifts and stratagems,
as thus: -- They began to buy (from the soldiers) the stones which
they took from the walls and towers, and they paid them according to
the value of the stone; so that the stones were worth ten, twenty,
thirty, forty, and fifty FANAMS.[545] By this device they contrived
to dismantle the wall in many places, and laid the city open; but
since the city was in itself so strong, and the soldiers who were
in it were such chosen men and so used to warfare, they killed many
of the King's people. Yet not for that did they cease fighting, but
every day and at every attack they became bolder, in consequence of
their greed for what the captains gave them, for the money had the
power of taking from them the terror of death which had inspired them
before. They also gave them something for dragging away a dead man
from the foot of the wall. So the fight dragged on for a space of
three months till the Ydallcao came up with reinforcements.

Now I wish you to know more of the situation, and of the city, and
the people which it held. This city of Rachol lies between two great
rivers, and in the midst of a great plain where there are no trees
except very small ones, and there are great boulders there; from
each river to the city is three leagues. One of these rivers is the
northern boundary, and beyond it the country belongs to the Ydallcao,
and the other is the boundary to the south which is the boundary of
Narsymga. This plain lies in the middle of these two rivers, and there
are large lakes therein and wells and some little streams where the
city is situated, and a hill which looks like a woman's breast and
is of natural formation. The city has three lines of strong walls
of heavy masonry made without lime; the walls are packed with earth
inside, and it has on the highest point a fortress like a tower, very
high and strong; at the top where the fortress stands is a spring
of water which runs all the year round. It is held to be a holy and
mysterious thing that a spring which is in a lofty situation should
in some way never be without water. Besides this spring there are
several tanks of water and wells, so that the citizens had no fear
of being ever taken for lack of water; and there were in the city
supplies for five years. There were eight thousand men as garrison
and four hundred horse and twenty elephants, and thirty catapults
(TRABUCOS) which hurled heavy stones and did great damage. The towers
which are on the walls are so close together that one can hear words
spoken from one to the other. Between these and all around they
posted their artillery, which consisted of two hundred heavy pieces,
not to mention small ones. As soon as the people of the city knew
of the arrival of the King's troops, and after they had received a
captain of the Ydallcao who came with some soldiers to the city, they
closed the gates with stone and mortar. The chief fight which takes
place is on the east side, because on the north and south sides it
stands on huge rocks which make it very strong; and, the city being
besieged on all sides, the camp of the King was on the east side,
and so was the strength of the attack.


Of the manner in which the King had his camp, &c.

The tent of the King was surrounded by a great hedge of thorns with
only one entrance, and with a gate at which stood his guards. Inside
this hedge lodged the Brahman who washes him and has charge of the
idol that he always carries about with him, and also other persons
who hold offices about the King's person, and eunuchs who are always
to be found in his chamber. And outside this circle all around are
his guards, who watch all night at fixed spots; with this guard are
quartered the officers of the household; and from thence to the front
were all the other captains in their appointed posts, according as
each one was entrusted and ordered. Outside of all these people, in
a camp by themselves, were the scouts of whom I have already spoken,
whose duty it is to patrol all night through the camp and watch to
see if they can catch any spies. On the other side the washermen,
(who are those that wash clothes) were in a camp by themselves,
and they were near to the place where they could best wash clothes.

All the camp was divided into regular streets. Each captain's division
has its market, where you found all kinds of meat, such as sheep,
goats, pigs, fowls, hares, partridges and other birds, and this
in great abundance; so much so that it would seem as if you were
in the city of Bisnaga. And you found many endless kinds of rice,
grains, Indian-corn, vetches (MINGUO),[546] and other seeds that they
eat. Besides these things, which are necessaries, they had another
(market) where you could find in great abundance everything that
you wanted; for in these markets they sell things that in our parts
are sold by professional hucksters.[547] There were craftsmen, also,
working in their streets, so that you saw made there golden jewels
and gewgaws, and you will find all kinds of rubies and diamonds and
pearls, with every other kind of precious stone for sale. There also
were to be seen sellers of cloths, and these were without number as
that is a thing so many want, they being of cotton. There were also
to be seen grass and straw in infinite abundance. I do not know who
could describe it so as to be believed, so barren a country is this
Rachol and so sandy. It is a mystery how there should be an abundance
of everything therein. Any one can imagine what grass and straw would
be required each day for the consumption of thirty-two thousand four
hundred horses and five hundred and fifty-one elephants,[548] to say
nothing of the sumpter-mules and asses, and the great numbers of oxen
which carry all the supplies and many other burdens, such as tents
and other things. Indeed no one who did not understand the meaning of
what he saw would ever dream that a war was going on, but would think
that he was in a prosperous city. Then to see the numbers of drums
and trumpets, and other musical instruments that they use. When they
strike up their music as sign that they are about to give battle it
would seem as if the heavens must fall; and if it happened that a bird
came flying along at the time when they made such a terrific noise,
it used to come down through terror of not being able to get clear
of the camp, and so they would catch it in their hands; principally
kites, of which they caught many.

But I cease to speak more of this because I should never finish;
and so I turn to tell of the battle.


How the King attacked the city of Rachol.

The King, being as I have said at the siege of the city of Rachol,
there came to him sure news that the Ydallcao had arrived at the river
on the northern side, and that there he had pitched his camp. The
King therefore sent his spies to keep watch over the foe, to see what
he was doing and to send word of his every movement. With the coming
of this news a tumult broke out in the camp, principally among the
common soldiers, in whose minds suspicion was never wanting, and
they still suffered under the terror inspired from old time by the
Moors. There the Ydallcao halted some days so as to see what the King
was doing and whether he would march to attack him there in his camp;
for it was thought by him and by his people that as soon as the King
should learn of his arrival he would at once march to meet him, and
they decided that he could defend himself from the King in the place
where he was better than in any other, by help of the river. For
there was no other ford than the one close at hand; and this they
proposed to guard so well that none should take it, least of all,
they thought, men who (in their eyes) were only blacks.

Although the King heard that the enemy was on the opposite bank of the
river, he yet made no move, nor did he do anything; and the Ydallcao,
seeing that he made no advance, took counsel with his officers, and
at this council the advice given greatly differed, as each had his
own opinion regarding the non-movement of the King. Many said that
this was because the King held his foe to be of little account, and
wished to show his people how great was his power; and they said that
he was only waiting for them to cross the river to at once fall upon
them. The principal person who said this was Amcostam,[549] who was
captain of Pomdaa at the time that Dom Guterre was captain of Goa.[550]
Others said no, but that the King was afraid, thinking of times past
and the many conquests that the Moors had gained over the Hindus, and
that he had brought with him some veteran soldiers that had taken part
in those wars. The advice of these was to push forward and pass the
river. It was not well (they said) for the Ydallcao to show weakness,
and the longer he stayed where he was the less would he benefit himself
and harm the enemy; and although they were not so many in number as
the Hindus, yet they had the advantage in the remembrance of the former
battles that had been fought between them.[551] In the end the Ydallcao
ordered that they should muster the forces, and said that after this
was ended he would decide what was best to be done. When the muster
was made, he found that he had one hundred and twenty thousand men
on foot, archers and musqueteers and men with shields and spearmen,
and eighteen thousand cavalry, and one hundred and fifty elephants;
and when the muster was over and he had seen his forces for himself,
seeing also the great strength of artillery that he had, he said that
with his artillery he would seek to defeat the Rao of Narsymga. He
therefore ordered them to make ready, since he desired to cross the
river at once and advance to the attack; for the Ydallcao believed
that his best course was to halt on the farther side and thence send
his troops to charge the camp of the King, and that in so doing he
would not be beaten and would not lose Rachol.[552]

In this greedy resolve he passed the ford and advanced to within
three leagues of the King's camp, and he caused his own camp to be
strengthened by large trenches, and commanded all his artillery to
take post in front, and he arranged the order of his positions and
the manner in which they should behave if they were attacked by the
enemy. His camp extended along the length of the river for the sake
of the water, that he might not be cut off from it by the enemy.

As soon as they brought news to the King that the Ydallcao had passed
the river, he commanded all to make ready, but that no movement should
take place in his army till he should see how the enemy acted; and
when they brought him further news that the enemy had pitched his camp
and strengthened his position, he ordered a general advance of all his
forces. He divided his army into seven wings. Comarberya[553] begged
from him (the command) of the van, he being the king's father-in-law
and a great lord; he is King of Serigapatao and lord of a large state;
he brought with him thirty grown-up sons. The King bade him pitch his
camp a league from the Ydallcao and ordered all to arm themselves at
dawn, as he intended then to give battle to the enemy; but the men
of the Council said that that day was an unlucky day, and begged him
not to attack, as it was a Friday, and they asked him not to attack
till Saturday, which they hold for a lucky day.

When the King had left Rachol, those inside opened a gate, and one of
the captains who was inside, a eunuch, made a sally with two hundred
horse, certain foot-soldiers and elephants; he kept entirely along the
river-bank on the King's flank. The object of this no one could guess,
each one having his own opinion. As soon as the King halted he also
did the same, keeping always his spies in the King's camp to see what
passed and (what would be) the end of the battle. Since both armies
were so close, each to his foe, they never put aside their weapons
but watched all the night through.

Seeing that the dawn of Saturday was now breaking, the drums and
trumpets and other music in the King's camp began to sound and the
men to shout, so that it seemed as if the sky would fall to the earth;
then the neighing and excitement of the horses, and the trumpeting of
the elephants, it is impossible for any one to describe how it was. But
even if told in simple truth it would hardly be believed the great fear
and terror that struck those who heard it, so that even those very
men that caused the noise were themselves frightened at it. And the
enemy on their part made no less noise, so that if you asked anything
you could not hear yourself speak and you had to ask by signs, since
in no other manner could you make yourself understood. When all in the
camp had gone to the front it was already two hours after sunrise, and
the King ordered an advance of his two forward divisions, with command
so to strike home that they should leave not one of the enemy alive;
and this was forthwith done. They attacked the enemy so hotly that many
of the King's troops found themselves on the tops of the trenches[554]
that the Moors had constructed in the fields. The Moors were disposed
as if they expected that the King would engage them all at once
with all his forces, and so it appeared to the Ydallcao and to his
officers; and for that reason he held ready all his artillery, waiting
for the time when, owing to the adventurousness of their main body,
his men must of necessity cause much slaughter in their ranks. Then
he intended to bring up his artillery and destroy them. But as soon
as he saw the manner of their attack the Ydallcao had to abandon the
plan that had seemed to him best for their safety, and he commended
the whole of the artillery at once to open fire; which discharge,
as it was very great, did much damage to the enemy, killing many of
the horse and foot and many elephants, and it compelled the King's
troops to retire. As soon as the Moors saw their enemies beginning to
leave the field they charged all amongst them, so that there did not
remain one man in the saddle nor one who kept his face to the foe;
but all the King's troops began to fly, and the Moors after them,
slaughtering them for about half a league. When the King saw the way
in which his troops fled he began to cry out that they were traitors,
and that he would see who was his side; and that since they all had
to die they should meet their fate boldly according to custom.[555]
"Who ranges himself with me?" he cried. Immediately there thronged
about him all those lords and captains that were ready to side with
him, and the King said that the day had arrived in which the Ydallcao
would boast that he had slain in it the greatest lord in the world,
but that he should never boast that he had vanquished him. Then he
took a ring from his finger and gave it to one of his pages, so that
he might show it to his queens in token of his death, that they might
burn themselves according to custom. Then he mounted a horse and
moved forward with all his remaining-divisions, commanding to slay
without mercy every man of those who had fled. As soon as these last
saw what a reception they received at the hand of their fellows they
felt compelled to turn and charge the enemy, and their attack was
such that not one amongst the Moors was found to face them; for the
Moors met them as men engaged in a pursuit, all in great disorder. The
confusion was so great amongst the Moors and such havoc was wrought
(in their ranks) that they did not even try to defend the camp they
had made so strong and enclosed so well; but like lost men they leaped
into the river to save themselves. Then after them came large numbers
of the King's troops and elephants, which latter worked amongst them
mischief without end, for they seized men with their trunks and tore
them into small pieces, whilst those who rode in the castles (howdahs)
killed countless numbers.

The troops advanced thus, pursuing the foe, till the King reached
the river, where, seeing the death of so many -- for here you would
see women and boys who had left the camp, there horses and men who
through clinging one to another could not escape as there was so much
water in the river -- and the King's troops stood on the bank, so that
whenever a man appeared he was killed, and the horses that tried to
clamber up by the bank of the river, unable to do so, fell back on
the men, so that neither one nor the other escaped, and the elephants
went into the stream, and those that they could seize were cruelly
killed by them. Seeing what passed, I say, the King out of compassion
commanded the troops to retire, saying that numbers had died who did
not deserve death nor were at all in fault; which order was at once
obeyed by all the captains, so that each one withdrew all his forces.

The King then advanced to the camp of the Ydallcao and rested himself
in his tent, but many of the captains spoke against his action in thus
taking repose, saying that he ought rather to complete the destruction
of all his enemies, and they would secure this for him; and that if
he did not wish himself to do this he should at least command some
of them to do it, and that it was not wise to cease from pursuit so
long as daylight should last. To whom the King answered that many had
died who were not to blame; that if the Ydallcao had done him wrong,
he had already suffered enough; and moreover, that it did not seem to
him good, since Rachol remained behind them to be taken, that they
should go forward, but rather they should make themselves ready for
its capture; for that the siege had to be conducted henceforth in a
new and better manner. For the King was persuaded throughout that,
since the Ydallcao had lost so many men and so much honour, and had
lost indeed all his power, he would not wish to live any longer, and
that he must be dead on the field. Which, however, was not so, seeing
that the Ydallcao had not even entered into the fight, but had all
the time remained under guard of Sefallarym[556] -- he who now calls
himself Acadacao and is lord of Belgaum -- who, fearing the event,
contrived by cunning that the Ydallcao should select him for his
guard with all his troops, among whom he had four hundred cavalry;
and when he saw how the soldiers fled, and how completely they had
been defeated, he said to the Ydallcao, "Sire, if thou seekest to live
follow me!" and the Ydallcao took refuge on an elephant and followed
him, leaving his camp and all that he possessed. And as Acadacao wished
him to travel by land,[557] he took no care to search for the ford,
but skirting the range of hills on the south he went by that way.[558]

As it may be asked what became of the captain who sallied out of
Rachol with the two hundred horsemen and elephants and foot-soldiers,
I say that he ever kept himself advised of what passed in the field;
and as soon as he learned that the Ydallcao was defeated he turned
back to take refuge again in the citadel. But those within were
not of a mind to receive him, there being a quarrel between him and
another captain who was in the city; and he, seeing that they would
not admit him, was forced to think how he could save himself, and he
did so by passing the river by another ford farther down, and so saved
himself. The belief of many was that he who was inside thought that
he would now possess the city for his own, and that he would thereby
become rich, and for that reason refused to receive the captain.


Of the spoil taken from the Moors, of how the King burned all the dead,
and of what Christovao de Figueiredo did.

The King being thus in the camp, he commanded the spoil that
remained of the Moors to be collected, and there were found five
captains who were taken prisoners (those of highest rank were found
amongst the dead); the chiefest of them was Salabatacao,[559] who
was captain-general of all the troops of the Ydallcao He had taken
for his guard in the battle five hundred Portuguese of the renegades
who were with the Moors; and as soon as this Salabatacao saw that his
army was defeated, he strove to collect and form a body of men, but
could not do it because there was not one amongst them who thought of
aught but to save himself. And thinking it worse to be conquered than
to die, he threw himself amongst the King's troops, slaughtering them,
and doing such wonderful deeds that ever after he and his Portuguese
were remembered, so much were their terrible strokes feared, and the
deeds they did; so that they let them pass on, and they penetrated
so far amongst the troops that they found themselves close to the
King's bodyguard. There the horse of Salabatacao was killed. In
order to succour him the Portuguese did great deeds and killed so
many men that they left a broad road behind them which no one dared
to enter, and they fought so well that they got another horse for
Salabatacao. As soon as he was on its back he seemed like nothing
but a furious wolf amongst sheep; but since already they were all
so exhausted, so wounded all over, and so encircled by the enemy
(for they were attacked at every point), Salabatacao was at length
overthrown, and his horse with him. And as the Portuguese who tried
to succour him were all killed, not one escaping, and he himself was
wounded in many places, he was taken prisoner.

The spoil was four thousand horses of Ormuz, and a hundred elephants,
and four hundred heavy cannon, besides small ones; the number of
gun-carriages for them was nine hundred, and there were many tents and
pavilions. I take no account of the sumpter-horses and oxen and other
beasts, for they were numberless, nor of the numbers of men and boys,
nor yet of some women, whom the King ordered to be released.

Here the King stayed till all the dead had been burned, and the
customary honours had been paid to them; and here he gave much
alms for the souls of those who had been killed in battle on his
side. These numbered sixteen thousand and odd. These things done,
he turned again upon Rachol and pitched his camp as he had done before.

During this return of the King there came to meet him Christovao
de Figueiredo,[560] who was at that time in the city of Bisnaga
with horses, and he took with him twenty Portuguese musqueteers,
he also himself having his musquet. The King took much pleasure in
his company, glad that he should see the war and his great power;
and he ordered some tents to be given to him of those taken from
the Ydallcao, and commanded that he should be lodged close to his
own quarters. One day Christovao de Figueiredo told the King that he
wanted to go and see the city, but the King said that he should not
set his heart upon that because he did not want any disaster to befall
him. But Christovao de Figueiredo replied that the whole business of
the Portuguese was war, and that this would be the greatest favour
that he could do him, namely that His Highness should permit him to
go and see the Moors. So the King gave him leave and sent some people
with him. Christovao de Figueiredo went close to the trench before
the walls, keeping himself as much concealed as possible, and seeing
how fearlessly the Moors exposed themselves on the wall, began, with
the musqueteers whom he had brought, to open fire on them in such a
way that he slew many, the Moors being careless and free from fear,
as men who up to then had never seen men killed with firearms nor with
other such weapons. So they began to forsake the wall (at this point),
and the king's troops found an opportunity of coming in safety to it,
and they began to destroy much of the masonry; and so many people
collected on this side that all the camp was put in commotion,
saying that Christovao de Figueiredo had entered the city with his
Portuguese. This was told to the King. Those in the city could not
understand what was going on, nor how these people came to be in the
King's service, until they recollected how on the day of the other
fight the Portuguese had come, and then they considered themselves
lost. For by the aid of those men the King's people came without fear
to the wall, where already it was damaged in many places, because the
city had its cannon so high up that these could do no injury to the men
who were at the foot of the wall. The wall also was filled up inside
with earth, and there were no cannon in the breaches. The people of
the city whom up to that time they had killed had been supplied with
stones which they had flung on the besiegers from the top of the wall,
and with musquets and arrows, so that even if the King's men were able
to reach the wall at all they were at least wounded; but as Christovao
de Figueiredo with the Portuguese prevented the enemy from appearing
at all on the wall, the Hindus were enabled to reach it at their ease.

Here you would have seen how the King's captains begged Christovao
de Figueiredo to permit them one day to attack the Moors in his
company, and he, in order to content the more honourable of them,
went with them on those days. One day he divided his musqueteers
into three companies and began to kill several amongst the Moors
who showed themselves, insomuch that none durst be seen; and then
the King's troops began, in these three divisions, to attack the
wall with many pickaxes and crowbars,[561] and he sent to tell the
rest that they should attack on their own account; and such was the
result that the defenders of the city began to abandon the first
line of fortification, and the women and children took refuge in the
citadel. The captain of the city, seeing the dismay that had spread
amongst his people, began to turn them back with encouraging words,
and with some of them betook himself to that part of the wall which
he saw was most severely pressed, begging them that they would come
back to the wall and not be afraid. He was answered by some that at
that point were those Franks[562] who were helping, and that as soon
as any one showed himself he was a dead man; and he, wishing to see
for himself where the Portuguese were, reached over with his body in
front one of the embrasures and was killed with a musquet-shot that
struck him in the middle of his forehead. It was said by the Moors that
Christovao de Figueyredo had killed him, and they took notice of him

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